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The social problem that I am examining in music is drugs, which are a fairly frequent topic in many types of music, but they can be both glorified and vilified. This is an interesting subject specifically because of this dichotomy. Some subjects are treated in a fairly uniform manner -- there are probably a few pro-war songs, but not many. Popular music has an interesting time with drugs, however, because they captivate people. Whether it is the mind-altering nature, the illegal nature or other aspects, it is an a subject that divides people, and this is even reflected in music. Further, there are different drugs, and the opinions regarding different drugs tend to be reflected as well -- so you might have songs celebrating one type of drug but warning about another.
I have chosen five songs about drugs. The subject has been in song for a very…
Arrington, T. & Gardner, S. (2001). Painkiller The Cold Vein. Definitive Jux: New York City.
Copeland, D. & Martin, C. (2002) Doobie Ashtray. Just Trying to Live. Rap-A-Lot: Houston & Suave House: Houston.
Palko, C. & Brown, R. (2004) Druggie Fresh. Waterworld. Eastern Conference, New York City.
Primack, B., Dalton, M., Carroll, M. Agarwal, A. & Fine, M. (2008). Content analysis of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs in popular music. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 162 (2) 169-175.
If teachers need proof of how powerful songs are for children and how they stick in their heads, all they need to do is listen during recess, when children sing popular tunes recreationally. Educators need to look more to music as a legitimate and effective learning tool. Moreover, teachers will stimulate their creativity while designing their lesson plans and will be encouraged to think outside the box.
Children memorize songs far easier than they memorize a list of items or an arbitrary set of numbers or words. Students will anchor the concepts in the syllabus to the tune itself, creating automatic learning and memorization of facts. Therefore, teachers can use songs to deliver content and make content more meaningful and memorable for students. Students will also respond better to a lesson taught musically than to a lesson that is dry or uninteresting. Increasing student responsiveness will lead naturally to increased…
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, ecord Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark…
"George Martin," (n.d.). Beatles Bible. Retrieved online: http://www.beatlesbible.com/people/george-martin/
Martin, G. (2012). Interview with Marc Myers. Retrieved online: http://www.jazzwax.com/2012/09/interview-sir-george-martin-pt-1.html
Ratliff, B. (2008). Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer, Dies. The New York Times. 22 Feb, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/22/arts/music/22macero.html
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2010). George Martin Biography. Retrieved online: http://rockhall.com/inductees/george-martin/bio/
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
Few popular music stars today are as colorful as Lady Gaga. Recently on tour, Lady Gaga is again making the headlines. In South Africa, a group of churches has been organizing protests against Lady Gaga's performances, and even just her presence, in the country. Among other complaints, the South African Council of Churches claims Lady Gaga's visit "could lead to an exponential growth of Satanism," (Engelbrecht, p. 1). For others, Lady Gaga is a welcome presence in the popular culture because she spreads the message of gender equality and positive gender "performativity," (Horn, p. 1). Lady Gaga is like a female "drag queen" and therefore sends a good message about tolerance of gender and sexual identities. Finally, Lady Gaga exemplifies the way social media can be used to promote popular culture and allow for greater fan interactions and control over content. Given that Lady Gaga is associated with Satanism,…
Engelbrecht, David. "Council of Churches Still Anti-Gaga." Channel 24. Retrieved online: http://www.channel24.co.za/Music/News/Council-of-Churches-still-anti-Gaga-20121129
Hampp, Andrew. "Gaga, Oooh Lala: Why the Lady Is the Ultimate Social Climber." Advertising Age. 22 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://vandymkting.typepad.com/files/2010-2-22-adage-gaga-oooh-la-la-why-the-lady-is-the-ultimate-social-climber.pdf
Horn, Katrin. "Camping with the Stars: Queer Perfomativity, Pop Intertextuality, and Camp in the Pop Art of Lady Gaga." Current Ojbectives of Postgraduate American Studies. Vol. 11. Retrieved online: http://copas.uni-regensburg.de/article/view/131/155
Music as a Motivator in unning: A Literature eview and Experimental esearch Design Proposal
Ever since Sony first introduced the Walkman, listening to music on the go has become something that many individuals take for granted during a variety of activities. When tapes went out of style the Discman and competing portable CD players came along, and then the iPod and other portable mp3 players arrived on the stage. One demographic that has a very high proportion of portable music listeners is joggers and runners -- indeed, people engaged in exercise of any sort simply for the sake of that exercise are often plugged into their music device as a motivating force. This has led to many studies regarding the motivational role music plays in running, though some questions still remain. This paper will examine several studies on this topic and propose a further experiment to increase knowledge…
Biehl, J., Adamczyk, P. & Bailey, B. (2006). DJogger: a mobile dynamic music device. Extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems 1145-57.
Simpson, S. & Karageroghis, C. (2006). Effects of Synchronous Music on 400-Metre Sprint Performance. Journal of Sports Sciences 24(10):1095?-102.
Tenenbaum, G., Lidor, R., Lavyan, N., Morrow, K., Tonnl, S. & Johnson, M. (2004). The effect of music type on running perseverance and coping with effort sensations. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 5(2): 89-109.
Wijnalda, G., Pauws, S., Vignoli, F. & Stuckenschmidt, H. (2005). A personalized music system for motivation in sport performance. Pervasive Computing 4(3):26-32.
