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onsider McDonald's, the most ubiquitous face of American franchising. McDonald's has met with tremendous worldwide success in Asia. By perceiving that individuals are buying a bit of America, with every bite of a burger, the hamburger purveyor has generated a solid customer base. This mimics the original success of McDonald's in Soviet then capitalist Russia, during the early years of that nation's extracting itself from the hold of communism. Rather than being perceived as a negative nutritional force, as it might be in many American quarters today, the company was able to initially succeed in the Russian capital of Moscow by taking on an entirely different image. It positioned itself along the lines of a luxury product that, by engaging in conspicuous consumption at the American franchise establishment, to use Veblen's terms, one showed one's transnational verve and one's willingness to defy the regime in a chic fashion.
China and indeed all of Asia, and the European community present any eager corporation with a potentially enormous market but also with the potential for tremendous losses. Although some Asian and European labor and building costs may be comparatively inexpensive the complex bureaucratic structure of doing business within different cultural and political system of governance may generate more headaches than profits, as an American firm finds itself faced with different expectations regarding working hours, benefits, and contracts. This does not mean, although, that Jerry's Sealwrap should completely eschew advancement into the Asian and European market. Simply by being an 'American' firm, Sealwrap might generate interest. In Japan, packaging, even of gifts, is extremely important on a cultural level, often transcending the importance of the gift itself. From a marketing perspective, this is one way to generate interest in this particular product. In general, a firm must position the product's entire, not necessarily how it is positioned within the American market, but in a way that will be attractive to that nation's consumer base.
Consider McDonald's, the most ubiquitous face of American franchising. McDonald's has met with tremendous worldwide success in Asia. By perceiving that individuals are buying a bit of America, with every bite of a burger, the hamburger purveyor has generated a solid customer base. This mimics the original success of McDonald's in Soviet then capitalist Russia, during the early years of that nation's extracting itself from the hold of communism. Rather than being perceived as a negative nutritional force, as it might be in many American quarters today, the company was able to initially succeed in the Russian capital of Moscow by taking on an entirely different image. It positioned itself along the lines of a luxury product that, by engaging in conspicuous consumption at the American franchise establishment, to use Veblen's terms, one showed one's transnational verve and one's willingness to defy the regime in a chic fashion.
In the Russia of the late 1980's and early 1990's, eating at McDonald's became a political statement of one's international status and freedom. For Russians, because of the expense of eating at the fast food emporium, rather than driving through and rushing away, as was popular amongst American consumers, the point was to go, to eat, and be seen eating there. Thus, the product and image was different, but saleable abroad. Also, because of the fierce standardization of its working protocols and preparations of goods, McDonald's was able to cushion some of the initial conflicts experienced by other corporations, such as GE, shortly after they entered Eastern Europe, between capitalist and 'planned' economies -- such as working hours, employee productivity expectations, etc. Working at McDonald's even had a kind of prestige, during those early transitional years, lacking in
Multinational Corporations Around the Globe
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, large firms must be able to effectively globalize their operations in order to reach a greater potential client base, stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields and sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and computerization of business and learning, consumers have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Due to the variety in the effects of the globalized market realized by different nations and regions, some areas of the world have targeted specific business sectors and have subsequently gained a competitive advantage . The manufacturing industry provides a superb example of an industry that has grown, been geographically compartmentalized, and transformed to meet the ever-changing needs of customers around the world. The strategy and product lines of many companies around the…
Anthony, S. (2010, May). Three Critical Innovation Lessons from Apple. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from http://hbr.org/anthony/2010/05/three_critical_innovation_less.html
Barbuto, J.E. (2005). Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic, and Transformational Leadership: A Test of Antecedents. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11 (4), 26-40.
Benkler, Y. (2002). Intellectual Property and the Organization of Information Production. International Review of Law and Economics, 22, 81 -- 107.
Bradsher, K. (2009, April). China Releases Human Rights Plan. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/world/asia/15china.html?_r=1
Multinational Corporation (NNC) familiar. 1. Describe current trends impact globalization international financial management specific MNC choosing. 2. Explain basic functioning current arrangements flexible exchange systems dominate international monetary system affects specific MNC.
Ford Motor Company
The American automobile industry is currently facing the continued threats of the internationalized economic crisis. The demand for automobiles has decreased and this has not only been due to the crisis, but also due to the inability of the American automobile makers to adjust their offer to the emergent demands of the customers. For instance, as the population was facing increasing oil prices and was becoming more environmentally conscious, the automobile industry was demanded to produce small size and fuel efficient vehicles, but it did not tailor its offer to this demand. Gradually then, the American auto industry came to generate decrease revenues, to close its plants and to downsize its employees. And the commencement…
Arghyrou, M.G., Tsoukalas, J.D., 2010, The Greek debt crisis: likely causes, mechanisms and outcomes, IFO Institute, Center for Economic Studies, http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/1185136.PDF last accessed on October 24, 2011
2011, Advantages and disadvantages of floating exchange rates, Biz/ed, http://www.bized.co.uk/virtual/bank/economics/markets/foreign/further2.htm last accessed on October 24, 2011
2011, Floating exchange rate, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/floatingexchangerate.asp#axzz1bgLGsjxe last accessed on October 24, 2011
Multinational Corporations and the International Economy
This essay examines the role of multinational corporations (MNCs) in the global economy. Depending upon the point-of-view, multinational firms are either demonized or celebrated for their role in globalization. Navaretti and Venables (1), both professors of international economics, cite evidence that they are generally a force for prosperity in the world economy.
Even though modern multinational firms date back to the late nineteenth century, the term 'multinational corporation' did not appear until 1960. The term was used to distinguish between portfolio and direct investment, and referred to corporations having their home in one country while operating and living under the laws of other countries as well. Stephen Kobrin (1), professor of multinational management at the harton School, points out: "It is of interest that from the start the multinational corporation was defined in terms of jurisdiction and potential jurisdictional conflict."
MNCs may be…
Eden, Lorraine, and Stefanie Lenway. "Introduction to the Symposium Multinationals: The Janus Face of Globalization" Journal of International Business Studies 32 (2001): 383-400.
Eldridge, Grant J. "Multinational Corporations." Reference for Business Encyclopedia of Business. (2011) 23 Aug 2011 .
Jansen, W. Jos, and Ad C.J. Stokman. "The Importance of Multinational Companies for Global Economic Linkages." DNB Staff Reports, De Nederlandsche Bank. 20 Dec 2002. 23 Aug 2011 .
Kobrin, Stephen J. [email protected]: Globalization, Multinational Enterprise, and the International Political System. Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania Press (no date) 23 Aug 2011
Multinational corporations have complex relationships to local development processes in the context of the globalization of production systems. Identify some of the major conceptual issues in framing these relationships, and some of the principal types of relationships between MNE and spatially delimited territories such as cities, regions, metropolitan areas and nations that exist today.
The creation of relationships between multinational corporations ("MNE") and local development processes has been explained through several micro-level approaches to understanding the internalization of economic activity using a firm specific approach (Dicken 2003, p. 202). The wide variations in the characteristics and behaviors of transnational corporations ("TNC") of different source nations require the consideration of the diversity of the world's population (Dicken 2003, p. 202). There are several theories that explain why companies become global, including Hymer, Vernon and Dunnings theories, but these theories do not all explain how globalization occurs (Dicken 2003, p.…
Dickens, Peter, 2003. Global Shift. 4th ed. London: Sage Publications.
