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" (Blow, Kurtis)
The entire movement revolved around a new way to dress, dance, talk and even walk. "The way they danced, dressed, walked, and talked was unique, as opposed to most of the disco artists and fans of the time, which were not as in touch with the urban streets of America." (Blow, Kurtis) Hip-hop represented the new generation of blacks suffering in urban poverty. The passion and truth generated were really cries for help and today those cries are being answered by middle class whites all trying to be as cool as the original B-Boys.
The hip hop movement had various social ladders as there were middle class blacks who rapped and spun records and there were more poor individuals who were not as affluent in life but just as or maybe even more so talented then their wealthier peers. "The B-Boy crowd was different from the middle…
Blow, Kurtis. The History Of Rap, Vol. 1. Retrieve on December 17, 2004, from Rhino at .
Burns, Dr. Kristine H. History Of Electronic And Computer Music Including Automatic Instruments And Composition Machines. Retrieve on December 17, 2004, from Dartmouth University at .
Events in Detroit techno history. Ed. Freep. Retrieve on December 17, 2004, from freep.com. At .
American Musical Genres: hythm and Blues
hythm and Blues, or &B, is an American musical genre largely attributed to the African-American community. Originating in the 1940s, the term was first used by record companies to describe recordings "marketed predominantly to urban African-Americans," at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming increasingly popular (Palmer 5). Though the genre has evolved dramatically since its inception, certain terminology, instruments, and musicians have remained constants in looking at this genre's history, providing reference points and insights into a style of music that has continued to resonate with audiences for decades.
While the term &B has shifted meaning from decade to decade, sometimes referring to genres ranging from rock music, blues and gospel to soul and funk, and contemporary &B, rhythm and blues has become a blanket term for style of music as broad and diverse as the…
Jerving, Ryan. "Early Jazz Literature (And Why You Didn't Know)." American Literary
History. 16.4 (2004): 648-674. Web. Retrieved from: Project MUSE Database.
Lee, Gary and Lee, Patti. Don't Bother Knockin' . . . This Town's A Rockin': A History of Traditional Rhythm and Blues and Early Rock'n'Roll in Buffalo, New York. Buffalo, NY: Blue Sounds Press, 2000. Print.
Palmer, Robert. Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta.
West Side Story, filmed in 1961, was one of the most ground-breaking works not only in terms of subject and genre, but also in terms of the boundaries it broke with its musical scores and choreography. Indeed, the film's dance sequences often form part of its plot. Its musical scores depict the deep distrust and underlying violence in the uneasy truces between the street gangs whose members form the basic plot background of the film. What is most interesting is that the film not only broke the romantic plot norm with its "omeo and Juliet" story, it also broke some norms in the minds and physical exertions of its dancers. One example of such norm defiance is "Cool," one of the songs just before full violence broke out between the gangs and the final tragedy of its outcome.
The first and most important pioneering element of the dance sequences in…
Sivitz, R. (2007, Apr. 24). An Analysis of West Side Story's Songs "Cool" and "America." Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/an-analysis-west-side-storys-songs-cool-america-50871.html
The author presents three specific theories to explain Cockburn's success at being so versatile. First, he suggests that it is a function of the artist's "persona" but even the author acknowledges the hackneyed metaphor. Second, he suggests that Cockburn's lyrics lend themselves better to a dual appreciation. Third, he suggests that Cockburn's choice of contemporary rather than classical (i.e. biblical) themes and imagery are responsible. Those two explanations seem to make more sense than the author's first explanation. Moreover, it is largely the author's subjective opinion about how successfully other performers may have appealed to respective audiences in different genres. Ultimately, the article may do more to confirm that both beauty and artistic appreciation may be equally in the eye of the beholder than it does to establish a fundamental difference between Cockburn and some of his predecessors.
Smucker, T. "You've Never Seen Everything," Commonwealth, Vol.…
Smucker, T. "You've Never Seen Everything," Commonwealth, Vol. 131, No. 4; (2004):
He, therefore, continued experimenting with new musical style, and his 1964 album, Another Side of Bob Dylan hinted at the things to come. The album was categorized a "folk album" only because Dylan had not yet decided to go electric and continued to use an acoustic arrangement for his songs. As for the content of his songs on Another Side, they had already veered away from the political protest of folk. The album started with the light-hearted and personal "All I Really ant to do" and ended rather significantly with "It Ain't Me" -- Dylan pointedly saying adieu to his folk audience. The album's departure from folk traditions was a prelude to a more dramatic change in Dylan's musical style that was to be unveiled in the following year.
Dylan goes Electric
The year 1965 was the start of perhaps the most concentrated, magical, and impressive two-year period of creative…
Hentoff, Nat. "Liner Notes for 'The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan" Bob Dylan.com. 1964. May 12, 2005. http://bobdylan.com/linernotes/freewheelin.html
Shelton, Robert. "No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan." Ballantine Books: New York, 1986
Wilentz, Sean. "Liner Notes -- Live 1964 at Philharmonic Hall." December 2003. May 12, 2005. http://bobdylan.com/linernotes/live1964.html
From the song it's All right Ma (I'm only Bleeding) from the album "Bringing it All Back home" (1965)
BLUES Leadbelly told Alan Lomax, "It a man blues sing blues," statement -- a truth blues -- leads a number things worth thinking exploring. For thing, side Leadbelly's statement true: One blues hear blues understand .
