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Music on Brain and Emotions the Effect
Words: 1346 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5252637
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Music on Brain and Emotions

The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions

The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…


Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.

Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]

Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x

Music and Therapeutic Influence on
Words: 2089 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66616166
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As per Dr. Sacks, Alzheimer patients take advantage from listening to the familiar music. The music entails them memory stimulus, restoring the accessibility to personal history. It is said to have motivated the powers of speech and the thought process. However, his entire emotional as well as intellectual configuration, his life history, his identity, is greatly influenced by the music. The study of psycho-neuroimmunology narrates the influence of neuropeptides on human emotions. The beta-endorphins appear to be released and the body is permitted to perform its own healing work on physiological level, while the person is in a relaxed condition. The music therapy attempts to bring such state which is revealed to be 'audio analgesisa'. (Music Heals: Music for Healing and Transition)

5. What facilities practice this form of therapy and where and is it becoming more and more popular?

The Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center in Los Angeles was regarded to…


Alzheimer's and Other Dementias: Understanding the Differences. Retrieved at . Accessed 6 June, 2006

Forgeron, Nicole. The Impact of Music Therapy on Alzheimer's Disease Patients. March, 1999. Retrieved at Accessed 6 June, 2006

Gerosa, Cristina. M; Bonanomi, Claudio. Observation of the Alzheimer Patient and Music

Therapy. Retrieved from Accessed 6 June, 2006

Music Has the Power to
Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27258199
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The Hippie community was rapidly expanding and its primary stimulator was music, as people were literally going through brain-affecting experiences as they listened to psychedelic music.

IV. Music is essential in some people's lives because they associate it with particular feelings. Patriotic music is a very important factor in most countries because it makes individuals identify with it and because it triggers sentiments related to belonging. Religious music is also important, considering that many religions accept that religious teachings can be expressed more efficiently by being sung. People often turn to music simply because they feel that it helps them as they try to relax or as they attempt to amplify their feelings.

hereas music can be beneficial when used in certain contexts, it can be particularly harmful when used inappropriately. Aggressive language alongside of a rapid beats-per-minute tempo can influence listeners in adopting hostile attitudes and in behaving unethically.…

Works cited:

Bonta, Steve, "Morality of Music: Because Music Primarily Communicates Emotions, Its Morality May Be Judged According to Whether the Feelings Conveyed Are Positive and Noble or Negative and Base," The New American 8 Apr. 2002

Kirkweg, Sara B. "The Effects of Music on Memory," Retrieved October 27, 2011, from the National Undergraduate Research Website: 

Oldfield, Amelia Interactive Music Therapy: A Positive Approach: Music Therapy at a Child Development Centre (London: Jessica Kingsley, 2006)

Music on Vocabulary Competence Writing Reading Comprehension
Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1305508
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Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School


The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School

Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.

Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…

Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).

In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the

Positive Effects of Music in Brain Injured Patients
Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33172784
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The field of music therapy is an emerging one in medical practice. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of research to support the use of music therapy in a wide range of instances, one of which includes patients who are suffering from brain injury. This paper will review some of the literature on the subject in an attempt to understand how music affects the brain and is therefore useful in therapy.

Music Therapy

The idea of music therapy is ancient, and was extolled by the likes of Plato. The Roman god Apollo was god of music and medicine, further cementing the link between the two in estern civilization. Non-estern cultures were also known to use music to attempt to heal people. Certain forms of music could drive out evil spirits or demons, according to the lore of many cultures. It is from these myriad traditions that the modern use…

Works Cited:

Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from

Formisano, R., Vinicola, V., Penta, F., Matteis, M., Brunelli, S. & Weckel, J. (2001). Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery. Annals of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita. Vol. 37 (4) 627-630.

Hamilton, L., Cross, J. & Kennelly, J. (2001). The interface of music therapy and speech pathology in the rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury. Australian Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 12 (2001) 13-20.

Thaut, M.H., Gardiner, J.C., Holmberg, D., Horwitz, J., Kent, L., Andrews, G., Donelan, B. And McIntosh, G.R. (2009) Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1169, 406-416.

Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery
Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40615112
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Music and Pain

The use of music in relation to relaxation and pain control is universal in application. Many cultures use music, tones, chanting, drums, or other forms of biofeedback to treat patients in acute pain, women in labor, recovery, and now, most recently, in pre- and post-operative care. In fact, the therapeutic value of music has been recognized as vital and powerful since Ancient Times; archaeological evidence shows flutes carved from bone in pictures of physicians healing patients, Greek physicians used music and vibration to heal, aid in digestion and induce sleep; the Early Egyptians used musical incantations to help with the healing process; and certainly, numerous native tribes use singing and chanting as part of their healing rituals (Nilsson, 2008).

Further, most postoperative patients have pain, despite the use of analgesia. Nurses are constantly trying to be more effective in delivering pain medication. One study showed that patients…


Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well being in liver and kidney translplant recipients. Journal of Music Therapy. 48 (4): 463-85.

Good, M., (2010). Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery. Nursing Research. 59 (4): 259-69.

Goodwin C.J. (2010). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. New York: John

Music Association Music and Personal Association What
Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13263354
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Music Association

Music and Personal Association

What music do you associate with childhood? How did/does this music make you feel? How do your choices reflect your childhood experiences?

There is not much that I can recall about my childhood in detail. My memory tends to be unreliable at best. That is why I find it so incredible that the music of the Beatles remains a vivid and constant presence in my memories. Indeed, even before I remember knowing that red means 'stop' or green means 'go,' I knew all the words to "Yellow Submarine." It was almost as if I was born with the melody to "Hey Jude" in may head. In fact, since my parents were such devoted listeners to the Beatles, I have little doubt that this was the soundtrack to my gestation.

The constant presence of the Beatles would have an indelible impact on me. There are…

Music and Cognitive Theory
Words: 1223 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55816649
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Music and Cognitive Theory

Music tends to have a phenomenal power over the human mind and emotions. A movie without a soundtrack would seem so dull and boring. If you try closing your eyes and picture a scene with music, it gives a completely different mood and emotion to it. Even before the music culture that exists today, human beings were still making some kind of music. They made flutes with the bones and jaw harps. Music has always had an innate appreciation for humans. Pleasant sounds lure a person to identify its source, whereas a shrill, unpleasant sound makes a person uncomfortable.

Studies show that while an orchestral concert, the pleasure centers of a human brain are activated. These are also active while a person has chocolate, engages in sexual acts or during the intake of stimulants like hash and cocaine. hen a baby is being formed inside a…

Work cited:

Mursell, J. (1970). The Psychology of Music. New York: Prentice Hall.

Schlaug, G.L. Jancke, Y. Huang, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699-701.