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
Music Games International (MGI) had a product that they wanted to develop but they were not sure how they were going to do this. The founders of the company -- Igor, oman and Sasha -- had already produced a game that used a game platform to introduce youth to music, and it had been a critical success. Unfortunately, the game did not sell well, so the three were basically broke and searching for a way to reinvigorate the concept. Every year Harvard Business School (HBS) has a business plan contest that allows students to showcase their talents. They are allowed to work in teams and with outside developers and that is how Henry and Dana became involved with MGI.
The task was to create a business plan out of the previously muddled work of the original founders and determine what was needed to present the concept to investors. There were…
Berry, T, (2007). How to perform a SWOT analysis. Retrieved from http://articles.bplans.com/business/how-to-perform-SWOT-analysis/116
Leslie, J.B. (2009). The leadership gap: What you have, and don't have, when it comes to leadership talent. Center for Creative Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/leadershipGap.pdf
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
Music on Life
How Music Has Influenced My Life
Music has always played a major role in my life. For as long as I can remember, I have always looked to music as a way to define my life. I even found it amusing when my high school began to play music over the PA during our lunch hour, making me feel as though my life was, for a brief moment, a silly teenage movie. I am very grateful for my family's introducing me to music as I have found that it has helped me to define various, important milestones in my life.
As long as I can remember, my parents have listened to the Beatles. They had all their songs on records and cassette tapes. This was the first band to which I felt loyalty towards and pretty soon, I knew all the lyrics to all the songs on…
Blue Monday. (1983). New Order. Single. London.
God Bless the Child. (1956). Billie Holiday. Lady Sings the Blues. Clef Records.
Yellow Submarine. (1966). The Beatles. Revolver. Capitol Records.
Music on Brain and Emotions
The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions
The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…
Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.
Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]
Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x
In many of the cases Music is termed as 'Universal Language', a language that has no word but still has lot to convey. Music therefore has positive consequences on different front of societies including social, cultural and economical (Music industry and Tourism foster economic growth).
All these factors have convinced the school management to introduce and teach Music as formal subject in their schools, the Music subject has equal factor in terms of grade evaluation as compare to any other subject, Music has to be necessarily considered as core subject for teaching, "The term 'core academic subjects' means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography"(No Child Left Behind Act of 2002).
Following facts and figures are listed to support the case,
According to College-Bound Seniors National eport: Profile of SAT Program Test Takers, Students having involved in the environment or…
David Bray., Teaching Music in Secondary School.
Nicholas Temperley., the Lost Chord: Essays on Victorian Music.
Gary Spruce., Teaching Music in Secondary Schools.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Title IX, Part a, Sec. 9101 (11).
It is important to note, from the onset, that revenues for the U.S. recorded music industry have more than halved since the late 1990s (Figure 1.0). In essence, what has often been blamed for the falling revenues is the online music revolution (Mezei, 2018). It is instructive to note that in recent times, streaming services have seen their paid subscriptions go up significantly, with 2016 having been a particularly good year for the said services. These include, but they are not limited to, Tidal, Apple Music, as well as Spotify. Thanks to such growth in streaming services, quite a number of players have in the past expressed their intention to try their hand in this specific market. These include new entrants to this spot, like Amazon.
According to the Recording Industry Association of America - RIAA (2017), in the year 2016, there was an 11.4% growth in U.S.…
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Prayer (Foster, Bocelli, Dion; Live NYC Central Park, 2011)
This is a musical piece that modulates from F major to Bb Major and is duet version with its lyrics written and sung in English and Italian. The duet consists of Celine Dion and Andrea Bocelli performing the piece live in New York City Central Park before a large audience. There is also a live band accompanying the duo with instruments (Bravo F., 2012).
Bocelli was born in Italy in 1958 and took up musical lessons at a tender age of six when he started off with the piano and later on took up the flute and saxophone. He suffered poor eyesight due to congenital glaucoma that he was born with, and by fate he suffered some football accident that rendered him totally blind at the age of 12. He later studied law and used the money he earned from law…
Billboard, (2016). Artists: Adrea Bocelli. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.billboard.com/artist/279059/andrea-bocelli/biography
Sony Music Entertainment, (2016). Celine Dion: The Journey so Far. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from https://www.celinedion.com/biography/
Bravo F., 2012). Celine Dion Andrea Bocelli The Prayer Live NYC Central Park 2011.
Music may be counted among the strongest neurobiological tools at hand for altering individual moods, conduct and attitudes. What effect does it have on us in relation to the promotion of hatred and violent behavior? In what way does it shape people’s explanatory approach and minds? An inherent relationship has been found between mood and music. Scholars constantly attempt at objectively explaining the occurrence of such influences. Research works demonstrate that music engages, within the listener, a broad array of psychology-influencing neurobiological systems (Bergland, 2012).
Music apparently impacts an individual’s physical performance by enhancing vigor with shifting rhythms and diverse tempos, in contrast to the utter absence of music (Belford et al, 2013). This paper will address three distinct models with an aim to gauge the influence or degree of influence of music on individuals working out at gymnasiums.
Observation and Models
Model 1: Concentration represents an attentional practice…
MUSIC AND CENSORSHIP the FIRST AMENDMENT U.S. Constitution: Congress make law respecting establishment religion, prohibiting free exercise thereof; abridging freedom speech, press; people peaceably assemble, petition Government a redress grievances.
Photography as art: Walter Benjamin on photography
The invention of photography was initially viewed as a challenge to conventional forms of art because it could more perfectly replicate the surface of reality than any human brushstroke. However, artists were able to meet this challenge through using the human imagination and decentralizing the emphasis on replication. But Walter Benjamin argued that photography still posed a very profound and troubling challenge to art. Before, when people gazed at art, they were gazing at something recognizably 'other' that could not be reproduced and was an object with its own integrity. In contrast, a photograph can always be reproduced in its entirety and thus exists as a commodity. People long for some originality in…
In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).