Strategic Alliances in Multinational Corporations
Hewlett-Packard, Starbucks and Wal-Mart all have invested decades of time and expertise into how they structure strategic alliances globally, and each has taken a unique and differentiated approach to fulfilling their strategic objectives for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the context of these relationships. The intent of this analysis is to address how strategic alliances benefit these companies, an analysis of CSR initiatives arising out of their alliances, and the resulting impact on stakeholders. Recommended actions for alliance partners to be even more socially responsible is also provided.
Analysis of Hewlett-Packard's Alliance with Noranda, Inc.
As the global leader in the research & development, production, selling and service inkjet, laser and specialty printers and imaging devices, HP has a product strategy is highly attuned to the use of consumables and low-cost product designs (Nias, 2011). Inherent in their product and selling strategies is the need…
Taxation Advice for a Multinational Corporation
The impact of currency values on commercial operations is a familiar topic for the international accountant. Much of the attraction of currency markets stems from its synthesis of all aspects of the world economy distilled into a single, digestible value. The significance of relative currency values rests primarily on their relationship to world markets and their interaction with international trade, investment, and monetary practices. A given exchange rate, when viewed in isolation, may at first appear to be little more than an abstraction. Yet, it exercises a significant influence on commercial relations as a pricing mechanism affecting every international transaction. The impact of exchange rate fluctuations on domestic aggregates can also affect the course of economic activity to the point that a sense of urgency is reached when dealing with volatile markets. As long as currencies remain the medium of exchange for commercial transactions,…
"Annual Results 2010." Hennes & Mauritz. Retrieved 1 March 2012. URL: http://feed.ne.cision.com/wpyfs/00/00/00/00/00/13/7F/61/wkr0005.pdf
Hong, Q. And Smart, M. 2010. In Praise of Tax Havens: International Tax Planning and Foreign Direct Investment. European Economic Review. 54(1): 82-95.
Johnson, G. And Scholes, K. 2002. Exploring Corporate Strategy (6th ed). Prentice Hall: London, UK.
Kuntz, J.D. And Peroni, R.J. 1991. U.S. International Taxation. Warren, Gorham and Lamont: New York, NY.
Selected financial ratios for Halliburton are presented below:
Capital Structure & Long-Term Solvency
Net Worth to Total Debt
Net Worth to Long-Term Debt
Net Worth to Total Assets
Return on Investment
Return on Total Assets
Return on Equity Capital
Operating Performance Ratios
Gross Margin Ratio
Operating Profits to Sales
Net Income to Sales
Asset Utilization Ratios
Sales to Cash
Sales to Accounts Receivables
Sales to Working Capital
Sales to Total Assets
Halliburton appears to be healthy in terms of short-term liquidity. The Acid Test Ratio is normal for companies of this size and the Current Ratio is normal which indicates that the company should have no trouble meeting short-term financial commitments. The capital structure ratios also appear to indicate that the company is able to finance operations, but does not have too large exposure in terms of debt. The Return on Assets and…
Bernstein, Leopold a. (1978). Financial Statement Analysis. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin Inc.
Caro, Robert a. (1982). The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Alfred a. Knoft.
Cooke, Tony. (July 29, 2005). "Cheney Returns as Risk Factor in Halliburton Filing." Dow Jones. Retrieved August 3, 2005 at http://news.morningstar.com/news/DJ/M07/D29/200507292013DOWJONESDJONLINE001247.html.
Dallek, Robert. (1991). Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times 1908-1961. New York: Oxford University Press.
The multinational corporation International Phone Inc., has shifted its overall business strategy into investing into emerging markets. The purpose of this report is to give background on International Phone Inc., by creating a matrix to evaluate three emerging market countries that may suit the overall business mission of this organization. I will first describe the type of business International Phone Inc. conducts by describing the products and services it provides. I will then create a matrix that compares three emerging market countries across the following elements: economics, political environment, ethical system, social responsibility indicators and cultural dimensions. I will assign a numeric value between one and five to both quantify and qualify how these three countries match up against one another. I will then interpret the results and make a recommendation which emerging market I believe this company should consider expanding into.
International Phone Inc. is a cellular…
Mozee, C. (2008). Move over china; brazil is largest emerging market. Market Watch, 27 Feb, 2008.
Palepu, K (2010). How Companies in Emerging Markets Break Out. Harvard Business. June 2010.
Shriber, T. (2011). 5 emerging markets are beating inflation. Street Authority, 15 Aug,,2011.
Global Functional Structure
WalMart has one of the most efficient and pervasive supply chains globally mainly due to the decision to have a global functional structure around the processes in this area. WalMart centralizes supply chain management, planning and optimization to ensure the highest levels of efficiency and cost reduction are attained, which is one of the major advantages of this organizational structure (Egelhoff, 2010). Additional advantages are the ease of synchronizing product and service strategies across multiple geographies, and the ability to analyze sales and product trends literally overnight, as WalMart does through its analytics and data mining applications. The disadvantages include the lag time to react to opportunities in key markets, the lack of visibility into niche markets that may grow in time to be very large, and a lack of localization that is often compensated for in years of investment in new countries.
Global Product Structure
Ambos, T., Andersson, U., & Birkinshaw, J.. (2010). What are the consequences of initiative-taking in multinational subsidiaries? Journal of International Business Studies, 41(7), 1099-1118.
Jim Bramante, Ron Frank, & Jim Dolan. (2010). IBM 2000 to 2010: continuously transforming the corporation while delivering performance. Strategy & Leadership, 38(3), 35-43.
Egelhoff, W.. (2010). How the Parent Headquarters Adds Value to an MNC. Management International Review, 50(4), 413-431.
Voisey, C.. (2010). When a Japanese subsidiary is not a Japanese subsidiary: Internationalization as changing organizational identity and capabilities. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management: CCM, 10(2), 211.
MNC is a multinational corporation that is a phenomenon closely linked with globalization. The numbers and size of these corporations have increased with the progress of globalization. The impressive economic growth of such corporations have given them not only economic, but also political power, thus making them a threat or a valuable alliance for states, and also in terms of economics for international corporations.
Adam Smith was an economic philosopher, who lived from 1723-1790. The central premise of his philosophy was that rational self-interest in a free-market economy was the best means of attaining economic well-being. For Smith, self-interest was a necessary component in one's feelings of benevolence toward others, and only in this kind of synthesis was it possible to be economically well.
David Ricardo (1772-1823) was another economist who focused on the rational side of economy. He pioneered a belief in the quantity theory of money, or monetarism,…
Two uestions on Dividend Policy and Multinational Corporations
Stockholders will usually purchase stocks with the aim of creating a return in their money. The return may be created for the stockholder in two ways; firstly, through the growth in the value of the firms stock price, which result in a profit when the share is sold, and secondly in the form of dividends which are a distribution of the profits of the firm paid out to the stock holders.
The dividend policy of a firm is the approach that they adopt towards the cash disbursements from the firm to the shareholders. The distribution policy can be considered in several contexts. The first considering may be the way in which the firm chooses to use it profits and cash. For firms that are pursuing aggressive growth strategies the policy may be to retain the profits created in the firm…
A multinational corporation may be defined as company where there are interests, including facilities or other assets in at least two countries; the home state and another state (Investopedia, 2014). While the definition means that the firm must be present in at least two different markets, it can be many more. Multinational corporations will unusually have a single head office hat acts as a centralized point of contact, and the degree to which it controls the operations in the different countries will depend on the organizations strategy.
