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The term, rondeau: andante grazioso, refers to the final movement of a piece of music and andante grazioso means to play gracefully.
For Mozart's "Violin Concerto No 4," the violin is accompanied by two oboes, two horns, and a string section. The music was fast in the beginning and tempo would increase when the horns joined in but the violin playing was soft and melodic. Toward the end of the composition the tempo increased to fast. The music was perfect for dancing the old style ballroom dance. Written in D major, the violin sounds ring and vibrate throughout the venue. Tonally-concocted the orchestra plays in unison and the violin enters a couple of octaves higher playing the same material up to vibrant arpeggios before concluding in the same fashion as it started. The tempo was in varying ranges starting out fast then slowed down before rising back to fast.
Hayden, J. (as cited in). "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." In the Grove Concise Dictionary of Music, http://w3.rzberlin.mpg.de/cmp/mozart.html. (accessed on April 21, 2010)
"Mozart Classic Melodies." In the Classic Composers." International Masters Publishers. (2005)
Pimentel, Bret. 2003. "The woodwind section in Mozart's late symphonies" http://www.bretpimentel.com/the-woodwind-section-in-mozarts-late-symphonies/
Although Antonio Salieri really existed and was employed as the chief composer to the Hapsburg court in Vienna for 36 years, only in fictional accounts did he plot to destroy olfgang Amadeus Mozart and finally poison him. As the A&E biography points out, no evidence exists that such events ever occurred despite the fact that Amadeus (1984) has always been a highly popular and well-regarded film. Other parts of the fictional film are more accurate, such as young olfgang's love-hate relationship with his father Leopold and growing desire to break free of his authoritarian control. As a child prodigy, Leopold had taken his son all over Europe from the age of six, including stays in Munich, Rome, London, Milan and Paris, where the boy was invariably proclaimed a musical genius. Even so, he had great difficulty securing paid employment in any of these cities and indeed struggled with poverty…
Amadeus. Milos Forman (Director). The Saul Zaentz Company, USA, 1984.
Mozart. A&E Biography, USA, 1987.
olfgang Amadeus Mozart does not deserve to be on the list of history's most influential people. Mozart's work clearly shows the influence of his time, including the ideas of the Enlightenment and musical influences of the time. His work is clearly long-lasting in the western world, and the best of his pieces show a profound grasp of melody, and mark him as a major talent. hile an immensely talented and prolific composer, Mozart's lasting fame seems to be based largely on the ideal of him as a Romantic artist, rather than on the body of his work. In addition, Mozart's fame can be attributed also to his family's great influence. Mozart's work can be argued to be lacking in many areas, including the lack of depth in his church music, the lack of nature or a sense of fun and whimsy in his work, and flaws within his early work.…
The Catholic Encyclopedia. Johann Chrysostomus Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight.
Gutman, Robert W. 2000. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harvest Books.
Oldham, Ronnie. Mozart and Haydn: More Alike than Different. 09 May 2004. http://www.pillowrock.com/ronnie/mozart.htm
Solomon, Maynard. 1996. Mozart: A Life. Perennial.
Mozart wrote the work with the help of a friend and fellow composer, Lorenzo da Ponte (real name Emmanuele Conegliano). He and da Ponte wrote the opera very quickly, as one of his biographers notes, "The writing must have been mainly done in six weeks - the figure given in da Ponte's memoirs - starting in mid-October. It seems that rather than compose the work straight through Mozart set similar kinds of numbers in groups according to their basic emotional character" (Keys 175). The work is an "opera buffa" (a light or amusing opera, today called a "comic opera"), with very complex multiple plots that Mozart manages to get through to the audience through action and voice. Another critic writes, "The action is both structured around and plotted towards numerous and prominent moments of reconciliation" (Sadie 262). The opera keeps the audience laughing, but they also have to pay attention…
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Keys, Ivor. Mozart His Music in His Life. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980.
Linton, Michael. "The Mozart Effect." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Mar. 1999: 10.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. Wolfgang Amade Mozart: Essays on His Life and His Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Haydn and Mozart
Haydn once told Mozart's father that his son was "the greatest composer known to me in person or by name; he has taste and, what is more, the greatest knowledge of composition," (Sadie). The student-teacher relationship between Mozart and his mentor was characterized by mutual respect: the younger Mozart dedicated six string quartets to his teacher, who deemed the master of that style. The intersecting lives of these two great composers are similar on many counts: both came from Viennese musical families, both exhibited talent at a very young age, and both struggled financially in spite of their awesome and acknowledged talents. Moreover, Mozart and Haydn traveled throughout Europe and though they never grew rich, they were both able to earn their livelihoods through music. In spite of these similarities, Mozart became by far the more renowned of the two composers, both in his day and in…
Sadie, Stanley. "Joseph Haydn." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. (1996). Retrieved online 17 Nov. 2004. < http://inin.essortment.com/wolfgangamadeus_rxxo.htm>.
Sadie, Stanley. "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. (1996). Retrieved online 17 Nov. 2004. < http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/mozart.html>.
Schneider, Elaine. "Franz Joseph Haydn Biography." Pagewise. 2002. Retrieved online 17 Nov 2004. < http://wawa.essortment.com/franzjosephhay_rwml.htm>.
Schneider, Elaine. "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Biography." Pagewise. 2002. Retrieved online 17 Nov. 2004. < http://inin.essortment.com/wolfgangamadeus_rxxo.htm>.
Mozart: Sonata for Piano in C major, K 545
Classical sonata: Mozart's Sonata for Piano in C major, K 545
Track time, melodic and accompaniment writing.
The first section of music sounds bright and sprightly. It sets the melodic line and tone for the rest of the composition. The music begins relatively abruptly: there is little lead-in to the piece of music. The melody dominates the composition. The tone is relatively simple and charming but not excessively ornamented.
Although engaging, the use of repetition is manifested relatively early on in the work. There is a consistent use of similar thematic motifs even in the first minute, which will then be expanded upon later on. This gives the work simplicity, clarity, and ease in the way it is performed: there is nothing overdone or 'fussy' about the quality of the performance.
The transition is relatively brief and fleeting,…
joy of attending the Mostly Mozart Festival Orchestra concert at Lincoln Center. The Mostly Mozart Festival Orchestra performed a total of two pieces. The first of the two was the Violin Concerto No.3 in G. major, K.216(1775) and the second was Symphony No.41 in C. major, K.551("Jupiter"). Louis Langree was the conductor of the performance and Simone Porter was the featured violinist. In spite of the hot weather (86 Fahrenheit), there was a long queue at the door that extended two blocks from the door. Although the Damrosch Park is big and was occupied almost entirely by chairs, the author was able to get a seat in the seventh row. The venue as a whole was full. While both numbers performed were good, the first piece was much better than the second in terms of quality.
