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According to the ArchNet Digital Library the Great Mosque of Cordoba is also called "La Mezquita," "Mezquita-Catedral," "Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba." It has a "hypostyle plan" which consists of a "rectangular prayer hall and an enclosed courtyard." These architectural designs were traditional based on styles established in the Umayyad and Abbasid mosques of Syria and Iraq, the ArchNet Digital Library explains. The system of columns that support double arcades of piers and arches "with alternating red and white voussoirs" is a very original and innovative style of architecture. Structurally, the fascinating visual effect with the actual space created gives greater height within the hall. The ArchNet Digital Library claims that the Great Mosque of Cordoba is similar to the Great Mosque of Damascus and the Dome of the Rock in that the red and white (alternating) voussoirs match up well.
The most "lavish interior ornament" in the Great Mosque of Cordoba…
Andalucia.com. (2008). Cordoba City -- Mosque. Retrieved May 25, 2009, from http://www.andalucia.com/cities/cordoba/mosque.htm .
ArchNet Digital Library. (2008). Great Mosque of Cordoba. Retrieved May 25, 2009,
From http://www.archnet.org .
Google. (2009). Timeline: 600 AD -- 2009. History of the Grand Mosque of Cordoba.
interior of a mosque and a basilica. There are three references used for this paper.
Most religious structures have a unique interior. It is interesting to compare and contrast a mosque and a basilica.
A mosque's interior is "much more inextricably decorated than the exterior. Structures, surface patterns and light are commonly used within mosques to create a sense of space, weightlessness and clarity. Interlacing designs accompanied with variations in color and texture create the illusion of many planes (computingws1.gold.ac.uk/ma702ab/mosqInteriors2.htm)." There is a mihrab, which is a "niche in the wall of the mosque or a room in the mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca (http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/02/m0290200.html)."
To enter a Christian basilica, one must pass through a "covered porch or antechamber called the narthex. After passing through the narthex, the worshipper enters the nave, a great hall flanked on each side by one or two aisles. Large windows pierce…
(Basilica. (accessed 05 April, 2004).
(mihrab. (accessed 05 April, 2004).
A mosque of this size and importance would have been most important given the strategic and political role of Aleppo as a starting point in the mentioned campaigns.
Until the 10th century, not much can be said about the history of the mosque, which, similar to the city, was negatively affected by different factors over long periods of time. This included the fact that Aleppo had become a provincial city of lesser importance during the Abbasid caliphs and that several periods of tumult and unrest affected both the city and the Great Mosque.
Under the Abbasid caliphs, for example, the city was at the border between Mesopotamia and Egypt and was ruled, for a large period of time, from Egypt, during the second half of the 9th century (nnnn, 1st part). Furthermore, the Abbasids are reported to have vandalized the mosque, which stood as a monument of their predecessors and…
1. Bacharach, Jere L. 1996. Marwanid Umayyad Building Activities: Speculations on Patronage. The Encyclopedia of Islam
2. Mitchell, George ed. 1978. Architecture of the Islamic World. Thames and Hudson.
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?
The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.
In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?
The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as…
Even if the torture of these people would save lives it is a slippery slope that we do not want to begin. Once we allow the torture of suspects or terrorists it could begin a landslide witch-hunt in which people who are not terrorists and have not committed any crimes could be tortured based on suspect or circumstantial evidence.
While there is justified outrage at what happened in this country we, as Americans, must maintain our ethical standards at all times. It is only by maintaining these standards that we can hope to set and example worldwide about the strength and dignity of our nation and all that it stands for.
The history of "just war" philosophy stems from religious and secular issues. One of the longest standing Just War traditions centers on religious differences including the differences between Muslim and Christian faiths. In addition the "Just War" theories support…
Anti-American Backlash The Washington Post; 10/16/2001 The Washington Post
10-16-2001 Anti-American Backlash
IRAQ WAR MIGHT NOT BE A 'JUST WAR' United Press International; 10/1/2002
United Press International 10-01-2002
Being a Muslim is an overriding cultural feature that cuts across a large number of races and nationalities, but many have the same common traits of gender segregation, emphasis on cleanliness and the same schedule of life.
During the ritual I observed at the mosque, I was able to notice how the ritual impacts society. The first distinction is that there was a clear line created between those who are members of the in-group and those who are not. While I was welcome to be there, I was clearly in the latter group. I was welcome to observe, but not to participate in, the rituals. The performance of the rituals allows on to become a member of the society.
It was interesting to see that elements of modern life have crept into the rituals, however. One example is that I observed younger members of the mosque texting outside…
community center that is planned to include a mosque, and which is located two blocks from ground zero -- is an excellent opportunity for anyone looking to champion civil rights in the face of adversity, which in this particular instance, has largely come in the form of anti-Islamic supporters.
