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A further assessment was done on civilian displacement and the number of deaths was estimated on excess of the expected.
The data was analyzed using the Quasi-Poisson models. This method was used to evaluate the mortality rates with an emphasis on the place of research and its timing. The number of displaced people in the survey was a variable to explain the trends. The projected mortality rates for future five periods were computed and analyzed against the civilian data obtained from the UN publications about the Darfur conflict. This was aimed at obtaining the number of deaths. e found that 63 out of 107 mortality rates surveys met the criteria to be used.
Result Findings and Discussion
The study established that there was a reduction in mortality rates between the periods of 2004 and 2008. This disparity was brought about by the deployment of humanitarian aid workers whom…
Flint, Julie. Darfur: a New History of a Long War. Michigan: Zed Books, 2008.
There are several different elements that should be considered and properly acted upon to facilitate a comprehensive program to reduce the mortality rates for children under five. According to the World Health Organization, "6.9 million children under the age of five died in 2011. More than half of these early child deaths are due to conditions that could be prevented or treated with access to simple, affordable interventions" (No author, 2012).
Therefore, the comprehensive program to address this issue will consist of three different parts. The first is to provide interventions for mothers prior to childbirth, the second is to provide interventions during childbirth, and the third is to provide interventions during the first five years after childbirth. For the first of these interventions, it is crucial that mothers receive immunizations against common child-bearing diseases such as tetanus, receive regular visits from antenatal consultants, and refrain from intoxicants such as…
Moody, S. (2011). "Ready-to-use therapeutic food." USAID from the American People. Retrieved from http://blog.usaid.gov/2011/10/ready-to-use-therapeutic-food/
No author (2012). "Children: reducing mortality." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/index.html
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
Some of the funding is to come from a national prevention trust fund (Kaiser Fdn, 2010). However there are additional funding resources for the near-term that are readily assessable.
The National Secretary of Health has been called on to launch a national quality plan designed to address the issue of social injustice and improve the level of service to every state. Specific to this program are the rates for Maryland in tracking the mortality rates of all with diabetes. Including the elderly women and minority women with the specific indicators to track and monitor being race and gender. This will go along way in finally getting a better idea of what the numbers in Maryland for diabetes mortality.
Understanding that elderly women and older minority women in particular are retired and have little income or are unemployed (Mitchell et al., 1994). Therefore their income is even lower than…
CDC.gov. (1999). Centers for disease control and preventative diabetes
Surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/survl99/chap2/table01.htm .
DHMH. (2011). Diabetes self-managed education. Retreived March 14, 2011 from http://fha.maryland.gov/cdp/diabetes_education.cfm
Kaiser Foundation. (2010). Facts on health reform. Retrieved March 14, 2011 from http://www.kff.org/healthreform/upload/8016-02.pdf
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…
morbidity and mortality data in your state to facilitate planning for your community?
Morbidity and mortality data enables health professionals to target which preventable health diseases are particularly acute within a given community, and design preventative strategies. "Morbidity is an incidence of ill health. It is measured in various ways, often by the probability that a randomly selected individual in a population at some date and location would become seriously ill in some period of time" (Morbidity, 2012, Econterms). This is in contrast to mortality, which is defined as "incidence of death in a population. It is measured in various ways, often by the probability that a randomly selected individual in a population at some date and location would die in some period of time" (Mortality, 2012, Econterms).
If there is a high morbidity rate regarding lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancers,…
Bailey, W. Scott. (2010). Texas' mental health issues could take an economic toll. San Antonio
Business Journal. Retrieved:
DeSoto, W., Tajalli, H., & Hofer, K. (2001). Health care in rural Texas. Policy Studies Journal,
Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…
Eliminate disparities in infant mortality." Center for disease control website (CDC). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm
Health and human services fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality." (2006). Health and human services website (HHS). Accessed 31 January 2009.
Such additions would increase the validity of the study by widening its scope, even if the focus remains quantitative and retrospective.
Measurement occurred via a number of stud variables, including ED initial complaints, admission diagnosis, primary discharge diagnoses, weekend admissions, weekday admissions, gender, race, age, and other variables. These are supplemented by ICU variables such as wait time until the results of tests, admission and discharge. Hospital mortality was also used as a measurement factor. The measurements appear to be consistent with the objective of the study, to relate specific elements of ED care with mortality rates.
