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Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory
The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) was first proposed by Howard Gardner as he obtained certain insights into his field of research (Gardner, 2006). Since its introduction the theory has received a great deal of attention and notoriety. One of the most interesting aspects to Gardner's theory is the criteria that he used to identify the various intelligences. His methodology included an eight step approach that he used to develop the first seven different types of intelligences as well as the eighth and ninth which were added later. This methodology was arguably the key to the development of the theory of MI and this paper will outline some of the profound impacts upon the development of theory that the methodology provided.
The first criterion that was outlined in Gardner's theory is that there should be some form of exceptional example of human psychology in which…
Potentially, after identifying these intelligences in each student, the teacher would then be more capable of enhancing these intelligences and in effect, inducing learner within each student the motivation to excel in school, using the strength of their intelligences. ecognition of students' multiple intelligences would make teacher-student interaction within the classroom more dynamic: learning would be more understandable and 'attractive' for students and the teacher would have effective communication to students and would accomplish of sharing learning with them.
One of the ways in which a teacher could determine the intelligences of his/her students and develop activities that would promote the learning of the subject manner more easily for the whole class is for the teacher to create an intellectual profile of his/her students. Tools for intellectual profiling (covering all 8 domains/intelligences) were also developed by Gardner, and these tools could be used to determine the composition of intelligences in…
Checkley, K. (1997). "The first seven… and eighth: a conversation with Howard Gardner." Educational Leadership, Vol. 55, No. 1.
Visser, B. (2006). "Beyond g: putting multiple intelligences theory to the test." Intelligence, Vol. 34.
Similarly, I was also surprised that I scored highly on existential intelligence, since, like my score in intrapersonal intelligence, I do not consider myself an individual who actually thinks and reflects about life deeply, more so myself. But I somewhat agree to this as potentially a current reflection of my disposition in life at the moment, since I am currently at the stage of my life where I am thinking about the accomplishment of my life goals and ultimately, what do I really want to do in life -- what would ultimately make me happy as an individual.
I could apply this learning and insight in my profession as a teacher to develop the skills that I scored lowest, namely my visual, musical, logical and interpersonal intelligences. It would be a challenge for me to develop my skills in these intelligences, but they are also critical since these intelligences would…
Visser, B. (2006). "Beyond g: putting multiple intelligences theory to the test." Intelligence, Vol. 34.
All these facts and considerations presented herein this research proposal establishes a basis for further research in this subject.
Hoerr, Thomas (2004) Applying MI in Schools - New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies Online available at http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/mi/hoerr2.htm.
Campbell, Bruce (1991) Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom - New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies Online available at http://www.newhorizons.org/ICLIB/IC27/Campbell.hrm
Silver, et al. (2000) So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies Online available at www.newhorizons.org/strategies/styles/styl_review_silver.htm.
Weber, Ellen (1996) Creative Learning from Inside Out: A collaborative learning and teaching approach for high school New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies Online available at http://www.newhorizons.org / trategies/mi/mi_review_weber.htm.
Davies, J. (1996) [Online} "A reluctant guru on matters between the ears. Howard Gardner talks to John Davies about his theory of human intelligence." (Original published in the Thesis, January 19, 1996)…
Hoerr, Thomas (2004) Applying MI in Schools - New Horizons for Learning: Teaching and Learning Strategies Online available at http://www.newhorizons.org /strategies/mi/hoerr2.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The adoption of the MI theory to education has been uniquely framed in the following approach:
A broader view of education
The seven aspects of intelligence are important for an individual to have a good life. It is therefore important for educators to include aspects of all the forms of intelligence when dispensing knowledge to their student. This is in opposition to the use of the first two forms of intelligences that they have traditionally placed their focus on. Kornhaber (2001) clearly noted that the process of applying MI theory to education must involve the application of the theory by educators in an approach he referred to as 'for depth over breadth' technique. This involves the application of acquired knowledge in another setting.
The use of these principles are based on the notion of allowing individuals to be encouraged to make use of their preferred intelligence in the process of…
Gardner, H (1983).Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Kornhaber, M.L. (2001) 'Howard Gardner' in J.A. Palmer (ed.) Fifty Modern Thinkers
Kumbar, R (2006). Application of Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for the Effective Use of Library Resources by K-2 Students: An Experimented Model
The language of the American colonists was highly colorful but quite formal in style, and the presentation of a speech or a content analysis of primary sources would provide elementary school students with an opportunity to experience these fundamental differences for themselves, all with a view toward improving their understanding of what life in Colonial America was really like.
2. Logico-mathematical. One of the most glaring differences between life in the 21st century and that of Colonial Americans involves logical reasoning and mathematical functions. Today, even very young students are generally able to use sophisticated calculators and computers to help them with their reasoning and mathematical computations and enjoy the benefits of classroom instruction in these areas; by sharp contrast, many students of Colonial America were not provided with a formal education to begin with, and when they were, it was drastically different than that typically experienced by modern students…
Adams, T.L. (2000). Helping children learn mathematics through multiple intelligences and standards for school mathematics. Childhood Education, 77(2), 86.
Battle of New Orleans. (2005). National Institutes of Health, Department of Health & Human Services. [Online]. Available: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/lyrics/battleof.htm .
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Bonomi, P.U. (1998). Under the cope of Heaven: Religion, society, and politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press.