Ratey, J. (2002). A Users Guide to the Brain. New York: Vintage.

Strickland, S. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 98-109.

Song of Love Music Is a Universal
Words: 2036 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51174357
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Song of Love

Music is a universal language shared and understood across all countries and cultures. It can help express emotions and create an array of reactions, ranging from relaxed feelings to the most motivated ones. Apart from this, music can be used therapeutically for people who face difficulties physically, emotionally, cognitively or socially (Bodner). There is some difficulty when defining the concept of music therapy because there are numerous definitions out there concerning to this practice. According to the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) "Music therapy is an established health profession in which music is used in a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals" (Ronna). This includes addressing mental and physical problems such as: self-awareness, spiritual enhancement, social and interpersonal development, and motor skills (Ronna). This type of therapy is used in many settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and…

Works Cited

Bodner M, M.. "Music Therapy." American Cancer Society., 2008. Web. 19 Apr 2013..

Darnley-Smith, Rachel, and Helen Patey. Music Therapy. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2003. Print.

Davis, William Charles, Kate Gfeller, and Michael Thaut. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. 2nd . Boston Burr Ridge: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999. Print.

Oak, M.. "Effects of Music on the Mind and Brain." Buzzle., 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013. .

Effects of Music on Memory
Words: 2435 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66265009
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Music on Emotions and Behavior

Music and education

Psychological implications

The effect of music on word recall

Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.

The mechanism involved

The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…

Works cited

Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006

Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997

Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997

Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002

Persuading That Listening to Music
Words: 1603 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93071527
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" (Eugenia Costa-Giomi 2004, 141) Among the academic benefits associated with three years of piano lessons, the children tended to have higher math computation scores, higher language scores, and higher self-esteem than children not involved in music.

Many studies and a wide array of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that music improves the academic performance and test scores of children, including those in Middle and High School, but certainly also including Elementary and College students. These benefits may occur because of the increased activity in the temporal and left-frontal areas of the brain that have been observed during exposure to music, or because music brings "cohesion" to already existing background noise. (Geake & Ivanov 2003) Or perhaps the link between music and academic success may trace back to the Ancient ideas of how the arts affect the essence of the soul. (Costa-Giomi 2004) Regardless of the root cause of why…

Works Cited

Catterall, J.S. (1998, July) Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? A response to Eisner. Art Education, 51(4), Windows on the World: 6-11.

Costa-Giomi, E. (2004) Effects of three years of piano instruction on children's academic achievement, school performance and self-esteem. Psychology of Music, 32(2): 139-52.

Ho, Yim-Chi, Cheung, Mei-Chun, & Chan, Agnes S. (2003) Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17(3): 439-50.

Ivanov, V.K. & Geake, J.G. (2003) The Mozart Effect and primary school children. Pyschology of Music, 31(4): 405-13.

Developmental and Growth Norms Music
Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34985092
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Musical play was designed to elicit greater responsiveness from the child in a fun setting and also to enhance the enjoyment of the adult involved in the activity. The aim of the activity was to encourage age-appropriate physical and speech-related activities as well as accustom the child to the sound of music. Rolling over while the music played, imitating the sounds and words were initiated by the adult, and when the child mimicked the adult, the child was told 'good job.' The activity was also designed to positively sensitize the child to instrumental and sung music in a social setting.

orks Cited

alworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library…

Works Cited

Walworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1667546041).

Teaching in the Self-Contained Classroom

Music, Art and Phys. Ed. In Self-contained classroom

In 1996, the United States Department of Education mandated laws that required school districts to create inclusive programs to integrate students with various disabilities into the general school population.

However, a study conducted by the National Council on disabilities in 2000 showed that most school districts have not transitioned into full mainstream classes. Instead, an estimated 20% of children with disabilities continue to spend their schooldays in self-contained classrooms, apart from the general school population (right and right).

Proponents of the self-contained classroom, however, believe that such settings can be advantageous, particularly for students with hearing impairments, mental retardation and those with physical or learning disabilities.

This paper examines how students in total or semi-self-contained classrooms can benefit from instruction in art, music and physical education. It looks at the challenges of teaching such classes and how…

Works Cited

Boyer, Lynn and Christine Lee. "Converting Challenge to Success: Supporting a New Teacher of Students with Autism." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. Wilson Database.

MacDonald, Victoria and Deborah L. Speece. "Making Time: A teacher's Report on Her First Year of Teaching Children with Emotional Disabilities." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. ProQuest Database.

Shapiro, Deborah R. And L. Kristi Sayers. "Who Does What on the Interdisciplinary Team: Regarding Physical Education for Students With Disabilities?" Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(6). July/August 2003. Wilson Database.

Wexler, Alice. "Painting their Way Out: Profiles of Adolescent Art Practice at the Harlem Hospital Art Studio." Studies in Art Education, 43(4). Summer 2002. ProQuest Databse.

Effects of Listening to Music on Worker Productivity
Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 39750449
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Listening to Music on orker Productivity:

Music can basically serve various purposes with some of these purposes being fulfilled at the individual level while others at the level of the society. For an individual, music can be a platform for expressing emotions, promoting relaxation, offering stimulation, facilitating mood change, and being a source of comfort. In some case, music can be used to entertain, in therapy, improve the effect of the other arts, and offer aesthetic enjoyment. In the past few years, there have been increased concerns and analyses regarding the impact of music on work quality and worker productivity. This is primarily because workers tend to listen to music to accomplish certain purposes while doing their work. hile some workers like to listen to music when they are seemingly losing focus, others listen to music when involved in increasingly repetitive job or when working in a noisy or too…

Works Cited:

LESIUK, TERESA. "The Effect of Music Listening on Work Performance." Psychology of Music 33.2 (2005): 173-91. SAGE Publications. Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research, 7 Feb. 2008. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .

Magloff, Lisa. "The Effect of Radios on Workplace Productivity." Chron - Small Business. Hearst Communications, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .

Padnani, Amisha. "The Power Of Music, Tapped In a Cubicle." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Aug. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .

Young, Gregory. "EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON TASK PERFORMANCE." Breakthrough Systems. Breakthrough Systems., 31 July 2003. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .

Piped Music Piped or Background
Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 488309
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The research found that 86% of hard-of-hearing people find muzak annoying; 34% of the general public in the NOP survey expressed their dislike of it while 36% of the general public said that they never notice background music. ("Research Carried Out by NOP...") Age too was found to be an important factor in how a person feels about background music as 45% of the 45- to 54-year-olds surveyed found piped music to be annoying compared to 21% of the 15- to 24-year-olds. (Ibid.)