Data Collection and Analysis
Data included targeted information such as arrival in emergency department, registration time, medication, intervention results, as well as specific patient data. Data were analyzed by a variety of methods, including descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Statistical methods include scatter plots, box plots, cross tabs, and regression. These…
Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11
Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…
Davila-Payan et al. (2015, March 12). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2015/14_0229.htm
Johansson, S. (2014, October 15). Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. British Medical Journal, 349. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6572
Childhood Obesity Questionnaire
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
knowledge statements on Cardiovasular Diseases among Minority Women in U.S.
Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) accounts for the single largest cause of death among women, causing 8.6 million deaths annually (Keyhani et al., 2008). In the U.S., it is estimated that about 38.2 million women currently live with CVD and more women than men die each year from CVD (Mosca et al., 2007). Cardiovascular disease varies substantially not only across gender lines, but also across different ethnic groups in the U.S. For example, Hamner and Wildner (2008) noted that the prevalence of CVD is higher among African-American women (49%) when compared to Caucasian women (35%). According to Williams (2009), age-adjusted death rate to CVD in 2002 was significantly higher among African-American women (169.7 per 100,000) when compared to Caucasian women (131.2 per 100,000). Knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors is limited among African-American women as Williams (2009) citing a survey…
Hamner, J., & Wilder, B. (2008). Knowledge and risk of cardiovascular disease in rural Alabama women. J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 20(6), 333-338.
Keyhani, S., Scobie, J.V., Hebert, P.L., & McLaughlin, M.A. (2008). Gender disparities in blood pressure control and cardiovascular care in a national sample of ambulatory care visits. Hypertension, 51(4), 1149-1155.
Mosca, L., Banka, C.L., Benjamin, E.J., Berra, K., Bushnell, C., Dolor, R.J., . . . Wenger, N.K. (2007). Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women: 2007 update. Circulation, 115(11), 1481-1501.
Williams, R.A. (2009) Cardiovascular disease in African-American Women: A health care disparities issue. Journal of National Medical Association, 101, 536-540
John Kellys "the great mortality"
The bacillus Yesinia Pestis made two continents pay intolerably high life prices both in human and animal lives. Along a few decades in the first half of the thirteenth century, it engulfed Eurasia and kept the world under its terror, making many think its end was near (The Great Mortality).
The Great Plague has carved in the history of humanity signs that will never fade with the passing of time because of its enormous toll on human lives. John Kelly's book "The great mortality" places the plague in a historic context and tackles the topic of Black Death from the perspective of the twentieth century. The word is not free from the deadly attack of infectious diseases, viruses are still threatening animals and human beings alike. John Kelly points out in the introduction to his book that in spite of the numerous victories reported by…
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
Determinants of Maternal Mortality
Be sure to complete the entire worksheet (Parts 1-4).
Maternal Mortality atio:
Go to the World Health Organization website link, "Cause-Specific Mortality and Morbidity: Maternal Mortality atio Data by Country," listed in this week's Learning esources.
Select five different countries, representing different geographical regions.
Download data of these countries (or write them up in an Excel sheet).
Draw a time series chart of maternal mortality ratios of these countries.
efer to the "Time Series Chart Example" document in this week's Learning esources.
What are your main observations regarding this chart ?
There are two distinct aspects perceived from this chart. For starters, the maternal mortality ratio is greater for low income countries and middle income countries. This is regardless of the fact that the statistics indicated are declining as the years progress. Between the five nations, India indicated the highest decline through the years, followed by…
Resources or any additional resources.
In general, the inference from the statistics shown in the graphs above is that low income nations and middle income nations have the highest ratios in relation to the five nations selected. On the other hand, the high income and developed nations have the lowest ratios of the indicators with regard to the five nations selected.
© 2015 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 11 of 11
Immigration on U.S. Crime Rates
Immigration in the United States of America
Structure of Immigration
Impact of Immigration on the Crime rates of the United States of America
Conclusion and Policy Implications
Immigration Structure in 1970
Immigration Structure in 2010
Foreign Born Population in the United States of America
Immigrant Share in the Total Population and Across Counties, 1950-2000
Immigrant Flows and Rate of Homicide
Rate of Growth of Incarceration and Immigration
Reasons for the Removal of Criminal Immigrants
This paper aims at identifying the relationship that exists between immigration and crime rates. It aims at highlighting the impact of immigration on the rate of crimes. In addition to that, this paper also makes recommendation, in relation to the alteration of immigrant policies so as to make immigration more secure and safe.
There has been an evident increase in the number of crimes along with the increase in the rate…
Bianchi, Milo, Paolo Buonanno, and Paolo Pinotti. 'Do Immigrants Cause Crime?' Journal of the European Economic Association 10.6 (2012): 1318 -- 1347. Print.