The best way to actively promote the value of civil rights which the building of this edifice represents would be to start from a legal perspective. In pure legal terms, there has been absolutely no opposition to the building of this community center or of the mosque which it will house. hen the project was initially proposed in public -- to Community Board 1, an advisory board that represents the lower Manhattan neighborhood -- the board approved the plan at a rate of 29 to 1 with 10 abstentions.
The next legal matter to be used to defend the civil rights…
No author. "Muslim Community Center In Lower Manhattan." The New York Times. 3 August. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/p/park51/index.html
Creed, Ryan. "President Obama Supports Building Of Mosque Near Ground Zero." ABC News. 14 Aug. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. http://abcnews.go.com/WN/president-obama-supports-building-mosque-ground/story?id=11401964
As the author writes of women who are fighting to gain more acceptance and input in Islam and their mosques, it is clear she believes that women are not recognized enough in Islam, and that needs to change. She ends the chapter with a scene of a respected Muslim leader handing out awards to Muslim women, and it indicates her strong beliefs on the subject. Many men recognize Muslim women as a source of strength and family that cannot be ignored, while others simply ignore their existence and purpose. The Muslim religion was not based on inequality, it has grown and become popular through hundreds of years of history. The author feels this needs to change, and that women should be an integral part of the Muslim religion, both inside and outside the mosque.
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford…
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Space and Things: Incarnating the Sacred
When faced with the term "religion," it is more common than not that a person would associate the word with some kind of symbol. Christianity, for example, is associated with the cross, Judaism with the Star of David, and so on. Festivals also play an important part in making religion real to its adherents. Many Christians, for example, celebrate Easter as the victory of Christ over death. There are also many, many Catholic festivals that celebrate various events in the Christian tradition. Buddhism also includes many different festivals, including the Plowing Festival and the Festival of the Tooth. These, as well as traditional ceremonies and festivals, are often extremely colorful. Symbols are also often made into material objects such as jewelry that the adherent can wear to demonstrate his or her affiliation to a certain religion. And example of this includes medallions, such as…
A Virtual Village (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://virtualvillage.wesleyan.edu/topics/religion.html
Buddhist Ceremonies (n.d.) Festivals and Special Days. Retrieved from: http://www.buddhanet.net/festival.htm
Copeland, M.A. (2011). The Epistle to the Hebrews: Marks of Spiritual Immaturity. Retrieved from: http://executableoutlines.com/he/he_12.htm
Kummar, D. (2008). Never a Moment When we are not in Touch with Spirit. Retrieved from: http://www.divyaakummar.com/test/Spiritual_vs_Material.php?main_Page=98&fileID=1711
Therefore, regardless of their system of manifestation, they are considered by the law suspicious of any possible acts of violence.
The government is the highest authority to impose rules and regulations. Despite the fact that there are local governments as well, at the level of the federal one, action needs to be taken. For instance in schools, the government may offer free access to the internet. Possible programs that would ensure the communication may be available for getting to know one's country and develop a sense of acceptance of different vaues.
5. Give your overall assessment of the U.S.A. PATIOT ACT. Do you think it has contributed to the lack of terror attacks in the United States since 9/11? If you were in Congress, would you vote to renew the act as is? Would you change anything? Why or why not?
The U.S. Patriot Act is the result of the…
Gregory, a. (2005). Nationalism and Anti-Americanism. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.lewrockwell.com/gregory/gregory97.html
Principles of the Just War. (2006). 24 Jan. 2008. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
The Detroit Arab-American Community. (2008). Arab Detroit. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.arabdetroit.com/arabamericans.php
Islamic Cultural Center
The building of an Islamic Cultural centre (ICC) has been a subject of controversy since it was conceived. The Islamic centre is intended to host several Islamic infrastructures like the rooms for Islamic teachings and Madras as well as a worship centre for the Muslims and a section that would be dedicated to the Islamic culture display.
The controversy that ahs surrounded the commencement of the building of the centre has been not so much on the legality of such an entity in the U.S.A. But on the proximity to the ground zero, that is known fro the 9/11 bombings by Islamic extremists. It is considered by many of those who oppose the idea as being too close to the 9/11 site that it would prohibit or injure their ability to commemorate, as one Mr. Brown, a complainant in the supreme court once noted (ABC News, 2011).…
ABC News, (2011). Ground Zero Mosque' Clears Legal Hurdle to Build. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./ground-mosque-wins-legal-battle-build/story?id=14062701#.Tr_8QFKQvKQ
Allvoices Inc., (2011). Islamic Mosque And Cultural Center Blocks From Ground Zero. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/6499574-islamic-cultural-center-blocks-from-ground-zero
SBA, (2011). Basic Zoning Laws. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.sba.gov/content/basic-zoning-laws
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1& ;
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
The display of the various religious artwork effectively served to reinforce the fact that such faith was the governing power in the land, which the church itself reflected merely in its principle usage as a house of worship. The Hagia Sophia served a similar purpose, as it was built during one of the periods of devastation inflicted upon the Hagia Irene and was also viewed as a symbol of not only Christianity's reign, but also that of Emperor Justinian who commissioned the work.