Background music is particularly annoying for hard of hearing people since it drowns out important sounds such as speech and announcements for them. Even those using hearing aids find muzak problematic as most hearing aids amplify all sounds equally, making speech and background music become very hard to distinguish.(Ibid.)

The worst places for background music, according to a majority of the people who find piped music annoying,…

Works Cited

Braun, Josh. "Red Tape: That Kind of Muzak Don't Soothe the Soul." Daily Nexus.

November 19, 2001. June 15, 2005.

Hagenbaugh, Barbara. "Muzak thinks outside the box." USA TODAY. August 05, 2004. June 15, 2005. 

Muzak: Past, Present, and Future." 27th December 2000. June 15, 2005.

Psychoacoustics on the Music Production
Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12157431
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The human brain analyzes these patterns and learning occurs. The inner ear is a receptor that transmits messages to the brain about the location of sound and does so through the use of the following:

(1) pitch;

(2) loudness;

(3) timbre;

(4) spatial localization; and (5) Duration. (Lecture 2, p.4)

The shape of the inner ear in addition to any sounds that mask the tones being processed by the ear for instance in how white noise masks a 2 kHz tone. (Lecture 4, p.18) in addition, psychoacoustics measures the head and spatial localization or the head in relation to the surrounding in which the tones or sound is heard in relation to the position of the head. The cues for location of pure tones are reported as:

(1) Interaural time differences (it'd); and (2) Interaural level differences (ILD). (Lecture 10, p.2)

ILD result from sound bending around an object known…


Lecture Series (2013) Psychoacoustics.

Leeds, J. (2013) the Power of Sound. Retrieved from: 

Taylor and Francis (2009) Acoustics and Psychoacoustics. U.S. 2009. Retrieved from:

Creoles Professionals Involved in Therapy and Counseling
Words: 4095 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95784591
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Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…


Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.

Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.

Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.

Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.

Portrayal of Women in Music Tv Film
Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89240855
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Portrayal of omen in Music, Tv, Film, Advertising, & Other Media Since 1990

This essay addresses how the portrayal of women has changed in one segment of the media (music, tv, film, advertising) from the early 1990's when the book here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media by Susan J. Douglas was completed. Discussed are the commonalties between women currently important to American pop culture and the women examined in the book, the differences or changes that have occurred, whether conditions have improved for women, and whether there has been a continued backlash against feminism in American popular culture over the last decade. Four sources are used. APA.

here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media

Susan J. Douglas in her book "here the Girls Are" examined the portrayal of women in the pop culture of the last part of the 20th century.…

Works Cited

Body as Commodity: Media Craze." Body icon.

Douglas, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female With the Mass

Media. Random House, Incorporated. March 1995.

The Representation of Women in Advertising. .

History of Development of Blues
Words: 4267 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 23025748
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Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…

Works cited

Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.

Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.

Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.

Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.

Mozart Effect the Work of
Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90273124
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Mozart especially did the trick. Einstein loved Mozart's highly organized, intensely patterned sonatas. He felt, as many before him, that music and the reasoning intellect were linked. Music and his scientific work...were 'born of the same source.'" (Dowd, 2008) a report conducted by the German Ministry of Education in 2007 while failing to uphold music having a long-term influence on intelligence did state findings of a "link between musical training and IQ development." (Dowd, 2008) Dowd additionally reports that "...brain mapping has revealed that professional musicians have more grey matter in their right auditory cortex than non-musicians, as if practicing an instrument flexed a muscle in the brain." (2008) Dowd states: "It seems increasingly likely that the long-term practice of playing music, rather than merely listening, can have the kind of impact suggested by the Mozart Effect. Einstein, after all, organized his mind by playing the violin, not listening to…


Bangeter, Adrian and Health, Chip (2005) the Mozart Effect: Tracking the Evolution of a Scientific Legend. Group de Psychologie Appliquee, Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland.

Braun, Melanie (2005) Exploring the Efficacy of Vowel Intonations. The Rose+Croix Journal 2005. Vol. 2. Online available at 

Donald Hatch Andrews, the Symphony of Life (Unity Books, 1966), pp. 55, 58.

Dowd, Will (2008) the Myth of the Mozart Effect.- the Skeptic Magazine. 1 Jan 2008. Online Highbeam Research at

Musical Theory and Education for
Words: 3211 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31937062
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(Accordino et al, 103) The Accordino et al article goes on to
detail the findings which suggest this to be an accurate array of valuable
activities for those who as a result of the autism condition are extremely
limited elsewhere in terms of the ability to express or acquire emotional
or informational communication.
The idea is further elaborated by the numerous studies which have
emerged with specific reference to the relationship between early education
in autism sufferers and the application of music therapy. Namely, the
study by Kern & Aldridge (2006), first elaborates on the recognized value
of inclusion environments as a context for education for autistic children.
Noting the socialization and normalcy which can be of great value to the
child, Kern & Aldridge go on to recommend that music therapy be used as a
means of intervention in providing support for the autistic child, who will
inherently have…

Works Cited:
Accordino, R.; Comer, R. & Heller, W.B. (2006). Searching for music's
potential: A critical examination of research on music therapy with
individuals with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1. 101-

Adams, R. (2002). Online Music Theory Helper. Children's Music Workshop.
Online at .

Promoting Leadership Professional Development One of the
Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25491677
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Promoting Leadership Professional Development

One of the harsh realities of working in an organization is the inevitability of inappropriate promotions that are based on friendship, cronyism or nepotism rather than merit, or wherein employees find themselves thrust into leadership roles by virtue of luck or fate, or a combination thereof. In addition, some leaders who intentionally attempt to climb the career ladder into the executive boardroom may find their path frustrated by a lack of appropriate leadership training that can help them become more effective in the workplace. Although history has shown time and again that some people are born leaders, far more people need some help to achieve their maximum potential in these leadership roles. The objective of this essay was to review to recent peer-reviewed journal articles concerning the importance of leadership professional development and what steps can be used to facilitate the process in the modern workplace.…


Adamek, M.S. (2007, July 1). Elements of leadership development: What contributes to effective leadership? Music Therapy Perspectives, 25(2), 121-125.

Maxwell, J.C. (1993). Developing the leader within you. Georgia: Injoy, Inc.

Maxwell, J.C. (1998). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

Roof, J. & Presswood, K. (2004, Spring). Is it leadership or management? College and University, 79(4), 3-9.

Auditory Stimulation Its Effect on
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Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had on academic task performance of children with ADHD. This was executed by studying both children with ADHD and normal students during the performance of arithmetic tasks during three different auditory stimulus conditions: high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech) and no stimulation (silence). The findings indicated that the normal subjects performed similarly under all three conditions, while the ADHD subjects performance was significantly better under the music condition that the silence or speech conditions. This information could prove to be valuable for teachers in the classroom environment. The presence of music in the classroom during tasks such as arithmetic might facilitate the performance of students with ADHD. Since normal students performed equally well under all auditory conditions, the presence of music would…


Abikoff, H., Courtney, M.E., Szeibel P.J., Koplewicz, H.S. (1996). The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(3), 238-46.