Firms may pursue an international expansion strategy for many reasons. These may include push and pull factors (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, & Lampel, 2008). Push factors are seen where a firm's management believe they need to find new markets; they are pushed into expansion. For example, a current market may
These shortages decrease the company's competitive position in the U.S., but even more so abroad.
Within the international setting, one additional strategic aspect is represented by the relatively low position of the retailer. While it is the undisputable leader of the American retailing industry, within the international arena, Wal-Mart's international position is rather weak.
The company had previously attempted to penetrate the European market, but had failed. The most eloquent case is represented by Wal-Mart Germany. The company opened the store in 1998 as a result of gradual purchase of local chain stores.
Wal-Mart Germany implemented the same business model as in the United States. There was the joyful morning cheer, the casual outfits and the expectation of intense social interaction. Still, this behavioral model was not applicable in Germany, where the population is more reserved and private. Additionally, the American retailer penetrated the German market with the same strategies…
Blanchard, R., The digital challenge for libraries: understanding the culture and technology of total information, iUniverse, 2005
Knorr, A., Arndt, A., Why did Wal-Mart fail in Germany? Institute for World Economics and International Management, http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pdf/w024.pdf last accessed on November 10, 2011
Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R.E., Hitt, M.A., Understanding business strategy: concepts and cases, 2nd edition, Cengage Learning, 2008
Wilbert, C., How Wal-Mart works, How Stuff Works, http://money.howstuffworks.com/wal-mart.htm last accessed on November 10, 2011
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
Multinational Corporations (MNC's)
There is some debate on whether Multinational Corporations (MNC's) increase risk when borrowing foreign currencies. Those in favor of borrowing state that lower costs of financing can be achieved and it improves their ability to compete. Those against state that when an MNC borrows a foreign currency, they are essentially speculating on future exchange rate movements.
Multinational Corporations (MNC's) have a variety of options in regard to financing new ventures. Some believe that borrowing money in foreign currencies increase exposure to risk while others believe that it can be a beneficial position that lowers the cost of financing. It is reasonable to suspect that both positions have some truth to them and the individual factors that are relevant could be best determined on a case by case basis. A foreign investor entering an unfamiliar environment always faces risks, but there are some countries in which these…
Browning, J., & Hu, F. (2014, October 16). China State Sales Favor Home Team as Foreigners Jilted. Retrieved from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-10/china-favors-home-team-as-kkr-to-ontario-jilted-in-sale.html
Casson, M., & Lopes, T. (2013). Foreign direct investment in high-risk environments: an historical. Business History, 375-404.
The analysis cited above continues to describe the ways in which corporate "life" (in the sense of how many different individuals and entities are vital to the running of a corporation in the current climate):
Businesses today must be consumer, profit, and publicly oriented. Only a few years ago, the first two would have sufficed. But, in support of our dualistic argument regarding the marketing concept, that is -- creating exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives more effectively and efficiently than the competition -- Philip Kotler (2000) has labelled marketing as inappropriate in a world of environmental deterioration, population expansion, world hunger and poverty, and neglected, under-funded, and business-like social services. Thus, marketing as exchange has been augmented by the need to preserve or enhance consumer and societal well being, too. Increasingly, this extends beyond 'seeming' to the needed 'substance' of corporate social responsibility.
The above touches on…
Aaker, D.A., Brand Portfolio Strategy, New York: Free Press, 2004.
Balmer, John and Alan Wilson, "Corporate Identity: There Is More to It Than Meets the Eye," International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol. 28, 1998.
Bridson, K., and Evans, J., 'The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation', International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(8): 403-11, 2004.
D'Alessandro, David, Brand Warfare, New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Globalisation has presented business organisations with an opportunity to do business internationally. Today, multinational corporations (MNCs) are prevalent, with many commanding immense power in the global marketplace. Nonetheless, operating in the global scene is usually not a straightforward undertaking. The global business environment presents numerous complexities, which MNCs must effectively deal with if they are to be successful (Noorderhaven and Harzing, 2003).
One of the major complexities MNCs face relate to human resource management (HRM). Indeed, managing human resources in the international context can be a daunting task. This is particularly because of considerable cultural, institutional, economic, and political differences across countries (Thite, Wilkinson and Shah, 2012). National (country-of-origin) characteristics tend to influence how MNCs behave in the host country. They influence not only corporate strategy, but also the kind of HRM practices MNCs adopt in the host country (Sethi and Elango, 1999; Yu, Park and Cho, 2007; Cox, 2014;…
Often knowledge transfer faces the most significant threats in globally distributed MNCs, as the core part of their international property is included in the knowledge they are sharing across networks (Caelli, 2002). Knowledge transfer however is critical for being able to compete effectively on a global basis, as customers increasing a re buying expertise, not just products. This requirement is often exacerbated by local governments in foreign nations who often require disclosure of the data being transmitted in and out of their countries, with China being one of the most aggressive on this issue (Cohen, 2000).
The development of effective security strategies for MNCs needs to be predicated on the legacy, 3rd party and enterprise systems' integration requirements of companies as they grow quickly through mergers, acquisitions and global expansion strategies. Being able to unify the entire complex of systems in an MNC and making sure the integration points…
Caelli, W.J. (2002). Trusted...or...trustworthy: The search for a new paradigm for computer and network security. Computers & Security, 21(5), 413-420.
Cohen, E.A. (2000). International relations and security network. Foreign Affairs, 79(3), 167-167.
Doddrell, G.R. (1995). Security environment reviews. Information Management & Computer Security, 3(4), 3-14.
Fyffe, G. (2008). Managing multinational compliance efforts while addressing corporate security needs. Network Security, 2008(4), 16-18.
Globalization has a considerable effect on the way businesses are being carried out. With the tremendous growth spurred by technology and development of new business models, we see an increasing instance of corporate outsourcing. This shift is observed in the manufacturing sector also as many multinational corporations are relocating their production centers to offshore locations that offer cheap labor and material costs. The result is the loss of thousands of jobs to foreign countries. The NAFTA agreement has furthered this trend towards offshore manufacturing. The manufacturing sector which employed more than 19 million in 1979 now employs only 14 million, indicating a huge fall.[Clyde Weiss].While increased productivity due to technology may be ascribed to part of this decline, there are also significant concerns about the impact of closure of local manufacturing plants and their relocation overseas. Let us have a brief overview of this emerging practice and the…
1) Walt Shepperd, "Making it: Local Manufacturing isn't Dead Just Different," Available at, http://newtimes.rway.com/2003/111903/cover.shtml
Accessed on Nov 12th 2005,
2) Ben Vickery, 'Manufacturing Drives China's Economic growth', The Competitive edge, 1112003, Available Online at, http://www.scmep.org/edge/edge_Manufacturing_Drives_Chinas_Economic_Growth.asp, Accessed on Nov 12th 2005
3) Clyde Weiss, "Vanishing Act," AFSCME Public Employee, Oct 2005,
Global corporations are often difficult to control because they operate in various countries throughout the world. As such actions that may be illegal in some countries are perfectly legal in others. Furthermore law enforcement officials and governments do not have the power to enforce laws that are outside of their jurisdictions. These issues call into question the effectiveness mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct. The purpose of this discussion is to Assess the effectiveness of various mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct and recommend a mechanism that I believe is the most effective.