Borjas, George J, Jeffrey Grogger, and Gordon H. Hanson. 'Immigration and the Economic Status of African-American Men'. Economica 77.306 (2010): 255 -- 282. Print.
Camarota, Steven A, Jessica Vaughan, and Staff Members of the Center for Immigration Studies. Immigration and Crime. 1st ed. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies, 2009.
Jones-Correa, M. Contested Ground: Immigration In The United States. 1st ed. Washington, D.C: Migration Policy Institute, 2012. Web. 2 Jun. 2014.
In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.
The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a3.htm
Chapman, S. (2009). Health Care and Infant Mortality: The Real Story. Creators.com 2009.
Dizikes, P. (2014). How a health care plan quickly lowered infant mortality. MIT News, 30 April 2014. Retrieved from http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/how-health-care-plan-quickly-lowered-infant-mortality-0430
Morman, E. (2011). Infant Mortality in Detroit: Finding Solutions. Metro Parent, Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.metroparent.com/Metro-Parent/October-2011/Infant-Mortality-in-Detroit-Finding-Solutions/
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…
Alreck, P.L., & Settle, R.B. (1995). The survey research handbook." Chicago, Irwin.
Abbot. (2003) Abbot Laboratories Systems and Tests. Retrieved November 13, 2003, http://www.abbottdiagnostics.com/systems_tests/syscat.cfm?syscat_id=3&path=1
Andrews, Charles G. (2003). Comparative Analysis of Management. Retrieved November 16, 2003, at http://www.coe.unt.edu/allen/Dissertation-Example/CharlieAndrewsdissertation.pdf
Boyer, K.K., Olson, J.R., Calantone, R.J., & Jackson, E.C. (2002). Print vs. electronic surveys: A comparison of two data collection methodologies. Journal of Operations Management, 20 (4), 357-373.
Spinal vs. General Anesthesia
The outcome of patients after undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate is examined under varying clinical situations to assess whether spinal anesthesia is associated with greater likelihood of positive outcome. Also examined in great detail are the potential for increased morbidity and mortality based on whether patients underwent general or spinal anesthesia during surgery. A large body of evidence indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between patient outcomes regardless of choice of anesthetic technique. This paper concludes that patients should be well educated and informed so they may make the choice most appropriate to their personal situation and comfort level preferences. An equal number of adverse side effects are associated with each anesthetic technique; as such patients should choose the technique that will result in the greatest post-operative satisfaction. The implications for practice suggest that physicians and anesthetists have an obligation to educate and…
Dobson, PM., Caldicott, LD., Gerrish, SP., Cole, JR., & Channer, KS. Changes in haemodynamic variables during transurethral resection of the prostate: comparison of general and spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Mar; 72 (3): 267-71
Edwards, ND., Callaghan, LC., White T., & Reilly, CS. (1995). Perioperative myocardial ischaemia in patnets undergoing transurethral surgery: a pilot study comparing general with spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Apr; 74 (4): 368-72
Gravenstein, D. (1997). Transurethral resection of the prostate syndrome: a review of the pathophysiology and management. Anesthesia Analg. Feb; 84 (2): 438-36
Hosking, MP., Lobdell, CM., Warner, MA., Offord, KP., & Melton LJ. 3rd. (1989).Anaesthesia for patients over 90 years of age. Outcomes after regional and general anaesthetic techniques for two common surgical procedures. Anaesthesia. Aug; 44 (8): 697-8
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)
The FIMR Process
FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death
Data Collection/Record Review
Improved Maternal & Infant Health
Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…
1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html
2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)
3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons
4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.
2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?
Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.
Peck, J. & Alexander, K. (nd). Maternal, infant, and child health in rural areas. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/07Volume1MIC.htm
By educating patients on early warning signs of hepatotoxicity, this rare but potentially fatal consequence could be detected early to allow appropriate intervention." (Wright and Vandenberg, 2007) it is extremely critical to understand the nature of psychiatric nursing in today's clinical environment.
