Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
" (David: 165) Other important studies were conducted by J.E. Harris and K. Weeks (1973) and Harris and E. Wente (1980) and they provided "further information about mummification techniques such as arm position, presence of artifacts, and brain removal, as well as about age at death, aspects of genealogy of the royal family, and their dental conditions." (165)
But humans were not the only ones who received this kind of treatment, sacred animals were also preserved using various techniques of mummification. Some animals were actually considered "incarnations of gods" (Owen). Animals were seen as spirits of gods as Owen (2004) explains "cats were seen as the incarnation of Bastet, goddess of music and joy and protector of women. The Apis bull, a sacred animal to the Egyptians, came to be known as the incarnation of Osiris, god of embalming and cemeteries. Likewise, ancient Egyptians associated hawks with Horus (the god…
Rosalie David. The Experience of Ancient Egypt: Routledge. London. 2000.
R.J. Forbes. Studies in Ancient Technology. E.J. Brill. Leiden, The Netherlands. 1955
E.O. James. Prehistoric Religion: A Study in Prehistoric Archaeology. Frederick A. Praeger. 1957.
Mummy" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2004
Mummification as a Form of Art
It is mostly associated with religious rituals and tradition, but mummification is considered more than an accomplishment of ancient cultures of pre-historic peoples of human civilization. More than a symbol of ancient culture, mummification is also a form of art, wherein the process of mummification itself signifies knowledge of 'beautifying' the human form even after its death. The history of mummification and use of mummy as symbols of religious rituals started in the early 3400 .C.
Perhaps the well-known country where mummification was first practiced is in Egypt, known as home to thousands of mummies belonging to the pharaohs or leaders of the Egyptians during ancient civilization. While Egyptian mummies have been popularly known in Egypt, there are also areas where mummification is prevalent, particularly in the Andes Mountain in South America (Microsoft Encarta 2002).
Mummification was developed because of the ancient civilization's belief…
Arriaza, B. et. al. "Making the Dead Beautiful: Mummies as Art." 1998. Available at http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/chinchorro .
Mummy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002.
Ragab, Abdel. "Mummification Exhibit." 2004. Available at http://www.touregypt.net/village/exhibits_mummification.htm .
Most notably, he sheds light on the status of women in Egyptian culture while examining purified bulls and calves (2.41). In the passages that precede page 41, he mentions women on a number of times, but merely to illustrate Egyptian culture and not in the account of religion. However, he described that there was equality in status of men and women in an Egyptian society and both genders were able to interact with Greek men in religious contexts. These contexts are however vague and unspecified in his book. In fact Herodotus has thrown minimal light on the subject of women however his portrayal of mythical phoenix is, by no means a vague description. Herodotus describes it as sacred and associates it with the sun, indicating the phoenix's special religious status. He offers little critical analysis of the phoenix story, except in way of highlighting that he is quoting the opinion…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, 2004, Herodotus, Columbia University Press: New York, pg: 21859
Mark A. Rivera, Herodotus and Egypt, retrieved online on 1 November 2005 at http://www.camws.org/meeting/2005/abstracts2005/rivera.html
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
This labor force was effective, unified, and provided a strong centralized state. The pyramids acted not as slave pits, but as political, religious, social, and economic focuses for the people. Laborers believed their own eternity would be won through their service, and although their choices of work and location were based on socioeconomic factors, these individuals were free citizens of the state (David, a.R., 58).
In addition to the peasant labor, there were professional craftsmen and architects whose skills were required for the more finely detailed and skilled areas of the pyramid. These individuals had their own housing area within the barracks, and were treated to slightly nicer conditions than those of the slaves. They were also, some believed paid wages in exchange for their skills, since such skills were learned and honed only through repetition and higher learning, as opposed to the unskilled labor of the peasant force. These…
Baines, J. "Ancient Egypt Timeline." Ancient History: Egyptians. BBC. 10 Nov. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/timeline.shtml .
Brier, B.A & Hobbs, H. Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Brunes, T. "Introduction: The Historical Background." Journal of the Southwest. 48.4 (2006): 331-332.
David, a.R. The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce. New York: Routledge, 1996.