Survey of Mechanisms and their Advantages/Disadvantages
Private regulations employ civil regulations to compel transnational corporations to operate according to a certain set of standards. According to the "defining feature of civil regulation is that its legitimacy, governance and implementation is not rooted in public authority. Operating beside or around…
Fritsch, S.(2008) The UN Global Compact and the Global Governance
of Corporate Social Responsibility: ComplexMultilateralism for a More Human Globalisation? Global Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, pg. 2-26
Haufler, V. 2003 "Globalization and Industry Self-Regulation," in Governance in A Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, Miles Kahler and David Lake, eds. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 226
Haufler, V. 2002 The Public Role for the Private Sector, and The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Rodney Hall and Thomas Biersteker, eds. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Aid to Dependent Corporations
The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the government aimed at promoting a positive business climate are sadly being exploited. In their interests to evade tax, businesses today are taking undue advantage of the favorable federal policies. In this regard I feel that our governments tax policies and corporate procedures need to be reexamined in order to eliminate the loopholes in them and at the same time support the common welfare schemes. Let us analyze the scenario in a little detail so that we can better appreciate the situation.
One by one our leading business corporations are reeling under accounting scams. I need not mention how well such a giant corporation like 'Enron' managed to disguise its financial information from the government and the stockholders. In the prevailing…
Chuck Collins, "Dollars & Sense," 'Aid to dependent corporations: exposing federal handouts to the wealthy', May-June 1995, pg 15
Expatriate Remuneration in a Multinational Organization
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the regime that is adopted for the process of remunerating expatriates in Coca Cola Company is effective. Coca Cola is a very large multinational company and therefore the study is going to focus on how its expatriate enumeration policy is effective in the process of remunerating its expatriates who span all parts of the globe while having different positions. The study is going to concentrate on the general effectiveness of the different foreign remuneration regimes on the company's turnover and the corresponding effect of the remuneration policing in maintaining a perfect professional image of the company. The effectiveness of the expatriate remuneration is gauged using a variety of methods that are all geared towards the succinct and exact determination of the extent to which the policies of remunerating the expatriates is the…
Sources of Data Used
The main data types to be acquired in this study are the monthly income, benefits and allowances that the Coca Cola expatriates receive while on their duties abroad. The data sources in this case would be Coca Cola monthly enumeration reports that can be requested from the head office and the internet.
3.5. Data Collection Methods
Various data collection methods are to be employed. They include interviews, use of questionnaires, use of abstracts and articles from various sources, information from Coca Cola head office in Atlanta and use of internet to search and collect the necessary data.
3.6 .Data Analysis Methods
Strategic Management in Large Multinational Corporations
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Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Transaction exposure risk may be defined as "cash flow risk" and is associated with the impact of FX rate moves on exposure due to transactional accounts, regarding exports, import or dividend repatriation: and FX "rate change in the currency of denomination of any such contract will result in a direct transaction exchange rate risk" (Papaioannou, 2006, p. 4), thus impacting the multinational corporation in terms of affecting the inflow and outflow of cash over a given period.
Translation risk may be defined as the FX rate risk associated with the balance sheet of a company's holdings. The notion is that exchange rates affect the value of a subsidiary in a foreign country and in instances where the subsidiary is consolidated to the parent balance sheet, the risk becomes translational. The way to measure this risk for a company is by assessing the net asset exposure and measuring it against…
Bodnar, G. (2015). Techniques for managing exchange rate exposure. Wharton/UPenn.
Retrieved from http://finance.wharton.upenn.edu/~bodnarg/courses/readings/hedging.pdf
Dohring, B. (2008). Hedging and invoicing strategies to reduce exchange rate exposure:
a euro-area perspective. Economic Papers 299, European Commission.
However, if people were to fight in order to put across their principles they would have almost certainly had more to win out of the exploit. Instead, they ended up with no job and longing for the miserable derisory salaries they earned from working for Disney. It is obvious that developing countries need to be assisted in ways meant to help people understand their rights and the value of their work. There are a series of individuals guilty for the situation in Bangladesh, starting from the simple worker, to the harsh employer, and eventually to large companies like Disney and Walmart.
Perhaps it is less detrimental for the people of Bangladesh that corporations decide to abandon factories there, as this may serve as a wake up call, teaching them that their lives are not reduced to slaves working 15-hour shifts for salaries that barely get them through the day and…
corporate form of "the business corporation," its structure, prerogatives, and procedures, leads to ethical problems arising, or being difficult to resolve. Ethics in business has always seemed to be a struggle, because the main purpose of a business is to turn a profit, and for some businesspeople, that may be at any cost. However, after scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, and Bernie Madoff, among others, business ethics has emerged as an important part of a healthy business environment. The smart business corporation knows ethics and corporate social responsibility (CS) are an important aspect of their daily operations, and yet, businesses still seem to overlook that ideal at the most inopportune times.
The Business Corporation
What is a business corporation? To begin a discussion on ethics, it is important to first define a business corporation. A business corporation is a company doing business that enjoys certain legal protections as a corporation.…
Bomann-Larsen, Lene and Oddny Wiggen, eds. (2004). Responsibility in world business: Managing harmful side-effects of corporate activity. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Dilenschneider, R.L. & Salak, J. (2003) Do ethical communicators finish first? Walking the straight and narrow information path. [Online]. Available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4422/is_4_20/ai_103672846/pg_2/?tag=content;col1 [Accessed 17 June 2009].
Duska, R.F. (2006). Contemporary reflections on business ethics. New York: Springer.
Grace, Damian. 2006. For business ethics. Australian Journal of Management 31, no. 2: 371+.
Aside the attraction of customers, the money invested in marketing have created the desired outcome of a strong and reputable brand. Another pivotal element in the financial strategies has been that of maximizing the efficiency of managing inventories. This was necessary in order to continually strengthen the brand as well as achieve the profitability goals. Alongside with operating principles, supply-chain renovation and inventory management, financial management represents the pillar of the Nike business model (Filbeck, Krueger and Preece, 2007).
It is extremely difficult to generalize the approaches of multinational organizations to financial management as each individual entity will employ those courses of action which best suit its needs as well as its characteristics. Whilst Ford continued to invest its resources in the manufacturing of large and luxurious vehicles in an attempt to drive the market, McDonald's has recognized the necessity in satisfying customer needs and has as such…
Adams, B., 2007, McDonald's Strange Menu Around the World, Trifter, http://www.economywatch.com/finance/financial-management.html last accessed on July 13, 2009
Filbeck, G., Krueger, T., Preece, D., 2007, CFO Magazine's "Working Capital Survey": Do Selected Firms Work for Shareholders? Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, Vol. 46
Nizamuddin, A.M., 2007, Multinational Corporations and Economic Development: The Lessons of Singapore, International Social Science Review, Vol. 82
Schindehutte, M., Morris, M.H., Kocak, A., 2008, Understanding market-Driving Behavior: The Role of Entrepreneurship, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 46
Coca Cola's Localization Strategy
When most multinational corporations like Coca Cola enter foreign markets and implement localization strategy, they do it with reasons. As presented in the case, Coca Cola seeks to set up a corporate image. When it penetrates a local market, it replaces consumers' and government's collision. Implementation of corporate culture, personnel, marketing, and materials localization is useful in establishing the company's public image. The second reason is to dominate the local market rapidly. When multinational corporations enter foreign markets, they tend to lack understanding of the domestic market (Banutu-Gomez, 2012). This makes it challenging to keep up with development and changes of the target market resulting in the loss of vibrant market opportunities.