IV. ROLE of NURSE PRACIIONER in RANSIION
Specifically stated in the work of Kathryn R. Puskar entitled; "he Nurse Practitioner Role in Psychiatric Nursing" published in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing is: "Commercialization of psychiatric care is underway. Psychiatric inpatient admissions have decreased, admissions to general hospitals have decreased, while outpatient admissions are increasing. Academic centers are purchasing smaller hospitals as affiliates; satellite clinics and networks of services are being established. Physicians in solo practice are merging into group practices. New health care professional roles must be restructured and "cross trained" to maintain competitiveness by offering flexible, cost-saving effective care. his is the background environment in…
To improve participation in outpatient programs, social workers can identify and address client barriers to keeping appointments, such as inadequate transportation, non-cooperative employers or family members, limited financial or child care resources, or even poor client motivation. Pairing newly diagnosed patients with "diabetic sponsors" -- individuals who are experienced and successful at managing their diabetes -- also may enhance attendance. Rather than relying on clients to come to clinics, social workers may need to bring the clinics to clients by organizing diabetic health fairs, outreach, or training programs in work settings, church facilities, or community centers. It is related that: "For people with Type 2 diabetes, Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) is often the "first-line therapy of choice" (Lipkin, 1999). The goal of MNT is to maintain near-normal glucose levels by matching dietary consumption with actual caloric (energy) needs, necessitating that the right foods in correct proportions be eaten at prescribed times for many MNT may include a secondary goal -- weight loss. Nutritional self-management or compliance with a prescribed diet can be handicapped by many of the same factors that impede self-care knowledge and skill mastery. In MNT, food assumes an almost medicinal quality, and many may resist altering long-held consumption patterns, inasmuch as food plays a part in their cultural heritage or serves as a source of pleasure; therefore, dietary changes are interpreted as loss of either function. For some patients, making these lifestyle changes may require assistance with concrete resources. As resource brokers, social workers can assess needs and link clients with community agencies for nutritional assistance, fitness training, additional diabetic education (professionals or material), medical care, health insurance, insulin and glucose monitoring supplies, prescription assistance, transportation, and counseling or support groups" (Lipkin, 1999)
VII. RESOURCE-BROKERING and COLLABORATION AMONG PROFESSIONALS
The social worker is also experienced in 'resource brokering' and as related by Lipkins (1999): "As a therapist, the social worker may practice independently or in conjunction with other professionals (such as psychiatrists and psychologists) to treat more serious mental health issues inhibiting the management of diabetes. In this role a social work practitioner may screen and treat illnesses with high rates of comorbidity among diabetes patients, such as major depression or eating and anxiety disorders. The social worker also may ensure the management of preexisting chronic mental illnesses like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol or substance abuse." (Lipkin, 1999) the social worker also has the capacity to: "...coordinate a comprehensive assessment, treatment plan, and intervention, striving for an optimal level of collaboration among professionals, patients, and families. Financially, social work case management can effectively and efficiently use community resources, creating an optimal environment that promotes glycemic control to delay complications and reduce hospitalizations."
Higher death rates at Community hospital may be cause for alarm. People often do not want to see negative statistics that may infer lower quality care. However, does higher death rates mean lower quality care or can it be something else? Something like this may be brought up because the logical conclusion would be that low quality care brought on by potential problems within the hospital such as understaffed departments or lower quality medical tools, could lead to the higher mortality rates. Still, it may be randomly attributed, and these higher rates of death could be from chance rather than quality of care.
Looking into the past, a 1990 article shows how higher rates of death may indeed be random variation along with potential area-specific chronic diseases. “Although death rates in targeted hospitals were 5.0 to 10.9 higher, 56% to 82% of the excess could result from purely…
As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)
E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?
Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…
Bad Medicine. New Internationalist. Vol: 355. April 2003.
Retrieved at http://www.newint.org/issue355/bad.htm . Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Bio-Pharmaceutical Study Finds Significant Link between Innovation and Market-based Drug Pricing. May 9, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.tiax.biz/aboutus/pdfs/press_releases/pharma_may.htm. Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Donelan, Karen; Blendon, Robert J; Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Binns, Katherine.
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600
CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/
Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054
Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
Tehran's geography makes air pollution worse: the Alborz Mountains at its north side trap the increasing volume of pollutants and lead these to remain and hover over Tehran when the wind is not strong enough to blow them away. Furthermore, Tehran's high altitude makes fuel combustion inefficient and adds to the problem. Its altitude is between 3, 300 and 5,000 feet and it is in this space that the pollutants are trapped since the destruction of orchards and other vegetation especially in northern Tehran in the past decades by rapid development and human activity pressures. These natural and man-made factors together have made Tehran one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution reached critical level in December 1999 when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants filled Tehran for many weeks. Deaths, diseases and skin conditions are attributed to extreme air pollution. Records say that more…
Energy Information Administration. (2002). Iran: Environmental Issues. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iranenv.html
2005). Iran. Country Analysis Briefs.