The quite auditorium erupted with applause when the soloist came out onto the stage.…
olfgang Amadeus Mozart is one of the most respected and revered composers who ever lived. Although he was a part of what has become known as the Classical era of music, it can be argued that Mozart transcended the aesthetic of his timer period and created works which are timeless. During his unfairly short lifetime, he helped create and popularize various musical forms. He has become an icon of genius and the epitome of the child prodigy, showing incredible artistic ability in a very early age. The totality of Mozart's works includes a plethora of symphonies, concertos, and operas not to mention singular musical pieces. Mozart was one of the most prolific composers of his era, or indeed of any era. More than 600 works of Mozart still exist to this day and there are reports which indicated some others have been lost to history. His works have been…
Deutsch, O. (1965). Mozart: a Documentary Biography. Ed. P. Branscombe & E. Blom. Trans. J.
Noble. Stanford UP: Stanford, CA.
Halliwell, R. (1998). The Mozart Family: Four Lives in a Social Context. Clarendon: New York
Mozart: Composer for the Ages
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in 1756 in Salzburg. His full name as recorded on his Baptismal certificate is (in Latin) Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilis Amadeus Mozart. Though seven children were born in the family only Wolfgang and his elder sister survived infancy. Both were instructed in the ways of music by their father. Wolfgang showed early signs of being a prodigy.
His father Leopold was a music teacher and composer and passed on his love of music to his son, encouraging both of his children to perform. Mozart surprised his father at an early age by drafting his own composition, without encouragement (Deutsch, 1965).
Leopold took the children on extensive tours of Europe, having them perform in the Bavarian, Vienna, and Prague Courts. The duo was the equivalent of today's child-stars. Their touring led Mozart to meet important musicians like J.C. Bach. In ome,…
Cairns, D. (2006). Mozart and His Operas. Los Angeles, CA: University of California
Deutsch, O.E. (1965). Mozart: A Documentary Biography. CA: Stanford University
Mozart especially did the trick. Einstein loved Mozart's highly organized, intensely patterned sonatas. He felt, as many before him, that music and the reasoning intellect were linked. Music and his scientific work...were 'born of the same source.'" (Dowd, 2008) a report conducted by the German Ministry of Education in 2007 while failing to uphold music having a long-term influence on intelligence did state findings of a "link between musical training and IQ development." (Dowd, 2008) Dowd additionally reports that "...brain mapping has revealed that professional musicians have more grey matter in their right auditory cortex than non-musicians, as if practicing an instrument flexed a muscle in the brain." (2008) Dowd states: "It seems increasingly likely that the long-term practice of playing music, rather than merely listening, can have the kind of impact suggested by the Mozart Effect. Einstein, after all, organized his mind by playing the violin, not listening to…
Bangeter, Adrian and Health, Chip (2005) the Mozart Effect: Tracking the Evolution of a Scientific Legend. Group de Psychologie Appliquee, Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland.
Braun, Melanie (2005) Exploring the Efficacy of Vowel Intonations. The Rose+Croix Journal 2005. Vol. 2. Online available at http://www.rosecroixjournal.com/issues/2005/articles/vol2_11_21_braun.pdf
Donald Hatch Andrews, the Symphony of Life (Unity Books, 1966), pp. 55, 58.
Dowd, Will (2008) the Myth of the Mozart Effect.- the Skeptic Magazine. 1 Jan 2008. Online Highbeam Research at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1419874671.html
All the while, Leopold continued to promote his son to the Royal Court - which became a successful effort which allowed for a minor stability of income (which was supplemented by private lessons). but, by 1778, Mozart was exceptionally tired of Salzburg and yearned for larger cities and more opportunities.
Mozart demonstrated a fickle music taste - writing in highly prolific bursts the same types of music until he became tired of them and then would move on to newer forms and to breaking the "rules" of compositions win interesting and challenging ways. Despite his successes, Mozart was never truly independent in anything other than his music. He was interested in a variety of positions in France and Germany but his father dissuaded him because none of the positions offered were high enough to properly reflect the talents of his son.
Wolfgang gave up Salzburg in 1781 where he promptly…
Parsons, Charles H. "Guide to Records: Lortzing." American Record Guide. Jan/Feb2002, Vol. 65 Issue 1, p131.
Ratner, Leonard. "Mozart's Parting Gifts." The Journal of Musicology. Winter, 2001. v18. i1. p189(23).
Standford, Patric. "Mozart Requiem," Choir & Organ. Sep/Oct2001, Vol. 9 Issue 5, p76.
Mozart v. Schubert
Two of the best-known composers of all time, olfgang Amadeus Mozart and Franz Peter Schubert, shared much in common in terms of their upbringing. Both from present-day Austria, Mozart and Schubert grew up in musical families, with fathers that fostered their innate talents. Although Mozart is more famous for his being a child prodigy, Schubert also showed an early predilection for musical genius even if he wasn't writing symphonies by the time he was five years old as Mozart did. Mozart did have more access to quality schooling and training throughout his formative years than Schubert did, although the latter eventually gained entry into the Convict, one of the most notable music academies at the time. At the Convict, Schubert studied under Mozart's supposed nemesis, Antonio Salieri. However, Schubert was born six years after Mozart died, and also looked up to his predecessor as much as he…
'Franz Schubert." Wikipedia. Online at .
"Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." Wikipedia. Online at .
In the scene where the Emperor and his aides argue about the language for the new opera, one of the aides notes, "Plain German for plain people," and "German is too brutal" ("Amadeus"). Underlying this conversation is the idea that the north could not possibly be civilized or educated, and only the elite and attuned listened to the classical music emanating from Italy. This also indicates how the culture was changing, and indicates the difference between the two composers. Mozart welcomed writing in German, but was open to any language, while Salieri plodded along in Italian. He was not open to change and innovation, while Mozart championed it in his music and his life.
Throughout the film, it is clear Salieri cannot grow to accept the changes in Classical music. He represents the old morals of the enaissance, while Mozart represents the new morals of the Enlightenment that would forge…
Amadeus. Dir. Milos Forman. Perf. F. Murray Abraham, Tom Hulse. Orion Pictures, 1984.
" Mozart used the play, about a maid, Susanna, who is to marry a valet, Figaro, as the story line of his opera. Together Figaro and Susana seek to outwit their master who is trying to seduce Susanna. A master had "first night rights" to the female servants when they married in those days.
Figaro" successfully champions the ingenuity of the lower classes and the wit of the female over the self-serving, arrogant nobility. The debate that followed the success of this opera is representative of the questions in everyone's minds during those years when the rights of the aristocracy were put into conflict with the rights of the common man and woman (Fiero 165).
Although Mozart appeared to be much more concerned with music and all of its forms, and kept his favored place in the eyes of the aristocracy because of his genius, he had his problems with…
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanist Tradition, Book 4: Faith, Reason and Power in the Early Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2002.