In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…
Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Mattel is a producer of children's toys, including the well-known industry brands Fisher Price, Barbie and Hot Wheels. The company has strategic partnerships with several other major brands such as Disney, WWE, Nickelodeon and Warner Bros. The company did nearly $6.5 billion in revenue in the last fiscal year, and turned a profit of just of $900 million. Nearly half of its revenues come from international markets.
The Barbie brand is the most important for the company, with just over $1 billion in annual revenues. The company's marketing is focused around the end-of-year, when gift-buying for children reaches its peak. The company utilizes most forms of media for its advertising, including traditional 30-second television spots. Mattel spent $733.2 million, or 12.2% of net sales, on its marketing efforts in the last fiscal year (Mattel 2014 Annual eport). In terms of distribution, its three largest customers are Walmart,…
Mattel 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/MAT/0x0x820303/68C602DD-88F3-47F8-ABB5-46635E8495D8/Mattel_-_Bookmarked_2014_Annual_Report_Final_.PDF
Ad link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TULVRlpsNWo
The dependent variable was a measure of stress by virtue of physiological responses. Those variables were perfectly chosen for the study topic.
The hypothesis was that exposure to music during the immediate pre-operative period would correspond to a reduction in stress in the experimental group as compared with the control group. This hypothesis is perfectly appropriate and capable of empirical testing for substantiation or non-substantiation.
Sampling, Research Design, and Data Collection Methods
The sample size was very small and acknowledged as an inherent limitation of the study. Other limitations included the use only of subjects scheduled for minor arthroscopic surgery and the fact that subjects could have changed their responses to please the researchers. The research design and collection methods were appropriate in that they utilized and collected objective physiological data that are generally relevant to stress. However, that design presumed that (1) the specific data collected necessarily corresponded…
New Marketing Strategy for Caribou Coffee
To survive firms need to adapt and change in line with the general marketplace. Many successful firm have been able successful deal with dominant competition and high levels of challenge. One firm which faces these challenges is Caribou Coffee, although the second largest coffee house chain in the U.S. it is an underdog when compared to Starbucks, with just over 400 stores across 18 states in the U.S. and 203 stores in 10 international countries, many of which are franchises (Caribou Coffee, 2016). The company has faced some setbacks due to the high level of completion within the coffee house market, closing some 80 stores in 2013, and a further 88 were converted to Peets Coffee and Tea (Leavitt, 2014; Leonard, 2013). This indicates the firm needs to…
Baye, M. (2007). Managerial Economics and Business Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Caribou Coffee, (2016), Home Page, retrieved http://www.cariboucoffee.com
Chaffey, D., & Smith, P. R. (2013). EMarketing Excellence. Abingdon: Routledge.
Dolgui, A., & Proth, J. (2010). Pricing Strategies and Models. Annual Reviews in Control, 34(1), 101-110.
tattoo ink that is used in everyday and normal tattoos and how the ink and other materials used in those tattoos might be harmful to the people that adorn themselves with them. The audience is presumably doing this article as a caution to those that have tattoos, are planning to get tattoos and/or know someone that is in either of those first two classifications. The style, form and structure are rather nice. Rather than getting right into the negative details and the technical aspects of the issue, the author of the article waxes eloquent about who gets tattoos, why they get them, how proud they are of them and so forth. The author of the article also admits having some of their own tattoos. However, the article then gets down to business about how some of the components of tattoo ink can be toxic. There is also talk of to…
Alexander the Great
Born in July 356 B.C. Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon to King Philip II and Epirote princess Olympias, Alexander the Great, was a king of Macedon and the greatest military commander who ever lived in the ancient world. In the relatively short period of time he was at the helm of the kingdom of Macedon, he managed to conquer almost the entire civilized world before his untimely death (Alexander the Great, 2015).
When Alexander was very young, he proved himself to be capable of undertaking dangerous military conquests (Gascoigne, n.d.). For instance, when the boy was just sixteen, his father left him in charge of the kingdom when he went east on an expedition against the Byzantium Kingdom (Gascoigne, n.d.). During the time his father was away, Alexander managed to crush Thracians who were posing problems to the throne. As a reward, his father later allowed him to…
Alexander the Great. (2015). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Alexander_the_Great&oldid=987437.Clark , Darci. (2012). The Impact of Alexander the Great's Conquests. Term Paper for Global History to the 15th Century. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://semiramis-speaks.com/the-impact-of-alexander-the-greats-conquests/
Gascoigne, Bamber. (n.d.). "History of Alexander the Great." HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa02#ixzz3x7OjIFWT
Mark, Joshua J. (2013). Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/
Harvey Milk 1974 by ob Epstein
One among the foremost feature documentaries that revolve around American gay life, ob Epstein's The Times of Harvey Milk, is a creation of advocacy, taking Harvey's message of equality and hope to a larger audience. The documentary was envisioned to be an emotional narrative, which straight as well as homosexual viewers could access. The production technique of the film was extremely collaborative; moviemakers, advocates, and journalists hailing from diverse communities contributed their voice and stories, in addition to archival footage, feedback, and financial backing (Esther, 2009).