Foreign Health Care Policy
Over the last several years, issues affecting the U.S. health care system have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because rising costs are impacting demand for different services. What has been happening is these increases are forcing insurance companies, employers and providers to pass on more of these fees to the individual. This is problematic, as they are unable to afford these costs and premiums for coverage. When this happens, the total number of people who are uninsured will increase exponentially. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that there are 48 million Americans who have no form of health care coverage. (Johnson, 2010) (Harrington, 2009)
While in Germany, the costs of care are lower and 90% of the population is insured. This is because they are using a different model. To fully understand which system is better requires comparing the two…
Armstrong, E. (2011). The Health Care Dilemma. Singapore: World Scientific.
Greenwald, H. (2010). Health Care in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Harrington, C. (2009). Health Policy. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Johnson, J. (2010). Comparative Health Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.
1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…
1. BBC (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. BBC.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World Bank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…
Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.
Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.
Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
Nutrition, Water and Smoking
The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.
In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…
Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank
Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).
UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).
WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).
As a consequence, Turkey is uniquely positioned to sell to all of these different customers, as its position on the map indicates.
The market research process can be different in the international context. The first issue is that the purpose of the market entry has to be defined. Once this has been established -- suppose the objective is to set up textile manufacturing in Turkey -- then the research can focus on how. There are significant differences that might arise with respect to the access to information in foreign markets, however. hile Turkey is relatively transparent, some other markets are not. Turkish firms are exporting to Iraq, for example, but there are no real market statistics for that market. Such firms may be run by Kurds and trading mainly with Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, using connections to bridge the knowledge gap. In addition, where at home one can…
Osakwe, E. (2009). Cotton fact sheet, Turkey. International Cotton Advisory Committee. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from http://www.icac.org/econ_stats/country_facts/e_turkey.pdf
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Turkey. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/tu.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Healthcare in Sweden
The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.
Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…
Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.
A accessed 06-27-2003).
Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
Health Care Disparities in Infant Mortality
Numerous empirical studies have demonstrated a significant discrepancy in survival rates of newborns of different race. It has been shown that black infants are two times more likely to die within the first month of life than their white counterparts. Identification of these disparaged findings has prompted analysis of health care offered from a demographic perspective, considering racial treatment and socioeconomic conditions. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has examined race-specific mortality information on newborns, and reported a series of noted and persistent trends coinciding with the data differences. It is necessary to address this inconsistency in survival rates between the black and white races to identify potential changes in health care delivery systems and eliminate racial factors in infant mortality.
The U.S. government has identified six classes of racial and ethnic minority discrepancies in health care access, experience, and outcomes. In…
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.aap.org/default.htm
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/schip/default.asp ?
Iyasu, S, & Tomashek, K. (2002, July 12). Infant Mortality and Low Birth Weight Among Black and White Infants -- "United States, 1980-2000. Weekly, 51(27), 589-592. Retrieved March 23, 2004, from Center for Disease Control, Full Text Database, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5127a1.htm
Health and Human Services. (2000). Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health.
Educational Levels of Hospital Nurses and Surgical Patient Mortality
Whether there is sufficient nursing staff in a hospital has often been thought to have an effect on the well-being of the patients, the quality of care that they receive, and the rate at which they pass away. However, very little is actually known about whether the educational level of the nurses to work at these hospitals has anything to do with the mortality rate of these patients and quality of care that they receive. The basic purpose of this research was to indicate whether the educational level held by a hospital nurse had any reflection upon the mortality rates as surgical patients that they attended.
Specifically, the study examined whether baccalaureate degrees or higher had any reflection upon the ability of hospital offense to rescue and assist surgical patients who were facing serious complications. If these individuals died at the…
This is when insurance companies will charge more for premiums based upon someone coming from a particular ethnic group. In the past, many of these practices were utilized to give some kind of advantage to people who were from non-indigenous backgrounds. This focus is taking a similar approach, by showing how someone is a higher risk because of their ethnicity. These views are not considering the lifestyle choices they are engaging in such as: physical activities, their diet, if the person is a smoker or drinks alcohol. (Bombak 2012)
Instead, they will use this category to automatically rate indigenous people higher largely based upon this variable. From an ethical perspective, one could argue that insurance companies are discriminating against this segment of the population without taking into consideration other factors. This makes it difficult for this demographic to locate and obtain affordable life insurance because of these views. When this…
2012 Indigenous Report, 2012, Productivity Commission. Available from: [30 April 2013].
Genetic Discrimination, 2012, NHMRC. Available from:
Environment Affects Nurses
Over and again, literature reviews show the consistent relationship and association between nurse working environment and patient outcome as well as superior nurse performance (Aiken et al., 1999; Aiken et al., 1994; Lake, 2004). Better environments result in better nurse care as this case model shows. The case model was based on the study popularized in our institution that was directed by Aiken et al. (2008) who sought to examine whether better hospital nurse care environments were associated with lower patient mortality and better nurse outcomes irrespective of nurse education and the quality and quantity of nurse staffing.