Schikaneder was both an actor and a producer in Vienna for a playhouse that traditionally catered to "lowbrow" audiences (Loomis 2). Mozart's brand of comedy was just the thing for Schikaneder's theater. But "lowbrow" was merely one aspect of Mozart's comedic ventures: they could be equally stunning, poised, high-minded, honest, and full of common sense at the same time. Like the man, they resembled a mystery that could not be summed up with any one category or label: they were nothing less than unique and stellar expressions of a culture that emerged out of the Baroque and into a highly uncertain future. Mozart's Magic Flute would prove to be more than just "low comedy" -- it would be a magical tour de force (with one of the most famous arias of all-time) and a compelling reminder of the enchanting power of musical melody and the harmony between melody and nature,…
Barbers, David W. Bach, Beethoven, and the Boys. Toronto, Canada: Sound and Vision, 1986.
Cairns, David. Mozart and His Operas. Los Angeles, CA: University of California
Heartz, Daniel. Mozart's Operas. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press,
Mozart Effect by Don Campbell, published by HarperCollins in 1997 and again in 2001, posits the theory that listening to Mozart's music can help to boost one's IQ. The theory is based on interviews and studies conducted by researchers, from which Campbell produces the general notion that music has a "healing" quality to it and can be used to improve one's overall life.[footnoteRef:1] Campbell points to the 1993 study by psychologist Francis Rauscher, who showed that listening to Mozart's sonata for two pianos helped to improve the spatial-temporal skills of the listener for about the next ten to fifteen minutes after listening to the music.[footnoteRef:2] Rauscher's study spurred more researchers to examine the relationship between music and intelligence. Campbell's book is essentially an overview of these studies with some analysis about the way that Mozart and music in general can improve one's ability to think, reason, and enjoy mental health.…
Campbell, Don. The Mozart Effect. NY: HarperCollins, 2001
Jenkins, J.S. "The Mozart Effect," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 94, no.
4 (2001): 170-172.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia," German Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 8 (2005): 8-24.
Mozart's Don Giovanni a group of villages are busy celebrating the marriage of Zerlina and Masetto. As Don Giovanni and Leporello admire the girls involved, Giovanni begins to grow very interested in Zerlina: "hat have we? ell, now! Some honest rustic folk; and lots are lovely!"
In a ploy to win her favor, Don Giovanni invites the party to his castle to eat and drink. Once there, he detains Zerlina, to jealous Masetto's annoyance, and pledges to marry her. "He is just about to win Zerlina over by flattering her and declaring his love for her, when Elvira steps between them, warns Zerlina and, while Don Giovanni whispers to her that Elvira is a poor demented woman, jealous because of her own love for him, leads her away."
hen Donna Anna and Don Ottavio appear, not yet realizing that Don Giovanni is the man who murdered her father, Anna seeks…
1. Abert, Hermann. 1976, Mozart's Don Giovanni, Eulernburg Books, London.
2. Lenton Sarah. 2004, Don Giovanni Mozart, London Coliseum, London.
3. Martin, Nicholas Ivor. 1997, The Da Capo Opera Manual, Da Capo Press, New York.
4. Mozart, W.A. 1948, Don Giovanni, G. Schirmer Inc., New York.
One of the concerts attended for this assignment took place over Thanksgiving weekend. It was entitled, suitably enough, A Mozart Thanksgiving. It featured the work of Jeffrey Kahane, who both conducted and played the piano. The concert was held over a three-day period beginning on November 25 and concluding on the 27th of November. The concert took place in honor of the Thanksgiving holiday at Jones Hall for each of the aforementioned dates. The author of this document attended the concert on November 25. It featured approximately three hours' worth of music, although this time period included an intermission as well. The majority of the music played was classical music. Specifically, the audience was treated to renditions of "Piano Concerto No. 24 in C Minor," "Symphony No. 38 in D Major," and "Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major." The venue was fairly spacious and well-attended. The acoustics were credible…
olfgang Amadeus Mozart is universally considered to be a musical genius because he is so great in his work. During his short time on the earth because he died very young, he was responsible for the writing of some of the most beautiful works of music ever written. He wrote symphonies and stand alone pieces too. His work has been put to ballets and other plays and in movies. In addition to these, he also wrote some of the world's most beautiful and emotional operas. Each opera is built around unique and fully-developed characterizations especially of the women characters. Remarkably even though the language may not be understood because the operas are sung in foreign languages, the music and the voices which sing each song of the opera perfectly convey the meaning and the emotional core that Mozart intended to express in the opera. Two distinct examples of…
Cairns, David. Mozart and his Operas. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California
Press, 2006. 125-29. Print.
Carter, Tim. W.A. Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
54; 110-11. Print.
music composer Wolfgang Mozart and his life and death. The writer concentrates on the theories that have been put together regarding what may have killed the composer, including bad pork, bad heart and a jealous peer. There wee 12 sources used to complete this paper.
One of the greatest composers in history was composer Wolfgang Mozart. He put together musical marriages that were unheard of in his time and today are still considered genius. Mozart was a man of many traits and was well-known for his quirky personality especially at the end of his life. His death has been shrouded in mystery for many years and theorists still work to try and draw s conclusive picture about what may have happened to the man in his final days. Before one can begin to understand the various theories surrounding his death one must have a grasp on who the man was…
HE ASSOCIATED PRESS, "New Theory on Mozart's Death." Newsday, (2001).pp A18.
Author not available, "Did pork cutlets kill Mozart?.," Reuters, (2001). pp 00
STEPHEN MANNING, Associated Press Writer, "Researcher: Bad Heart Killed Mozart.," AP Online, 92000)..
Joyce Howard Price, "Doctor believes rheumatic fever led to Mozart's death," The Washington Times,(2000). pp A3.
There is more to it than meets the eye (or ear), and repeated listenings make that even more apparent.
Great music also depends on great performances, and that is another reason to listen to it more than once. Each artist interprets music a bit differently, and so, no performance will be exactly alike. This is true of all types of music, even classical. Even though the scores are the same, each musician, director, and arranger sees the work differently, and adds a bit of their own interpretation or personality into the piece. Thus, the same song sung decades ago by the Beach Boys does not sound like the same song today sung by a young rap or hip hop artist.
Do these theories apply to pop music, as well? In many aspects, yes, they do. There are certainly many songs in pop music that are complex and detailed, with different…
Features to Listen for in Classical Music." Classicism and Classical Music. 123-124.
Beethoven uses choral voices in his 9th Symphony to produce a sound that no man-made instrument could produce. Beethoven is attempting to achieve the highest and most joyful sound in the final movement of the symphony and so therefore uses human voices to compel the listener to the rapturous heights that he wants them to witness.
or what might look at the importance of tone and key. n the 20th century, composers like Schoenberg wrote atonal music that made music sound fractured and splintered and, in a word, off. This effect allowed Schoenberg to artistically represent a world around him that seemed to be going off its head -- with war, loss of conviction, and devaluation. There seemed to be no real key to happiness, and so the earlier keys that were used by Bach are rejected here by Schoenberg.