One of the most important professions which could be learned at the trade guilds which was that of master builder, which included several lengthy stages of work which could eventually take youths into the chief senior architects of the day. There is a substantial amount of evidence that can be seen regarding the Byzantine influence in the position of the master builder, who was called a mechanikos.…
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
SPSS was used to analyze the data collected from the participants. A Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relationship between the ordinal variables (such as gender and tendency to give zakat maal or zakat fitah) and evaluated whether significance in the relationship existed. Chi-square was employed to evaluate whether ordinal and categorical relationships are significant or not and if so the level of their significance.
Lessy's (2010) discovered that most participants (54) gave their zakat fitrah to mosques, whilst 490 gave it directly to the poor, and only 20 gave their zakat fitrah to foundations. On the other hand, the reverse was evidenced with zakat maal where 45 participants gave directly to the poor, followed by only 25 who gave to mosques. 10 participants, on the other hand gave to orphanages and educational institutions, whilst a mere 8 individuals gave to relief organizations.
As to why they give the way they…
Al-Qur'an al-Karim. (2008). The Qur'an: A new translation. In T. Khalidi (Trans.). New York: Penguin Classics.
Benthall, J. (1999). Financial worship: The Quranic injunction to alms-giving. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5(1), 27-42.
Caster, J.J. (2008). A new direction in women's philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 37, 353-361.
Dean, H., & Khan, Z. (1997). Muslim perspectives on welfare. Journal of Social Policy, 26(2), 193-209.
Shutting Mosques, Trump and First Amendment
The proposal by trump, at its very core, would seek to sanction a religious institution by virtue of the adherence of its members to certain religious beliefs. Indeed, this is exactly what the first amendment speaks against. The first amendment protects religious freedom and outlaws anything that would bar the free exercise of one's religion of choice. It is referred to as the Free Exercise Clause. Trump could say that he only sought to sanction the mosques that propagate what he refers to as radical Islam. However, he did not provide any evidence of activity or advocacy on any mosques.
The crucial right to religious freedom is enshrined in the U.S. constitution's first amendment. It states that Congress is bound not to make any law that respects establishment of a given religion or stops the free exercise of religious practice. The Free…
Dreisbach, D.L. & Hall, M.D. and Morrison, J. (2009). The Forgotten Founders on Religion and Public Life Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Dreisbach, D.L. and Hall, M.D. (2009). The Sacred Rights of Conscience: Selected Readings on Religious Liberty and Church-State Relations in the American Founding. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund Press.
Emerson, T.I. (1963). Toward a General Theory of the First Amendment, Yale Law Journal, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 877 -- 956.
Kabala, J. S. (2013). Church-State Relations in the Early American Republic, 1787-1846. London: Pickering and Chatto.
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
Memories and History
Aya Sofia's Rich History
One should look no further in one's search for the most long-standing symbol of religion, culture, and history than the Aya Sofia. The building, found within the heart of a massively cultural city, has stood for over a thousand years, withstanding civil and foreign wars, outbreaks of plague, and even earthquakes. Located only miles from the North Anatolian Fault -- one that can be likened to the San Andreas Fault line in California -- the Aya Sofia has managed to evade the threat of major earthquakes (Aydingun, Sengul and Mark Rose). ith a modernized Istanbul, it is a wonder how a building such as Aya Sofia can still stand, even amongst its modern neighbors -- ones filled with high-rises, dinghy apartments, and parking lots.
The Aya Sofia's longevity is certainly a major factor in its importance. It has become a world heritage site…
"A Brief History of Hagia Sophia - Hagia-Sophia.net." Hagia-Sophia.net. Web. 27 May 2011. .
"Hagia Sophia." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2010): 1. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 23 May 2011.
"Swiss Scholars Want Hagia Sophia Returned." America 193.8 (2005): 7. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 May 2011.