Baumgaertal, A. (1999). Alternative and controversial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(5), 977-92.

Gray, L.C., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M. (2002). Continuum of impulsiveness caused by auditory masking. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 66(3), 265-72.

Jackson, N.A. (2003). A survey of music therapy methods and their role in the treatment of early elementary school children with ADHD. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(4), 302-23.

Care Needs Concerns and Treatment
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Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).

Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret

The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…


Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.

Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.

Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.

Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.

Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by
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Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)

Article Analysis and Evaluation
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performed by a group of professionals that included: Dr. Xiao-Mei Li (Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, egistered Nurse), dean and associate professor of the nursing department of Chinese university, Jiao tong University's College of Medicine; Kai-Na Zhou (Master of Science in Nursing, N), assistant researcher in the same department; Professor Dr. Hong Yan (PhD), public health department of same university's College of Medicine; Yin-Ping Zhang (PhD N), Associate Professor at the same department; and Professor Dr. Duo-Lao Wang (PhD) from Medical Statistics department, Faculty of Population Health and Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. The randomized clinical study was titled "Effects of music therapy on anxiety of patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy." The Care, Cure and Core model of Hall was used. A clinical trial of 120 women suffering from breast cancer was conducted between March and November 2009, using randomized controlled research design. Half…

Reference List

Avci, I. A., & Gozum, S. (2009). Comparison of two different educational methods on teachers' knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding breast cancer screening. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13(2), 94-101.

Bruscia, K., Dileo, C., Shultis, C., & Dennery, K. (2009). Expectations of hospitalized cancer and cardiac patients regarding the medical and psychotherapeutic benefits of music therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36(4), 239-244.

Chen, Y. X., Yang, X. M., Kuang, J. Y., & Han, B. X. (2009). Anxiety and depression status of patients with breast cancer and analysis of the related factors. Journal of Bengbu Medical College, 34(9), 840-842.

Clark, M., Isaacks-Downton, G., Wells, N., Redlin-Frazier, S., Eck, C., Hepworth, J. T., & Chakravarthy, B. (2006). Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(3), 247-265.

How to Rate Evidence based Practice Articles
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Music Therapy on Depression Name Course Professor Date Part II Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping with psychiatric symptoms exacerbates difficulties brought by a mental health disorder. The ineffective coping strategies are evidenced in poor concentration, low self-esteem, and poor self-care. Population: The population of interest is outpatients suffering from depression. Intervention: Provide opportunities for patients to listening to music to help alleviate or deal with symptoms of this psychiatric disorder. Comparison and Contrast: Does music therapy contribute to less depressive symptoms? How effective is music therapy in helping patients develop suitable coping strategies for depression. Outcome: Improved quality of life including lessened depression levels and improved capabilities to cope with psychiatric symptoms through listening to music. Clinical Question: Is listening to music effective in lessening psychiatric symptoms in depressive patients receiving music therapy? The purpose of this assignment is to explore the effectiveness of using music as an intervention for depressive…