By implementing a localization strategy, Coca Cola could also choose local human resources to attain research and development, materials and marketing through observing the market via a local subsidiary. The company could be based…
Banutu-Gomez, M. (2012). COCA-COLA: International Business Strategy for Globalization. The Business & Management Review, Vol.3 Number 1, November 2012 pp 155-167.
Yunker, J. (2012). Beyond borders: Web globalization strategies. Indianapolis, Ind: New Riders.
Organization: Microsoft Corporation.
Since the bygone thirty years, technology has revolutionized the manner in which we work, play and communicate. From the setting up during the year 1975, the company- Microsoft has enjoyed leadership in this revolution. As a manifestation of that role and to aid in concentrating on the opportunities that lie at the forefront Microsoft's mission has been: to facilitate people and businesses across the world to realize their full potential. (Mission and Values)
The central values of the company are (i) Broad Customer Connection-linking with customers, realizing their requirement and the manner in which they use technology, and providing value through information and support to assist them attain their potential. (ii) A Global, Inclusive Approach -- Thinking and acting in a global scale (iii) Achieving excellence- in everything (iv) Trustworthy Computing- Intensifying customer faith by the quality of products and services, sensitivity and accountability, and predictability in…
"Microsoft SWOT Analysis" (January 17, 2005) Retrieved from http://www.SWOT-analysis.net/microsoft.php Accessed on 15 January 2005
'Mission and Values" (25 June, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/mscorp/mission / Accessed on 15 January 2005
"Facts about Microsoft Research" (2004) Retrieved from http://research.microsoft.com/aboutmsr/presskit/MSResearchFS04.aspx Accessed on 15 January 2005
"Glimpse of the Future with Microsoft" (28 September 2004) Retrieved from http://www.channelminds.com/article.php3?id_article=2348 Accessed on 15 January 2005
Acquisition that I am studying is the Google acquisition of Motorola's mobile business, Motorola Mobility, for $40 per share, or a total of $12.4 billion (Google, 2012). Both companies are active in the mobile communication space, Motorola Mobile in the handset space and Google with its operating system. By acquiring the technology and patents of Motorola Mobile, the latter of which Google valued at $5.5 billion (Reisinger, 2012). The acquisition was made entirely with cash, of which Google has no shortage. There were also significant tax benefits associated with the deal, including the ability to reduce taxes as the result of the ongoing losses at the Motorola Mobility division, which will continue to be run independently. This paper will outline a number of issues pertaining to the accounting elements of this deal. Although both firms are American, they are multinational companies and there will be some theoretical explanation of how…
Dignan, L. (2013). Google's Motorola purchase: Was it worth it? ZDNet. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from http://www.zdnet.com/googles-motorola-purchase-was-it-worth-it-7000009356/
Google. (2012). Fact's about Google's acquisition of Motorola. Google.com. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from http://www.google.com/press/motorola/
PWC. (2010). Accounting for business combinations. Price Waterhouse Coopers. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from http://www.pwc.com/us/en/issues/business-combinations/assets/accounting-business-combinations-nci.pdf
Reisinger, D. (2012). Google: Motorola's patents, tech are worth $5.5 billion. C/Net. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57479646-93/google-motorolas-patents-tech-are-worth-$5.5-billion/
Nearly every large, well-known corporation transacts business in multiple countries and states. The relationship between corporations and the countries and states they transact business in has traditionally resembled a double-edged sword. On the one hand, countries and states need businesses in order to generate tax revenues and stimulate economic growth by creating new jobs. However, countries and states often have varying cultural, legal, political, and social norms and desire that businesses conform to such norms. In order for corporations to succeed and maintain a balanced relationship with the various countries and states business is conducted in, there must be respect, understanding, and willingness to adapt.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to Sony Corporation conducting business in Germany. Part II gives an overview of Sony Corporation, including the cultural, legal, and political environment both in the United States and Germany. In Part III, issues…
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 1 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_01.phpon December 14, 2002.
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 2 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_02.phpon December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/hitbox/goto-footer-sca.shtml . On December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America- Corporate Profile." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/SCA/corporate.shtml on December 14, 2002.
United Technology Corporations in regard to its strategies, financial performance and general stock performance. The conglomerate's strategy and positioning is presented in regard to its various constituent firms. A conclusion is provided on the basis of the obtained financial outlook.
Financial performance and strategy
Capital markets considerations
UTC's financial and investor ratios
Price to Operating Profit (P/OP)
Price to Book Value (P/BV)
UTC's corporate strategy and positioning
United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is an American multinational conglomerate that has its headquarter in the United Technologies Building which is located in Hartford, Connecticut (UTC,2011).The company deals in research, development as well as manufacture of cutting-edge technology products in various areas such as aircraft engines, HVAC, fuel cells, helicopters, escalators and elevators, fire equipment, security, industrial products, and building materials among other products. The company is a major U.S. military contractor (Stewart, 2005, p.2) for which it produces missile systems as well as…
Bern, MD (2011).Enhanced Income strategies for United Technologies
Cota, E (2011). United Technologies Corp: cash flow valuation http://seekingalpha.com/instablog/817168-eric-cota/191938-united-technologies-corp-cash-flow-valuation
Dividendvalue (2008). Stock Analysis: United Technologies Corp (UTX) A Buy At This Pricehttp://dividendsvalue.com/1433/stock-analysis-united-technologies-corp-utx-a-buy-at-this-price/
This plan is focused on financial stability and profitability, through the reduction of operational costs. In this business strategy, outsourcing plays a crucial role.
Dunai, M., 2012, Hungarian town suffers as Nokia announces big layoffs, euters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-hungary-nokia-idUSTE8171OU20120208 last accessed on March 21, 2012
Haikio, M., 2002, Nokia: the inside story, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273659839
Layard, ., Nickell, S., Eichorst, W., Zimmermann, K.F., 2011, Combating unemployment, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199609780
Louis, P.J., Nokia restructuring and issues with outsourcing strategy, Venture Outsource, http://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-manufacturing/product-market-segments/cell-phones-handsets/nokia-restructuring-and-issues-with-outsourcing-strategy last accessed on March 21, 2012
aby, M., 2012, Nokia announces more major layoffs, TG Daily, http://www.tgdaily.com/mobility-brief/61315-nokia-announces-more-major-layoffs last accessed on March 21, 2012
ugman, a.M., 2007, Multinational enterprises from engineering markets, Berlin oundtable
ugman, a.M., 2009, the Oxford handbook of international business, 2nd edition, Oxford Handbooks Online, ISBN 0199234256
2011, Foreign minister lobbying in Helsinki to keep Nokia in Hungary, Budapest Business Journal, http://www.bbj.hu/politics/foreign-minister-lobbying-in-helsinki-to-keep-nokia-in-hungary-nepszabadsag_61055 last accessed on…
Dunai, M., 2012, Hungarian town suffers as Nokia announces big layoffs, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-hungary-nokia-idUSTRE8171OU20120208 last accessed on March 21, 2012
Haikio, M., 2002, Nokia: the inside story, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273659839
Layard, R., Nickell, S., Eichorst, W., Zimmermann, K.F., 2011, Combating unemployment, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199609780
Louis, P.J., Nokia restructuring and issues with outsourcing strategy, Venture Outsource, http://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-manufacturing/product-market-segments/cell-phones-handsets/nokia-restructuring-and-issues-with-outsourcing-strategy last accessed on March 21, 2012
Responsibilities of Corporations
Most people would agree that the purpose of business is to make a profit, but at what cost in human lives and suffering?