In 1999, the researchers had sampled 168 hospitals, which was 80% of the 210 adult acute care hospital in Pennsylvania in 1999. 60 nurses from each hospital completed the survey, with half of the hospitals having more than 50 nurses who responded. Other nurses who worked outside the hospitals…
Aiken LH. (2005) Extending the magnet concept to developing and transition countries. Reflect Nurs Leadersh.31(1):16 -- 18
Aiken L.H. et al. (2008) Effects of Hospital Care Environment on Patient Mortality and Nurse Outcomes J. Nurs Adm. 38(5): 223 -- 229.
Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Lake ET, Sochalski J, Weber AL. (1999). Organization and outcomes of inpatient AIDS care. Med Care.;37:760 -- 772.
Aiken LH, Smith HL, Lake ET. (1994). Lower Medicare mortality among a set of hospitals known for good nursing care. Med Care.;32(8):771 -- 787
un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…
Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.un.org/).
D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.
Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Brazil ).
Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/brazil/29.html).
health issues facing the differed populations of the United States today, and these health concerns differ between males and females, income levels, and races. As such, it is important, prior to discussing any particular health concern, to first establish the target age cohort for which information is to be presented. Once this cohort is established, creating programs targeted to a specific population becomes a much simpler task.
This paper discusses the top five leading causes of death for African-American women age 25 to 44 in the United States in the year 2001. Additionally, this paper will focus on one particular cause of death for this population, and will outline an existing prevention program, aimed at this target age cohort. Finally, this paper will present data from studies on this prevention effort, to determine if the effort is succeeding.
As stated, the age cohort to be analyzed in this paper is…
Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2004). LCWK3: Percent of total deaths; and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in selected age groups, by race and sex; United States, 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Lauby, J, Smith, P, and Stark, M. (2000, Feb,). A community level HIV prevention intervention for inner city women: results of the Women and Infants Demonstration Project. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2): 216-220.
Liebman, T, Bond, P, Smith, D, and Tunstall, C. (1999, April). The Women and Infants Demonstration Project: an integrated approach to AIDS prevention and research. AIDS Education and Prevention, 2(107): 107-121.
O'Leary, A. (2005). HIV-risk reduction interventions for women: how far have we come? New York, NY: American Foundation for AIDS Research.
Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence
The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.
An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices
Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…
Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006
Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011
Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.
Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Treatment to Patients
The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…
Beekmann, SE;Diekema, DJ; Chapin, KC;Doern, GV (2003) Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges.J ClinMicrobiol, 41:3119-3125.
Boussekey, N, Leroy, O, Georges, H, Devos, P, d'Escrivan, T, Guery, B (2005).Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit.Infection, 33:257-263.
Charles, PE, Dalle, F, Aho, S, Quenot, JP, Doise, JM, Aube, H, Olsson, NO, Blettery, B: Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med, 32:1577-1583.
Digiovine, B; Chenoweth, C; Watts, C; Higgins, M (1999)The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. RespirCrit Care Med, 160:976-981.
In 1991 a short-lived coalition of opposition groups seized the capital Mogadishu and ousted aid Barre. By 1992 it is estimated that over half a million people had died through war or from starvation. Between 800,000-1.5m people fled the country to refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and Djibouti. From there many moved to Nairobi or Addis Ababa before embarking on a journey to the 'West'.
In May 1991, the people of north-west omalia broke away to form the Republic of omaliland.
Although not recognised by the international community, its creation has resulted in relative political stability. Elsewhere, the ruling coalition collapsed resulting in a state of anarchy and civil war that exists today with rival warlords vying for power. ince 1991 most asylum seekers have come from these central and southern regions. In omaliland the voluntary repatriation of refugees from neighbouring countries is now taking place. Return visits to,…
Post-Conflict Identities: Practices and Affiliations of Somali Refugee Children - Briefing Notes, E.S.R.C Economic and Social Research Council, University of Leeds, the University of Sheffield; August 2005 http://www.identities.group.shef.ac.uk/pdfs/briefing%20'Somalia'%20and%20the%20Roots%20of%20the%20Diaspora.pdf
World Bank Org., 'Cry Havoc: Why Civil War Matters';
Causes and consequences of forced migration' http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo016/fmo016-6.htm
This is a 12 lead ECG taken for Mr. Long at the Emergency Department. He presented with a two hour history of chest pain radiating to his left arm. The ECG is suggestive of an antero-septal Myocardial infarction. Further scrutiny of the ECG displays a normal sinus rhythm, with a rate of 75 bpm that is regularly regular. There is no axis deviation with a P interval of 200 ms and normal qrs complexes. Leads I and aVL also show a q wave which may be suggestive of an old high lateral wall MI. Leads I, V1, V2, V3 and aVL show ST segment elevation of greater than 2 mm and ST segment depression in leads II and III. Mr. Long is suffering from a fully evolved ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
A correlation can be made with the area of myocardium involved and the vessel involved. The antero-septal…
B, Deborah, Diercks. (2010). Mission Lifeline: Developing a STEMI regonal care. American Heart Association. -. Print.