Aydingun, Sengul, and Mark Rose. "Saving a Fabled Sanctuary." Archaeology 56.6 (2003): 20. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 May 2011.
rise of Hindu Fundamentalism
At the turn of the century, religious fundamentalism has emerged as a well-known trend; a custom of mind found within religious communities and paradigmatically incarnated in certain typical individuals and activities. The harassed supporters try to protect their distinctive group identity by its expressions as a strategy. The supporters strengthen it by selective recovery of doctrines, viewpoint and practices from a sacred past, feeling that this identity will be at danger in the contemporary era. This assortment is cautiously done so that it is not only attractive to the spectators but also satisfactory. Actually, fundamentalist movements selects and chooses cautiously among inherited doctrines and practices, as well as cloaking innovations in the attire of ancient times, it maintains that selective retrieval is only reinstating the ancient ways. (eligious Fundamentalism in India and Beyond)
In a spirit of practicality these recovered fundamentals are polished, tailored and authorized:…
Amaladoss, Michael. "Hindu Fundamentalism in Contemporary India." Forum for Liberation Theologies, Annual Report 1999-2000. 9 December 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.theo.kuleuven.ac.be/clt/flt_anrep_9900_3.htm. Accessed on 02/26/2003
Ayodhya." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2004. Encyclopedia Britannica. 23 Feb. 2004 Retrieved at http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=380124Accessed on 02/26/2003
Bhambri, C.P. "Hindutva and Multi-Culturalism" The Hindu. December 06, 1998, Pg: 25: Col: a Chatterji, Angana. "For Dissent against Hindu Extremism," July 28, 2002
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…
Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.
Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.
Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
Culture, Dreams, And Artwork
Dreams and artwork are two things that seem to provide an invitation for interpretation, and cultural perspective is almost always going to influence that interpretation. At first blush, this statement may seem to fly in the face of Jungian interpretation, since the collective unconscious and the enduring interpretation of symbols might suggest that symbols would not vary across cultures. However, such an interpretation ignores the fact that Jung acknowledges the impact that individual culture has on the interpreter. While symbols may retain a broader overall meaning across cultures, the details of those symbols are certainly influenced by the surrounding culture. Moreover, some symbols may be culturally specific. In fact, this paper will discuss the veil and its relation to Islam, and how the surrounding culture can color interpretations of the veil in art and in dreams.
Because the symbols in dreams and artwork are influenced by…
September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims
For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.
The September 11 Attacks
One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…
Almasri, Nasir. "The Impact on American Muslims, 11 Years After 9/11." Council on American-Islamic Relations -- Chicago. CAIR -- Chicago, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013.
Cohen, Jon and Kyle Dropp. "Most Americans Object to Planned Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Poll Finds." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 3 May 2013.
Khan, Mussarat and Kathryn Ecklund. "Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11." Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 7.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 May 2013.
Lean, Nathan. "Sept. 11: Eleven Years Later, American Muslims are Victims." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 May 2013.
Terrorism Affects Tourism in Istanbul
The terror group, Islamic State, caused an explosion near Istanbul's historic Sultan Ahmed Cami Mosque (popularly known as the Blue Mosque). This raised serious concerns with regard to tourism in the country of Turkey. This recent explosion, which claimed the lives of ten tourists, followed another terror bombing incident in the country's capital Ankara, on 10th October, 2015, which claimed the lives of over a hundred individuals. Following the nation's tense situation, travel specialists from Turkey started raising concerns (Parvan, 2016). Turkish tourism could suffer a serious blow in light of the 12th January terror attack, in Istanbul's historical hub, near the famed Blue Mosque. According to Turkish travel specialists, considering that Turkey borders Syria and has been a target of terror attacks earlier, tourists were already uneasy about visiting. Thus, the events that transpired on January 12 will do nothing, but aggravate their qualms…
Bajpai, P. (2015). The Paris Attacks And The World Economy -- Investopedia. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/111715/paris-attacks-and-world-economy.asp
Calder, S. (2016). Istanbul bombing travel Q&A: How significant is the attack? How will it affect tourism in the city? Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/istanbul-bombing-travel-qa-how-significant-is-the-attack-how-will-it-affect-tourism-in-the-city-a6807626.html
Chebib, K. (2016). Impact of Istanbul Attack on the Turkish Economy and Tourism. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://blog.euromonitor.com/2016/01/impact-of-istanbul-attack-on-the-turkish-economy-and-tourism.html
Dalay, G. (2016). Turkey's terrifying challenges after Istanbul attack. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2016/01/istanbul-attack-pretext-demonise-refugees-turkey-160113114154831.html
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
One thing my father has taught me since I was a little boy is always to look neat and clean, hold my head up high, and walk with purpose, no matter how rich or how poor. He says that this can affect a person's confidence, and it won't hurt if someone is watching them for an advancement at work. I try to follow his advice, but find my body bending too easily to the positions of a soccer player. My father asks Miguel to pardon us while he leads me to the window to pray. Once our noon prayers are done, the four of us sit at the table, and my mother, artfully tucking her veil out of the way while she slurps noodles, says my father has something to discuss with us.
"Son," my father begins in the stiff way he has adopted for talking about serious matters. "I…
This also forms a connecting point between the works, where buildings are used not only to house those who praise God, but also as functioning works of praise themselves.