On December 3, 1984, a cloud of highly toxic gas rose above the city of hopal, India. When it settled, it instantly killed approximately 3,000 people, and left up to 600,000 people dying slowly or suffering various kinds of medical problems (Economist, par. 2). Union Carbide's pesticide plant was the culprit, yet the company denies any wrongdoing as well as any responsibility in the incident. According to the company's official statement, the explosion was the result of sabotage (Union Carbide, par. 4).
Even if we accept Union Carbide's claim that sabotage was the cause of the catastrophe, does this clear the company of any guilt in the matter? If sabotage really is to blame, doesn't it only shift the company culpability from one area…
1. Economist. "Bhopal's Deadly Legacy." 373.8403 (2004). Academic Search Premier 6 Dec. 2004 http://80-web15.epnet.com.memex.lehman.cuny.edu.
2. Multinational Monitor. "Workers at Risk: The Dangers on the Job When the Regulators Don't Try Very Hard." 24.6 (2004): 21-26.
3. Schmitt, Christopher H., Wakefield, Ann M., Ekman, Monica M. "Secrets behind the mask." U.S. News & World Report 137.4 (2004): 38-41.
4. Union Carbide Corp. "Statement of Union Carbide Corporation Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy." 2004. http://www.bhopal.com/ucs.htm.
In many powerful nations with whom U.S. corporations would like to do business (such as Mexico, India, and China) the price of bribery is factored into the everyday costs of doing business. There are profound cultural differences regarding perceptions of the ethics of bribery and in some government officials' views, receiving a bribe is an expected part of their informal salary. However, legally, the hands of U.S. companies are tied, no matter how widely embraced bribery may be abroad. "The United States' 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits payments made to foreign government officials with the aim of gaining or maintaining business" although gifts "to officers working for foreign corporations are legal" which allows some organizations to disregard the spirit of the law; regardless, to do so is unwise and illegal (Allen 2000).
Topic 1: Ethics culture
Q1.How would you describe the ethics culture of the organization?
Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Ethical Standards
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have usually faced several challenges with regards to developing standards that deal with issues associated with corporate social responsibility. These corporations are forced to embrace more specific ethical codes in their corporate strategy because of the materialization and growth of a global economy. In the recent past, multinational corporations have started rethinking strategies that may be regarded unethical based on international standards (Manakkalathil & udolf, 1995). As a result, some people have argued that the corporations should lessen their ethical standards to compete globally. In contrast, others have stated that a multinational corporation to should retain its ethical standards to develop more credibility throughout the world.
Proponents of this statement argue that an MNC should lessen its ethical standards because it may encounter some business laws that are not permitted in some countries. For instance, a company operating in the United…
Manakkalathil, J. & Rudolf, E. (1995). Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing Market.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(1).
Roache, S. (2013, October). Brazil -- Selected Issues. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13313.pdf
Select multinational organizations describe main line business organizations. Examine ways companies utilizes internet part marketing strategies. Identify current potential problems recommendations improvement.
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
A multinational enterprise (MNE) is defined as a firm that is based in two or more nations. Although they began as iconic American companies, Nike and the Kellogg Corporation have operations all over the globe and have customers in almost all of the developed and much of the developing world. But because of the different types of products they sell, the ways in which they reach their customer base -- particularly online -- are quite distinct.
The multinational company Nike uses the Internet to both advertise its products as well as to sell its products. Nike markets fashion-forward sportswear that is supposed to fill a functional purpose, but also is noteworthy because of its style.…
Holmes, Stanley. (2004, September 20) The new Nike. Businessweek. Retrieved March 3, 2011
Kellogg: Promotions. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved March 3, 2011 at http://www2.kelloggs.com/PromotionSearch.aspx?search=
Nike. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved March 3, 2011 at http://www.nike.com/nikeos/p/nike/en_US/?sitesrc=uslp
Unilever is a consumer products multinational is listed in London and the Netherlands simultaneously. The company has a highly diversified product base such that it is not dependent on any one business or market for its success. The consumer products industry in the est is a mature business, and it is a growing business in the growing economies of the world like the BRIC economies and many Asian countries.
Being a diversified multinational, Unilever faces a number of conditions in its different markets around the world. The company is mainly affected by general trends. These include global incomes -- the company's products are not necessarily discretionary but demand will still be affected by the business cycle.
Globalization is another trend that will have a high level of impact on the company. One of the main impacts of globalization is that companies have access to more markets. The trend has in…
Bennett, A. (2011). Euro declines after Italian debt auction; Dollar, Brazilian real advance. Reuters. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-11-25/euro-weakens-as-french-confidence-drops-amid-debt-crisis-krone-declines.html
FDA. (2010). Inspections, compliance, enforcement and criminal investigations. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/ucm224509.htm
Form 20-F 2010 Unilever. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.unilever.com/images/Unilever_20-F_AR10_tcm13-259486.pdf
Henisz, W. & Zelner, B. (no date). Political risk management: A strategic perspective. The Wharton School. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www-management.wharton.upenn.edu/henisz/papers/hz_prm.pdf
Mart is an American multinational retail and discount store chain having more than 1,100 stores across all the states of the country. Established in 2009, Max-Mart is one of the fastest growing retailers in the United States after Wal-Mart, Target Corporation, and K-Mart. In addition to the home country, Max-Mart also operates a number of independent retail and discount stores in Australia, United Kingdom, Japan, Thailand, and New Zealand. Other international locations of the company include Canada, Europe, and Mexico. Max-Mart is headquartered in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, United States. It has done a number of acquisitions and mergers during the last couple of decades. Max-Mart serves more than 3 million customers every day.
Max-Mart offers a wide array of consumer products and grocery items; including beauty and health care products, food items, toys, clothing, shoes, home and electronic appliances, bedding and furniture, books, medicines, magazines, jewelry, movies, music, games, sports…
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2011). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 9th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. (2010). Contemporary Marketing, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. (2012). Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western.
l billion in 2007. This growth can be seen to represent the increasing interest of Chinese firms in acquiring resources, technology and brands outside of their own country (Carpenter & yman, 2009).
Lenovo was able to seal the deal essentially by acting like a estern firm. It did not approach the deal from the same perspective as say, the way that CNOOC did with its unsolicited bid and ultimately failed bid for Chevron. Lenovo had a strategic alliance with IBM prior to the deal, so that the latter's management and shareholders understood the strategic value of the deal. For Lenovo, it was able to maintain relationships with IBM, including taking some of its talent back to China with it.
Lenovo traded on the Hong Kong exchange, giving it the transparency needed by estern investors. Moreover, this also lent liquidity to Lenovo shares, allowing them to be used in the deal.…
Wong, J. & Chan, S. (2003). China's outward direct investment: Expanding worldwide. China: An International Journal. Vol. 1, 2, 273-301.