While The Times of Harvey Milk wasn't a hit at the box office, its theatrical release propelled the movie, with critical validation and awards, on a non-theatrical run that lasted long. Despite being one among the most renowned of documentaries to be released in recent decades, The Times Of Harvey Milk was received more often as a political…
Bailey, J. (2011, March 14). The Times of Harvey Milk: The Criterion Collection (Blu-ray). Retrieved from DVD Talk: http://www.dvdtalk.com/reviews/47235/times-of-harvey-milk-the/
Esther, J. (2009). The Times of Rob Epstein, Filmmaker. The Gay & Lesbian Review, 16(4), 45.
Heath, G. (2011, March 25). The Times of Harvey Milk. Retrieved from Slant Magazine: http://www.slantmagazine.com/dvd/review/the-times-of-harvey-milk-1965
New York Times. (1984, October 27). Film: 'The Times Of Harvey Milk,' A Documentary. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/27/arts/film-the-times-of-harvey-milk-a-documentary.html
Music and Pain
The use of music in relation to relaxation and pain control is universal in application. Many cultures use music, tones, chanting, drums, or other forms of biofeedback to treat patients in acute pain, women in labor, recovery, and now, most recently, in pre- and post-operative care. In fact, the therapeutic value of music has been recognized as vital and powerful since Ancient Times; archaeological evidence shows flutes carved from bone in pictures of physicians healing patients, Greek physicians used music and vibration to heal, aid in digestion and induce sleep; the Early Egyptians used musical incantations to help with the healing process; and certainly, numerous native tribes use singing and chanting as part of their healing rituals (Nilsson, 2008).
Further, most postoperative patients have pain, despite the use of analgesia. Nurses are constantly trying to be more effective in delivering pain medication. One study showed that patients…
Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well being in liver and kidney translplant recipients. Journal of Music Therapy. 48 (4): 463-85.
Good, M., et.al. (2010). Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery. Nursing Research. 59 (4): 259-69.
Goodwin C.J. (2010). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. New York: John
Music Valence and Gender Influence Word ecall Task
A person's state of arousal can determine how well their memory functions. This phenomenon is readily apparent when persons experiencing a traumatic event find it difficult to ever escape these memories, memories that can recur unbidden in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. ecent research examining the influence of relaxing music found a similar effect, such that relaxing music impairs memory coding and consolidation. Towards the goal expanding on these results, an experiment was conducted that tested the influence of classical (relaxing), rock (stimulating), and no music on word recall performance, but stratified by gender. The results indicated that overall, classical music significantly impaired recall performance when compared to subjects listening to rock music or no music, but rock music provided no benefit. What is novel about these findings is that significant differences in memory performance were found between genders.…
Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf .
Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf .
Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and Peart, Neil. (2007). The Main Monkey Business. On Snakes & Arrows [CD]. New York: Atlantic Records.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1788). Symphony No. 40 in G minor (KV. 550) [Recorded by Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with Leonard Bernstein on 19 Sep. 1995]. On Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41 [CD]. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.
Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.
Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…
Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.
Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
Popular Music and Identity
Sound Clash-Popular Music and American Culture
Identifying through music is fantastic and creates social movements. People find music to be liberating, relaxing, and calming. Identifying oneself through music a person is able to have direct experiences in their body. This allows a person to place them self in an imaginary cultural narrative. Popular music has been analyzed as though it is a classical composition, which makes the analysts neglect the improvisational and performative aspects of popular music. Analyzing how audiences respond to popular music and how they identify with this kind of music is vital. This would allow people to better understand how different people identify with certain popular songs. Theodor Adorno viewed popular music as a culture industry, which is designed to appeal to society by creating a false need for entertainment. Simon Frith views popular music as a complex world where that values and…
Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.
Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.
Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media and Cultural Theory. London: Bookboon. Print.
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
House music also influenced the development of b-boying, or breakdancing, which took house dance moves and made them more aggressive. Close physical posture and movement without physical contact in b-boying can be seen in capoeira. Like capoeira, house dance styles varied by region. For instance, in Chicago and Detroit, jacking was a major element of house dance. Jacking was a dance move that focused on torso movements and created a rippling effect, and the dance known as "The Farmer" also originated in this type of house music (Mirani). Jacking was influenced by the heavier sounds of techno and acid music. On the East Coast, house music was highly influenced by hip-hop music. Dance moves that originated on the East Coast include "Loose Legs," the "Train," skating, and Jamaican skanking (Mirani). On the est Coast, house music was more commercial and dance moves were influenced by b-boys.
In addition to the…
Brown, James. "Shared Characteristics of Music & Dance: Capoeira and Dance Music." Prezi.
20 April 2013. Web. 26 April 2013.
"Capoeira Instruments." Capoeira World. Web. 26 April 2013.
"History of Capoeira." 1999. Web. 26 April 2013, from http://www.capoeira.htmlplanet.com/
Let's take a closer look at the harmonic structure of the exposition.
The piece starts with a broken F minor chord played in the right hand, moving into a broken C7 chord in measure 3. The harmonic progression for the first theme goes as follow:
Measure 1-2: Fm (I)
Measure 3-4: C7 (V)
Measure 5: Fm (I)
Measure 6: C7 (V)
Measure 7-8: Ab, Gm, C (III -- II -- V)
As stated before, measures 9 to 19 are a transitive phrase before introducing the second theme of the exposition. The transition starts out with a broken C minor chord, moves into Fm, Bb7, Eb7, Ab and Db moving chromatically to Eb repeated thrice, at which point the sonata enters the second theme of the exposition, written in the key of Ab.