There are few intelligences that will serve one more consistently in life than the ability to understand and account for the perceptions, feelings and needs of others. Interpersonal intelligence is a dimension that is often unmeasured in the context of education, however, I have personally found that this intelligence has been instrumental in the development of my negotiating skills, my ability to meet the expectations of others and my ability to navigate interactions with charm and charisma.
This intelligence interacts inextricably with intrapersonal intelligence. Knowing one's self is essential to doing well by others. Indeed, with a clear, humble and ever-probing understanding of myself and my own needs, I have found it far easier to interact with confidence and to present myself to others as I would like to be seen. In this regard, I have even come to view self-knowledge within the context of intelligence as analogous to identifying…
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. Basic Books.
Multiple Intelligences in Art
In fields traditionally driven by "talent," such as music and the visual arts, it is easy for teachers to slip into the idea that certain students have more musical aptitude than others or that other certain students will always struggle with visual arts. However, to some degree, such attitudes may be the result of the teacher's own education, where his or her special abilities were emphasized, praised, and treated with importance.
Everyone knows that playing the violin and playing the clarinet are quite different. We do not expect someone who has studied the violin to pick up a clarinet and immediately play it well. People do not always realize that such subdivisions exist in art as well. The person skilled at pottery may not be particularly good at drawing or painting.
This kind of thinking about art can be extended to Gardner's idea of multiple intelligences.…
Gardner, Howard. 1995. "Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages." Phi Delta Kappan, November.
Van Tassel-Baska, Joyce. 1998. "The development of academic talent: a mandate for educational best practice." Phi Delta Kappan, June.
The two most critical things parents must do to support education are to work closely with their children at home, actively engaged in their homework and subjects; and to participate in school and community meetings. By participating actively in these two significant matters of a child's education, they can encourage the student to learn at his or her optimal capacity and prevent academic and behavioral problems.
When parents actively participate in their child's homework, they can greatly assist the learning process, and nip in the bud small problems. For example, if a child demonstrates an early resistance to grammar, the parent can help teach their child grammar rules in a different way than they are being taught in the classroom. As no teacher is perfect and none can support the needs of every single student, it is up to the parent to pay attention to the learning styles…
Intelligence is defined as the capability to learn and apply knowledge. The ability for an individual to benefit from past experiences, solve problems, act purposely, and adapt to new situations are included in intelligence (Passmore, Tong, & Wildflower, 2011). Intelligence is amongst the highly talked about subjects in psychology, but there has not been a standard definition of what precisely forms intelligence. There have been two different definitions from researchers in regards to intelligence. One defines intelligence as a single general ability, and the other believes that it covers a range of skills, aptitude, and talents. Theories of intelligence emerged around 1904 when psychologist Charles E. Spearman published his first article on intelligence.
The best theory for determining intelligence is the multiple intelligence theory. The theory does not focus on one single general factor, but rather on different factors. The theory was proposed by Gardner (2011), and he believed that…
Gardner, M.K. (2011). Theories of intelligence. The Oxford handbook of school psychology, 79-100.
Miele, D.B., Son, L.K., & Metcalfe, J. (2013). Children's Naive Theories of Intelligence Influence Their Metacognitive Judgments. Child development, 84(6), 1879-1886.
Passmore, J., Tong, C., & Wildflower, L. (2011). Theories of intelligence. Source: The Handbook of Knowledge-?Based Coaching: What we really do when we coach., 2.
Rickert, N.P., Meras, I.L., & Witkow, M.R. (2014). Theories of intelligence and students' daily self-handicapping behaviors. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 1-8.
The theory of multiple intelligences is a good way to explain the different ways that people learn. This theory has been used in education, psychology and business to help people understand how they learn, and how others learn. This paper will explain what the theory of multiple intelligences is, how it works and why this is valuable in a number of different settings.
What is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The theory of multiple intelligences was crafted by Howard Gardner as a means of explaining why different teaching styles are effective for some people and ineffective for others. Gardner noted that traditional views of intelligence held that intelligence was fixed (Smith, 2008). People were measured on things like their IQ, and this was considered to be the sum total of their intelligence. Gardner began to realize from working with people that they tended to excel in different areas.…
Chapman, A. (2012). Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theories model. BusinessBalls.com. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm
Cherry, K. (2014). Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. About.com. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/ss/multiple-intell.htm
PBS. (2014). Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. PBS.org. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html
Smith, M. (2008). Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education. InFed. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://infed.org/mobi/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-and-education/
The Teacher’s Role in A Multiple Intelligence Learning Environment
The role of the teacher in a multiple intelligence learning environment is transformed from the normal learning environment in that the teacher no longer stands in front of the classroom and lectures to the student. In multiple intelligence, the teacher's role is to observe the students from different perspectives, develop the curriculum for the students, find activities that assist the students to learn based on their individual smarts, and plan the design of the lessons (Ba? & Beyhab, 2017). Teachers are no longer required to present their lessons using the traditional methods, but rather in a wide array of ways like using music, art activities, multimedia, role play, and many more. This allows the teacher to be keen on the students and have a different group of students all learning the same subject and topic using different methods based on the…
Who would you most like to invite?
hat is very difficult, since I just started reading about all the people who are doing wonderful things today around the world. I know I want to meet someone about astronomy and also computers.
hank you for your interview. Do you have any last words?
Only that no one should give up on their interests because they feel lesser of a man from someone else. We all have something special inside us.