Schuller, M. & Turner, A. (2005). Global ambitions: Chinese companies spread their wings. Im Fokus. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.giga-hamburg.de/ifa/kostenlos/ca/0504/Fokus-Schueller.pdf
Hamm, S. (2005). Lenovo and IBM: East meets west, big time. Business Week. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_19/b3932113_mz063.htm
Fuhrman, P. (2009). Private equity and strategic M&A transactions in China. China First Capital. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.chinafirstcapital.com/blog/archives/202
The basic reason they are able to do so is that they don't have to provide perks and privileges to their workers and have fewer minor or overhead expenditures to take care of. (Edstrom, 1998)
To obtain best results and smooth functioning of any business it is important to understand the business, its achievements and aspirations and let others do the rest. Microsoft Corporation should likewise continue to exploit the advantages of H outsourcing for many reasons that include; it helps in diverting a considerable amount of resources and attention of the management for more pressing and critical issues. (McDonald, 2005) the firm undertaking the outsourced work is usually streamlined and dedicated to the particular field and often has state of the art technology and equipment, which is at times difficult to procure and maintain. Outsourcing is beneficial to both the parties. It causes the circulation of capital from developed…
Jennifer Edstrom; Marlin Eller (1998). Barbarians Led by Bill Gates: Microsoft from inside. N.Y. Holt.
Microsoft Official website http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/inside_ms.mspx
McDonald, SM and Jacobs, TJ (2005) 'Brand Name 'India': The Rise of Outsourcing,' Int. J. Management Practice, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.152-174.
Ganga Pharmaceuticals is a multinational Indian corporation that competes in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and related research and development with annual revenues of about $285 million. The company features one of the largest biotechnology parks in India and currently employs around 7,000 employees globally. In recent years, Ganga has acquired a number of companies in Europe and the United States, including C-Pharma, which was acquired in 2003 for approximately $17.2 million. As part of this acquisition, the human resources division at Ganga sought to align the newly acquired C-Pharma with the parent company, but met with mixed success due to some missteps in its administration of the transition. To determine where the company went wrong and what steps could have been taken to avoid these adverse outcomes, this study provides a review of the relevant literature in two parts. The first part provides an overview of Ganga, its operations strategy,…
Brewster, C. & Harris, H. (1999). International HRM: Contemporary issues in Europe. New York: Routledge.
Budhwar, P.S., Varma, A., Katou, A.A. & Narayan, D. (2009). The role of HR in cross-border mergers and acquisitions: the case of Indian pharmaceutical firms. Multinational Business Review, 17(2), 89-91.
Ncube, L.B. & Wasburn, M.H. (2008). Strategic analysis: Approaching continuous improvement proactively. Review of Business, 29(1), 15-17.
Wall, S.J. & Wall, S.R. (2000). The morning after: Making corporate mergers work after the deal is sealed. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Balfour Beatty UK
The multinational infrastructure PPP firm
The rise of the public-private partnership (PPP) during the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008 is most representative of market activities in the infrastructure investment sector. Appropriations linked to economic and fiscal policy in the UK since this period has had influence on the steering of PPP projects and the strategies designed by participatory entities. Conversely, the PPP relationship to infrastructure in urban planning has been nothing short of formative in the articulation of new terms to the future tax and economic foci of Britain' fiscal and monetary policies.
At the forefront of this recent history, is the UK construction and investment company, Balfour Beatty. A leader in the PPP sector, the firm offers exemplary case study to assessment of how government policy has affected one of Britain's previously cash flush business climate. Infrastructural projects are now met with unique…
Balfour Beatty, 2011. Available at: http://www.balfourbeatty.com/
Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) United Kingdom, 2010. Available at: http://www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/
HC 451: Budget 2010: Securing the recovery Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report and Financial Statement and Budget Report March 2010. Copy of Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report and Financial Statement and Budget Report -- March 2010 as laid before the House of Commons by the Chancellor of the Exchequer when opening the Budget, Stephen Timms, Her Majesty's Treasury 24 March 2010. Available at:
Target's chart, however, shows that the company has tracked the market and GDP fairly closely, indicating that perhaps it does not trade the way a discount retailer should.
Johnson & Johnson
JNJ is a pharmaceutical and consumer products company. It competes in pharmaceuticals, consumer products in the health and beauty segment and in medical devices. The company was founded in 1886 and today is a multinational conglomerate with operations in 57 countries and with approximately 250 subsidiaries.
To a certain extent, JNJ's product line is price inelastic. Pharmaceutical demand is tied to overall consumer demand and the state of the economy, but not to the same extent that many other consumer products are. As a result, JNJ would be expected to have less significant swings in its stock price relative to the GDP, other macroeconomic indicators, or the Dow Jones. The stock, however, has traded roughly in line with the…
Yahoo! Finance, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://finance.yahoo.com
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Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Employment Situation Summary. BLS. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
Merger, Acquisition and International Strategies
Mergers, Acquisitions and International Strategies
A merger is a combination of two or more business entities with the aim of consolidating the resources that they have and creating a single entity with that. The process of merging is done through acquisition or direct pooling together of the resources available. Acquisition occurs when a firm buys a stake in another firm and assumes control of it. Acquisitions are part of growth strategies paid for in cash, payment through stock of the acquiring company or both. Mergers and Acquisitions commonly denoted by M & A work hand in hand and are in recent times seen as one. M & A is a strategy of finance and management dealing with the selling, buying, combination of, firms and entities to help grow a firm rapidly. M & A occur to help a firm create a new strategy, joint venture…
GM:New York Stock Quote - General Motors Co - Bloomberg. (n.d.). Bloomberg - Business, Financial & Economic News, Stock Quotes. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.bloomberg.com/quote/GM:U.S .
General Motors | GM.com. (n.d.). General Motors | GM.com. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.gm.com/
Tesla Motors | Premium Electric Vehicles. (n.d.). Tesla Motors | Premium Electric Vehicles. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from http://www.teslamotors.com/
Managing Exchange ate isk
For a number of multinational corporations, currency fluctuations can pose an extreme risk for them. This is because of sudden changes and dramatic amounts of volatility inside the marketplace can have a negative effect on their bottom line results. When this happens, there is a realistic possibility that these challenges could negatively impact their financial position and ability to compete inside many different markets. (Berger, 2011)
In the case of Fed Ex, the company has operations around the globe and is one the larger overnight package delivery services. This means that sudden shifts in the currency could negatively impact their earnings. To fully understand the overall scope and the way they are able to deal with these challenges requires focusing on how this impacts their operations, options financial managers can use to manage it and the benefits / drawbacks of these strategies. Together, these elements will…
Fed Ex. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com /q/pr?s=FDX+Profile' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
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Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993, 'An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management', deciding An IHRM Approach 449 International Journal of Human Resourc Management, Vol.1, pp.717 -- 764.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S., & Napier, N. 1996, 'Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management', Academy of Management Review,, vol21, pp. 959 -- 985.
Tomkins, R. Battered 1997, PepsiCo licks its wounds. The Financial Times, vol.26.
The study by Darrag et al. uses HRM as a mode to identify several clear obstacles to effective recruitment on an international scale. A major point of concern for MNCs, the article indicates, is the difficulty of penetrating culturally ingrained models of hiring and promoting. In such contexts as Egypt, Iran and Taiwan, the article reports that nepotism remains a powerful force preventing the use of merit in recruitment situations. These are concrete examples of the culturally-bound challenges facing the international human resource manager.