In short, Sinan uses prose and poetry first to praise God, and then progressing to his royal representatives on earth. Palladio, in turn, uses poetic prose to praise God, after which he progresses to a more practical focus on the history of temples as well as the dimensions of his proposed buildings.
Both architects are obviously deeply religious men who use their art and works in praise of the divinity that they regarded as their creator. Their writing clearly shows the respective cultural affiliations that both hold; with Palladio investigating the history of his country and its buildings to learn from and build upon. Sinan, on the other hand, regards both humanity and divinity as part and representative of each other.…
Crane, Howard and Esra Akin. Sinan's Autobiographies: Five Sixteenth-Century Texts. Leiden: 2006.
Glancey, J. The stonecutter who shook the world. The Guardian, Jan 5, 2009. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2009/jan/05/architect-andrea-palladio
Palladio, Andrea. Four Books on Architecture. Translated by Robert Tavernor and Richard Schofield. Cambridge: 1997
Respect to Sinan Project. 2006. Web. http://www.sinanasaygi.org/en/icerik.asp?ID=3
The social impact of the Islamic revival, however, produced a third alternative that is both modern and firmly rooted in Islamic faith, identity, and values. Muslim women, both modernists and Islamists, have argued on Islamic grounds for an expanded role in the society (Iqbal)."
In a political sense, "most of the regimes in the Islamic world are authoritarian, undemocratic and lack legitimacy. These governments must divert public attention from the human development gap to other more unworldly matters. This is especially the case in the Arab/Muslim Middle East (Alvi-Aziz)."
hen referring to the religious aspects of its citizens, the "establishment clearly prefers to keep the masses obedient and faithful. This allows the male-dominated religious institutions to maintain the status quo and their authority (Alvi-Aziz)."
Buddhism receives much of its funding from followers who are extremely "wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has led critics to charge that certain monks…
Alvi-Aziz, Hayat. "Sinful Arab neglect." The Jerusalem Post. (2005): 01 April.
Iqbal, Anwar. "Women in Mosque and Society." World & I. (2004): 01 November.
The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism. (accessed 20 April 2005). http://wikipedia.lotsofinformation.com/wiki/index.php/The_Religion_of_India:_The_
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
Throughout the book, she illustrates how the old-school traditional Muslims and the younger, most liberal Muslims are butting heads and driving a rift in the people and the religion. The more "progressive" Muslims believe that women should play a larger role in the church and the faith, and that some of the religion's tenets must change to keep pace with the 21st century. Others are rooted in the past and want no change whatsoever, in fact, they might become even more restrictive.
Nothing represents this more than the beliefs and traditions surrounding arranged marriage. The Yemenis of the Dix mosque, where Sherine lived, are extremely representative of these old-school Muslims. Most do not plan to remain in the country, and most are extremely resistant to changing their ways to adapt to American society (Abdo 47). These are the groups of Muslims that are holding back others from more fully assimilating…
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
The Amiens Cathedral, on the other hand, was constructed over a much longer period of time. From beginning to end the Amiens Cathedral's construction took 190 years. As a result of this fact, there is little likelihood that the original plans used to begin the building still existed by the time the building was completed and there is no chance that the individuals responsible for supervising the construction in the beginning were still on hand at its completion. The result is that the Amiens Cathedral does not demonstrate the same uniformity in style that the Salisbury Cathedral does. The differences that exist between the Salisbury and Amiens Cathedrals are ones that exists throughout most of the Cathedrals in Europe. The Salisbury Cathedral tends to be the exception as most of the European Cathedrals demonstrate a severe lack of uniformity in style. The size of these structures and the inherent costs…
1)" Yuen 10. However, in order to consistently be successful in this profession and in the completion of projects, there is a significant more amount of consideration and work to be done within this field. These additional considerations form an indelible component of the present research, which has stratified these concerns in ways that are germane to the proper implementation of project management, and which should not merely focus on the abilities of an individual (such as a project manager), but include a gestalt of "knowledge and skills from the areas of expertise of "project environments," "general management skills," and "Knowledge of the application area" (Yuen 386), that are "a deliberate orchestration of all these areas of expertise to complete a project."
By analyzing what these different environment areas were in previous centuries for the completion of successful projects in Europe and the Near East, the research contained within this…
One of the strengths of the collections at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art is collection of works from the ancient Near East. This paper examines two of those artifacts, discussing both their aesthetics properties as well as the historical, political and cultural context in which the two works were created. These works - although they provide only the barest glimpse into the complexities of cultural and religious dynamics of the region - nevertheless help us to understand the intimate and powerful way in which religion and culture are linked even today in the Middle East. (Images of the two works are appended to the end of this paper.)