¶ … Music Therapy on Depression Name Course Professor Date Part II Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping with psychiatric symptoms exacerbates difficulties brought by a mental health disorder. The ineffective coping strategies are evidenced in poor concentration, low self-esteem, and poor self-care. Population: The population of interest is outpatients suffering from depression. Intervention: Provide opportunities for patients to listening to music to help alleviate or deal with symptoms of this psychiatric disorder. Comparison and Contrast: Does music therapy contribute to less depressive symptoms? How effective is music therapy in helping patients develop suitable coping strategies for depression. Outcome: Improved quality of life including lessened depression levels and improved capabilities to cope with psychiatric symptoms through listening to music. Clinical Question: Is listening to music effective in lessening psychiatric symptoms in depressive patients receiving music therapy? The purpose of this assignment is to explore the effectiveness of using music as an intervention for depressive symptoms and improved quality of life based on existing evidence-based practice. Narrative Discussion In Chan et al. (2012), the objective of the study was to determine the impact of music on the levels of depression in older adults. To achieve this objective, the researchers conducted a randomized controlled study on 50 older adults who listened to their preferred music at home for 30 minutes weekly for eight weeks. The depression scores that were collected once per week demonstrated that the levels of depression reduced every week among participants in the music group as compared to a non-music group that was subjected to control during the same period. Atiwannapat et al. (2016) carried out a research to explore the impacts of, "active group music therapy and receptive group music therapy to counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder" (p.141). The researchers randomly identified and assigned 14 major depressive disorder outpatients to active music therapy, receptive group music therapy, and group counseling. After assessing participants at baseline, they found that receptive group music therapy is characterized by faster achievement of peak therapeutic effect whereas active group music therapy has higher peak impact. Discussion There were some similarities and differences in both studies that can impact how music therapy is recommended as an intervention for reducing the levels of depression. First, these studies concur that music therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention that can help in management of depression among outpatients. Based on these studies, music therapy is considered because of pharmacological treatment measures are usually associated with adverse impacts and sometimes ineffective. Secondly, the studies involve a randomized controlled trial, which is a true experiment. This research design helps in enhancing the probability that study findings are not due to chance. Given the use of randomized controlled trial for these studies, their findings relatively represent the actual impact of music on outpatient settings. Third, both researches were carried out in outpatient settings and on a weekly basis, which was suitable in determining how the intervention impacted depression patients. Fourth, both studies grouped their participants in different categories i.e. one in which the intervention was used and another control group that was not subjected to the intervention. Chan et al. (2012) conducted the trial in the participant's home where a research nurse visited on a weekly basis to gather depression scores for eight weeks as data was collected between July 2009 and June 2010. The study also utilized a one-tailed repeated measure of assessing covariance i.e. RM ANCOVA to examine effects while a medium effect was selected based on findings from the previous study. Four different categories of music i.e. Malay, Western, Chinese, and Indian were first introduced to the subjects. For data analysis, Chan et al. (2012) utilized descriptive statistics to define the characteristics of the group while chi-square test was used to test homogeneity between groups. Unlike Chan et al. (2012), Atiwannapat et al. (2016) divided their participants into three groups and conducted the study as part of group therapy for outpatients with depression. Participants in this study not only listened to music but also sang and played musical instruments. This study also involved lyric analysis, song writing, and drawing the music by the subjects, which was different from the other study. Therefore, Atiwannapat et al. (2016) explored different aspects relating to music rather than simply listening to music like in the other study. For data analysis, this research utilized statistical analyses including STATA version 13, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Fisher's exact test. While Chan et al. (2012) conducted the study on older patients aged 55 years or more, Atiwannapat et al. (2016) carried out the research on participants aged between 16 and 65 years. Therefore, the results of the study were difficult to compare because of the differences in age group and the fact that they were completed over different time periods. However, both articles provide significant evidence to demonstrate that music therapy helps in lessening the levels of depression among outpatients. Using Newhouse Level of Evidence, these studies contained weaknesses that need to be addressed as shown in the Appendix. Chan et al. (2012) received a rating of I-B good because of its fairly definitive conclusions that are consistent with an adequate number of well defined studies (Newhouse, 2006). Atiwannapat et al. (2016) obtained a Newhouse score of I-B good because of insufficient sample size but reasonably consistent results and use of reliable and valid research methodology. Part III The patient is 40- to 50-year-old married female a with essentially no psychiatric history presented to the emergency department with her husband due to significant mood lability, feeling a lot of anger towards others and having thoughts of wanting to hurt people over a couple months, but have gotten worse over the last two weeks. She reported that she has been feeling agitated, tensed, and has irritable edge. Thoughts are racing, concentration is poor, feeling more impulsive -- have been hitting wall and kicking a copier machine. She has no psychosis, but has longstanding issues with irritability and anger. Patient denied any previous episodes of depression and agitation. Her symptoms cause interpersonal, employment and familial difficulties. Patient is danger to self and others. She is too impulsive and aggressive to manage outside structured milieu. Despite having no psychiatric history, the 40- to 50-year-old patient is probably suffering from depression since she's showing symptoms of this disorder. She needs an intervention that will help her manage anger and irritation, improve concentration, and avoid tension. These factors have seemingly played a major role in her relationship, family, and employment problems. As evidenced in the two studies, listening to music will be a suitable non-pharmacological intervention to deal with the patient's condition. This is a suitable intervention because the patient has no history of depression and agitation. Music therapy will help improve the patient's condition by giving her other outlets for relieving stress and anxiety, developing safe and appropriate behaviors, and lessening depressive symptoms (Thoma et al., 2013). Final Reflection As a mental health nurse, my work has involved playing different roles that assist patients to control/manage their conditions. I have been involved in maintaining contacts with patients in relation to their health and well being and conducting assessments with regards to management of the patient's condition vis-a-vis the clinical intervention. During this process, I have been involved in ensuring the patient adheres to medication and other intervention measures to effective control and manage his/her condition. Apart from patient interaction and assessment, I have also been involved in care planning and evaluation of evidence of clinical intervention. This has entailed working with physicians to coordinate care processes and conducting research on clinical interventions that are suitable for specific conditions in order to improve care and patient outcomes. This experience has helped me realize that the role of mental health nurse entails carrying out different activities towards delivery of patient care. In this case, mental health nurses not only act as supportive staff to physicians but also carry out other tasks to help improve the health and well-being of patients. This has in turn changed my understanding of the roles and responsibilities of mental health nurses. These practitioners act as the link between the patient and the health care team and coordinating patient care strategies and processes. Moreover, I have realized that planning evidence-based care involves conducting research on evidence-based practices and using them as the benchmark for coordinating and providing care. These experiences have contributed to my growth and development as a nurse by enabling me to understand the role of a nurse and how to use evidence-based practices to plan and coordinate care. In essence, these experiences have been crucial in helping me gain real-world knowledge and skills in nursing. References Atiwannapat et al. (2016, March 26). Active vs. Receptive Group Music Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder -- A Pilot Study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 26(2016), 141-145. Chan et al. (2012). Effects of Music on Depression in Older People: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 776-783. Newhouse et al. (2006). JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales. Retrieved from Vanderbilt University Medical Center website:  Thoma et al. (2013). The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response. Plos One, 8(8). Retrieved from  Appendix Literature review table (Article I) Author, date Purpose of the study Population and setting, and sample size (n). (For a systematic review indicate the setting and number of studies) Methods (For a systematic review indicate search methods) Findings Implication for practice Strength of the evidence (Level I, II, III)/Quality of the evidence, based on the JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales (Newhouse, Dearholt, Pugh, & White, 2005) Moon Fai Chan, Zi Yang Wong, Hideaki Onishi and Naidu Vellasamy Thayala, 2011 To explore the effect of music therapy on levels of depression in older adults. The study targeted older adults suffering from depression in the outpatient setting i.e. at home. 52 older adults aged 55 years or more were selected as the sample size for the research. A randomized control trial was carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and Shapiro-Wilk test for data analysis. The study found that listening to music helps in lessening the levels of depression in older adults. Music is a therapeutic intervention that can be used to enhance the quality of life of older people with depression. It's an inexpensive, simple and non-invasive treatment option. Since it was a randomized controlled trial, it's rated as I-B good. Appendix Literature review table (Article II) Author, date Purpose of the study Population and setting, and sample size (n)b Methodsc Findings Implication for practice Strength of the evidence (Level I, II, III)/Quality of the evidence, based on the JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales (Newhouse, Dearholt, Pugh, & White, 2005) Penchaya Atiwannapat, Papan Thaipisuttikul, Patchawan Poopityastaporn and Wanwisa Katekaew, 2016 The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of active and receptive group music therapy to group counseling in MDD treatment. The researchers generally targeted outpatients with depression across all age groups and conducted the study as part of group therapy. A sample size of 14 outpatients aged 18-65 years was selected. The study utilized a randomized controlled trial and statistical analyses for data analysis. They found that group music therapy is a suitable alternative treatment approach for depression, especially Major Depressive Disorder. Group music therapy requires more studies and research in the nursing field in relation to treatment of depression. Since it was a randomized controlled trial, it received a rating score of I-B bad. Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Research Evidence Appraisal Chan et al. (2012). Strength of Study Design • Was sample size adequate and appropriate? Yes No • Were study participants randomized? Yes No • Was there an intervention? Yes No • Was there a control group? Yes No • If there was more than one group, were groups equally treated, except for the intervention? Yes No • Was there adequate description of the data collection methods Yes No Study Results • Were results clearly presented? Yes No • Was an interpretation/analysis provided? Yes No Study Conclusions • Were conclusions based on clearly presented results? Yes No • Were study limitations identified and discussed? Yes No Pertinent Study Findings and Recommendations • Will the results help me in caring for my patients? Yes No Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Research Evidence Appraisal Atiwannapat et al. (2016) Strength of Study Design • Was sample size adequate and appropriate? Yes No • Were study participants randomized? Yes No • Was there an intervention? Yes No • Was there a control group? Yes No • If there was more than one group, were groups equally treated, except for the intervention? Yes No • Was there adequate description of the data collection methods Yes No Study Results • Were results clearly presented? Yes No • Was an interpretation/analysis provided? Yes No Study Conclusions • Were conclusions based on clearly presented results? Yes No • Were study limitations identified and discussed? Yes No Pertinent Study Findings and Recommendations • Will the results help me in caring for my patients? Yes No

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder ADHD
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Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715


Age: ____ Grade:

Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic


Completed by:____ Type of Class:

Class size:

For each item, check the column which best describes this child:

Not at Just a Quite



1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks

2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities

3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties

5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort

7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)

8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli

9. Often is forgetful in…


The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at 

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at 

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at 

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at

Blum-Dimaya A Reeve S A Reeve K F &
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Blum-Dimaya, a., Reeve, S.A., Reeve, K.F. & Hoch, H. (2010).