Jois, P. (2011). Nstemi and stemi: therapeutic updates 2011. The Practical Journal for Emergency Physicians, 32(1), 1-7.
Katzung, B., & Masters, S. (2011). Katzung's pharmacology. (9 ed.). United States of America: Mc-Graw Hill.
Kumar, V., & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
S. Vital Statistics - Births (1931-1968) - Interactive Index)(esident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004). (Texas Population Projections Program).
Texas has steadily grown in population due to the lure of the economic opportunities in the state, religious affiliations at a socio-cultural level, and general cultural phenomena of individuality, which is a theme embraced by citizens of the state. Additionally, border issues with Mexico have regularly been an issue with illegal border migration into the state, with populations disseminating into other areas of the state. If one compares the total population data with the total fertility rate (births minus deaths), then it becomes clear that Texas has and is experiencing population growth, much from migration, but also a robust total fertility rate. North Texas, which is also called Northeast Texas, is home to the biggest cities, the largest corporations, the greatest economic growth, and the greatest population centers overall. This trend would…
Enchanted Learning - Texas. March 2010. 2010 .
"Projected Population by Area, 2010." 2010. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
Ramos, Mary G. "Oil and Texas: A Cultural History." 2000-2001. Texas Almanac. March 2010 .
"Resident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004." 2004. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).
Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…
Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.
United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,
2009, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/ .
World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.
teenage pregnancy on the family of the effected girl. In addition to that, this paper also highlights the prevailing rates of teen pregnancy in the U.S.A. And the adverse consequences of adolescence pregnancy. Furthermore, the strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy have also been discussed by this paper.
Setting the Scene
Teenagers are forced to confront a crisis because of an unintended pregnancy, which in most cases is an unwanted pregnancy. The unmarried adolescents, who are pregnant, have to make a number of complex decisions. These decisions include choosing between aborting and giving birth, and choosing between raising the baby by themselves or placing them for an adaption. Simultaneously, other decision in relation to school, work and interpersonal relationships are to be taken by the affected teenagers. (Wirkus & Maxwell, 2010)
Another important decision that the teens confront is to opt the manner in which they will discuss this issue with…
Birthline, Inc. (2014). Birthline of central mn:: about us. Retrieved from: http://www.birthline.org/about-us / [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
Chen, X., Wen, S.W., Fleming, N., Demissie, K., Rhoads, G.G. & Walker, M. (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population-based retrospective cohort study. International Journal Of Epidemiology, 36 (2), pp. 368 -- 373.
East, P.L. (1999). The first teenage pregnancy in the family: does it affect mothers' parenting, attitudes, or mother-adolescent communication?. Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 61 (2), pp. 306 -- 319.
Office Of Adolescent Health United States Of America (2014). The office of adolescent health, u.s. department of health and human services. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm .
Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,
2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
ECMO requires constant monitoring and assessment in order to maintain proper oxygen saturation levels, blood pressure, and circulatory activity (Schuerer et al. 2008; Mielck & Quintel 2005).
Institutional experience and multidisciplinary focus are both of extreme importance in determining patient outcome following ECMO, as technological innovations and the high-risk of the procedure make an ongoing knowledge base and expertise level a major determiner of outcome (Schuerer et al. 2008). As serious complications including infection, instability of oxygenation, thrombosis, and volume requirements can all occur, patients should be treated in a manner comparable to an acute stroke response -- increased risk for disrupted blood flow is a definite result of an ECMO procedure (Yang 2011). ECMO can only last a few days, and decreased fluid requirements and increased pulmonary function are both indicators that the weaning process should begin (Yang 2011). Mortality rates for ECMO vary significantly depending on the specific…
Mielck, F. & Quintel, M. (2005). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Current Opinion n Critical Care 11(1): 87-93.
