Mrsa Essays (Examples)

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Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care

Words: 2673 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30716007

Methicillin-esistant Staphylococci (MSA), most common Healthcare Associated Infections

The PICOT question to be discussed is: For adult patients using catheters, does the use of sterilization practices reduce the future risk of health associated infections like MSA compared with standard procedure in one week?

The answer is yes.

The support given to answer the question will be based on peer-reviewed journals and scientific literature. A summary of the evidence will be availed in a chart plus a conclusion that summarizes evidence used will also be given.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSA) bacteria is resistant to several antibiotics. A significant proportion of MSA infections in the community are on the skin. It results in alarming infections of the bloodstream, surgical site infections and pneumonia in health facilities. Studies have revealed that one person in every three individuals have staph in the nose - most of the time they don't show any illnesses (General…… [Read More]

References"

1)

General Information About MRSA in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from   http://www.cdc.gov  /mrsa/community/index.html

2)

Sydnor, E., & Perl, T. (2011). Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings. Clinical Microbiology Reviews,24(1), 141-173. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from  http://cmr.asm.org/content/24/1/141.full
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Containing Hospital-Related Infections

Words: 478 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70018888

hospitals is the spread of MSA (staphylococcus aureus). This pathogen remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. Current 'typing' methods for the genome to identify the pathogen include "phage typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)" but these methods "have serious limitations when used to investigate the finer details of infection outbreaks" (Price et al. 2013: 14). This is why the use of whole genome sequencing that allows scientists to create distinctions up to a single nucleotide is useful. Whole genome sequences can be used to classify and characterize genetic differences in a far more refined fashion than previous methods "and additionally provides information about the genetic basis of phenotypic characteristics, including antibiotic susceptibility and virulence" (Price et al. 2013: 14). Local-level awareness of the history of disease transmission allows a more carefully matched protocol for treatment as well as improves tracking. "Combined with epidemiological data, such…… [Read More]

References

Blot, S.I. (2002 et al.). Outcome and attributable mortality in critically Ill patients with bacteremia involving methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(19):2229-35.

Price, J.R. (2013) .Whole genome sequencing in the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Journal of Hospital Infection, 83: 14-21.
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Ultrasonography Recently Had the Opportunity

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75471025



A found it interesting that at all the practice sites; they eschewed the use of paper in favor of linen gowns and sheets. When I questioned this practice, I was told that it was done mostly out of a fear of MRSA being spread from patient to patient. I wondered about this, because it would seem to me that the use of disposable linens would definitely reduce the incidence of MRSA and save the cost of laundering the linens. This was definitely a different practice that what I was used to.

All in all I found the sonographers to be a very competent bunch. They appear to be extremely technically proficient and know what they are doing. It also appears that this field is held in high regard by the physicians who will even speak to the sonographer about the results of the scan or consult with them on different…… [Read More]

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PICOT Statement for Healthcare Association Infections

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29581999

Healthcare Associated Infections for the Nursing Profession

Despite the most rigorous and comprehensive universal precautions, healthcare facilities are still germ-ridden environments that can introduce potentially deadly infections in patients. Hospitals and clinics in particular are notoriously infectious environments, and nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MSA) are increasingly commonplace across the country (Boa & ahube, 2013). For instance, Boa and ahube emphasize that, "Numerous nosocomial MSA outbreaks occur annually due to the widespread prevalence of MSA within hospitals" (p. 50).

Besides the entire array of environmental reservoirs, one potential source of MSA contamination in particular that many healthcare providers encounter on a routine basis are the public access computer keyboards that are used to input patient data and coordinate care (Boa & ahube, 2013). For instance, a study by the University of Toledo examined 24 public access computer keyboards and identified two that were MSA-contaminated (Boa & ahube, 2013). Based…… [Read More]

References

Boa, T.T. & Rahube, T.O. (2013, January-February). Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci species isolated from computer keyboards located in secondary and postsecondary schools. Journal of Environmental Health, 75(6), 50-55.