This second theme features a strong alternating bass pattern in the left hand, heavily relying on the fifth…
This section seems to start again with the same harmonic pattern used at the beginning, with measure 9 in F major; however it quickly moves on to what appears to be a D (b9) chord before resolving in G minor in measure 11 -- a key that will stay put for two measures. Moving on to measures 13 to 16, a similar modulatory motion can be observed, going from Bb to a (b9) before resolving to D. For two measures. The last beat of measure 16 then moves on to C. In order to resolve to the initial tonality of F major for a repetition of the original theme.
It should also be noted that the final cadence is much stronger than any other cadence found in the piece; the other cadences were leading into something more, a new tonality, an answer to a question, while the final cadence makes…
Botstein, n.d., Robert Schumann (1810-56). Available from: http://www.americansymphony.org/concert_notes/robert-schumann-1810-56 . [1 May 2012].
Johnson (ed) 2003, Piano Lessons in the Grand Style: From the Golden Age of the Eude Music Magazine (1913-1940), Courier Dover Publications, Mineola NY.
Schumann (ed) n.d., Robert Schumanns Werke, Serie VII: Fur Pianoforte zu zwei Handen. Public Domain.
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
Carlos also proved that the music of ach was dimensionally ever-changing and could be expressed quite well through the use of electronics.
Pink Floyd, one of the most influential "psychedelic" groups from England, utterly transformed the entire spectrum of music in the late 1960's and early 1970's through the use of the synthesizer and other electronic devices. On their "Dark Side of the Moon" album, Pink Floyd, especially bassist/keyboardist Roger Waters and keyboardist Richard Wright, completely altered all previous ideas concerning how the synthesizer could take the listener on a new voyage of discovery into uncharted territories of sound. For Pink Floyd, the synthesizer was far more than just a tool -- it was a machine with the capabilities of transforming the landscape of sound into something cosmic in origin.
In conclusion, electronic music, from its humble beginnings in the 1940's and into the present day, has greatly influenced most…
Appleton, Jon H., ed. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
Darter, Tom. The Art of Electronic Music. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1984.
Electronic Music with the Theremin." Popular Electronics. April 1955: 19-26.
Horn, Delton T. Electronic Music Synthesizers. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1980.
Music on Grocery Store Shopper Habits
Marketers continuously attempt to influence shopper habits by manipulating their environment. It has been known since the early 1970s that factors such as lighting, layout, sounds, colors and temperature invoke emotional responses in consumers (Kotler, 1973). esearch has shown that the amount of time spent in a restaurant was directly related to the amount of money spent (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Musical preferences were found to play a factor in the restaurant experience. However, the tempo of the music was not found to be significant (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Several researchers have focused on the effects of music on consumer behavior (North, Hargreaves, and McKendrick, 1996; Yalch & Spangenberg, 1990; Milliman, 1982).
There have been two types of studies performed regarding the subject of environment and shopper behavior. The first group of studied treats the store atmosphere as a whole. Other studies focused on…
Alpert, J.L., & Alpert, M.I. (1990). Music influences on mood and purchase intentions.
Psychology & Marketing, 7, 109-133.
Areni, C.S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on shopping behavior. Classical vs. top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer research, 20(1), 336-340.
Caldwell, C., and Hibbert, S. (2002) The Influence of Music Tempo and Musical Preference on Restaurant Patron's Behavior. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 19(11): 895-917 (November 2002)
Media Has Shaped the Ages through Music:
Music is a medium that has shaped the ages in relation to its significant role in social movements. Actually, music has acted as one of the various methods and vehicles through which social movements have existed and developed. The role and significance of music in shaping the ages is primarily attributed to the fact that it represents more than entertainment as it has spoken for generations and exemplified belief systems. Generally, music has had a tremendous relationship to and impact on social movements in every decade from the 1960s through 2000-2010. Music has been used as a means of exemplifying the mood of the decade in terms of high profile events or movements that took place in the respective decade.
Music through the Decades:
As previously mentioned, music has played a significant role through the ages by shaping social movements and exemplifying the…
Hector, H. (2013, June 14). Understanding the History of Slavery through Bob Marley's 'Redemption Song.' Retrieved August 2, 2014, from http://www.one.org/us/2013/06/14/the-true-meaning-of-bob-marleys-redemption-song/
Holz, A.R. (2010, October 18). Musical Decades: The Revolutionary 1960s. Retrieved August 2,
2014, from http://www.pluggedin.com/upfront/2010/musicaldecades5-therevolutionary1960s.aspx
Suddath, C. (2011, October 21). ALL-TIME 100 Songs. Time Magazine. Retrieved August 2,
These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.
The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).
The theory explained various…
Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.
Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.
Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
It is never just about the music.
No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…
social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also as being one of the few means of allowing uses to vent on the ealities of dug cultue. Clealy, the elationship between dugs and music is a complex one. This pape will seek to shed light on the motivations fo atists to incopoate dug cultue in thei songs and what they pesumably gain fom it, and what society pesumably gains fom it as well.
The fist song that this pape will examine when it comes to the teatment of dugs as subject matte fo songs is in the wok of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so emakable in that it addesses a temendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the…
references. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.
Duff, C. (2003). Drugs and Youth Cultures: Is Australia Experiencing the 'Normalization' of Adolescent Drug Use? Journal of Youth Studies, 433-447.