6) Using the illustrations found throughout chapter five, name the…
It is likely that the people of Japan continue to perform and listen to their own folk tunes even today because their culture is more tied to their past than ours. America's history is relatively brief, and its inhabitants come from all over the world. America has been likened to a melting pot of cultures; therefore it is not surprising to find that it has no real connection to a folk music tradition.
Japan on the other hand has existed for many centuries and its people are rooted in their heritage. Their culture is part of their lives and defines who they are and how they live: their folk music is an expression of their past, which they continually look back upon and reflect upon. They have also been more isolated from the West: it is only relatively recently that Japanese society has begun to reflect the social conditions of the Western world. It has made the attempt to become industrialized and be a viable element in the world's economy. It manufactures a great deal of the West's goods. But still it knows its heritage, and Japanese people know that while they seemingly work for the West, they are not of the West. Their folk music tells them this.
American culture tends to look only toward the future: it rotates its Top 40 continuously and calls music "classic" that came out thirty years ago. It does not know its ancestry and were it told to it, it would likely balk at the revelation. Americans do not like to consider the culture from which they came: they are not supposed to think of culture. They are like the people in Orwell's 1984 -- controlled, manipulated, and coddled. History is re-written by those in power, and those in power do not want the citizens thinking for themselves. To do so might cause dissonance.
The twenty-one pieces of the work, minus the Overture, are divided into two acts, 8 pieces in the First Act, and 13 in the Second. 8 to 13 is an example of the Golden Ratio. There are also 49 entrances in The Magic Flute, divided up as 19 in Act I and 30 in Act II. This too is an example of the Golden Ratio. Furthermore, the Overture contains a division between 81 bars and 130, yet another Golden Ratio.
Golden Ratio is thus contained within Golden Ratio, an image of the endless repetition of the primordial forms. Each individual part of the Creation is complete unto itself. One can take apart the Cosmos and find perfect miniature "worlds" that can be put back together to form a coherent whole. According to the Classical canon of art, the human body is built upon the Golden Ratio. By drawing lines through…
Benstock, Seymour L., ed. Johann Sebastian: A Tercentenary Celebration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Boyd, Malcolm, and John Butt, eds. J.S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Chua, Daniel K.L. Absolute Music and the Construction of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Faulkner, Quentin. Wiser Than Despair: The Evolution of Ideas in the Relationship of Music and the Christian Church. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996..
As the two men enter the door to the last Trial, the music that is played is incredibly beautiful and celestial, as their ecstasy in coming to this point carries them onward. Much of the music in this act is dramatic and full of many voices and full orchestra. The music depicts glowingly the trials of the two men and their despair and longing as they search for their loves. Mozart is at his finest in these melodic arias, reminiscent of folk songs and very memorable as far as melodies go. The winner is the best and the strongest: es siegte die St. rke, says the line in the song, and this is the theme where two good young men use music (the flute and the bells) to win the hands of their beloveds and conquer the forces of evil.
The musical elements used in the work are full orchestra,…
Peters, C.F. (Ed.) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Emanuel Schikaneder. The Magic Flute. Dover: Courier Dover Publications. 1985. (Score).
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
e all delight in Don Giovanni's 'badness,' Leporello's actions suggest. Don Giovanni does what many of us wish we could do, but dare not. The Don loves women and leaves them, without any care for social conventions. hile Leporello's decision to not engage in transgressions with women may be class-based in some instances, even the Don's higher-born counterparts do not openly defy conventional sexual wisdom to the same degree as he does. The celebratory and openly joyous nature of the "Madamina" aria is a kind of celebration of sexuality members of the audience may wish to engage in, but do not. Despite the literal word-painting of the appearance of the blondes and brunettes, there is a stark contrast between the 'mind in the gutter' literal wordings of Leporello's leering commentary with the agile beauty of Mozart's music.
Elvira is silent throughout the aria, conveying her sense of resistance and disgust.…
Fisher, Burton D., ed. Mozart's Don Giovanni (translated from Italian and including music highlight transcriptions). 2002. Opera Journeys Libretto Series. Coral Gables, Florida.
"Madamina" from Don Giovanni. Sung by Luca Pisaroni. July 2011.
Retrieved from YouTube, November 2011:
Suddenly Western Music no longer needed to follow all the old rules. Just as the abstract painters dispensed with the traditional canon of art at just the same time, so also men like Bartok and Stravinsky take a fresh look at what constituted good music.
According to Bartok, the aesthetic success of this new homophonic-polyphonic music would depend upon the "harmonic entity" that results from the rise and fall of the "horizontal line" formed by the many discrete tone patches.... "an architectonic or similar scheme is not absolutely necessary; the construction of the line born out of the different degrees of intensity that are inherent in the tonal succession would be completely satisfactory," and by his likening of such constructions to works written in prose rather than verse (Gillies, 2000, p. 55)
Stravinsky too made his own way in the musical world. Working alongside Diaghilev and his Ballet usses he…
Gillies, M. (2000). 4 Analyzing Bart k's Works of 1918-1922 Motives, Tone Patches, and Tonal Mosaics. In Bartok Perspectives: Man, Composer, and Ethnomusicologist, Antokoletz, E., Fischer, V., & Suchoff, B. (Eds.) (pp. 43-56). Oxford: Oxford U.S..
Maconie, R. (1997). The Science of Music. New York: Oxford University Press.
La Mort D'Ophelie, Berlioz -- -Choir
Unity and Variety-emphasis upon unity
Structure of the Music
Purpose of the Music
Vier Gesange, Op. 17, Brahms-Choir
Unity and Variety
Structure of the Music
Purpose of the Music
istorical Period-Mid 1800s
Pavane in F-Sharp Minor, Op. 50
Unity and Variety
Structure of the Music
Purpose of the Music
Faure - Choir Fantasy in C-Minor For Piano
Unity and Variety-Emphasis upon unity
Structure of the Music
Purpose of the Music
Melody and armony-low pitch
Chorus and Orchesta by Beethoven.
Unity and Variety-Emphasis upon unity, but variety within one piece
Structure of the Music
Purpose of the Music
Tempo-Adagio and then Allegro
Melody and armony-igh emphasis upon pitch
The instrumentation of concert included sopranos from the Ebell chorale and the Hollywood master Chorale, as well as soloists, alto, tenor, bass, violin, viola, violoncello, double bass, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, French horn, trombone, percussion, harp.
I enjoyed the concert. It gave me an overall feeling of satisfaction due to unity of choir and instrumentation.