PARY for BENJAMIN BANNEKER
he party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. he theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. he decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they…
The party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. The theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. The decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they glow, but bright enough so people can talk. In addition to Griffin, Steve Jobs from Apple Computer; Steve Hawking, physicist; Al Gore, global warming; Maya Angelou, African-American author; General Collin Powell; Dave Chappelle, comedian, to add some humor to this serious bunch; Tupac (2Pac) Shakur for some up-to-date music; and Johnny Depp, 2007 "People's Choice" award winner; and Ellen DeGeneres, for TV and comedy (also "People's Choice" award winner).
All invited will have had a chance to learn about Banneker, so they can welcome him in their own way. Each will have ten minutes to do something special for him, that relates to his/her own background. For example, the comedians will roast Banneker and Angelou will read one of her poems.
The food will be an international buffet, so Banneker can get a taste of global treats and learn more about the rest of the world. The night will end with Banneker getting a special award -- a brand new computer-chip driven chiming clock.
intelligence theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
There have been many ideas presented to the world about the theory or intelligence and while some of them have received lukewarm reviews there are two in which the world took a long hard look and decided they might be possible. It is interesting to note that the theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner do not have a lot in common yet they are each respected as possible explanations for the human intelligence.
The theory of Howard Gardner of intelligence is based in the belief that there are actually multiple types of intelligence and rather than narrow the areas of measurement to one or two the world should recognize and encourage all seven of the intelligence factors.
According to Gardner the seven distinct areas of intelligence include (Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory…
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory (accessed 6-12-2003)
Multiple Intelligences (H. Gardner) (accessed 6-12-2003)
According to him, a theory of intelligence can be adequately mapped with three components: analytic (academic) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. This theory accounts for both cognition and context is also referred as Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of human intelligence.
According to Sternberg, intelligence has three aspects. These are not multiple intelligences, as in Gardner's scheme. Where Gardner viewed the various intelligences as separate and independent, Sternberg posited three integrated and interdependent aspects of intelligence. These aspects relate intelligence to what goes on internally within a person, to what goes on in the external world, and to experience, which mediates between the internal and external worlds.
The first aspect consists of the cognitive processes and representations that form the core of all thought. Sternberg distinguished three kinds of processes: those involved in deciding what to do and in deciding how well it was done, those involved in doing what one…
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.
The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).
Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…
Huffman, Karen. 2003. Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
This includes a general description of how to incorporate activities based on multiple intelligences into the classroom, and the benefits and importance of doing so. A diversified curriculum will be far more likely to meet all learners' needs, rather than just promoting and developing the types of intelligence that have been traditionally recognized and encouraged in Western schools. This means making curricula both "intelligence rich" by promoting and developing all types of intelligence, and "intelligence fair" by making sure that learning opportunities and assessment methods take the different intelligences into account. This can often mean providing choice in the activities to be performed, as well as in the ways to complete them, as well as offering many different activities even when they don't match a particular student's proclivities, specifically to develop some of their weaker intelligences.
Knowledge is most useful when it is practical, and though there is a great…
Howard Gardner's contributions to the field of education are profound, extensive, and revolutionary. His theory of multiple intelligences states that students are able to absorb, manipulate, and produce information through a variety of media. In fact, by means of his research findings, Gardner claims individuals possess different aptitudes, all of which are legitimate forms of intelligence. Naturally, his scholarship reaches educators and policy makers and changes the way in which learning is perceived and education is delivered.
The implications of the theory of multiple intelligences on curricula are considerable and open to interpretation. Some educators contend that applying this theory translates into alternative delivery of instruction so as to afford learners several points of reference. Others view pedagogical use of multiple intelligences to be an effective method of fostering students' natural abilities. Yet other instructors hold that employing multiple intelligences in education necessitates the expansion of curriculum. Gardner himself asserts…
Armstrong, Thomas (1996). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. New York:
Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Campbell, Linda, Campbell, Bruce & Dickinson, Dee (1998). Teaching and Learning
Through Multiple Intelligences. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Intelligence testing should not be required for candidates prior to running for public office.
Firstly, the assumption that higher traditional measures of intelligence will result in better governance is highly debatable and flawed. Second, the ability to govern may be better determined by a measurement of emotional intelligence, rather than standard IQ measurements. Third, moral character may be a better measure of the ability to govern than intelligence.
Americans often complain that the nature of our democratic government leads to the election of individuals whose intelligence levels leave a great deal to be desired. Clearly, the actions of a great many public officials give credence to this claim. e have only to think of the, the indiscreet and inappropriate sexual shenanigans of Gary Hart, and the infamous inability of Dan Quayle to spell potato correctly as evidence of this assertion. In response to these criticisms, many Americans have begun to…
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc., 1983.
Intelligence tests provide a means of assessing a person's intelligence. However, it may not be as useful to measure everyone's intelligence. For example, those that are economically disadvantages or part of a minority may score lower versus others lending to underrepresentation in talented/gifted programs. hile IQ tests may provide a basis from which to assess degree of intelligence, it may not be an accurate representation of an individual's intelligence. This is because the current, most used IQ tests are not formed keeping in a mind a plausible theory on how a human brain operates. Nor is there a means of measuring more modern ideas of intelligence.