Saxena, S. & Goyal, R. (2009, September). Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare workers and healthy community residents. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 20(3), 279-283.
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Spotting Stakeholders and Choosing Team Members

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72160245

Stakeholders and Team Members

In any project, there are a number of stakeholders and team members who have to be considered. If any of these people are left out or ignored, it is possible that the entire project will not provide as much value as it otherwise would have (Certo & Certo, 2005). To that end, it is vital that potential stakeholders and team members are analyzed for any project, so the best ones can be chosen (Post, 2002). With this particular project, the following people should be included in the multidisciplinary team: nurses, doctors, and those in the medical field who work on the same floor and/or in the same wing or field in which the project will take place. That way, everyone who is physically in the vicinity of the project can be a part of it, because it will affect all of them if it comes to…… [Read More]

References

Certo, S.C. & Certo, S.T. (2005). Modern management (10th. ed.). NY: Pearson.

Post, J. (2002). "Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth. CA: Stanford University Press.
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Healthcare Concerns They Most Normally

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86631968

S. than in any other developed nation, yet the quality of care, even for those who are insured, is mediocre at best (Hawkins, 2007).

Doctors and hospitals often treat patients free of charge, if they do not have health insurance. However, that raises costs for other patients and makes healthcare and insurance even more costly. Most Americans recognize that the country's healthcare system is not sustainable and that without significant reform, it is headed for a complete meltdown.

In the U.S., identity theft is a major concern. Now, that, too, has gone into the medical arena. Medical identity theft is being described as the newest frontier in the ever-evolving crime of identity theft and presents a major opportunity for a wide range of criminals as the healthcare industry evolves into an electronic culture. Yet this environment is not properly protected by present law enforcement agencies and criminal offenses (Latour, 2007,…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, J. (2006). Where the jobs are: eldercare is already creating more jobs than there are people willing to do them. And the market is just heating up. Here's a look at where some of the greatest demand will be. Assisted Living 4(6) S6-9.

Hawkins, D.(12 February, 2007). Bush's Remedy Isn't a Cure; the President's health-care won't help those who need insurance most or the underinsured who can't afford primary care. Business Week Online

Institute of Medicine (2007). Preventing medication errors. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.:

Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical identity theft: the future threat of health care fraud is now: lack of Federal Law Enforcement efforts means compliance professionals will have to lead the way. Journal of Health Care Compliance 9 (1) 11-21.
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Systematic Review of Isolation Policies in the

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66768452

Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-esistant Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the literature with epidemiological and economic modelling

The rise of MSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) continues to be a problem in hospitals throughout the world. In the article entitled "Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus" Cooper (et al. 2003) conducted a literature review of various containment efforts in the UK. Isolation wards proved to be the most common method of containment but studies were conflicting as to their efficacy. The use of a common isolation ward at one hospital "reduced infection, one did not and one resulted in control for many years until a change in strain and/or an increase in the number of patients colonised on admission [and] overwhelmed the institution" (Cooper et al. 2003: 5). There was limited evidence that more proactive efforts at containment such…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, G.F. (et al. 2003). Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the literature with epidemiological and economic modelling. Health Technology Assessment, 7 (39).

Iowa model. Retrieved: http://i300.photobucket.com/albums/nn1/dawnhaynes/Iowa_Model.jpg
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Healthcare as Standard Procedure Warranted in This

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5037100

Healthcare

As standard procedure warranted in this case, her obstetrician injected her with varicella zoster specific immunoglobulin. The injection did occur too late, but this is a special case warranting attention and was a prophylactic to protect the baby. A few days later the N developed chickenpox anyway. The reasons why the vaccine did not take could have been the fact that the N had already been exposed, and the situation is referred to as "breakthrough varicella," (National Centre for Immunisation, 2009, p. 3). Breakthrough varicella is a mild form of the infection, and yet is still contagious. Varicella vaccine should not be given to the baby until it is twelve months of age, but it may not be necessary at all due to the potential in vitro exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Infants "should receive no specific treatment or vaccination after exposure to Varicella zoster virus (VZV) but…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preventing varicella in health care settings. Retrieved online:   http://www.cdc.gov  /chickenpox/hcp/healthcare-setting.html

Cheprasov, A. (2014). The spread of disease. Retrieved online: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-spread-of-disease-endemic-epidemic-pandemic.html#lesson

Children, Youth, and Women's Health Service (n.d.). Chickenpox. Retrieved online:  http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Diseases/Communicable/Virus/HP8873_chickenpox.pdf 

"Descriptive Epidemiology," (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.med.uottawa.ca/SIM/data/Epidemiology_rates_e.htm
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Preventing VRE All Measures to

Words: 1874 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84626562

For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.

New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658

Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.

Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935

Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
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Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing

Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7707917

Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting

Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).

Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.

To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period…… [Read More]

References

Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
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Is Healthcare a Right

Words: 3418 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56544496

Along the way, scholarly resources such as books, peer-reviewed journal articles and reputable websites will be used to create or support the opinions or answers given. The three questions that will be answered will include what basic types of healthcare everyone should have access to and why, a choice from thirteen risk factors that impact infectious disease and a recitation of how nurses can play a part in one or more of the millennium development goals (MDG) set forth for global health. While being too loose and generous with what people are entitled to and/or the depth and breadth of what nurses can truly do is a danger, to suggest that neither is worthy of consideration would be less than wise to assert as true.

Healthcare as a ight

The first essay question asks what types and forms of healthcare should be a given and a right to everyone regardless…… [Read More]

References

Carlton, E.J., Liang, S., McDowell, J.Z., Huazhong, L., Wei, L., & Remais, J.V. (2012).

Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 90(8), 578-

587. doi:10.2471/BLT.11.098343

Clasen, T., Pruss-Ustun, A., Mathers, C.D., Cumming, O., Cairncross, S., & Colford, J.
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Nhs Change Analysis of Nurse-Led

Words: 3444 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89643059

The variability in problems faced by the King Edward Hospital NHS Trust during the period in question, instigated a multi-level response in knowledge sharing and inclusion on practice. Kotter's theory relies upon such a method, where strategies are an exercise multi-tiered obligation.

As Kotter points out, the transformation model may not be suitable for organizations that are in pursuit of prompt change, and the series of responsibilities which result from consortium relationships may apply to one or all organizations within the scope of his definition of institutional cultures: 1) Developing Social Construct; 2) Oriented Social Construct; 3) and Pluralistic Social Construct types. Evidence-based practice in healthcare is compatible with Kotter's proposition. Process methodology including the '8-Steps' process in three (3) phases -- 1) Creating Climate for Change, 2) Engaging and Enabling the Organisation, and 3) Implementing and Sustaining the Change -- is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Figure 1:…… [Read More]

References

Abidi, S.S., 2001. Knowledge management in healthcare: towards 'knowledge-driven' decision-support services. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 63 (1-2), pp. 5-18.

Abidi, .S.S. et al., 2009. Knowledge sharing for pediatric pain management via a Web 2.0 framework. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 150, pp. 287-91.

Abidi, S.S. et al., 2004. Knowledge management in pediatric pain: mapping online expert discussions to medical literature. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 107 (Pt 1), pp. 3-7.

Austin, M.J., 2008. Knowledge management: implications for human service organizations. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 5 (1-2), pp. 361-89.
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Internet Marketing P Market Analysis

Words: 4760 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29607057

University bulletin boards -- particularly those in the business building -- and offices would be my first target. Then I would meet with the on campus television professionals. Every school has closed circuit televisions that run looped information from slides. Who among us hasn't sat in front of one of these sets mindlessly watching the words and pictures go by? Someone would need to take responsibility for maintaining the free advertising on campus. Once a week or once a month a student should do a physical walk through to ensure that signs displaying the web address for the site look fresh and new and that the television advertising is up-to-date. This job would need to be passed on as students graduate out of the program and move into the real world of employment.

Strategy three -- participate in university events

Certainly the incorporation of these first two strategies -- using…… [Read More]

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Pfizer Inc Current Situation Pfizer

Words: 3059 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47174783

Also cited as threats are those of:

(1) Product manufacturing and marketing risks;

(2) Cost and expense control or unusual events; and (3) Changes in laws and accounting standards. (Pfizer Inc. Report to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, 2008)

IV. Internal Environment -- Strength and Weaknesses

Stated as strengths of Pfizer Inc. are the following components of its organization:

(1) Written policies and procedures;

(2) a compliance officer and compliance committee;

(3) Effective training and education;

(4) Effective lines of communication;

(5) Internal monitoring and auditing;

(6) Enforcement through discipline pursuant to established guidelines; and (7) Prompt response and corrective action for detected problems.

(Pfizer, Inc., 2009)

Another component that provides strength to Pfizer Inc. is its effective training and education program. As well Pfizer boasts effective lines of communication including an 'open door' policy allowing and encouraging colleagues to "discuss any issues, concerns, problems and suggestions with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pfizer Inc. (2009) Center for Responsive Politics. Online available at: http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D

Pfizer Streamlines Operational Processes to Achieve Balanced Excellence (2004) Tradeline 29 Sept 2004. Online available at; http://www.tradelineinc.com/reports/40CF58BA-2B3B-B525-80444AE6588980A1

Corporate Governance FactSheet (2009) Pfizer Inc. Online available at: http://www.pfizer.com/about/corporate_governance/corporate_governance_fact_sheet.jsp

Pfizer's Infectious Disease Commitment and Portfolio (2007) Pfizer, Inc. 18 Sept 2007. Online available at: http://www.pfizer.com/files/investors/presentations/icaac_2007_presentation_071807.pdf
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Antibiotics Have Saved Millions of Lives Their

Words: 1794 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77843622

antibiotics have saved millions of lives, their efficacy is diminished over time because of antibiotic resistance. Many pathogens possess the ability to multiply and mutate rapidly in response to the presence of antibiotics, and those mutations that are the hardiest will survive, making successive generations even more resistant. To determine how these antibiotic resistant processes operate and what steps researchers have taken in response, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

The Evolution of Antibiotic esistance

When it was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, penicillin was widely hailed, and rightfully so, as a miracle drug. While penicillin and other antibiotics have in fact saved millions of lives over the past several decades, the tendency of many physicians to over-prescribe these medications as well as the proliferation of the use of antibiotics…… [Read More]

References

Aguirre, A.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Tabor, G.. M., House, C. & Pearl, M.C. (2002). Conservation

medicine: Ecological health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brower, J. & Chalk, J. (2003). The global threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases:

Reconciling U.S. national security and public health policy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
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Infant Male Circumcision Male Infant

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96734284

According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.

Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.

Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially…… [Read More]

References

Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23

Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm

Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
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Epidemiological Study Proposal Nursing Hand

Words: 5318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85369119

These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).

The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).

These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.

Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.

Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.

Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Nurse Take Risks Every Day

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93010631

Caring is not simply a demonstration of sympathy and empathy for an individual's particular situation, as focusing on such might impair the ability of the nurse to look at long and short-term health goals that could be uncomfortable but might realistically assist the patient to maintain a better quality of life in the near future. Caring for those who are limited in ability to do so themselves, children, soldiers, the poor and the elderly and this is the historical precedence of nursing in general. The text of this course stresses that the development of nursing, like many other caring professions had a great deal to do with the need to provide professional caring to those who were at risk, and lacking the family and economic connection that was the basis for the maintenance of health in earlier times.

Urbanization, war, immigration and the reduction of the numbers of extended families…… [Read More]

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Ethics of Marketing Research in the Internet

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72402322

Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era

Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.

Marketing esearch as a Management Tool

The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…… [Read More]

References

Blankenship, A.B., Breen, G.E. & Dutka, A.F. (1998). State of the Art Marketing Research. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning.

Evans, A.N., & Rooney, B.J. (2010). Methods in Psychological Research. SAGE

Haugtvedt, C.P., Machleit, K.A. & Yalch, R. (2005). Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in the Virtual World. Routledge Keillor, B.D. (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: Interactive and Multi-Channel Marketing. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Online Healthcare and Nursing Courses

Words: 839 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75739940



Clicking on the links reveals that some of the topics provide more information and information in different formats than others. For example, the Aging Driver topic lists the following clickable PDF files:

Tips for Safe Driving, How to Help the Older Driver, Getting by Without Driving, Am I a Safe Driver?, and Successful Aging Tips.

Other topics, such as Health Disparities, do not provide information directly but only link the user to external resources and other databases. This might discourage many users, especially those unfamiliar with online research hoping to find printable information with a minimum of further searching online. Meanwhile, another topic, Breastfeeding, does provide easily accessible information that includes illustrative diagrams along with the text-based information, as depicted below.

How should I hold my baby while breastfeeding?

You can hold your baby in a number of ways. Your baby shouldn't have to turn his or her head or…… [Read More]

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Caglar S Yildiz S Savaser S 2010

Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27292841

Caglar S; Yildiz S; Savaser S. (2010). Observation results of hand-washing by health-care workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2), 132-137.