Several of the scenes bring the contrast of the two characters' personalities onto sharp contrast. By this I am speaking of the way ozart is able to change Salieri's welcoming music without much thought, the stunned expression upon Salieri's face when he sees the genius in the unfinished manuscripts that ozart has given to his wife, and ozart's ability to internalize and visually recognize the music as he dictates the Requiem to Salieri on his death bed. These scenes show in their turn a movement from anger to amazement and jealousy to finally Salieri's growing realization that he sits in the company of a genius and he is overcome by the beauty of the music which he struggles to transcribe as ozart ostensibly dies (arshall, 1997). As we see this shift in Salieri, we also see a shift in ozart from childish little boy to musical bad boy, to eventually…
Marshall, Robert L. "Film as Musicology: Amadeus." Music Quarterly 81.2 (Summer 1997): 173-78.
Shafler, Peter. "Screen Speak." Film Comment 20.5 (Oct. 1984): 51-57.
____. Amadeus. New York: Harper, 1981.
" (Eugenia Costa-Giomi 2004, 141) Among the academic benefits associated with three years of piano lessons, the children tended to have higher math computation scores, higher language scores, and higher self-esteem than children not involved in music.
Many studies and a wide array of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that music improves the academic performance and test scores of children, including those in Middle and High School, but certainly also including Elementary and College students. These benefits may occur because of the increased activity in the temporal and left-frontal areas of the brain that have been observed during exposure to music, or because music brings "cohesion" to already existing background noise. (Geake & Ivanov 2003) Or perhaps the link between music and academic success may trace back to the Ancient ideas of how the arts affect the essence of the soul. (Costa-Giomi 2004) Regardless of the root cause of why…
Catterall, J.S. (1998, July) Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? A response to Eisner. Art Education, 51(4), Windows on the World: 6-11.
Costa-Giomi, E. (2004) Effects of three years of piano instruction on children's academic achievement, school performance and self-esteem. Psychology of Music, 32(2): 139-52.
Ho, Yim-Chi, Cheung, Mei-Chun, & Chan, Agnes S. (2003) Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17(3): 439-50.
Ivanov, V.K. & Geake, J.G. (2003) The Mozart Effect and primary school children. Pyschology of Music, 31(4): 405-13.
"Forgive me, Majesty. I'm a vulgar man.
But I assure you... my music is not."
Peter Shaffer's play madeus was adapted into a film in 1984 by director Milos Forman. Opening with a dramatic portrayal of the now old and anguished composer Salieri attempting suicide. His attempt is a failure, and narrates the rest of the film to a priest as a confession. Salieri had been court composer in Vienna, where he first heard -- and was overwhelmed by -- Mozart's music. Salieri attempts to use his political sway to get Mozart a position as music tutor to the princess, but the composer's arrogance is an obstacle. Mozart's wife makes efforts to secure this position through sharing her husband's compositions with Salieri (in a scene notably lacking the sexual tension of the play.) Mozart's original drafts of music are flawless, and this enrages Salieri with jealousy and rage.…
Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus was adapted into a film in 1984 by director Milos Forman. Opening with a dramatic portrayal of the now old and anguished composer Salieri attempting suicide. His attempt is a failure, and narrates the rest of the film to a priest as a confession. Salieri had been court composer in Vienna, where he first heard -- and was overwhelmed by -- Mozart's music. Salieri attempts to use his political sway to get Mozart a position as music tutor to the princess, but the composer's arrogance is an obstacle. Mozart's wife makes efforts to secure this position through sharing her husband's compositions with Salieri (in a scene notably lacking the sexual tension of the play.) Mozart's original drafts of music are flawless, and this enrages Salieri with jealousy and rage. Mozart, meanwhile, is collapsing into further financial ruin. After the death of Mozart's father, Salieri takes on the facade of being his ghost and commissions Mozart to compose a requiem mass. Mozart is eaten alive by the project, and dies before its completion. Salieri is old, alone, and insane at the conclusion of the movie.
Shaffer took many liberties with the characters of this play. Salieri is known today primarily as the composer that wasn't Mozart, though he did in fact teach such musical greats as Schubert, Beethoven, and Hummel. Salieri's soft and simple music was actually very influential in the course of music. Mozart was in fact very ill (and broke) when he was commissioned by an unknown source to compose a requiem mass, and he is reported to have imagined the work was for himself as implied in the film. His death is actually most likely due to kidney failure, though at the time rumors did circulate that he had been poisoned by Salieri. Salieri has never been proven to be completely removed from Mozart's death, but neither the evidence against him nor the level of mediocrity in his work merit the pop-culture title he has received as the jealous murderer of a great composer, instead of being recognized as a composer in his own right. Mozart's character, additionally, is portrayed as a very vulgar and disrespectful to authority in the film. While his music was in all certainty extremely revolutionary for the time, his manner of addressing the royal family would most likely have been less openly disrespectful. Despite -- or perhaps due to -- this use of artistic license, the film is a beautiful piece of historical fiction that is true to the sublime artistic tone of both featured composers' work thematically, visually, and as a whole. The superb incorporation of the classical music into the soundtrack, not just as background or mood-setting music, but also as an interactive and living part of the action, is the strongest point of the movie. (Still, the play is better.)
Humanities Related Library Internet Resources
Pierce, James Smith and H Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
There are several factors that make arts to be valuable or not. Art value is assessed via several ways including comparison to existing market standards of similar arts before they are taken for auctions. According to this article, hypothetical methods based on market values are used to find the value of arts taken for auctions. The most important factor used during the valuation is the artist who designed the art. Artists who are well-known and highly regarded have high value associated with their works. Paintings like Matisse's call for higher price than those of little known artists. The other factor vital during the valuation is the uniqueness, type and copies of the work. Art pieces produced in…
Erich, Duetsch Otto. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.
Pierce, James Smith and HW Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
Saint, Andrew. "Frank Lloyd Wright and Paul Mueller: The Architect and his Builder of Choice." Architectural Research Quarterly (2004): 157-167.
Vlastos, Gregory. Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Tis is not to say owever, tat all classical music is sooting and terapeutic. In fact, te majority of traditional classical music are not terapeutic because tis is not te intent of te original masters. Concertos by Beetoven, Bac and Brams for example all focus on arousing strong emotion rater tan arnessing te power of strong terapy, terefore te pysical presence and rytmic are not necessarily terapeutic. Mozart's no. 23 owever, is an ideal example of terapeutic music. Tis is because te affects of entrainment is easily observed troug studies on te affect of tis music on oters. Wile listening to te music, people say tat it "relaxed and sooted," upon monitoring wit medical equipment it is observed tat te music lowered bot teir blood pressure and eart rates. Te reason is tat Mozart's concerto affects individuals in bot a psycological and pysical sense. Wile te classical music made people…
Vanasco, Jennifer. American classical music: Exploring roots, reflections. Jan.