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
strange how certain figures throughout the history of man become the figures of such intrigue and mystery (Meyerson, 2009). Alexander the Great, Attila the Hun, Charlemagne are examples of such figures. These are all men that led full lives and accomplished great things but sharing the same level of notoriety is young man from ancient Egypt who died at 19 accomplishing very little other than becoming Pharaoh. For whatever reason, King Tutankhamen (King Tut) has been the center of much discussion and theorizing since his nearly intact tomb was discovered in 1922. Among the many areas of concern regarding King Tutankhamen has been the cause of his death. Even in ancient Egypt, death at 19 was unusual and for someone so privileged it would be exceedingly so.
There has been no shortage of theories offered to explain how King Tut died. Some have suggested that he was killed falling from…
Hawass, Z. (2010, September). King Tut's Family Secrets. National Geographic, pp. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/09/tut-dna/hawass-text .
King, M.R. (2006). Who Killed Kint Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3,300-year-old Mystery. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Meyerson, D. (2009). In the Valley of the Kings: Howard Carter and the Mystery of King Tutankhamun's Tombe. New York: Random House.
Pusch, C.M. (2010, January). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 638-647.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…
Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.
Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.
Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
Alberta Tar Sands Issues
The tar sands oil reserves in Alberta, Canada, represent the second largest proven petroleum reserve in the world -- right behind the reserves in Saudi Arabia. The Alberta tar sands are located in the vast boreal forest of Canada, just north of Montana, and it is estimated that nearly 179 billion barrels of oil are in the tar sands, according to Bridget Mintz Testa, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Mechanical Engineering (Testa, 2008). The great volume of crude oil is seen as a positive, reliable source of energy for Canada and other countries that will be importing this oil. The extraction, production, and transportation of tar sands oil also represents a number of serious environmental impacts, which will be reviewed in this paper.
The Science Involved in Tar Sands Oil Production
Notwithstanding the fact that tar sands oil is in plentiful supply, one of the down…
American Petroleum Institute "Keystone XL Pipeline." Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Austen, Ian. "Oil Sands Industry in Canada Tied to Higher Carcinogen Level." The New York
Times. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Chemical Engineering. "Solvent extraction method shows promise for recovering bitumen from tar sands." 118.9 (2011): p. 12.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Contenders challenges the depth of the line between the so called reality-based survival shows and fictionalized genres. Series 7 to the greatest degree is a spoof on the idea that a game with real stakes, reputed to be stakes of life and death could truly exist within an entertainment venue. Series 7 proposes that the impact of such a situation upon the viewer can only be judged through the representative stakes of just that, life or death. The represented goal of the film is the actual violent death of opponent players in the game. The implications of such a production weigh heavily upon the viewing public and leave many questions to be answered by the phenomena of television ratings. Though the Series 7 movie is an attempt to challenge the lines between reality and fiction, in much the same way the sensational Blair itch Project did a few years before…
Blair Witch Project. 1995, retrieved July 15, 2003: http://www.blairwitch.com/main.html .
Robards, Brooks. "2 the Police Show." TV Genres: A Handbook and Reference Guide. Ed. Alley, Robert S. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985. 11-25.
Rosenthal, Alan, ed. Why Docudrama? Fact-Fiction on Film and TV. Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
Art and Death: The Chinese
Portraying death to children
In the preschool age, educators seldom broach the topic of death. However, some picture books for kids directly address death and related issues. Their current approach is worth utilizing as reference. Book presentations follow the steps: comprehending death with preschoolers' internal experiences, slowly probing into what death means in the eyes of preschoolers, and expanding on the subject by seeking the continuance of love. The above three elements serve as references for Chinese picture books with death as the central theme. Such books depict a child's world using children's language and culture-specific images. The concept of death is taught to students in the form of interesting stories, which portray children's pure world, characterized by curiosity and innocence. Adults are also deeply affected by their simplicity, love and care (Chen, 2012).
Thesis: Death has been incorporated, as a theme, into Chinese books,…
Chen, Y. (2012). The Expression of Death in Children's Picture Story Books. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 210-213.
Danto, A. C. (1998). The End of Art: A Philosophy of Defense. Blackwell Publishing, 127-143.
Han, S. (2012, June 22). The invisible red line - maneuvering Chinese art censorship. Retrieved from All that is banned is desired: http://artsfreedom.org/
Sharf, R. H. (1992). The Idolization of Enlightenment: On the mummification of Ch'an masters in Medieval China. The University of Chicago Press, 1- 31.