Modern ideas of intelligence consist of an expanded view of multiple intelligences. Gardner's theory has gained great traction in the last two decades. It proposes there are at minimum, eight distinct areas where a student may be skilled. (Tirri and Nokelainen) Unlike in estern…
Chen, Jie-Qi, Seana Moran, and Howard Gardner. Multiple Intelligences Around The World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009. Print.
Tirri, Kirsi and Petri Nokelainen. Measuring Multiple Intelligences And Moral Sensitivities In Education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2012. Print.
One recent study defined purpose as "an extraordinary achievement" (Moran, 2009, p. 143), yet the there are many individuals in the world who believe that the purpose of intelligence is to prevent surprise. Contemplating the contradiction, the question that could be asked is "how then does an extraordinary achievement translate into everyday intelligence?" This author believes that the purpose of intelligence is not to prevent surprise, instead that the purpose of intelligence is to determine a pathway for the life of the individual.
Measuring the successful pathway of an individual life can be a difficult venture, especially if such measurements are based on the person's intelligence. My belief is that preventing a surprise by showing intelligence can be applied to these type of scenarios with very limited success. There are a myriad of methods used to determine ones intelligence, including but certainly not limited to: measuring intelligent quotient as…
Anderson, R.; (2006) Body intelligence scale: Defining and measuring the intelligence of the body, The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 357 -- 367
Bond, M.; (2009) It's how you use it that counts, New Scientist, Vol. 204, Issue 2732, pp. 36 -- 39
Hardy, J.B.; Welcher, D.W.; Mellits, E.D.; Kagan, J.; (1976) Pitfalls in the measurement of intelligence: Are standard intelligence tests valid instruments for measuring the intellectual potential of urban children? Journal of Psychology, Vol. 94, Issue 1, pp. 43-52
Moran, S.; (2009) Purpose: Giftedness in intrapersonal intelligence, High Ability Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 143 -- 159
Intelligence Community (IC) is the biggest and most multifaceted institution of its kind, consisting of sixteen semi-independent agencies with dissimilar, sometimes corresponding, spheres of accountability. Generally, it has demonstrated problematic to institute integrated direction over the IC. Ensuing major terrorist attacks like that of September 11, 2001, comprehensive intelligence restructurings were sanctioned, including legislature to authorize chief leadership by founding a Director of National Intelligence. Notwithstanding these modifications, opposition to central management still affects the IC to this day. The disaster in structural reform is poorly comprehended, as the literature does not intellectualize intelligence agencies predominantly as organizations.
The methodology recommended herein examines the progressive paths of agencies, which irradiates the organizational factors moving reform. Employing the structure of Historical Institutionalism in the new setting of intelligence agencies aids in explaining the difficulties seen in reform, posed by established interests and governmental cultures, damaging the realistic likelihood of centralized control…
Caswell Jr., Kenneth L. 'Establishment Of The National Maritime Intelligence Center: Understanding The Foundations Of Trust To Support A Collaborative Environment In Homeland Security' (2010).
Healy, Thomas F. 'Fighting Tomorrow's Fire Today: Leveraging Intelligence For Scenario-Based Exercise Design' (2014).
Pope, Robert S. 'Interagency Task Forces: The Right Tools For the Job' (2011).
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.
Dodson, Stanley I. And Anthony R. Ives. (1998). Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, Rob. (2005). "Study Reveals Cancer Risk to Unborn Babies from City-Center Air Pollution." Sunday Herald, Feb. 20.
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
Spearman and Gardner Intelligence
Spearman's Model of Intelligence and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theories have both played important roles in modern understanding of intelligence. At the same time, the theories are fundamentally very different. Spearman's model is based on an understanding of intelligence as a single, measurable variable 'g'. In contrast, Gardner sees intelligence as an amalgamation of as many as eight different forms of intelligence. Gardner's model allows for a more fluid understanding of intelligence that takes into consideration cultural differences, while Spearman's model is more rigid and innate.
The study of intelligence is notoriously difficult. In many ways, intelligence is an abstract concept that is composed of a number of different components. It is an internal, mental process that is not truly based in a concrete, objective reality. As such, Spearman and Gardner's attempts at understanding intelligence are both ultimately limited by the very nature of intelligence itself.
Harvard University. Theory of Multiple Intelligences. 06 December 2003. http://www.pz.harvard.edu/sumit/MISUMIT.htm
Spearman, C. (1904.) General Intelligence objectively determined and measured. American Journal Of Psychology, 15, 201-293.
Nature of Intelligence
In the world of global diversity, creativity, sustainability and computer technologies it seems hard not to assume that the multiple theory of intelligence is preferable to the more general one. Naturalistic, verbal, musical and interpersonal examples of this type of thinking seem more aligned with the way we see the universe today (ardner, H., 2003).
On the other hand, the educational system in the country is acting as if it believes the model of general intelligence is necessary for academic success. The movement toward young people being taught highly standardized school subjects so that they can all take similar tests matches this assumption because it allows for using scientific tools to measure achievement and one's supposed intelligence. It was this philosophy that allowed Spearman and others to first use their ideas of finding common personal characteristics to identify intelligence (ottfredson, 1998). Eventually this would be the foundation…
Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences after twenty years. Harvard School of Education. Viewable at http://pzweb.harvard.edu/pis/hg_mi_after_20_years.pdf.
Gottfredson, L. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific America. Viewable at http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1998generalintelligencefactor.pdf .