Blues and the American experience
It is a very well-known fact that music is one of the oldest means of expression in human civilization. It represents the way through which some of the deepest feelings and emotions have been expressed along the history of mankind. Whether it is through music and instruments, such as symphonic music, or whether this music includes words and lyrics, all musical creations aim at sending a message about the world their creators lived in, their emotions, and their feelings related to that world, or its surrounding elements.
The Blues has provided music lovers and not only them a comprehensive image of different experiences of the American history particularly because…
Berry, C. (n.d.) "The Blues, Rock-and-Roll and Racism," available at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205940706.pdf
Blues for Peace Corporation. (2013) "Blues Songs Lyrics," available at http://www.bluesforpeace.com/lyrics.htm
Chuck Berry, "The Blues, Rock-and-Roll and Racism," n.d., available at
jazz as a musical tradition not only has a bright future ahead of it, but has also had an illustrious past. The reasons for this are its flexibility. This flexibility, as well as its ability to effortlessly mould itself not only to current events, but also to current musical paradigms, ensures that jazz has a past, a present and a future that can be rivaled by few other genres in music.
The flexibility of jazz translates to and from the world around it. We live in a very dynamic world, with overnight change accepted as the order of the day. Jazz then caters to this by being a flexible musical tradition.
Jazz has also become a sort of language; the "English" of the musical world. It crosses all musical boundaries and is likely to appeal to most audiences. The audience for jazz then is the "global village." Jazz can potentially…
Green Day, on the other hand, may have started off as a "Punk" band, but devolved into a "punk" band. In the song "American Idiot," Green Day states a problem created by the media, yet proposes nothing to resolve it. Though Green Day attempts to rebel against the media because they do not want to be "one nation controlled by the media," they are giving in to the media through the commercialization and mass production and dissemination of their music. The production of the music is also of a higher quality. Though the band exudes the sound of raw intensity, the utilization of post-production filters and effects detracts from the "anger" and "disenfranchisement" conveyed in the song. Additionally, if one goes beyond the music and analyzes their music video, one can note how highly stylized it is and the higher production value that it conveys compared to the "music video"…
Green Day. "American Idiot." American Idiot. Reprise, 2004. Mp3.
< http://www.rhapsody.com/green-day/american-idiot -- explicit/american-idiot>
The Sex Pistols. "Anarchy in the UK." Nevermind the Bollocks. Virgin Records, 1977. Vinyl.
For Stroman, the musical numbers must be integrated within a narrative rather than standing as more autonomous (or hegemonic) components of the Broadway Musical.
Michael Bennett brought a less-defined style than Stroman or Fosse, although he made a great impact on the Broadway musical. His costuming was more colorful than the previously accepted norm, as he incorporated garish neon pink, green, and yellow tones into his costume design for the 1975 play a Chorus Line (Hecht). By focusing on costuming, Bennett made the costuming a more integral component of the Broadway musical than previously been accepted.
(B): How Can Prospective Dancers Use Information About Dance Style to Develop Their Style?
There are many ways in which up-and-coming dancers can utilize information about dance styles and audition techniques to enhance their dance career. ith regard to audition technique, every prospective dancer should have a strong knowledge of the source text for…
Cowsell Jr., R.L. "Broadway Retrogresses: The Bookless Musical." The Journal of Popular Culture xii.3 (1978): 545-549.
Felleman Fattal, Laura. "The Search for Narrative." The Journal of Aesthetic Education 38.3 (2004): 107-115.
Hecht, Thomas. "Dance Costume." The Berg Companion to Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. New York: Berg, 2010. 195-198.
Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.
Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…
Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.
Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
Though formulaic language expressions have been in regular use, in popular media forms, for at least the majority of the twentieth century if not indeed for centuries longer, their recognition and study is recent development (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004). Some texts have even been found to be comprised of a quarter or of formulaic expressions, demonstrating at once a reliance on collective cultural interpretations and a marked lack of originality in popular media language use (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004). These phrases make for interpretations that are both more colloquially colored and less symbolically imbued for their necessarily repetitive nature (thus their emergence as formulaic expressions) and their needed consistency in order to remain meaningful (Van Lancker-Sidtis & allon 2004).
Music and Language
The relationship between music and language is the subject of a great deal of debate, and ever researchers that support comparisons between the two uniquely human…
Ballard, M.; Dodson, a. & Bazzini, D. (1999). Genre of music and lyrical content: Expectation effects. Journal of Genetic Psychology 160(4), 476-87.
Jackendoff, R. (2009). Parallels and nonparallels between language and music. Music Perception 26(3), 195-204.
Lancker-Sidtis, D. & Rallon, G. (2004). Tracking the incidence of formulaic expressions in everyday speech: methods for classification and verification. Language and communication 24, 207-40.