Teaching childen with autism to play a video game using activity schedules and game-embedded simultaneous video modeling. Education & Teatment of Childen,

33(3), 351-355.

The topic of this study was to identify age- and skill-appopiate activities fo childen with autism using a video game platfom and the popula video game, "Guita Heo II" to impove social skills and quality of life.

The authos emphasize that age-appopiate skills ae an impotant fo childen with developmental disabilities such as autism because these skills satisfy habilitative equiements that have been shown to impove quality of life. Theefoe, childen with autism who ae capable of playing games with thei pees enjoy additional chances to inteact and acquie the social skills they need as well as oppotunities to impove thei hand-eye coodination and othe moto skills. Despite the poven efficacy of teaching age-appopiate skills to…

reference lists from eligible studies were also reviewed to identify suitable studies. Finally, although the literature review was mainly focused on peer-reviewed journal articles, the author reports that she also included books and chapters of books that held specific significance for the purposes of her analysis.

Results: Based on the studies identified as described above, the author developed a useful historical background of autism and the responses by the medical community over time. A similar historical analysis that spans 5 decades is presented concerning the use of music therapy for various disorders concluding with its use for autism disorder interventions. Given the exceptional musical abilities of some autistic children it is not surprising that music therapists were interested its applicability for treating autistic children by the 1950s.

Although the author is quick to point out that music therapy has not been universally acknowledged as an effective intervention for children with autism, its use became increasingly popular during the 1960s and following a 40-year period of trial-and-error, a great deal has been learned that can help guide the use of music therapy for treating children with autism today. During the past 10-year period, Reschke-Hernandez also reports that music therapists have sought to develop evidence-based music therapy approaches that can be used for treating children with autism to help improve the method's credibility among and use by the medical community.

Conclusions: The author concludes her study with a summary of the research, important findings concerning the historical evolution of music therapy and its use as a clinical intervention for children with autism. Following her recommendations for further study, the author adds that the results of this study should serve as a useful snapshot of current thinking about music therapy and its usefulness in treating children with autism.

Teaching Children with Autism to Play a Video Game Using Activity Schedules and Game-Embedded Simultaneous Video Modeling.

Analyzing and Appraising an Article
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clinical trial report regarding the effects of music therapy on female breast cancer patients following radical mastectomy. In this review, the article would be examined on the basis of its sampling unit, measurement methods, process of data collection and data analysis, researcher's interpretation of findings, the limitation of the study and its implication in clinical practice, its significance as well as the scope for further investigation.

The present study uses stratified random sampling, also known as proportional random sampling, of probability sampling technique wherein subjects are initially divided in groups on the basis of age, gender, condition etc. A final list or sub-group can then be chosen from the main group (as one hundred and twenty female patients suffering from breast cancer, aged between 25 to 65 years of age, have been chosen randomly here). The sample specifically took account of patients who required radical mastectomy, including modified radical mastectomy…


Boehm, K. Cramer, H. Staroszynski, T. & Ostermann, T. (2014). Arts Therapies for Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. New York: Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Bos, J. V. D. (2007). Inclusion / Exclusion Criteria in Clinical Trials. Milliman. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from *** (Oct 10, 2009). Probability Sampling and Randomization. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from 

Li, X. M., Zhou, K. N., Yan, H., Wang, D. L. & Zhang, Y. P. (2012). Effects of Music Therapy on Anxiety of Patients with Breast Cancer After Radical Mastectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(5), 1145-1155. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05824.x

Supportive Environment for Young Children
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The participant's conditional use of requests for assistance and independent task completion were sustained across time" (eichle, Dropik, Alden-Anderson & Haley, 2008, ¶ 1). A number of young children with autism experience considerable communicative delays.

Peter (a pseudonym), a 5-year-old boy, diagnosed with autism and global developmental delay, had been diagnosed with autism at 3 years, 8 months (eichle, Dropik, Alden-Anderson & Haley, 2008, Participants section, ¶ 1). Sessions for the study by eichle, Dropik, Alden-Anderson & Haley occurred in Peter's home. The following expands on what happened during this study.

Peter's mother, younger sibling, and one or two staff persons moved freely in and out of this area during intervention sessions. Teaching requests for assistance occurred across three different functional activities that included opening a jar (Activity 1), opening a wrapper (Activity 2), and unfastening his pants (Activity 3). Peter's parents and intervention team identified these as activities that…


Autism Spectrum Disorders Overview. (2007, February 09). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from  Hoffman-Raap, L. (2004). Peer play and the autism spectrum: The art of guiding children's socialization and imagination -- integrated play groups field manual. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. Early Childhood Australia Inc. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from HighBeam Research: 

Hume, K., Scott Bellini, S. & Pratt, C. (2005). The usage and perceived outcomes of early intervention and early childhood programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved

June 11, 2009 from HighBeam Research: 

Kendrick M. & Blagojevic, B. (2005). Autism, treatment approaches and young children -- what do we need to know? The University of Maine Center for Community Inclusion and Disability Studies. Vol. 8. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from

Alzheimer's Disease Currently Affects More Than Four
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Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.

For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…


Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,

Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),

Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.

Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,

Ineffective Coping Mechanisms for Stress
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The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.

Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:

Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.

Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…

works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.

The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.


Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at , retrieved 7 October 2009.

Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.

Aromatherapy Complimentary Medicines Have Long
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One of the studies Halm reviewed, for instance, found an immediate reduction in respiratory rate during and immediately after aromatherapy treatment, but two hours after the treatment occurred there was no discernable effect (Halm 2008). This suggests that the commercial applications of aromatherapy, which tend to be long-term environmental applications rather than time- and person-specific treatments. Because the evidence shows that the calming effects of aromatherapy are really only present during the treatment and immediately after, long-term environmental applications of aromatherapy might be best.