Sternberg, R.J. (2007). Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized. New York: Cambridge University Press.
He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that pearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and nervous system rather than a single location, as originally assumed.
Comparisons between the two models include the fact that both theorists believe that intelligence relates to more than one human function. pearman for example used a variety of different tasks to test intelligence, as does the IQ test he uses to base his assumptions on. Gardner agrees with pearman on the fact that intelligence does indeed relate to different tasks, but simply adds more to the already existing ones in order…
Armstrong, Thomas (1998-2002). Multiple Intelligences. http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
Paik, Han S. (1998). One Intelligence or Many? Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Abilities. Washington University. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/paik.html
RiCharde, Stephen. (2007). The Learning Thinking Styles Inventory. VMI. http://admin.vmi.edu/ir/ltsi.htm#Overview
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…
Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.
Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Gardner's Seven Intelligences - Implications for Differentiated Language Instructions in the Classroom
Multiple intelligence theory, found by Howard Gardner, had created a challenge, as well as a hole to fix in classroom practical approaches. Previously, public only related and judged intelligence from one's ability to perform mathematic aspect, ability to memorize. Even schools commonly assess students' intelligence and put grades based on these types. In fact, human brain is more complex and each person develops unique approach in learning.
Gardner's Multiple-Intelligence Theory
Gardner had developed different conception against intelligence, which he believed to be integration of all elements of human thinking skills or one's capability to "solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting" (Gardner & Hatch, 1989 as cited in Brualdi, 1996). ithin this definition, human should see intelligence as an active effort of human brain to contribute various aspects while thinking…
Brualdi, Amy C. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation Washington DC. 1996. ED410226. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://ericae.net/digests/tm9601.htm
Florez, MaryAnn C. Current Concepts and Terms in Adult ESL Q & A. ERIC/National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE) Document. Nov. 1998. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/TermsQA.htm
Hoerr, Thomas R. How Our School Applied Multiple Intelligences Theory. Educational Leadership. Vol. 50 No. 2. Oct. 1992. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/edlead/9210/hoerr.html
Theisen, Toni. Differentiated Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Meeting the Diverse Needs of All Learners. The Communique. The Languages Other Than English Center for Educator Development. Issue 6. Accessed May 30, 2003. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Web site: http://www.sedl.org/loteced/communique/n06.pdf
I also plan to join a book club to be around people who have a passion for books and reading and see if I can identify with them and their passions for this area.
Long-term I plan to write more and focus on keeping a journal so I can see how my communications skills are improving. In addition, joining Toastmasters' and also taking public speaking courses will help me to better grasp verbal and linguistic connections to presenting in class. In short, I need to define a thorough self-improvement program in the area of verbal and linguistic skills. Most critically I need to figure out how to be passionate about getting stronger about verbal and linguistic communication skills so I can excel in serving and leading my students. There needs to be a long-term plan in place and I need to create it based on my unique needs, balanced with…
Brian J. Hoffman, Brian C. Frost. (2006). Multiple intelligences of transformational leaders: an empirical examination. International Journal of Manpower: Leadership in organizations, 27(1), 37-51. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1073422031).
Susan Elaine Murphy, Ellen a Ensher. (2008). A qualitative analysis of charismatic leadership in creative teams: The case of television directors. Leadership Quarterly, 19(3), 335. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1490793221).
Leslie Rae (2002, December). Multiple Intelligences: A Trainer's Resource of 35 Activities. Training Journal,39. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 256241961).
Jennifer J. Salopek (2004, September). Social Intelligence. T + D, 58(9), 17-19. Retrieved July 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 694876261).
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Cultural Differences in the Perception of Intelligence
For the purposes of this assignment, two cultures will be compared with respect to how they perceive intelligence. Culture is relative, as is perception, as will be demonstrated in this paper with specific regard to intelligence. The two cultures that will be compared are American culture and Japanese culture. These two cultures have an intense past and interconnected present; they are very different with respect to social context, perspective, and perception. The paper will consider how these cultures interpret and perceive intelligence differently. The paper will reflect upon how intelligence, among other characteristics and elements, is measured differently because of variations in culture. The paper will further consider how, within varying social contexts and cultures, one might test for a spectrum of cognitive abilities, with respect to the two cultures of focus, Japanese and American.
American culture is very self-centered relative to…
Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents' estimates of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63 -- 76.
Smith, M.K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Web, Available from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm . 2012 December 20.
Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L. (2004). Why We Need to Explore Development in Its Cultural Context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369 -- 386.
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…
Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.unl.edu/buros/bimm/html/index01.html
Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf
Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.
" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)
The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…
Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional
Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC. www.childtrends.org.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.
Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.
Intelligence and emotional intelligence are, nevertheless, compelling topics for discussion and research. Impacting the psychology of an individual, intelligence affects communication style and the ability to deal with conflict. Solving problems creatively depends on intelligence, and even the ability to deal with stress might also be related to emotional intelligence (Hein 2005). All types of intelligence affect learning styles, learning aptitude, personal interests, and even memory. Emotional intelligence can become what is commonly known as "street smarts," the intelligence that enables individuals to manage social relationships regardless of their ability to solve math problems.
BBC (2004). "Hot Topics: Intelligence." etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/intelligence/index.shtml
Hein, S. (2005). "Definition of Emotional Intelligence." etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm
Huitt, W. (2002). Intelligence. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/intell.html.