Schuerer, D., Kolovos, N., Boyd, K. & Coopersmith, C. (2008). Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Current Clinical Practice, Coding, and Reimbursement. Chest 134(1): 179-84.
Yang, E. (2011). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In Fundamentals of Pediatric Surgery, P. Mattei, editor. New York: Springer.
Iran Societal Assessment
The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength
Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world
SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…
. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms
. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.
Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress. Iran has gone through immense development in this sector after the revolution. In the 10 years starting from 1988 overall adult literacy rate rose from 57.1 to 74.5%. The post revolution government understood the value of education and made acquisition of it easier for the public. That is why the average enrolment rate also rose by 10%, from 65.6 to 75. The government enforced laws that made education an absolutely necessity for higher education and employment. However,
HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance
Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.
Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…
Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.
Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.
Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.
EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.
The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…
Nih.gov. (2014). Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Retrieved from nih.gov: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg25-27.html
S., C., Frasure-Smith, N., Dupuis, J., Juneau, M., & Guertin, M. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of tailored nursing interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation enrollment. Nursing Research, 61(2):111-20.
ased on the information currently available, the Canadian health care system is the more utilitarian and is, therefore, the better approach but those facing the need for advanced and expedient care would certainly argue otherwise. Therein lies the problem and therein lies the challenge for American society. Even the most ardent proponents of employer-based insurance plans would dare not argue that having great numbers of uninsured is the price that American society pays for having high-quality services but that is what has developed. Hopefully, a system can be devised that allows for more broad-based coverage while retaining the availability of quality care.
The United States health care system cannot continue as it has for the past several years. Costs are far too high and are escalating at a rate that is out of control. Relying on employer-based insurance plans must be abandoned and some form of public financing…
American Medical Association. (2010). Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S. Chicago: AMA Press.
Boychuk, T. (1999). The Making and Meaning of Hospital Policy in the United States and Canada. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2006, August 29). The Number of Uninsured Americans Is at an All-time High. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=628
Eve, S.B. (1995). The Canadian Health Care System. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…
Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from http://duranki.hubpages.com/hub/Beware-High-Blood-Pressure-It-will-Kill-You -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming
Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-aortic-dissection-FT.pdf
Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/morphine-injection.html
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
The case of Judy Jones: Using cognitive behavioral therapy for anorexics
Anorexia is one of the most difficult of all psychological disorders to treat and has the highest mortality rate of all mental illnesses. The rates of recovery from all eating disorders are alarmingly low: it is estimated that only 50% of ED patients will make a full recovery, 20-30% will continue to present significant subclinical symptoms, 20-30% will remain chronic and 10% will die (Fursland et al. 2012). "Up to 1-5% of women will suffer from a diagnosable ED in their lifetime" (Fursland et al. 2012). The case of Judy Jones is fairly typical: anorexia tends to have an earlier rate of onset than other eating disorders. Judy is female, middle-class and fairly close to her parents (as is evidenced by the referral through her pediatrician, indicating she is receiving regular medical care).
It should be noted…
Fursland, A., Byrne, S., Watson, H., Puma, M.L., Allen, K., & Byrne, S. (2012). Enhanced
cognitive behavior therapy: A single treatment for all eating disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 90(3), 319-329.
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…
Borland, R., Mullins, R. Trotter, L., & White, V.(1999). Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia. Tobacco Control, 8, 266-271
Cunningham, R. (2006). National and subnational legislation requiring 100% smokefree restaurants and bars. Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from www.smokefreeottawa.com/2006_en/pdfs/smokefreevacations.pdf.
Dockrell, M.J., Sandford, A., & Ward, S.(2007). Smoke-free public places and their impact on public health. Epert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 7(4), 309-313
Farrelly, M.C., Nonemaker J.M., Chou, R., Hyland, A., Peterson, K.K., & Bauer, U.E. (2005). Changes in hospitatilty workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 4(4), 236-224
Today when one thinks of a country with explosive economic growth and a bright future both economically and politically, China comes to mind. China has risen in prominence on the global stage at an exceedingly fast rate. It is sometimes referred as the United States, next great potential rival, and with good reason. It is officially known as the People's epublic of China and is the world's most populated country in the world, with over 1.35 billion people (CIA). It is ruled by a single political party, the Communist Party, with Beijing being the capital and therefore, the epicenter of political power in China. China is also the second largest country in regards to land area. It is a diverse geological country, its landscape consisting of deserts, forests, to subtropical forests in the south (CIA). A country with vast natural resources, its population being of them, and a rising…
China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/ch.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf