Containing Hospital-Related Infections Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Disease Type: Essay Paper: #70018888 Related Topics: Infection Control, Hospital, Human Physiology, Genetic Disease
Excerpt from Essay :

¶ … hospitals is the spread of MRSA (staphylococcus aureus). This pathogen remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. Current 'typing' methods for the genome to identify the pathogen include "phage typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)" but these methods "have serious limitations when used to investigate the finer details of infection outbreaks" (Price et al. 2013: 14). This is why the use of whole genome sequencing that allows scientists to create distinctions up to a single nucleotide is useful. Whole genome sequences can be used to classify and characterize genetic differences in a far more refined fashion than previous methods "and additionally provides information about the genetic basis of phenotypic characteristics, including antibiotic susceptibility and virulence" (Price et al. 2013: 14). Local-level awareness of the history of disease transmission allows a more carefully matched protocol for treatment as well as improves tracking. "Combined with epidemiological data, such as information on dates of admission to hospital, it is then possible to draw inferences...

...

2013: 19). Human genome sequencing also provides potential clues as to why certain humans are carriers and others are not. Also, experiments regarding the pathogen can reveal methodologies of transmission, such as its ability to invade and proliferate within osteoblasts or how certain factors can enhance the growth and spread of MRSA.

Key issues in disease control

Given that staphylococcus aureus is not well-suited to vaccine development, instituting proper protocols regarding disease containment is essential and is likely to remain important in the future in containing the spread of illnesses caused by the pathogen. Proper hand-washing and containment of infected patients is vital. There are also distinct strains of staphylococcus aureus with various degrees of virulence that demand different treatment protocols. For example, in Blot (et al. 2002) a comparisons between patients with bacteremia involving methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus found that patients with MRSA had much higher mortality rates. "MRSA bacteremia had more acute renal failure and hemodynamic instability than patients with MSSA bacteremia. They had a longer intensive care unit stay and ventilator dependency. Patients with MRSA bacteremia had a higher 30-day mortality rate" (Blot et al. 2002: 229). Not all strains are created equal, once again underlining the need for proper whole genome coding…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Blot, S.I. (2002 et al.). Outcome and attributable mortality in critically Ill patients with bacteremia involving methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(19):2229-35.

Price, J.R. (2013) .Whole genome sequencing in the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Journal of Hospital Infection, 83: 14-21.


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