Genius.com. (n.d.). Corner Bodega. Retrieved from genius.com: http://rap.genius.com/50-cent-corner-bodega-coke-spot-lyrics
Genius.com. (n.d.). The Way We Get By. Retrieved from Genius.com: http://rock.genius.com/Spoon-the-way-we-get-by-lyrics
Lyrics.com. (n.d.). Changes 2 pac. Retrieved from lyrics.com: http://www.lyrics.com/changes-lyrics-2pac.html
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
p.). In fact, he readily admitted that he referred to devices as "that blue box" rather than to its technical name (Doyle, N.p.) According to Doyle, Mardin maintained that although he may not have known the technical names for devices, he certainly knew what effects they were capable of eliciting (Doyle, N.p.) by his own admission, Mardin's expertise did not lie in his ability to memorize model numbers and technical monikers (Doyle, N.p.).
Rather, his expertise was his ability to ascertain how a song ought to sound and make that sound happen. hen asked by Small and Taylor if he' thought he had a personal stamp,' Mardin replied, "I'm in-between. I do have a personal style. At the same time, I try to bring out the best of the artist" (Small and Taylor, p. 53).
Bringing out the best in artists is what Mardin did on a regular basis. His…
Doyle, Tom. "Arif Mardin: Producer: From Aretha Franklin to Norah Jones."
SoundonSound.com. N.p. Jul. 2004. Web. 20 Dec. 2012.
Droney, Maureen. "TEC Hall of Fame Honoree Arif Mardin: A Golden Career From Atlantic's
Heydey to Norah Jones." Mix Online. N.p. 01 Oct. 2005. Web. 20 Dec. 2012.
PESTLE and FIVE FOCES Analysis: Miley Cyrus
PESTLE is a mode of analysis which refers to the Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental (cipd.co.uk). Essentially, it is a means of assessing a given entity's impact in a comprehensive and nuanced manner so that this entity can engage in the best decision-making and strategy to achieve all objectives. On the other hand, Michael Porter's Five Forces offered a framework for an entity to determine the models of industry and the forces which shape them: supplier power, threat of substitutes, threat of new entrants, buyer power and rivalry. It's useful to determine how these methods of analysis can manifest themselves in the music industry as that is a professional arena where artists experience extreme rivalry and competition and where it's extremely difficult to determine who will be gone tomorrow and who will not. Forging a lasting career in the music industry is…
Cipd.co.uk. (2013). PESTLE analysis. Retrieved from CIPD.co.uk: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/pestle-analysis.aspx
Knopper, S. (2013, October 16). On the Charts: Miley Cyrus' 'Bangerz' Finally Kicks In. Retrieved from Rollingstone.com: http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/on-the-charts-miley-cyrus-bangerz-finally-kicks-in-20131016
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Listening & Analysis: Violin
Listening Introductory Concepts -- the eferential Listener
Clarinet Concerto in a major II. Adagio
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed Clarinet Concerto in A major II for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. The musical work is classical and consists of three movements in the fast-slow-fast form or allegro-adagio-allegro. The work exhibits Mozart's delicate and purely instrumental approach. The interplay between the orchestra and the soloist is characterized by clarity, balance, and transparency. The soloist's role is introverted as there are no cadenzas in the piece. From a the perspective of a referential listener, the piece causes me to associate with mountain and valley vistas that I have encountered when hiking. It is precisely that moment when one deliberately slows one's pace as the scene comes into view. Memories of the view are associated with the aroma of the plants crushed under booted feet, the feel of the breeze that…
The Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela
I am a keen fan of El Sistema, the music program that is conducted in the barrios of Venezuela, of which the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra has been a natural outgrowth. The Orchestra is associated with Maestro Gustavo Dudamel who grew up in the El Sistema program and has become an internationally respected and adored conductor.
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra
Sonny's brother wakes up and states, "Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at last, that he could help us to be free if we would listen, that he would never be free until we did" (47). Sonny was more free and living a life more true than his brother realized.
The transformation in Sonny's brother is dramatic. Duncan writes, "By the end of the story, the narrator has gained much more than an astute musical ear. He has learned . . . To listen" (Duncan). Throughout the story, Baldwin designates the act of listening as the linchpin of this moral tale; by focusing on an often-overlooked component of communication, this early Baldwin story illustrates how Brother, initially deaf to what Sonny calls "all that hatred and misery and love," opens his ears to his culture, his brother, and himself. and, through Brother's example, readers might also become more willing…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short
Fiction R.V. Cassill,
W. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.
This section was made up mainly of alto and tenor saxophones, but sometimes also included baritones as well.
1935 saw the creation of the Benny Goodman Trio, yet another development in the evolution of Goodman's style. The trio was made up of legendary jazz musicians; Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa who he had played with in his radio days, with Goodman leading and composing. In this era, Goodman followed a much more mature style, as seen in After You're Gone, (Groove Music, 2008). In these recordings, he explored a complete range of the clarinet and was prone to play in "blue thirds," (Groove Music, 2008). In 1936, the trio became a quartet with the addition of Lionel Hampton on the vibraphone.
One night in 1938, Goodman got the chance of a lifetime, and has been thereafter accredited with bringing swing music into national recognition. He and his band performed at Carnegie…
De Toledano, Ralph. "The Night Swing was Born." Insight on the News. Vol. 13. Feb.,
Gridley, Mark. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005.