There are problems with such an application in a medical setting, however. Chief among these is the entirely subjective nature of the sense of smell. Certain aromas which might be very pleasant -- and therefore presumably stress reducing -- for some might be particularly unpleasant for others. For these latter people, who do not enjoy a particular given aroma, stress might actually be increased by the…

Reduction of stress in nurses and medical staff will have a direct and casually and consciously observable effect on the treatment of patients. Speech and action both tend to be abbreviated during periods of stress, which can and most likely will have a direct effect on the way that patients perceive the quality of care they are receiving. This in turn will have an effect on the patient's stress level; if they feel that they are receiving a less-than-adequate level of care, their stress level is likely to rise, negatively impacting their recovery. On the other hand, if the nurses and medical staff are less stressed, this will also be communicated to the patient, and might have the opposite effect of improving patient attitude and enhancing their recovery.

Stress can be communicated subconsciously, too, perhaps to an even greater degree in subtle situations than the overt and conscious communications presented by alterations in observable attitude and action. This fact can only enhance the positive effects of the above suggestions of an available environmentally pervasive aromatherapy break room. Calmer people tend to help calm other people; if the nurses and medical staff are calm and less stressed, this will be unconsciously communicated to the patients as well, reducing their stress levels. Thus, it can be seen that pervasive aromatherapy might be even more efficacious in the treatment of patient stress and anxiety when provided to nurses instead of or in addition to the patients themselves.

All of this talk of environmentally pervasive aromatherapy is not to suggest that direct and patient-specific applications of aromatherapy not be utilized. The evidence clearly shows that such applications can be remarkable efficacious in the short-term as a stress reduction technique for patients and medical staff alike, even going so far as to reduce respiratory rates (Halm 2008). The evidence that aromatherapy can actually reduce levels of pain in critically ill patients has yet to be verified, but this is another avenue of aromatherapy application the merits further research (Halm 2008). In fact, aromatherapy in general is underutilized in this country, and the reports studied herein suggest that these practices should be changes if for no other reason than it will at least partially and temporarily reduce stress levels among patients and medical staff. The increase of the use of aromatherapy will also provide more evidence for further applications.

Harm Reduction Model for Substance
Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53539217
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Therefore, HM is designed to help those who would likely not succeed in traditional treatment methodologies as well as to address the indirect harms associated with the behavior targeted for intervention (Brocato & Wagner, 2003).

In that respect, existing HM-based drug treatment programs have confirmed the social benefit and individual welfare achievable through the more tolerant form of intervention. Universally, the literature documents the extent to which social problems such as petty crime and personal harm such as disease transmission and other types of intravenous infection have been substantially reduced through the HM approach to drug abuse.

In Opposition to the Harm eduction Model

Critics of the HM (especially in connection with illicit drug abuse) strongly object to that approach, largely because they believe that it is tantamount to condoning that behavior or even enabling it in the classical codependency context (O'Neill, 2002). In general, that is equally true with…


Brocato, J. And Wagner, E.F. (2003). "Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda." Health & Social Work. Retrieved November 02, 2010 from HighBeam Research: 

Denning, P. (2000). Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative

Approach to Addictions. New York: Guilford Press.

Ghetti, C.M. (2004). "Incorporating Music Therapy into the Harm Reduction Approach

Nursing Implications the Preceding Evidence Lends Itself
Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68567240
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Nursing Implications

The preceding evidence lends itself to a number of specific nursing implications that are very likely to improve the conditions of a variety of patients affected with the miasma of symptoms that encompass dementia. The specific care for each individual patient will vary based on whether the data used to assess a particular symptom applies to that patient or not. In the case of the latter circumstance, the patient will merely forego the recommendation (which solely applies to patients suffering from that particular manifestation of dementia) in favor of one that coincides with the specific needs of that patient.

The empirical evidence of Vance and Cowen (2010) indicates that the deployment of light therapy yields positive affects for those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The administration of light therapy from a light box generating between 1500 and 2500 lux will be used for one to two hours both in…

During normal waking hours, music therapy in the form of clock radios that serve as alarms throughout various points in the day (and which play music of the patient's choice) will be utilized, as well as aroma therapeutic practices in which lavender scents (in the form of candles and scented oils) will be used, since the study of Lin et al. (2007) has compiled empirical data to support lavender's alleviation of agitated behaviors. Based on Vance and Cowan's 2010 research that discourages inactivity and daytime napping, residents will be offered a variety of diurnal activities revolving around the outdoors, such as hiking, walking, and other forms of exercise agreeable to the patient.

Paragraph in the Introduction

The term Sundowning Syndrome (reviewed by Bachman & Rabins, 2006) has been used to describe the increased agitation of Alzheimer's patients during the late afternoon and early evening, and has been observed for more than 60 years. Volicer et al. (2001) helped confirm this tendency by monitoring circadian rhythms in dementia patients (with a mean age of 71) through the usage of body temperatures. The studies were extremely effective in producing statistical documentation that indicated a three hour lapse in the peak core of body temperatures for Sundowning patients as opposed to controls, as well as a five hour lapse in the peak motor activity between the same two groups. The strength of these research methods can be determined by the fact that they were able to quantify such information in immediately comparable forms. The fact that these results brought forth a conclusion that circadian control mechanisms were not in optimal operations for such patients is somewhat vague, and could be strengthened by expositions to determine why this is the case. The conclusion of these studies, however, is supported by the work of Serniczuk, Dyck, LaFerla, and Antle (2010) which found frequent SCN atrophy and optic nerve damage in post mortem dementia patients.

Nursing Homes and Resident Care
Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20454241
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Nursing Home Facilities: A Solution for Long-Term Care
Nursing home facilities offer a unique setting for long-term care of elderly persons. Serving as places of residence where the elderly person can obtain assistance with daily living and with medical needs, the nursing home acts exactly as its name suggests—as a home wherein nursing care is provided on a daily basis. This paper will describe the setting of the nursing home, where it falls on the long-term care continuum, how family and friends can play a supportive role, what the role of public relations is in the nursing home, and how oversight of the nursing home is provided by government or other organizational agencies.
Long-Term Care Continuum
The nursing home typically falls at the end of the long-term care continuum spectrum. This spectrum can include four stages: 1) aging in place, which consists of self-care, home support, and adult…

Coping With Stress This Work
Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22668097
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(Stress Management Health Center, 2008)

Also stated as methods used for relaxation are: (1) physical activity; (2) doing something one enjoys and (3) body-centered relaxation. (Stress Management Health Center, 2008) ody-centered relaxation may include breathing exercise, progressive muscle relaxation, massage, aromatherapy and Yoga. Also stated to be effective is 'Magnetic Field Therapy' although there is some disagreement about the use of this type of therapy for stress-relief.