1998. Chicago Chronicle. 3 Feb. 2007 http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/980108/musymp.shtml .
The key to his lust is easy -- voi sapete quell chef a (providing she wears a skirt). In other words, any female will do, as long as Giovanni can have the conquest. But this is too much for Leporello, and at the beginning of Act II he tells his master: No, no padrone, non-vo' restar (No master, I want to leave you.) Giovanni hands him a purse with 4 gold coins, which in a moral gaffe', Leporello accepts, but:
Oh, senite; per questa volta la ceremonia
OK, Listen, I'll accept it just this once,
Accetto; ma non-vi ci avvezzate;
but don't make it a habit. Don't think that
Non-credete di sedurre I miei pari, you can seduce me with the power of money
Come le donne, a forza di danari.
The way you do the women. (Act II, 1).
Leporello is not really convinced and tries to convince Giovanni…
Most Performed Operas. (2010, March). Retrieved from OperaBase: http://operabase.com/top.cgi?lang=en#opera
California Institute of Technology. (2009, May 30). The Legend of Don Juan. Retrieved from Don Juan in Hell: http://tacit.caltech.edu/hell/djplot.html
Stimmel, T. (2010). Opera and the Psychology of Love. Minneapolis: Two Harbors Press.
Tommasini, A. (2011, October 14). Reckless in Seduction, if Not Onstage. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/arts/music/don-giovanni-at-the-metropolitan-opera-review.html?_r=1
Since the valuation of a God had been essentially devaluated, what was to be the source of revaluation in the modern world? No answer could satisfy Ives, for his society saw no return to the societal standards and beliefs of the age of Bach, which gave explicit valuation to all things, especially music -- as seen in Bach's mastering of counterpoint. Schoenberg's inverted counterpoint is the antithesis of that old world Germanic culture -- and it is no surprise that Schoenberg settled in America -- all things being equal, and, in a sense, equally meaningless.
In conclusion, what was once considered light and understood, orthodox, hierarchical, and whole -- in terms of both estern culture and estern classical music in the time of Bach -- had, by the time of Ives and Schoenberg, drifted into a kind of relativistic self-importance/self-worthlessness that had no moorings whatsoever. Notes and attitudes shifted without…
Barker, Dan. "Brahms the Freethinker." Works Without Faith. 17 May 2007. Web. 25
Heiner, Stephen. Interview with Bp. Williamson. 1 October 2006. Web. 25 March
A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (owers and Tick, 1987)
owers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen runnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in…
Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.
Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.
Haynes, Bruce (2007) the End of Early Music. Oxford University Press. U.S., 2007.
Kranenburg, Peter van (2006) Composer Attribution by Quantifying Compositional Strategies. University of Victoria 2006.
piano, including the history and use of the instrument. The piano is one of the most popular musical instruments in the world, and pianos have been in use in orchestras and in homes for hundreds of years. The first piano was created from another similar instrument, the harpsichord, and it was invented in Italy. The editors at Wikipedia note, "The invention of the modern piano is credited to Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731) of Padua, Italy" ("Piano"). The first piano appeared in a Medici family inventory from 1700, and their popularity grew from there, especially after another Italian wrote an enthusiastic article about Cristofori's invention, along with diagrams of how the piano worked. Other people started building them, and the piano spread around the world. The first piano manufacturer in England appeared in 1730, and the first published piano music appeared in 1732 ("The Piano Timeline"). Early manufacturers were small, often family…
Editors. "Frederic Francois Chopin." Classical.net. 2009. 17 Nov. 2009.
Editors. "George Gershwin." Gershwin.com. 2009. 17 Nov. 2009.
As far as epertoirethe following web site www.kith.org/jimmosk/piano.html, listed the following: Feinberg, Aleksandrov, Medtner, Tcherepnin, Mompou, Friedman, Tausig, Persichetti, Blumenfeld, Sinding, Sitsky, Nielsen. When you click on one of the name provided it gives you more information. For example Feinberg, Samuil Evgenevich (1890-1972).
A pianist of the very first rank, a pedagogue responsible for the Soviet theory of legato playing, and a composer who stood in the vanguard of 1920s futurism, S.E. Feinberg was one of the major figures of ussian music eclipsed by Soviet cultural insularity. A 1911 graduate of the Moscow Conservatory, studying with a. Goldenweiser, he combined his teacher's love of J.S. Bach and the art of counterpoint with a fascination for the synthetic harmony of a. Scriabin. He composed Sonata #1. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1924. Library of Congress, Sonata #2. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1926. Library of Congress, Sonata #4. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1923. Library of Congress.…
Australia Pictures (2006). Travel to Australia Pictures. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.travel-australia.org/melbourne/pianist.html
Blue Book of Pianos (2005). Blue Book of Pianos. The ages and Historical Records of Pianos sold in America, VI,. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.bluebookofpianos.com
Cello.Org (2005). Famous Orchestras of the World. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.cello.org/heaven/orchs.htm
Classical Archives (2007). Mozart Music Files. Retrieved 06/21/07, at www.classicalarchives.com/mozart.html#mozart_piano_son
Listening & Analysis: Violin
Listening Introductory Concepts -- the eferential Listener
Clarinet Concerto in a major II. Adagio
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed Clarinet Concerto in A major II for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. The musical work is classical and consists of three movements in the fast-slow-fast form or allegro-adagio-allegro. The work exhibits Mozart's delicate and purely instrumental approach. The interplay between the orchestra and the soloist is characterized by clarity, balance, and transparency. The soloist's role is introverted as there are no cadenzas in the piece. From a the perspective of a referential listener, the piece causes me to associate with mountain and valley vistas that I have encountered when hiking. It is precisely that moment when one deliberately slows one's pace as the scene comes into view. Memories of the view are associated with the aroma of the plants crushed under booted feet, the feel of the breeze that…
The Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela
I am a keen fan of El Sistema, the music program that is conducted in the barrios of Venezuela, of which the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra has been a natural outgrowth. The Orchestra is associated with Maestro Gustavo Dudamel who grew up in the El Sistema program and has become an internationally respected and adored conductor.
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra
Just as we can be sure that once we cross the border out of the United States the laws that we are governed by will not be our own; so, too, can we be sure that our cultural tastes in estern music will differ too amongst the people whose culture we enter as we leave the United States.
Like Byrne, Jeff Todd (ed., 1992), emphasizes the point that each culture will have its own music; Mexico and Latin America have Salsa, and other cultural music as we move south through South America, and into the Caribbean islands, like Cuba. In each of these places, we find folk and cultural variations of music that, in the context of their culture, are easy to enjoy, but not necessarily what we would choose to listen to at home instead of Bob Seger or Joe Cocker. Even the way in which music is referred…
Byrne, David. Crossing Music's Borders: 'I Hate World Music,' New York Times,
October 3, 1999.
Nettl, Bruno (ed). Excursions in World Music, Up Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2004.