Groove Music. "Benny Goodman." Associated with PBS' Jazz a Film by Ken Burns:
Selected Artist Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 3/31/08 at http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_goodman_benny.htm
Gershwin/Someone to Watch
"Someone to Watch over Me" ("STWOM") was featured in a long-running musical called Oh Kay!, written by George and IA Gershwin, that made its world debut on Broadway's Imperial Theater. The date was November 8, 1926. The musical enjoyed great success, even including a Broadway revival in 1990. STWOM, the best-known song from the musical, was a hit three times the following year, starting with Oh Kay's star Gertrude Lawrence's recording, which was on the charts for eleven weeks. Gershwin himself released a version. George Olsen and His Orchestra had a hit with an uptempo version; interestingly, the Gershwin brothers originally intended the song to be an upbeat rhythm piece. George experimented with tempo one day and the brothers quickly realized it had more potential as a wistful, slower piece (McElrath.). Of course they were right. The purpose of this paper is to examine the score's refrain…
Dvarionaite, A. (2007). Frederic Chopin -- Prelude in E-Minor (op. 28 no. 4). YouTube.
Kamien, R. (1998). Music: An Appreciation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
McElrath, K.J. (n.d.). "Someone to Watch over Me" JazzStandards.com.
Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development of Music Aptitude and Singing Achievement
The rationale of the scrutinize was to investigate the effect of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone realization and tone improvisation of young children[aged eight].It provide the children cognitive development, multiple intelligence emphasis on music and bodily kinesthetic intelligence which will involve auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimuli.
It entails rhythmic development, music amptitude which test the effect of harmonic accompaniment on music development and music amptitude children vocal development and finally the effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement.Even though result based on research on singing achievement between the children which had song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant on tone attainment according to Gordon's (1982)IMMA, there was significance effect on singing achievement between children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment.Xylophones which comes from a Greek word 'xylon'meaning wooden sound.It is from percussion family…
ATHERTON JS (2010) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory [Online] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Accessed: 27 January 2011
Azzara, C.D. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal, 86(3), 21 -- 25.
Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Gordon, E.E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.
Downloadable, inexpensive music gives more power to listeners they had during the CD age, in which CDs were getting increasingly expensive, and consumers felt forced to purchase them, even if they liked only a few songs on the album. Technology can be empowering.
The music industry did have a point: the nature of downloadable music is not like a cassette tape or VHS, given the ease of recording and mass distribution. Its actions prosecuting individual violators in retrospect, however, were a public relations disaster and accomplished no social good. From a utilitarian standpoint and in terms of the general good, monitoring and legally sanctioning suppliers rather than focusing on the demand side of the industry seems to be the best way to ensure that file sharing is conduced in an ethical manner.
Violations will likely continue to occur, given that many nations, especially in the developing world, have a less…
Crews, Kenneth D. (2001). Case study a&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.: Implications for the Digital Music Library. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://dml.indiana.edu/pdf/AnalysisOfNapsterDecision.pdf
Fisher, Marc. (2007, December 30). Download uproar: Record industry goes after personal use.
Washington Post Staff Writer. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/28/AR2007122800693.html
Song from the Sound of Music
Shakespeare began the story of Twelfth Night with the line "If music be the food of love play on." Though, in the play, the Duke of Illyria, Orsino, asks for a surfeit of music in the hope that an overkill of love will help him overcome his infatuation for Olivia (Shakespeare, 1.1, 1-18), the line has now become immortalized as audiences have tended to read a wealth of meaning into it. The popularity of the oft-quoted line is hardly surprising given experiential knowledge of music as one of the greatest pleasures of life. Indeed, music sensitizes and heightens all kinds of emotions and moods, ranging from the sentimental, philosophical, and maudlin to the sensual, ecstatic and peppy. But more than anything, the real power of music lies in soothing the soul by enabling a sense of connection to a universal consciousness. The title song…
Goodwin, D.P. "Thoughts on Writing." Accessed Feb. 28, 2004 from the Blue
Musings Web site: http://www.geocities.com/athens/olympus/1466/page54.html
People & the Planet. "Amazon rainforest takes new battering." Peopleandplanet.net.
July 2, 2003. Accessed Feb. 21, 2004: http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=2003
This piece changed the face of contemporary classical music and allowed other composers much more freedom in composing, since the era of "classical" music had been questioned and all of its preconceived notions had been shattered by Beethoven's 9th Symphony.
Beethoven's 9th is the work of a composer committed to undying self-expression (Swafford, 2003). He turned the classical music world upside down, which was frowned upon at the time, but now seen as a major catalyst for musical evolution in its time. Both Hitler and Mussolini were admirers of Beethoven and Beethoven's 9th Symphony (Buch, 2003). Ironically, The piece initially represented the musical freedom and unbridled expression that Beethoven was known for, but sadly, both Hitler and Mussolini used this piece in their propaganda films, and are now closely associated with much of Beethoven's work. This association has continued through the latter part of the 20th century and into the…
Buch, Esteban. Beethoven's Ninth, A Political History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Swafford, Jan. "The Beethoven Mystery:Why haven't we figured out his Ninth Symphony yet?" Slate July, 2003.
Thomas, Jeffrey. "Revisiting the Ninth." American Bach Soloists. 2007.
Personal Response to Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Ethiopian Music 4
Ethiopia actually contains many distinct cultures. The most populous is that of the Christian Amhara around the capital plateau, but there are other Christian, Jewish, and Muslim peoples, some remote and virtually unknown. The following remarks apply to Amhara lyric poetry.