The first work is two leaves taken from the Koran, the holy book of Islam made during the Abbasid caliphate during the ninth or tenth centuries. Even for a viewer who cannot read Arabic and who knows little…
Peterson, Andrew. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Wiet, Gaston. Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate. Norman: U. Of Oklahoma, 1971.
Zakiriya, Mohamed. The Calligraphy of Islam: Reflections on the State of the Art. Washington DC: Center for Contemporary Arabic Studies, 1990.
Allan, James. Islamic Ceramics. Oxford: Asmolean, 1995.
But restoration efforts are hampered by the political and religious struggles that still define the area. The building is deeply symbolic for Christians, Muslims, secular Turks, and historical conservationists. Architectural historian obert Ousterhout points out that "each group looks at Hagia Sophia and sees a totally different building" (qtd. In Bordewich 5-6).
In his article, Bordewich examines the multiple agendas and suspicions of the groups seeking to control the restoration of the building, bemoaning the fact that the building is currently stuck in an "ideological no-man's land" (6). In the meantime, one of the premier examples of extreme architecture, Eastern oman power, Christian iconography, and Muslim decorative arts falls prey daily to the natural forces of decay, and runs the risk of being destroyed utterly by an earthquake or even by religious extremists. Even the grand ambitions of Justinian and the architectural genius of Anthemios cannot stem those forces. Instead,…
Bordewich, Fergus M. "Fading Glory." Smithsonian 39.9 (2008): 54-64. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2010.
Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Nelson, Robert S. Hagia Sophia 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom, Modern Monument. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Salvadori, Mario, Saralinda Hooker, and Christopher Ragus. Why Buildings Stand Up: The Strength of Architecture. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1990.
We know this in theory, however, reading about these very innocent families and the things that they have been force to endure makes it even more important to me that the nation begin healing and removing the fears that cause this type of behavior against innocent people.
The second and more far reaching point that the book makes is that nobody is safe from suspicion of this mindset is allowed to be continued. egardless of the situation there may come a time in which each of us falls into a group or groups of people who are suddenly being eyed suspiciously.
In the past five years the Middle Eastern immigrants and descendants have faced the focus of the nation's evil suspicious eye. Before them the Blacks took their turn at bat and in addition to them there have been periods in American history in which Irish, Italian, and Spanish people…
We Are All Suspects Now: Untold Stories from Immigrant America After 9/11 (Paperback) by Tram Nguyen " Beacon Press (September 15, 2005)
2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General ooks LLC.
Coe, M. Neil., Kelly, F. Phillip., and Yeung, Wai-Chung, Henry. 2007. Economic geography: a contemporary introduction. Wiley-lackwell.
Scheffler, Julia. 2009. Welcomed Or Rejected? The Situation of Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
Schumann, Stefanie. 2011. Hybrid Identity Formation of Migrants: A Case Study of Ethnic Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 23.
ooks, LLC, Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 56.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People…
Author Books, LLC. 2010. Turks in Germany: Necla Kelek, the Edge of Heaven, Solingen Arson Attack of 1993, Alpay Ozalan, Turkiyemspor Berlin, Berlin Ak 07, Cem Ozdemir. General Books LLC.
Books Llc. 2010. Germany-Turkey Relations: Turks in Germany, German-turkish Relations, Mehmet Ali Irtemcelik, Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs. General Books LLC.
Books, LLC. 2010. Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland. General Books LLC.
Books, LLC., and General Books LLC. 2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, Baltic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General Books LLC.
However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. he film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World rade Building. o many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals…
There are a number of things the media can do when being threatened by terrorist threats in order to stop the wave of fear the terrorists are looking to spread within American society. First, removing terrorists' access to the media will help decrease the media's relationship with spreading terror. Media outlets should refuse to print or highlight the terrorists own explanations of attacks and threats, as many terrorists often accompany threats with tapes or other sorts of verbal statements. This decreased attention will not continue to increase public fear as much, therefore not serving the terrorists on a silver platter.
Yes, there have been some radical Muslims that have taken extreme terrorist acts against the United States. However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. The film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World Trade Building. To many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals are making the mistake of assuming all Muslims are anti-American, and even terrorists.
Many people are directly correlating Islam with the terrorists that were responsible for 9/11. Yet, this is simply not true. The terrorists who were responsible were a small fraction of fundamentalist radicals, not representatives of larger Islam itself. Those who were responsible for the extreme violence and pain that was 9/11 were not representative of the Islamic world as a whole. They were an extremist group that harbored political differences with the United States that had been building for generations. Thus, the act of terrorism was not necessarily religiously based. In this sense, blaming the religion for the act of terror would be a huge mistake. Muslims living in this country are still Americans. Therefore, they need to be able to experience the same rights to freedom of religion as other members of religious faiths do.