In this article the authors wanted to determine whether healthcare professionals were washing their hands and if they were doing so effectively. The researchers observed 344 incidents in which hand washing was warranted and found that nurses were 63% compliant and physicians were 53% compliant. However, when it came to making sure that the job was done thoroughly, physicians were able to do a better job than nurses at a 24% to 13% rate of success. Since hand washing has been proven to be the most effective and simplest method for preventing infection, it is imperative that healthcare professionals perform it as often as needed and thoroughly.

amos M.M., Schrader, ., Trujillo, ., Blea, M., & Greenberg, C. (2011). School nurse inspections improve…… [Read More]

Researchers are trying different techniques to increase the incidence of compliance with hand washing guidelines and in this study they used social pressure. Initially, compliance with hand washing regulations was deemed to be significantly below expected standard within the nursing staff. To hopefully combat this, researchers told the staff that they were going to weigh the soap dispenser bags to see if people were actually using them or not. The object of the study was to determine if this type of pressure would induce the staff into better compliance with hand washing regulations. The researchers found that this type of behavioral technique is very effective.

15. Parish, C. (2008). Patient campaigner calls for TV cameras to check hand-washing. Nursing Standard, 22(38), 6.

The author of the article looked at the compliance records of staff and whether patients and visitors used infection controls. The campaigner, Roger Goss, said that because MRSA and other similar healthcare-acquired infections were becoming more dangerous that staff and visitors needed to be monitored more closely to prevent spread. The man advocated that close-circuit televisions be used to determine compliance with regulations, and he encouraged staff to be fired and visitors not welcomed if they did not comply. The warning here to nurses is that people are watching whether they wash their hands properly, and they are ready to have them terminated if they do not.
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Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7686776

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…… [Read More]

References

1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
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Nurse Lit Review Type of Research Study

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40827640

Nurse Lit eview

TYPE OF ESEACH STUDY - Quantitative or qualitative

Descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, phenomenological, grounded theory ethnographic, historical

SAMPLE METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE

Knoll, Lautenschlager & Lipp (2009). British Journal of Nursing.

Impact of workload on hygiene practices.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

trials of nursing staff.

Statistical.

Enforcing hygiene practices has practical healing benefits for nurses.

Souweine, B. et al. (2009). Intensive Care Medical Journal.

Compared hygiene practices. Hand rubbing vs. hand washing.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

person nursing staff.

Workers completed self report questionnaires.

Hand rubbing with alcohol is preferred to handwashing in some instances.

Creedon, S. (2006). International Journal of Nursing Technologies and Classifications.

Observe health worker compliance in handwashing guidelines.

Quantitative.

Quasi-experimental.

73 doctors and nurses in an Irish ICU.

Questionnaire responses.

Knowledge of handwashing guidelines can lead to positive outcomes.

Allen, L. et al. (2014). Nevada Nformation.

Compared hand washing with hand sanitizer.

Quantitative.

Descriptive.

Literature review.

Statistical.…… [Read More]

References

Allen, L., & et al. . (2014). Professionalism in Nursing. Nevada RNFormation, 18(1).

Creedon, S.A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of advanced nursing, 51(3), 208-216.

Evans, M.W., Breshears, J., Campbell, A., Husbands, C., & Rupert, R. (2007). Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables. Chiropractic & osteopathy, 15(1), 8.

Knoll, M., Lautenschlaeger, C., & Borneff-Lipp, M. (2010). The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), S18-S22.
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Preventing Infections During Surgery

Words: 1057 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95237427

Surgery Infections

When it comes to medical issues that can arise, one of the nastier things that can arise is an infection. Whether it be regular staph, MSA or others, infections are things that can hurt, kill, maim or at least prolong suffering and recovery. One source of infections that becomes an issue entirely too often would be those that occur because of and during surgery. While it is normal for great pains to be taken to sanitize both the people and instruments involved in a surgery, it is entirely too common for people to come down with infections during the course of surgery. As such, it can and should be the focus of a fully described clinical practice guideline. While accidents and bad things do happen in surgery, infections should be one of those things that should never happen, at least not due to improper practice on the part…… [Read More]

References

Lopez, J., Prifogle, E., Nyame, T. T., Milton, J., & May, J. J. (2014). The impact of conflicts of interest in plastic surgery: an analysis of acellular dermal matrix, implant-based breast reconstruction. Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery, 133(6), 1328-1334.

doi:10.1097/PRS.

Rhee, C., Huang, S. S., Berrios-Torres, S. I., Kaganov, R., Bruce, C., Lankiewicz, J., & ...

Yokoe, D. S. (2015). Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Following Ambulatory
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How to Help a Mother Feed a Child With Difficulty Swallowing

Words: 1546 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62639660

teaching and learning to patients with dysphagia. The situation involves the researcher's own personal experience teaching a Mom of 16-month-old diagnosis with dysphagia and how to learn how to feed him. This paper discusses the client's background, learning objectives, learning needs, outcomes, teaching strategies, and evaluation of outcomes and provides guidance for a mother facing these same issues.

Infants and children need to consume sufficient amount of nutrients in order to grow. Swallowing difficulties has an effect on dietary intake and affects a child's growth and development. For this reason, it is important to manage dysphagia in pediatrics.

Dysphagia is a disruption in swallowing that compromises safety, efficiency, or adequacy of nutritional intake. Swallowing and breathing share a common space in the pharynx, and problems in either of these processes can affect a child's ability to protect their airway during swallowing and ingestion of fluid or food safely.

About 1%…… [Read More]

References

Dysphagia and swallowing disorders. Retrieved from http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Regional-Articles/Features/Nurses-Role-With-Dysphagia.aspx.

East, L., Nettles, K., Vansant, A. & Daniels, S. Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia With the Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study. Journal of Radiology Nursing.

Gosa, M. & Coleman, J. Thickened Liquids as a Treatment for Children with Dysphagia and Associated Adverse Effects A systematic Review.

Nurses' Role With Dysphagia. Retrieved from https://consultgeri.org/try-this/general-assessment/issue-20. Preventing Aspiration in Older Adults with Dysphagia
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The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread

Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96833020

Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]

References

Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
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Current Research on Staph Infections

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433754

Aureus

Current Areas of esearch

Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.

One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…… [Read More]

References

Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:

Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.

Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
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The Role of the JCAHO

Words: 1500 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71301621

Joint Commission

Many people are familiar with the role that accrediting agencies play when it comes to institutions of higher learning. Whether it be the board of regents for a given state, a more national organization or so forth, these agencies are supposed to be an impartial reviewer and accreditor of whether a school meets certain standards. When it comes to healthcare, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, often shortened to JCAHO, does much the same thing. Of course, healthcare involves much higher stakes than what are seen in a typical school situation. For this regulatory agency, a number of facets and traits of the JCAHO's structure will be covered including its effect on healthcare, an example of the organization executing its duties, what regulatory authority has when it comes to healthcare and how agencies deal with elements and intentional torts that could risk quality and/or risk when…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, J. G., Ramanujam, R., Hensel, D. J., & Sirio, C. A. (2010). Reporting trends in a regional medication error data-sharing system. Health Care Management Science, 13(1),

74-83. doi:10.1007/s10729-009-9111-1

Holloway, E., & Kusy, M. (2011). Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive

behaviors in health-care organizations. Advances In Health Care Management, 10239-
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Hospital Acquired Infections a Discussion

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49934314

Nurse burnout is a common occurrence. This can exacerbate an ongoing problem that is seen in hospitals, nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections remain prevalent for patients with extended hospital stays like those in intensive care units. An infection that starts roughly 48 hours after admission, those in intensive care units (ICUs) experience a continued rate of infection leading to increase length of stay, mortality, and morbidity. The number of patients that develop a nosocomial infection are from 7 to 10% internationally (Dasgupta, Das, Hazra, & Chawan, 2015). As such, hospitals have decided to classify nosocomial infection sites based on clinical and biological criteria.

esearch has led to the discovery of several bacterial strains that involve the formation of nosocomial or hospital acquired infections. "The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members,…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (n.d.). HAI Data and Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/

Cheng, C., Bartram, T., Karimi, L., & Leggat, S. (2016). Transformational leadership and social identity as predictors of team climate, perceived quality of care, burnout and turnover intention among nurses. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1200-1216. doi:10.1108/pr-05-2015-0118

Cimiotti, J. P., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., & Wu, E. S. (2012). Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care -- associated infection. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(6), 486-490. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.029

Dasgupta, S., Das, S., Hazra, A., & Chawan, N. (2015). Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens in a public tertiary teaching hospital of Eastern India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 19(1), 14. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.148633
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Cement Shortage Lakkireddy Et Al

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20353210

Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation…… [Read More]

The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that no detailed survey like the current one had ever been conducted on a large patient population. Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation affected the rates of infection. In fact, the antibiotics might have had a major bearing on the rates of infection and could abnegate the results of the current study.

However, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) do draw attention to the need for hygienic, aseptic surgical procedures including the use of topical antiseptics like Povidone-iodine. Especially when devices like PMs and ICDs are being implanted, the potential for infection rises. A more informative study might reveal which patient populations are at the highest risk of developing staph or other infections. Those patients who are the most at risk might benefit the most from prophylactic antibiotics as well as standardized, sterilized surgical procedures.
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Esbls Prevention and Education Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase

Words: 745 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95148570

ESBLs Prevention and Education

Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers (ESBLs) are antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can colonize internally before spreading and/or present as infections that are very difficult to treat du to the protective nature of the ESBL substance itself (AHS, n.d.; CARA, n.d.). ESBL is capable of breaking down antibiotics and thus protecting the producing bacteria, allowing them to continue to thrive and reproduce despite the administering of traditional treatments. For this reason, prevention of such infections is of paramount importance, yet practices that effectively work towards such prevention are not as widespread as would be desirable (AHS, n.d.; Durham, 2006). The following education plan aims to address identified knowledge needs and so reduce rates of ESBLs infections and their negative effects on patient outcomes.

Knowledge Needs Assessment

Though the nursing staff examined for this education project is well qualified and highly educated, there is a definite lack of knowledge regarding…… [Read More]

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Hygiene Proposal World Health Organization 2007 Estimates

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55741238

Hygiene Proposal

World Health Organization, (2007) estimates that more than 1.4 million people suffer form one disease to the other and HAI (Health care-associated infections) are the most important infections that occurs globally. In advanced countries, between 5% and 10% of patients acquire one or more infections within the hospitals environment while between 15 and 40% of patients-to-critical-care are estimated to be affected. In the United States, one out 136 patients acquire one or more infection in hospital, equivalent to 2 million cases yearly. In the UK, HAI causes 5000 attributable deaths yearly. There is substantial evidence that hand hygiene reduces the incidence of HAI and hand hygiene is the fundamental action that enhances patient safety. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, there is still an unacceptable low compliance with the hand hygiene policy within the universal healthcare system. (World Health Organization, 2007).

Fundamental objective of this project is to…… [Read More]

References

Dubberke, E.R. And Gerding, D.N. (2011).Rationale for Hand Hygiene Recommendations after Caring for a Patient with Clostridium difficile Infection. The Joint Commision. USA.

Klavs, I. et al. (2003). Risk factors and Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Slovenia -- results of the first national survey, 2001. Journal of Hospital Infection. 54:149 -- 157.

Klevens, R et al. (2007).Estimating health care -- associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Report. 122:160 -- 166.

Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee (2010). Best Practices for Hand Hygiene in All Health Care Settings . Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
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Health Care Environment That Impacts the Nursing

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59470988

Health Care Environment that Impacts the Nursing Profession

Natural Disasters

The objective of this work in writing is to examine the issue of natural environment in terms of impacts on the nursing profession in the health care environment. Questions answered in this study include the question of what steps should the nursing profession take to prepare the profession for provision of health care during natural disasters.

It is the opinion of the writer of this work that special preparations should be undertaken by those in the nursing profession to prepare them to properly assist those in the health care environment seeking treatment during such as natural disasters.

rief Outline

Following this section in this study will be a brief introduction followed by a literature review in this area of study and next following will be an analysis of the information reviewed and then stated will be a conclusion to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Global Relief Efforts in Natural Disasters (2010) Canadian Nursing Student's Association. Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.cnsa.ca/english/publications/policies-and-position-statements/resolutions/global-relief-efforts-in-natural-disasters

Olivia, F. et al. (2009) Nurses' Perception of Disaster: Implications for Disaster Nursing Curriculum. Nurse Education. Journal of Clinical Nursing 15, Nov. 2009. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rap.ocls.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=185f38dc-6533-42c0-ac0b-1664fc9ec5d8%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=123

Public Health -- Community Health Nursing Practice in Canada: Roles and Activities (2010) Canadian Public Health Association. 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.cpha.ca/uploads/pubs/3-1bk04214.pdf 

Sebastian, SV (2003) Resiliency of Accomplished Critical Care Nurses in a Natural Disaster. Clinical Article. 1 Oct 2003. Vo. 23, No. 5. Critical Care Nurse. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rap.ocls.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3d313e8a-ed28-4e35-ac92-08c52b4b0475%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=123