Machek, G. (2003). The ole of Standardized Intelligence Measures in Testing for Giftedness.…
BBC (2004). "Hot Topics: Intelligence." Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/intelligence/index.shtml
Hein, S. (2005). "Definition of Emotional Intelligence." Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm
Huitt, W. (2002). Intelligence. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/intell.html .
Machek, G. (2003). The Role of Standardized Intelligence Measures in Testing for Giftedness. Human Intelligence. Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/giftednessTesting.shtml
Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.
On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…
Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf
Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf
Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf
McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf
Although the recently used term "Emotional Intelligence" is an offshoot of decades of psychological study, much confusion exists on its meaning and application. In addition, the amount of academic studies in this area has been relatively few. Most of the writings have been done in nonscientific ways. The purpose of this thesis would be to conduct a thorough historical overview of the topic and recommendations for further study to see how this measurement tool could best be used in a business setting.
In 1985, graduate student Wayne Leon Payne wrote a doctoral dissertation including the term "emotional intelligence." Five years later, a paper by professors at American University of New Hampshire, State University of New York and Yale University (Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey, 1990) clarified the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) as "the accurate appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself and others and the regulation of emotion…
Ashkanasy, N.M. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A muhilevel perspective. In F. Dansereau & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multilevel issues, vol. 2: Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and strategy, 9-54. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Cadman C, Brewer J (2001) Emotional intelligence: a vital prerequisite for recruitment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management. 9(6), 321-324.
Cherniss, C. And Adler, M. (2000). Promoting Emotional Intelligence in organizations. Alexandria, Virginia: ASTD.
The above quotation refers to forms of intuition and perception of the spiritual that in fact advocates the "blocking' of the normal modes of understanding and apprehension. As one commentator state;
The spiritual is all that is beyond the conscious awareness and would include God or gods, demons, spirits and nature spirits, ghosts, non-incarnate entities, angels, devas, guardians of the threshold, guardian angels and all the intangible entities and realities of the religions where the cloud of the unknowable things exists.
(Roze, Janis, Toward the New Humanity: From Emotional Intelligence
to Spiritual Intuition)
It is this perception of the intuitive forms of spiritual intelligence that, it also needsto be taken into account in a discussion of this subject.
2. Literature review
There are many modern as well as more traditional perspectives on the issue of spiritual intelligence. A broad and inclusive view of the central terms in this study…
Blitz, Mark. (2001) "Understanding Heidegger." Public Interest Fall 2001: 106.
Bunge, M. (1962). Intuition and Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Diedrich William Frank ( 2007) "What is Spiritual Intelligence and Why Should You Care?" Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.articlealley.com/article_159792_51.html
Gardner, Howard. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic.
Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence
The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…
Bensen, Etienne. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. APA Monitor, 34(2): 48.
Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/intelligent.aspx
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). History of intelligence testing. Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/int-history.htm
Gardner's multiple intelligences. (2006). Personality and Individual Differences.
Nurturing and Intelligence
Intelligence has traditionally been regarded as a standardized cognitive ability that people are born with and can be easily measured through the use of various tests including short-answer exams or tests. However, recent research has challenged the conventional belief that intelligence is a static structure by stating that it is a dynamic system that can constantly development throughout various stages in life. Therefore, intelligence is not a static structure that is fixed at birth but different combinations that are utilized in different settings such as creating products or dealing with problems. In essence, intelligence is a term used to refer to capability to create or find solutions to problems or establish skills that help in problem solving in real life.
Based on the findings of recent studies, intelligence is not a static structure fixed at birth implying that there are multiple intelligences that can be developed throughout…
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2013). Psychology: a journey (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…
Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
Because of the difficulties he analyzed in a testtaker's response to a task, he called for more complex measurements of intellectual ability than previously undertaken.
Wechsler built upon these views, compiling a more complete definition of intelligence but as parochial as that examined by Sternberg. "Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individually to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal with his environment." (235)
Wechsler critically added that intelligence is not just the sum of the abilities included in the definition, but it is something only understandable by the measurement of the various aspects of those abilities. (235) Likewise, he added that an individual's ability to perceive and respond to social, moral, and aesthetic values contributed to a personality of intelligence.
Examining the cognitive process of young children, Piaget found that intelligence was an evolving process of a certain adaptation to the outside world.…
Charles Spearman was the first to develop techniques that measured "intercorrelations" between different tests of intelligence. The development of these theories lead to the evolution of the two-factor theory of intelligence, in which he postulated that the existence of a general intellectual ability factor that can and is tapped by all other mental abilities such as linguistic, mechanical, and arithmetic abilities. (238) Spearman instituted tests that measured the magnitude of this general intelligence and concluded that the higher the general intelligence, the greater a subject's overall intelligence would be. (237)
Spearman's work led directly to the development of multi-intelligence models, like those of Guilford (1967), that attempt to explain the varied types of identifiable intelligence witnessed throughout the general population. Evolving from the discussion of intelligence as a general idea accepted by the lay population but without real definition, psychologists from Sternberg to Spearman attempted to decipher the popular idea of intelligence, capture it within an acceptable definition, and understand its origins, growth, possibilities, and application. Each scientist presented a new way to examine the nebulous idea, mollifying its uncertain nature with an infusion of definition and standards, shedding light on the wholly inconspicuous concept of brilliance.