(Krukowski, 2001) Civil religion and workplace mysticism each change the institutional locus of religious expression from the church, synagogue, or mosque to another public organization- the state or the company. The existence of these different organizations hoists the main question of individuality and perhaps challenging faithfulness.
Both civil religion and workplace theology do not show the likely clashes and problems often met by employees who are also religious practitioners. Jews, Christians, or Muslims who are workforce of a company may well have grounds to question the customs of their company on religio-moral basis. Workplace theology in a funded organization does not distinguish these possible clashes. Institutionally conveying workplace theology is obviously not identical with permitting individual employees to convey their beliefs and customs at work. This grave outlook of workplace theology should not be realized, as a censure of persons who want to live out their definite religious or spiritual…
Alpert, Richard T. "Religious Diversity in the workplace." Retrieved at http://users.crocker.com/~amedpub/rc21d/Religion%20in%20the%20Workplace11.htm. Accessed on 4 February, 2005
"Workplace Religious Freedom: What is an Employer's Duty to Accommodate? A Review of Recent Cases" Workplace Religious Freedom / 49. Retrieved at http://homepages.ius.edu/LCHRISTI/Journal%20of%20emply/religious%20accommodation.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Deveney, William D. (September-October, 2004) "Religious Harassment Claims: Case Studies in Good Faith." No. 05-05. Retrieved at http://www.etsw.com/NewsletterLB/2004_09-10.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…
Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information. http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm
Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.
Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.
Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
Managing Homeland Security
isk and vulnerability
There are two general types of disasters which occur, that of disasters which occur regularly with moderately severe consequences such as flooding and less common but far more horrific events, such as terrorist attacks. The latter type of disaster naturally draws the most press coverage, although it is the first type of disaster that tends to concern local residents the most and draws the majority of community dollars. As noted by my colleague Charles Cowart in his response, this is because these types of small-scale disasters are virtually certain to occur and are thus seemingly more deserving of scarce resources.
However, as noted by my classmate Mark Taylor, major disasters can draw a great deal of public outrage after they occur, if they are handled in an incompetent fashion. A good example of this is Hurricane Katrina. People are upset by major disasters not…
Community wind shelters. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved:
Slosson, Mary. (2011). Law enforcement and Muslim communities. Retrieved:
Globalization and Cultural Conflict
The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.
Gardner, et al., on Leadership
As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…
Akram, S.M. "The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims
in America." Arab Studies Quarterly, 24(2&3), 61-119.
Ali, Y. "Shariah and Citizenship -- How Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry
In America." California Law Review, 100(4), 1027-1068.
The Muslim communities in North America and Europe have long experienced the test of adapting the practices and teachings of their religions to the particular problems and circumstances that they experience as citizens of the western societies, even as they maintain a robust foothold in the Islamic culture. Staying in silos is the best means of creating disagreements amidst any two groups. So as to evade such a circumstance, non-Muslims ought to make serious attempts to communicate and relate with Muslims.
elations shall assist in the eradication of misunderstandings as well as stereotypes. It shall also assist to establish a suitable relationship founded on numerous shared beliefs and values. It will also demonstrate that in their daily lives, both Muslims and non-Muslims encounter similar issues and challenges. Interfaith exchanges and conferences should also be promoted. Paying visits to the Muslim homes and mosques shall eradicate several misunderstandings and…
Khan, A. (2002). Understanding Muslim-West alienation: Building a better future. Lincoln, Neb: Writers Club Press.
Khan, A. (2007). Islam, Muslims and America: Understanding the Basis of Their Conflict. New York: Algora Pub.
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. e entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.
Q: hat use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?
M: I'm glad you asked. e have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.
Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?
M: e interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the orld's ebsite…
City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.coosbay.org/ .
City-Data.com. (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.city-data.com/city/Coos-Bay-Oregon.html .
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Middle School -- Grade 8 -- Reading / Language. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://cbd9.net.
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay School District. Retrieved February 2,
The Israel government was not able to find the perpetrators, and the PIJ profited greatly from the event. On the Friday following the killing, "…hundreds of worshippers at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa mosque demonstrated their support for Islamic Jihad" for killing an innocent Israeli (Milton-Edwards, p. 140). The demonstrators (who were worshipping prior to being engaged in support for a cold-blooded killing) were chanting, "Allahu Akbar" -- and according to a local newspaper police in Jerusalem said the "tone of the demonstrators was more religious than political" (Milton-Edwards, p. 140).
Given that vocal support by citizens, and its more visible presence in Palestine, the Islamic Jihad carried out a far more bold and brazen attack, mentioned earlier in this paper, tossing live hand grenades into a military ceremony at Jerusalem's estern all. "Activists were willing to take significant risks," Milton-Edwards wrote (p. 140). Moreover, by killing the father of one recruit and…
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Moravitz, Jennifer. (2005). The Israeli-Palestinian War:
Escalating to Nowhere. Abingdon, Oxford: United Kingdom.