Slobin, Mark, Titon, Jeff, Todd, Jeff (ed). Worlds of Music, Chapter I, the Music
CP.E. Bach's Symphony in D. reflects incredible diversity in mood, character and expression, contrasting rhythm, dynamics and articulation. His juxtaposition of strings and winds in "conversation" with each other is entertaining and creates texture and color. His changes in tempo and theme are done gracefully and skillfully, with additions of trills and small humorous variations. The slow middle movement is serene and mournful with lower register thematic repetition. It is very moving and memorable. The variations that fill the last movement reflect on the first two and complete a fitting ending to the piece. There were several solo pieces that were derived from this symphony that can be played by individuals on various instruments and, as this was the popular thing to do in the late 18th century, the piece became well-known.
Having learned his skill and having inherited his talent from such a noble father as Johann Sebastian Bach,…
Benjamin, Thomas. The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint. New York: Routledge. 2003.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Symphony. Found online at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article/27481/symphony .
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style. New York: W.W. Norton, 1972.
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
Genius is, undoubtedly, exceedingly rare and distinctive, but still shares an inevitable, powerful, quality for both ordinary people and professionals (Robinson, 1). All working biologists still need to look at Darwinian concepts, which, to this day, prompt experiments and fresh thinking worldwide. The same esteem is given to Einstein's theories in the world of physics, Mozart's harmonies and melodies in the world of music, as to Shakespeare's plays in the literary world -- all these are examples that continue to inspire individuals in cultures and languages highly dissimilar to their places of origin. hile 'geniuses' in recent times come and go, people are fascinated with the concept of genius. Genius is what we call, in simple terms, the sort of work which rises above reputation, fame, celebrity and fashion, i.e., as opposed to period pieces. It, somehow, transcends the place and time of origin (Robinson, 10).
Robinson explains that it…
Harold Bloom. Genius: Amosaic of one hundred exemplary creative minds. London; fourth estate, 2002.
Robinson, Andrew. Genius: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2011, 152 pages, 0191611441, 9780191611445.
estern Classical Music
The concert chosen for this paper was a piano recital that consisted of various students that took place this April 2016. The reason I chose this recital to attend was that I knew one of the performers in the show and I wanted to both support her performance by my attendance in the audience and I wanted to expose myself to a diversity of performances for the purpose of this paper. The pieces ranged in period from modern (Bartok -- "Suite, Op. 14: Allegretto-Scherzo-Allegro molto-Sostenuto") to classical (Mozart -- "Adagio in b minor, K. 540"). The students were young adults of a variety of ethnicities, from Asian to European. It was overall a very eclectic mix of musical pieces performed by a diverse number of students. Unfortunately, there were not many people in the audience -- barely a dozen -- so it was difficult for the performers…
"Beethoven Pathetique Sonata." All About Beethoven. Web. 18 Apr 2016.
Nicholas, Jeremy. Chopin: His Life and Music. IL: Sourcebook MediaFusion, 2007.
Spitta, Philip. Johann Sebastian Bach: his work and influence on the music of Germany.
What I found interesting is that once the overall plot was understood via the program notes, it was not necessary to "see" the opera acted in costume. Instead, the music was quite descriptive in its comic, serious, and even somewhat bawdy (at times) portrayals of greed, young love, etc. Also, it turns out that this opera is often performed with women playing the younger men, or men playing the older women -- a sort of cross-dressing joke from a rather serious composer. The music was light, though, the singers were obviously having fun, and even through the opera was in Italian (again common at the time), most everything was clear and understandable.
The Concert Experience- It was in this realm that the true nature of this work shone through. The overture certainly was rousing and got everyone in a positive and gleeful frame of mind. But it was the…
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
Music Valence and Gender Influence Word ecall Task
A person's state of arousal can determine how well their memory functions. This phenomenon is readily apparent when persons experiencing a traumatic event find it difficult to ever escape these memories, memories that can recur unbidden in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. ecent research examining the influence of relaxing music found a similar effect, such that relaxing music impairs memory coding and consolidation. Towards the goal expanding on these results, an experiment was conducted that tested the influence of classical (relaxing), rock (stimulating), and no music on word recall performance, but stratified by gender. The results indicated that overall, classical music significantly impaired recall performance when compared to subjects listening to rock music or no music, but rock music provided no benefit. What is novel about these findings is that significant differences in memory performance were found between genders.…
Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf .
Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf .
Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and Peart, Neil. (2007). The Main Monkey Business. On Snakes & Arrows [CD]. New York: Atlantic Records.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1788). Symphony No. 40 in G minor (KV. 550) [Recorded by Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with Leonard Bernstein on 19 Sep. 1995]. On Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41 [CD]. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.
Kamien (161) notes that "theme and variations" was a basic musical idea widely used in the Classical period. In the second movement of Haydn's Symphony No. 94, the strings play the theme for the first time, softly and sweetly. Suddenly, the orchestra sounds a loud and dramatic chord -- the surprise. From there, the melody soars and dips as Haydn explores variations. He adds instruments to bring a fuller sound to the strings' playing of the theme and introduces a counterpoint melody. The music becomes bold and ominous-sounding with the change to a minor key. The "walking pace" begins to sound heavier, then Haydn returns to the lightness of the strings accompanied by the orchestra playing with much less volume. There is a dramatic pause and the movement ends as it began, with the simple staccato-like repeat of Haydn's basic theme.
The third movement, Minuet, Allegro Molto, is quick and…
Baker, D.T. Program notes. Haydn's Surprise Symphony. 24 November 2010. Edmonton,
Alberta, Canada: Essex Hall. Web. 7 March 2011.
Freed, Richard. Symphony no. 94 in G major, "Surprise." Kennedy Center. December 2004.
Web. March 7, 2011.
The aldstein sonata is considered to be one of the notable piano sonatas that Beethoven ever composed, maybe equaled only by the Appassionata sonata. They are both part of the works between op. 50 and op. 60 that, through their content, form and proportions represent the height of Beethoven's creation" ("aldstein," All about Beethoven, 2006). The first movement entitled "Allegro con brio" opens "with repeated chords, played pianissimo. This initial straightforward, but anxious rhythm is devoid of melody for two bars. It then swiftly ascends and follows with a three-note descent in the middle register and a four-note descent in the upper. More of this teasing rhythm rumbles forward, until 45 seconds later, when the notes seem to almost stumble over themselves," into a "dolce," or sweet choral theme in E major, followed by an ending with a heavy coda ("Piano Sonata No 21," All academic dictionary, 2009).. The short…
Parekh, Nilesh. "Biography of Beethoven." Buzzle.com. 2005.
"Piano Sonata No 21." All academic dictionary. May 17, 2009.
He is faster in every movement than any other of the above mentioned conductors and yet he scarcely sounds rushed" (Laurson 2008).