The Human Resource Planning theory states that these challenges require an HR department that is formulated according to the cultural particulars of a host country. The article by Darrag et al. concludes that where MNCs are able to make adjustments through their Human Resource Management departments, host countries are likely to see greater economic benefits. Yielding this presumption based on its case examination of MNCs operating…
Ardalan, K. (2008). Globalization and Culture: Four Paradigmatic Views. International Journal of Social Economics, 30(5), 513-534.
Brewster, C.; Sparrow, P. & Vernon, G. (2007). International Human Resource Management. London: CIPD.
Darrag, M.; Mohamed, A. & Abdel Aziz, H. (2010). Investigating Recruitment Practices and Probmes of Multinational Companies (MNCs) operating in Egypt. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 3(2), 99-116.
Morley, M.J. & Collings, D.G. (2004). Contemporary Debates and New Directions in HRM in MNCs. International Journal of Manpower, 25(6), 487-499.
Globalism is certainly a new concept that humans have been working toward for centuries. It is just that in the late 20th and early 21st technology finally advanced enough to allow for instantaneous communication via satellites and Internet. This, plus technological advances in transportation and scientific measurement, has also helped us realize that although the world is closer politically, economically, and culturally -- it is also tied together environmentally. What happens in one area does have an effect on another area which makes the idea called globalism more of an umbrella concept. The whole picture of globalism tends to refer to the theories that see modern life as a series of very complex webs, almost string theory, that tie together most all of modern life.
Part 1 -- Describe Bata's international business strategy. Would you consider Bata a multinational corporation? The Bata Show Company is clearly a multinational corporation. It…
With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.
Table showing metals mined by Doe un
Dollars in thousands)
Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services
Dollars in thousands)
Primary lead metal sales
Cheryl Whittenauer. U.S.: Doe Run ordered to clean up tailings site. 2 October, 2006. http://www.warprofiteers.com/article.php?id=14196
DeVous, Philip. Utopian solutions vs. real corporate social responsibility. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/20051222_news/20051222_04.html
Doe Run Resources Corp: Annual Report 10-K. http://sec.edgar-online.com/2005/03/23/0001047469-05-007373/Section2.asp
Final Award allowing Compensation. The Labor and Industrial relations Commission. http://www.dolir.mo.gov/lirc/wcdecisions/wcdec01%5CLorenA.htm
This is very important when marketing as it is important to market the goods where they are needed and wanted.
One area of scrutiny in the article had to do with brand loyalty, "made in China" and other connected statistical metrics. While the Chinese consumer has a tendency to support its domestic goods, the expanding choices are making inroads with youth who are less committed to such a notion. As for a competitive environment, it appears that the consumer is enthusiastic about the expanding choices. Increased competition often increases the challenges that businesses face, yet this same increased competition often yields even more choices.
This is the kind of information that is needed in order to have successful multinational corporations thrive in China. In order to be better marketers, managers, strategic planners and so forth we must become Chinese. Assuming for a moment one has enough information…
Fan, M. (2006). How can multinational corporations retain their employees in China?
Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1406&context=cahr swp
McEwen, W., Xiaoguang, F., Chuanping, Z., & Burkholder, R. (2006). Inside the mind of the Chinese consumer. Harvard Business Review, 84(3), 68-76.
Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC
Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC is a British multinational corporation that designs, develops, manufactures, promotes, and sells automobiles under the brand names of Jaguar and Land over, including ange over brand. Jaguar Land over is the United Kingdom's largest automobile corporation that took its roots from a couple of strongest automobile brands: Jaguar and Land over. Currently, Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC is a renowned subsidiary of India's most successful automobile group -- Tata Motors. It is headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, United Kingdom. Tata Motors acquired Jaguar Land over in 2008 from Ford Motor Company. The major subsidiaries of Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC include: Jaguar Land over Holdings Limited, Jaguar Land over Limited, Jaguar Land over India, and Chery Jaguar Land over. Jaguar Land over was the result of a union between Jaguar Cars and Land over which Ford Motor Company did…
Cranfield University, (2014). Jaguar Land Rover: High Performance Leaders Programme. Retrieved on April 2nd, 2014, from
Harrison, J.S., & John, C.H. (2014). Foundations in Strategic Management, 6th Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
Henry, A. (2011). Understanding Strategic Management, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 8th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Accordingly, a McDonald's restaurant team is successively inter-reliant (Daft, 2008). Deprived of everyone working in unison and having adequate inspiration to deliver respectable and rapid good service, all members of the team usually fail. Consequently of one person losing inspiration or flopping to sufficiently achieve his duties, clients can protest and business can fail and be lost. Although most workers are trained to achieve multiple errands at numerous stations, they are not typically able to achieve all of these responsibilities concurrently.
Organizational justice which is really based on equity theory] and organizational citizenship behavior [OCB] have now really finally come into a worldwide business and cross-cultural research point-of-view. The investigation of these two theoretical frameworks really has unraveled over the past couple of years. From Adams' (Northouse, 2007) the equity theory has evolved into the idea of organizational justice and from Bateman and Organ progressed the idea of…
Corporation, M., 2009. Corporate. [Online]
Available at: www.mcdonalds.com/corp.html
[Accessed 7 February 2012].
Daft, R.L., 2008. The Leadership Experience.. Mason-Ohio: s.n.
The localized supply chains are also critically important for better understanding how market requirements change over time in OP-based regions and nations of the world. The many steps required to create an effective supply chain in a given OP-based region differ drastically from creating one in a more affluent region of the world. The focus on speed and transactions and the ability to increase velocity is the priority in these markets. In OP-based nations the perspective shifts to understanding the dynamics of the market first, and then using these insights to create local competitive advantage. These lessons learned, specifically in the case of SAMiller and others lead to a more effective supply chain formation, management and optimization strategy over the long-term.
Creating and executing effective Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs that serve as market frameworks, defining and executing more effective direct Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) strategies with host nations…
Chattopadhyay, Subho and a.K. Sarkar. 2011. "Market-Driven Innovation for Rural Penetration." IUP Journal of Business Strategy 8 (3): 42-52.
Gouillart, Emily. 2008. "An Interview with C.K. Prahalad." Journal of International Affairs 62 (1): 215-227.
Kennedy, Carol. 2004. "The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid." Director, 36-36.
Prahalad, C.K. 2004. "Why Selling to the Poor Makes for Good Business." Fortune, Nov 15, 70-72.
com, 2009). Lower-level employees are less likely to make decisions, saving all decisions for top executives. This can cause frustration with American firms, who can be comfortable allowing mid-level managers to make important decisions. This can impact the pace at which negotiations move and there may be offense taken on the part of senior executives of Asian companies if they are not meeting with their equal in the American company. The U.S. company in this situation would need to be more patient in the early stages of negotiation and take time to understand the differences in the decision-making process when dealing with Asian companies.
3.2. One cultural difference that can cause significant problems for American companies could be the status of women in Arab nations. omen are not accepted in business in that part of the world, which could prove difficult for U.S. companies with female senior executives, performing their…
Investopedia.com (2011). Asymmetric information. Investopedia. Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/asymmetricinformation.asp
Geert-Hofstede.com (2009). Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_japan.shtml