Cragin, Kim, and Daly, Sara a. (2004). The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group
Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World, Issue 1782. Santa Monica: Rand
The needs of each must be met, but the strategy should also emphasize a degree of equality between the groups that may not appear to exist on the surface.
Examples of Islam as a problem for HRM include the need for prayer times, the need for mosques and issues with regards to gender equality. HRM must ensure that the needs of a predominantly workforce are met, in accordance with the standards of the religion and the UAE (Budd & Scoville, 2005). In addition, the HRM strategy needs to be specifically geared towards eliminating gender issues in the workplace. This can include a degree of sensitivity training but also strong statements about the equality of the sexes.
Language barriers are going to cause major communications problems (ilson, 2005). This can impact on the messages delivered at high-level meetings; it can impact worker safety and it can result is communication breakdown between…
CIA World Factbook. (2010). United Arab Emirates. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 27, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html
Shandling, K. (2008). New water and power infrastructure projects in the UAE. MaximsNews. Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080327uaewaterprojects10803270802.htm
De Bono, S., Van der Heijden, B. & Jones, S. (2008). Managing Cultural Diversity. New York: Meyer & Meyer.
Al-Gergawi, M. (2008). Emiratisation and the curse of entitlement. The National. Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://www.thenational.ae/article/20080911/OPINION/551738683/0/SPORT
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
According to the author, the elements of architecture found within the Dome, such as the interior double colonnades and the wooden dome are echoed in the Cathedral.
Gray concedes that one might argue for the Islamic nature of the mosaic decorations. However, even this element adheres more to the Hellenistic tradition before the Islamic synthesis than to Islam itself. Elements of Islam that are included are the fact that there is no representation of men or animals in the mosaic, as well as the syncretic vocabulary.
Myriam Rosen-Ayalon more closely examines both the iconography and the concomitant purpose of creating the Dome of the Rock. he appears to agree with Gray, that a number of non-Islam influences were at work when the Dome was created. More specifically, she addresses the interaction of the mosaic images with the text inscriptions of the Dome. In this way, the author attempts to find…
Associates for Scriptural Knowledge. The Secret key to the Dome of the Rock. Oct 1, 1999. http://www.askelm.com/temple/t991001.htm
Ettinghausen, Richard and Grabar, Oleg. Extract from the Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250 (pp. 28-34). New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. http://www.thehope.org/domerock.htm
Garaudy, Roger. The Dome of the Rock. American Muslim Council, 1997. http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/domerock.htm
Gray, Martin. Places of Peace and Power: Jarusalem, Israel. 1983-2006. http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jerusalem.html
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…
Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
The groom is required to pay a dowry to the bride, as a form of consideration, and the amount is stipulated to within the marital contract.
Interestingly, a man may marry up to four women so long as he can treat them all equally. However, a woman may only marry one man. Divorces are allowed, but are easier for a man to initiate than the female. Popular media portrays Islam as a sexist culture that requires women to such practices as veiling and seclusion. However, there is great debate within the Islamic community on whether the holy texts actually justify these practices. In the twentieth century, social reformers argues against these and other sexist traditions, including polygamy. On the other hand, many individual women are striking a balance between tradition and living an active life within traditional modesty.
Clearly, Islamic traditions play an important part in society, especially when Muslims…
Turner, Colin. (2006): Islam: The Basics. London: Routledge.
Waines, David. (2003): An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weiss, Bernard G. (2002): Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.
The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.
For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."
Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.
The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."
Men and women are…
Discuss the Factors that are at Play for Diaspora Groups Trying to Claim Permanent Urban Space.
The process of globalization and global immigration has become a contemporary phenomenon with a number of social and human rights implications. Many countries, such as Canada, have during the latter part of the last century experienced the effects of global immigration, which has resulted in the demographic and social transformation of many cities. In Toronto, for instance, in the past most of the immigrant population came mainly from Europe and the United Kingdom. However, since 1060 this has decreased and most immigrants have been increasingly coming from the Middle-East and Asia, Africa. South America and the Caribbean, as well as an influx of many Chinese immigrants " (Isin and Siemiatycki, 2002). This has led to a multicultural society with all the attendant problems that arise when different cultures vie for urban…
About No One Is Illegal-Toronto. Retrieved from http://toronto.nooneisillegal.org/about
Kuyek J.N. ( 1990) Fighting for Hope: Organizing to Realize our Dreams. Montreal:
Isin E. And Siemiatvcki M. ( 2002) Making Space for Mosques. In Race, Space and the Law: unmapping a white settler society. Toronto: Between the Lines. Retrieved from http://instruct.uwo.ca/geog/3415/isin.pdf