Cohen and Swerdlik, Jay and Mark E. Psychological Testing and Assessment. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory
Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."
It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…
Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Stenberg, R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Weiner, I.B. (2012). Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
intelligence unit that is secure and maintained at all times is an absolute necessity for operational reasons. Explain in detail why this is so important.
Security is probably the single most important factor that prevents the intelligence unit from applying information technology more effectively. Security is essential for intelligence unit. When it comes to IT, approach is not "risk management," but "risk exclusion."
There are some very specialized electronic security threats that could apply, so it may be that a secure PDA needs to be developed and provided. In intelligence unit the presence of sensitive but unclassified information could cause serious concern over information bypassing safeguards on tiny solid state disk equivalents, which can fit into pens. This problem can be addressed by requiring the devices to store information in encrypted form, and using biometric identification.
An intelligence unit can be secured, but the security both has to be built-in,…
Heye, Steve, and Lancman, Steve n.d. Vendors As Allies: How to Evaluate Viability, Service, and Commitment. Retrieved Oct 9, 2011 from http://www.idealware.org/articles/vendors-allies-how-evaluate-viability-service-and-commitment .
Kendall, Kenneth, and Julia Kendall (2005). Systems Analysis and Design. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McLeod, Raymond, Jr., and George Schell Sumner (2004). Management Information Systems. 9th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Valacich, Joseph, Joey George, and Jeffrey Hoffer (2004). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
educational developments favor the integration and personalization of curriculum; current research supports these movements. Such advocates believe that mathematics, natural sciences, art, music, and language, although traditionally presented as discrete disciplines, have many aspects in common and are pertinent to real life situations. The notion of weaving a wide range of subjects into a coherent, comprehensive unit that reflects student interest and experience renders education more meaningful and permanent. Art instruction certainly has not escaped this educational revolution.
In teaching students about basic art concepts, it is helpful to relate them to real life situations and ideas. For example, the principle of rhythm in art has parallel illustrations in music and poetry. The change of seasons also marks an environmental rhythm. Texture, which refers to the tactile quality of a piece of art, is apparent in food and clothing. In fact, instructors may present ethnic fabrics to students while teaching…
Prince, Eileen S. (2002). Art Matters: Strategies, Ideas, and Activities to Strengthen
Learning Across the Curriculum. Chicago: Zephyr Press.
Schubert, Marie B., Melnick, Steven A. (1997). The Arts in Curriculum Integration.
Hilton Head, SC: Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational Research
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…
Burch, James. "A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative
Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Affairs 3, No. 2 (June 2007).
CNN. "U.S. policymakers mull creation of domestic intelligence agency, CNN.com, Oct
20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/20/domestic.intelligence.agency / (accessed July 8, 2013).
U.S. intelligence community is always expected to perform its duties according to some specified guidelines. This study examines the three themes found in the Pfeffer and Salancik book, "The External Control of Organizations," as applied to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The paper reveals how the themes are applicable to the IC and their potential benefits to the IC. It is evident that the identified have proven to be useful to the community, as it has enabled it to adapt to the changing paradigms within the intelligence community.
First theme: the importance of the environment or the social context of organizations for understanding what decisions were made about issues ranging from whom to hire, the composition of boards of directors, and what alliances and mergers to seek.
From this theme, the leading obstacle in the realization of accountability in the U.S. intelligence community is the prerequisite of secrecy…
Banner, D.K., & Gagne?, T.E. (2006). Designing effective organizations: Traditional & transformational views. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publ.
Dobbin, F., & Schoonhoven, C.B. (2010). Organizational studies: The Stanford School 1970-2000. Bingley: Emerald.
Donaldson, L. (2010). American anti-management theories of organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Hatch, M.J. (2011). Organizations: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Communicating the Results of a Multiple Regression Analysis
usiness Theory: "Communicating the Results of a Multiple Regression Analysis"
This report has the stated objective of examining the communication of the results of a multiple regression analysis and as such, a multiple regression analysis is described both in theory and in form demonstrating the progression of such an analysis. The multiple regression in this study examines bivariate factors in predicting the success of sales people for XYZ corporation.
The presentation of a multiple regression analysis is addressed in the work of Kuiper (2008) that the goals of multiple regression analysis are to: (1) describe or develop a model that describes the relationship between the explanatory variables and the response variable; (2) predict or use a set of sample data to make predictions; and (3) confirm in that theories are reported as often developed about individual variables including confirmation of which variables…
Gaasbeck, V. (nd) Presentation of Regression Results. California State University. Retrieved from: http://www.csus.edu/indiv/v/vangaasbeckk/courses/200A/sup/regressionresults.pdf
Kuiper, S. (2008) Introduction to Multiple Regression: How Much Is Your Car Worth? Journal of Statistics Education. Vol. 16. No.3. Retrieved from: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n3/datasets.kuiper.html
Multiple Regression (1997) SABLE Virginia Tech. Retrieved from: http://simon.cs.vt.edu/SoSci/converted/MRegression/
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism
Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…
Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things
We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).
McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How
the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked (accessed February 15, 2013).