Primary among stress-related coping skills is that of knowing how to avoid potentially stress-producing situations and knowing how to reduce the negative reactions one experiences due to stress. Time management skills are 'key' toward stress avoidance and reduction. For instance, one can save time through task delegations and by setting aside personal time for themselves. Prioritization of tasks according to their importance and management of commitments are also 'key' components of effective stress management. Lifestyle choices also affect ones' ability…


Tips for Coping with Stress (2008) Mayo Clinic. Online available at 

Stress Management - Relieving Stress (2008) Stress Management Health Center. WebMD. Online available at 

Stress Management - Avoiding Unnecessary Stress (2008) Stress Management Health Center WebMD Online available at 

Quick JD, et al. (1996). Social support, secure attachments, and health. In CL Cooper, ed., Handbook of Stress, Medicine, and Health, pp. 269-287. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Stroke Hearing Impaired Stroke Victims Plan Physical
Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75778483
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Stroke Hearing Impaired

Stroke Victims

Plan: Physical, Occupational, Speech, and Psychological Therapies

Implementation: Daily regimen, with one of the four core areas (physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and psychological therapy) emphasized or addressed on each day.

Evaluation: After each session, therapist will write a thorough evaluation of the patient including a progress report. After the end of each six-week period, a thorough progress report will be shared among the various members of the health care team in a collaborative setting.

The follow-up will consist of maintenance therapies in each of the four core areas.

Documentation of Actions and Activities: According to the National Stroke Association (2013), the activities and actions should begin immediately after the stroke. The Physical Therapy sessions will include yoga and other systematic movement interventions to improve coordination, balance, strength, and range of motion. Each week, the therapist will implement a unique type of movement therapy,…


Hetu, R., Jones, L. & Getty, L. (1993). The Impact of Acquired Hearing Impairment on Intimate Relationships: Implications for Rehabilitation. International Journal of Audiology 32(6).

National Stroke Association (2013). Rehabilitation therapy after stroke. Retrieved online: 

"Stroke Health Center," (2011). WebMD. Retrieved online: 

Wharton, T. (2013). Utah firm: Loop helps hearing impaired at movies and more. The Salt Lake Tribune. 24 Oct, 2013. Retrieved online:

Child Life Specialist's Interview
Words: 1557 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56754386
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Rachel Faybyshev

Foundations of Mental Health Counseling

Dr. Mary Owens

Interviewee -- April Slowenski BS, MEd, CCLS, CPMT

Please tell me your official job title and the length of time that you have held the Child Life Specialist degree.

I am a Certified Child Life Specialist and Certified Pediatric Massage Therapist. In February, it will be 7 years since I started working in this field.

What inspired your interest in the field of Child Life Specialist?

I've always wanted to work with children and at first I wanted to be a teacher. I was not aware of all the other professions that deal with children. I found out about child life specialists program by accident. While in undergrad, I majored in Education and took a psychology course. One day when I was going to class, there was a sign for a child life specialist's seminar right outside the classroom. Unfortunately,…

Complementary and Alternative Pain Management Methods
Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24829910
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Alternatives to Pain Medication

Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…


Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from .

Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.

Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from ?.

Jewish Home Lifecare Mission &
Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14921839
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Towards of the goal of fulfilling the mission to "help those we care for to experience the best life possible," nursing services provided at the Sarah Neuman Center include:

Twenty-four nursing in a secure residential setting.

Twenty-four medical coverage supported by onsite and on-call physicians.

Onsite medical specialist consulting services.

Individualized therapy sessions, to include speech therapy, physical therapy, art and music therapy.

Nutritional services supported by staff dietitians.

Onsite pharmaceutical and laboratory services. (Sarah Neuman, para. 9)

Patients that require long-term residential care are often transferred to the Bronx nursing home which provides all of the above services, in addition to highly individualized care services and therapies for "more complex clinical needs" (Bronx, para. 4). These needs include-but are not limited to-progressive Alzheimer's, severe vision impairment, severe speech and swallowing impairments, and chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis.

Structural Support of Mission

That each facility essentially provides the same services…

Works Cited

"Bronx." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Manhattan." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Sarah Neuman." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Research Institute on Aging." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January,

Statement of Intent
Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Professional Writing Paper #: 17773858
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Letter of Intent: Personal Statement

To College of ____ Admissions Committee,

I am applying for the Master's degree in the School of Social Work, because I truly believe that it is my life's calling to make people's lives better by helping them with their daily struggles through practical help and techniques for self-empowerment. This is no easy task for either party, but I believe that if both parties are committed to the task of improvement and the task of making things better, then all things are possible. The strengths that I bring to this endeavor are a full commitment, a tremendous amount of empathy, and practical experience and theories under my belt to work for concerted improvements for other people.

Imagine that you have had the social work career of your dreams. Now, you have retired and written an autobiography.

I've been extremely blessed and fortunate to have a long…

Psychiatric Disabilities
Words: 1141 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Interview Paper #: 25463655
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Psychiatric Disabilities

Description of Facility

The inpatient psychiatry program at the University of Michigan Hospital is on the ninth floor of the hospital building. It has 25 newly renovated bed units and offers both private and semi private room facilities. There is a reading library, fitness facilities, internet access terminals, and dining room access facilities. A number of community rooms are also supplied with television sets and comfortable seating places.

There is a special intensive care unit for those with psychiatric needs. It caters for patients that need more support from and is separated from the general ward area. The patients attended in this unit still have access to a number of amenities provided in the other sections.

Clinic location:

1500 East Medical Center Drive

Ann Arbor, MI 48109


This clinic provides diagnosis and comprehensive treatment for patients with severe psychiatric problems. Patients often visit the unit for treatment…


Shepley, M. M., Watson, A., Pitts, F., Garrity, A., Spelman, E., Kelkar, J., & Fronsman, A. (2016). Mental and behavioral health environments: critical considerations for facility design. General Hospital Psychiatry, 42, 15-21.

challenges of discrimination in health care'system
Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32082092
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Hanin from New Haven

This is an individual with earning disability and takes good care of herself. She has dental problem where her teeth are rotting. She is an individual who needs some serious work but she is unfortunate that she has no dental insurance. In effect, she is not able to get dental treatment due to lack of this insurance. She has been keen to find help and the last was a dental clinic that she heard about on TV but on follow-up she was informed that they no longer took new cases. From her appearance, this patient is a young African American woman of the age range of between 20-28 years old.

Hanin’s case is a typical example of where poverty and environment plays a big role in increasing the health care disparity within the US. This is a lady who has no employment, in effect she is…