Even without an extensive knowledge of the history of Brahms symphonic compositions, the modern, 21th century nature of the Janowski approach becomes clear when comparing it to an older recording, that of Leonard Bernstein's. Bernstein's is slower, more ponderous, especially at the beginning, although it should be noted that the Bernstein sounds less like a Beethoven work than the Janowski. It sounds more like a unique, albeit slower-paced composer, more distinctly like Brahms although for some that might not be a 'good thing.' Difficult to love, personally and musically, the fact that Brahms can be an 'acquired taste' and his acceptance may vary with conductor's intentions does not reduce his important contributions in musical variation and creating a fusion between the Classical and Romantic genres of music.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphony No.1" Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Marek
Janowski. Pentatone 2007.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphonies." Conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Vienna Philharmonic.
Deutsche Gramophone. 2007.
(Derek Van der Mewe,
Reasons that children under seventeen years of age should not be allowed to attend a college university educational setting include the fact that all child prodigies enabled to attend universities do not as their outcome stories to tell relating great success and achievement and in one example, the individual, Sufiah Yusof is stated to have: "...fled Oxford University in 2000, aged 15, after her third-year exams. When police found her after a huge hunt, she blamed her parents for too much pressure, never finished her course and became an administrative assistant for a construction firm." (Frean, 2007)
In a separate story related in the work entitled: "Young + rilliant, lessed + Cursed" (Hartigan, 2005) writes that a young man of the age of fourteen named Robert Mercer who would: "...easily pass for much older than 14, were it not for his self-conscious giggle and the telltale…
Frean, Alexandra (2007) Can the Child Prodigy Work Out if He Should Go to University Aged 7? Times Online 10 Nov. 2007. Online available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/article2844677.ece
Hartigan, Patti (2005) Young + Brilliant, Blessed + Cursed" Boston.com News 6 Mar 2005. Online available at http://www.boston.com/news/globe/magazine/articles/2005/03/06/young__brilliant_blessed__cursed/
Merwe, Derek van der (nd) Reflections on the Impact of Globalisation on Higher Education Policy. Online available at http://general.rau.ac.za/aambeeld/julie2002/derek%20van%20der%20merwe.htm
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…
Andre Chenier. (2011). YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDiBdeUxYfk
Badaire, J. (1926). Review of French Literature. DC: Heath and Co.
Beacham, R. (1996). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Bregenzer Festspiele. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.bregenzerfestspiele.com/en/mainmenu/programme/opera-lake/andre-chenier
The Violin Concerto was one of the last works of Mendelssohn and this was composed in E Minor. It is also hugely popular and is performed by artists all over the world. Published in 1845, this piece was written for a solo violinist and the average performance time is about half hour. The piece begins with the Allegro molto appassionato that goes on for about thirteen minutes. It is in E minor and starts with rapid notes that slowly subside. This is followed by the cadenza that gains rapid notes and rhythms in E Major before ending in E minor again.
The second part of this piece is Andante that lasts for about nine minutes. The composition moves from E Minor to C Major. This is the melody part of the piece and is dark and grim in certain places. This pieces ends with a trembling effect that…
The Dallas Symphony Orchestra. Mendelssohns Violin Concerto, 2011. Web. 14 Nov 14. 2011.
IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library. Mendelssohn, 2011. Web. 14 Nov, 2011.
Felix Mendelssohn. Biography, 2002. Web. 14 Nov, 2011.
Brahms - Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was one of the leading symphonic composers of the European omantic movement. He was also a pianist whose works have become staples of the symphonic and concerti repertoire, although he also composed chamber and vocal works. Unfortunately, many of his works were self-destroyed, Brahms being extremely self-critical and almost manically perfectionistic in his later years (Frisch and Karnes). It is interesting that compositionally Brahms was both an innovative member of the new "German omantic" movement and a staunch adherent to the more formal traditions of Bach and Beethoven. Structurally, his works use the compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical eras -- he was a master at counterpoint in the tradition of Bach, of symphonic development in the Haydn tradition, and innovative similar to Mozart and Beethoven. eally, Brahms wanted to take the best of the German compositional technique, create new and innovative…
Brodbeck, D., ed. Brahms Studies. Vol. 2. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Frisch, W and K. Karnes, Brahams and His World: Revised Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Geringer, K. Brahams: His Life and Work. New York: DaCapo Press, 1984.
Schonberg, H. The lives of the Great Composers. New York: Norton, 1981.
History of the Violin
The violin is one of the oldest and most respected instruments that exists today, often considered the centerpiece of the orchestral musical ensemble. The violin is not simply an instrument complex in nature, but also a work of art. Depending on who you consult with, the violin might be considered one, the other or both.
The violin is widely appreciated for the complex sound and it produces and the complex craftsmanship utilized in its construction. The violin is the one instrument that might be considered both a work of art and a musical instrument because of its great complexity. The history and origins of the violin have been disputed by historians and musicians alike for some time.
Though there is evidence to suggest that the modern violin did not surface until the seventeenth or eighteenth century, there are those that argue that the violin is represented…
Abbott, R.B. "Response Measurements and Harmonic Analysis of Violin Tones."
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 7: 1936
Auer, Leopold. 1921. "Violin Playing As I Teach It." New York. 3d ed. 1960. In,
Kolneder & Pauly. The Amadeus book of the violin: Construction, history and music. Portland, Amadeus Press: 1998.
Alexina Louie is a Canadian composer of Chinese descent. Born in Vancouver in 1949, she studied at the Jean Lyons School of Music as well as at the University of California. Her compositional works include pieces for orchestra and piano and may be labeled as being of a variety of different musical genres, from electronic music to string quartet to operatic works. She has also composed for film (Orford, 2014).
Her social and political context is situated in latter decades of the 20th century, from the 1980s onward, thus putting her at her creative height during the eaganomic years, the post-Vietnam return of Establishment politics, and the fallout from disillusionment with both right and left culturally speaking (Stone, Kuznick, 2012). The 1990s were a decade of disenfranchisement, dissatisfaction, disaffection, and distaste -- expressed musically in the emergent sounds of the grunge rock era, and reflected in Louie's discordant melodies and…
Chu, E. (1997). On the Musical Silk Route: Piano Music of Alexina Louie. CA:
Focks, A. (2011). Andrew Focks performs Alexina Louie's I leap through the sky with stars. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_ve0j6iQ9k
Kim, Y. (2009). The evolution of Alexina Louie's piano music. OhioLink. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ucin1241858005/inline
Orford, E. (2014). Music in the hemispheres: an interview with Alexina Louie.
.....parents of young children, it is important to know how your child interacts and plays and what it means. Play is important because it helps a child's mind to develop and also the child's sense of self and motor skills to begin to grow. Children learn social skills through play, creativity through play; they learn about themselves -- their strong suits, what they can do, sense of confidence, and more.
You can encourage and support play for children by taking them to the park where other children play. Your kids can watch, they can mimic, they can interact, or they play together cooperatively -- it all depends upon the stage of development they are in. These stages are also fluid and there is no need to think that they are in one stage at one time. Children will slide in and out of stages as their minds grow and process…