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
The role of leaders in the present-day service-oriented organizations entails inspiring and motivating subordinates, promoting positive work-related attitudes, and developing a feel of both importance and involvement in and with subordinates. The aforementioned modern leadership tasks place novel demands on programs designed to teach people requisite skills and transform them into leaders. There are also increased demands on companies engaged in choosing leaders, to identify key leadership skills in the candidate pool. Consequently, researchers have focused on examining the fundamental characteristics and performance of successful leaders who effectively assume the mentioned modern leadership responsibilities, to determine leadership training and selection conditions for recruiting and developing efficient corporate leaders. Emotional intelligence, defined as a collection of skills, partly indicating an individual's effectiveness in tackling personal as well as others' emotions, is one of the variables (that have recently become popular) identified as a prospective fundamental leadership trait (Palmer et al. 2001).…
" Often, conflicts arise when the individual wants two conflicting things: for example, I have occasionally wanted a long-term committed relationship at the same time as I have wanted to date different people. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is almost the opposite. Using a similar example, I have sometimes not wanted to be alone but simultaneously did not want to deal with being in a committed relationship. Approach-avoidance conflict can perhaps be best explained when I want something that is expensive: I want the item badly but I do not want to have to pay for it or work longer hours in order to pay for it.
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html.
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html.
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at…
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html .
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html .
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at http://www.utne.com/interact/test_iq.html .
Emotional Intelligence and Virtual Teams
There are many articles discussing emotional intelligence in teams, and a couple that are specific to virtual teams. Key to understanding the role that emotional intelligence plays on virtual teams is knowing the differences between virtual teams and normal work teams, and knowing how emotional intelligence might affect a normal team, then being able to extrapolate how the differences might affect things.
Jordan and Troth (2004) discuss the role that emotional intelligence plays in problem solving. They found that emotional intelligence is positively indicated with team performance and problem solving. Their study was in-person, so they were able to observe participants directly, and they were able to accurately compare subjects because everybody was given the same problem to solve. The study is valuable because it clearly establishes the link between emotional intelligence and team performance.
Feyerhem and Rice (2002) broke down the different components of…
2003, when the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) was instituted, the concept of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) was largely at its outset. Its beginnings had been propagated in preceding decades, but the circumstances were finally prime for the discipline to develop, grow and spring new branches with the ability to support a growing community practicing a verified dexterity.[footnoteef:1] In delineation, geospatial intelligence takes into account taking advantage of and analyzing images and geospatial information to outline, appraise, and visually portray physical features and geographically mentioned activities on Earth. This is purposed to distinguish the important property of geographical position linked with the data that the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency and the intelligence community generate and analyze. It is also purposed to lay emphasis on the value-added examinations that the NGA undertakes to generate a specific kind of actionable intelligence.[footnoteef:2] Taking into consideration that the purpose of geospatial intelligence is to pinpoint and…
Alderton, Matt. "The Defining Decade of GEOINT." Trajectory, 2014.
Buxbaum, Peter. "Geospatial's Big Data Challenge." Intelligence Geospatial Forum, 2015.
Flint, Colin. Introduction to geopolitics. Routledge, 2016.
Mapping Science Committee. New research directions for the national geospatial-intelligence agency. National Academies Press, 2010.
Analytics and Business Intelligence
Assessing the Impact of Analytics and Business Intelligence
The pervasive adoption of analytics to mitigate risk has accelerated due to greater uncertainties in economic conditions, the accelerating pace of change in markets, and a reliance on quantified measurements of performance vs. qualitatively based (Hopkins, LaValle, Balboni, Shockley, Kruschwitz, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to look at how analytics and business intelligence can be used for automating the more mundane analytical and reporting tasks while also looking into how analytics and business intelligence are making finance and accounting systems more real-time and responsive to market conditions.
Automating outine Tasks with Analytics
Computing variances between actual and forecasted amounts by account, defining financial ratios and calculating them over a multi-year timeframes and across multiple divisions is how analytics is most often used in accounting and financial reporting today. These are relatively mundane tasks that often require…
Hopkins, M., LaValle, S., Balboni, F., Shockley, R., & Kruschwitz, N.. (2010). 10 Insights: What Survey Reveals about Competing on Information & 10 Data Points: Information and Analytics at Work. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 22-31.
Soumendra Mohanty. (2011). Having Analytics May Not Be Enough: Organizations need to improve business intelligence and decision-making through guided, predictive analytics. Information Management, 21(1), 30.
Jayanthi Ranjan & Vishal Bhatnagar. (2011). Role of knowledge management and analytical CRM in business: data mining-based framework. The Learning Organization, 18(2), 131-148.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
The author of this report is asked to answer three general questions about intelligence. The first question asks for the general underpinnings and genesis of the discussions about intelligence including what was suggested by Binet as well as the general definition and formulations of the intelligence quotient, or IQ. The second question and discussion is about the challenges to the definition of intelligence as offered and suggested by Gardner, Spearman and others. Finally, there is to be an evaluation of which definitions could or should be use as the basis for intelligence testing.
Binet was indeed one of the pioneers of the intelligence and intelligence-measuring field. His contributions to the early discussions of intelligence are mentioned in the work of Cicciola et al. (2014). Cicciola talks about the genesis of the intelligence quotient instrument and the general concept of intelligence. He notes that the names involved in that…
Cicciola, E., Foschi, R., & Lombardo, G.P. (2014). Making up intelligence scales: De
Sanctis's and Binet's tests, 1905 and after. History Of Psychology, 17(3), 223-
Dale, B.A., Finch, M.H., Mcintosh, D.E., Rothlisberg, B.A., & Finch, W.H. (2014).
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…