Sung verse poetry is here the major musical artform, given a very plastic melodic conception based in artistic standards which revel in double meanings. The basic formats together with the ambiguities in phrasing have something in common with poetic forms in Yemen and serve principally to attract interest. The sonorities of instrumental ensembles can also be similar, with the instruments serving primarily to accompany or mimick the voice, but with the notable inclusion of the krar lyre which seems to have direct ties to ancient lyres of Greece and King David (a fixture of Ethiopian iconography). The music itself is very much melodically driven, frequently with…
Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.scaruffi.com/history/african.html
Abyssinie Swing. Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.rootsworld.com/reviews/book-abbys.shtml
Gebrekidan, Fikru. Roots, Kwas, and Reggae. Retreived May 23, 2006 from htt:/ / www.seleda.com/may00/bawza.shtml
World Fact Book. Ethiopia. Retireved May 23, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html
Schoenberg developed a kind of experimental method of music composition that was completely relativistic: the free use of 12 tones, in which the relationships are merely one-on-one and not related to a whole (in the traditional sense), mirrored the philosophical modern worldview of the times. This method was meant by Schoenberg to follow in the Germanic tradition of greatness. However, his break from traditional methods of composition (and even from revolutionary methods, such as Wagner's), served to effect a kind of musical equivalent to the future architectural methods of Breuer, who was renowned for Brutalism.
Stravinsky, like the other two, was an innovator who played with rhythm and harmony in an effort to devise an original style. Stravinsky would add or take away notes from a motif without addressing the ways in which this would affect meter. There was a spontaneity to Stravinsky's work, like the revolutionary Rite of Spring,…
An Analysis of ladyslaw Szpilman's "The Pianist"
In ladyslaw Szpilman's novel "The Pianist," the author details his account of his survival in Nazi-occupied arsaw, and how he managed to make it through the horrors and atrocities that were committed there during the seven years he writes about in "The Pianist." There is no question that the life that Szpilman was forced to endure during the period from 1939 to 1945 was painful for him and many others who were there as well.
However, Szpilman managed to survive the terror while many others succumbed to it and lost their lives during that period in history. Many people wonder why, and they wonder how one man can be strong enough to live through the hardships while so many others did not. That is what will be explored in this paper, and hopefully new light can be shed on the subject.
Frank, Michael. "No Why Here." Los Angeles Times. 16 January 2000.
Pleszczynski, Wladyslaw. "The Survivor From Warsaw." The Wall Street Journal. 2 September 1999.
Wladyslaw Szpilman. 6 March 2002. Szpilman.net. 10 April 2003 http://www.szpilman.net/ .
On the other hand, there is Guy Dammann of UK's Guardian, reviewing the O2 London production of Orff's Carmina Burana in 2009. Dammann displays all the aristocratic, snobbish, condescending characteristics that one would expect from a literate Englishman who is hard-pressed to find anything that pleases him. Dammann, in fact, represents the exact opposite end of the spectrum to Gelfand. If Gelfand is American idealism/exuberance run completely amok, Dammann is English propriety and snootiness held so aloft from the common superficialities of common man (which he disdains) that anyone who can possibly relate to his comments is most likely as snooty as he.
Such is not to say that Dammann does not know what he is talking about. Not at all -- Dammann has obviously been educated in theater, and gives a refreshing bit of information concerning the history of Orff's Carmina. His review is fairly objective, discerning, and intelligent.…
Dammann, Guy. "Classical Review: Carmina Burana." The Guardian. 20 Jan 2009.
Web. 4 May 2011.
Gelfand, Janelle. "Review: Carmina Burana: 'Burana' gets unique, dramatic reading."
Enquirer. 28 May 2000. Web. 4 May 2011.
Arsenic and Old Lace
The movie Arsenic and Old Lace uses a variety of film techniques to tell its story. Rather than opening with a voice over, it uses text on the screen to provide background information for the story.
The director frames shots in interesting ways: in one scene, Mortimer fills one side from top to bottom, while on the other side, his aunt is at the other side of the frame. In other shots, Jonathan and Mortimer are centered. Some scenes resemble tableaus, with the heights of four characters carefully arranged. This is repeated with Jonathan (the taller one) on the left, and his assistant on the right.
Close-ups that are close to extreme emphasize the scars on Jonathan's face. Close-ups are used on Mortimer (Cary Grant) several times, to emphasize his shock when he first realizes his sisters have poisoned a lonely old man, and then again…
Guns 'N Roses Music Video Project
I am extremely proud of the finished essay, mainly because I think that I arrived at a cogent, complete paper due to my extensive pre-planning. The first step in my process involved doing preliminary research, which mainly consisted of re-watching the video a couple of times and analyzing the images and lyrics. During my re-watch, I brainstormed some ideas I had about the content, namely trying to find the differences between the song and the visuals. Once I had done that, I set up an outline of the major points I wanted to make about the differences. Then I did further research into sources to back up my claims. Next I did a bare bones draft which included all the information I wanted in the final draft but did not focus on persuasive or interesting language. Once that was finished, I revised my paper,…
"When I was your Man" By Bruno Mars
Gifted Grammy award-winning singer, Bruno Mars, in his "When I Was Your Man," has largely utilized sad and regretful lyrics portraying longing for the woman who left him. However, does this really indicate he's now more sensible and mature, or is it simply wishful thinking? "When I was your Man" strikes straight at the hearts of people who lost a special person or loved someone deeply but did not realize it and failed to value them till it was too late. This song's lyrics depict a multitude of emotions such as remorse, discontent and miserableness expressed effectively through the singer's voice (Louis).
Same bed, but it feels just a little bit bigger now
The musician begins with the typical picture of a ruined relationship: an empty bed with a lone occupant, speaking of loneliness and sadness (Popdust).
Our song on the radio,…