Powers, H. (1980). Language models and musical analysis. Ethnomusicology 24(1), 1-60.
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
He is faster in every movement than any other of the above mentioned conductors and yet he scarcely sounds rushed" (Laurson 2008).
Even without an extensive knowledge of the history of Brahms symphonic compositions, the modern, 21th century nature of the Janowski approach becomes clear when comparing it to an older recording, that of Leonard Bernstein's. Bernstein's is slower, more ponderous, especially at the beginning, although it should be noted that the Bernstein sounds less like a Beethoven work than the Janowski. It sounds more like a unique, albeit slower-paced composer, more distinctly like Brahms although for some that might not be a 'good thing.' Difficult to love, personally and musically, the fact that Brahms can be an 'acquired taste' and his acceptance may vary with conductor's intentions does not reduce his important contributions in musical variation and creating a fusion between the Classical and Romantic genres of music.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphony No.1" Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Marek
Janowski. Pentatone 2007.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphonies." Conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Vienna Philharmonic.
Deutsche Gramophone. 2007.
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.
Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…
Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm
Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.
Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
In fact, the album Paul's Boutique, which is now hailed as "one of the first albums to predict the genre-bending, self-referential pop kaleidoscope of '90s pop" was scorned or ignored when it was released in 1989.
The Beastie Boys split from Rick Rubin and Def Jam and developed an independent, eclectic, and sonically adventurous sound. The album Check Your Head, which included rock instrumentation, solidified the Beastie Boys' reputation as one of America's top musical talents. Since then the band has enjoyed relatively steady critical acclaim, peer recognition, and popular success. Their most recent award earned was a Grammy for the 2007 release The Mix-Up, a creative instrumental journey. The Beastie Boys have released their own concert film called Awesome: I Fuckin' Shot That!, the title of which proves their punk roots.
Numerous musical styles and artists have influenced the Beastie Boys, enabling the band to create their unique and…
"Beastie Boys." LastFM. Retrieved Dec 12, 2009 from http://www.last.fm/music/Beastie+Boys
"Beastie Boys: Biography." Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved online at RollingStone.com on Dec 12, 2009 at http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/beastieboys/biography
Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Biography." All Music Guide. Retrieved Dec 12, 2009 from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:3ifqxq95ld6e
Forget, Thomas. The Beastie Boys. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2006.
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
Jelly oll Morton was born Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe in 1890 and later became a pioneer of modern American jazz. Growing up in New Orleans, he played piano in saloons and brothels when he was still a child. As an adult, he formed a band, the ed Hot Peppers and also played on his own. Morton is renown for his ability to bring traditionally black musical styles to the mainstream and he was heavily influenced by his New Orleans upbringing. Morton is particularly remembered for a series of recordings he made in Chicago for CA Victor in the 1920s, and Morton is credited as being one of the first to mix individual improvisation with more structured group arrangements. Although he claimed to have invented jazz, this is not strictly true; instead, he is credited as the first jazz composer. After Morton, improvisation became a staple of jazz. His best-known tunes…
"Jelly Roll Morton." The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Accessed 10 October 2004.
"Jelly Roll Morton." Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www.redhotjazz.com/jellyroll.html
"Jelly Roll Morton. World Book online. Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/morton.htm
Music on Teens Actions
In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle…
Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.
Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.
Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.
Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
The combination of these different elements is what makes this so unique. As they are creating an experience that audience can relate to and will always remember based upon how they are telling the story. This is important, because it is showing how they are entertaining the audience differently in comparison with other genres.
In the opera Qual Guerriero in Campo Armato, it is discussing the conflict that warrior will go through during the course of his life. As, he is seen as someone who is: strong, a hero and can deal with a host of different situations. Yet, beneath the surface he is vulnerable to a variety emotions and feelings that are conflicting him. To illustrate this, the play will use the aria and da capio aria to highlight the overall mood as well as atmosphere. The way that this is accomplished is through having a singer and an…
Aria: Qual guerriero in campo armato. (2011). You Tube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTpIRFiKTqo
Vivaldi Qual guerriero in campo armato from Bajazer. (n.d.).
Yo! MTV Raps was also a great venue for up and coming rap legends to showcase their work to their world through performances. Audiences around the world were exposed to a new type of raw creativity in rap music, one which took the music industry by storm. Yo! MTV Raps was a huge first for the network; it was the first show dedicated one hundred percent to rap and hip hop, an emerging art form in American popular music that had not yet found acceptance within the larger body of society.
Major name artists saw their career explode alongside the publicity they were getting from the show and the movement it was inspiring within pop culture. Huge names in the rap industry were seen before they really made it big and when they had a definite hold over the lure of pop culture in the United States. The series was…
Tis is not to say owever, tat all classical music is sooting and terapeutic. In fact, te majority of traditional classical music are not terapeutic because tis is not te intent of te original masters. Concertos by Beetoven, Bac and Brams for example all focus on arousing strong emotion rater tan arnessing te power of strong terapy, terefore te pysical presence and rytmic are not necessarily terapeutic. Mozart's no. 23 owever, is an ideal example of terapeutic music. Tis is because te affects of entrainment is easily observed troug studies on te affect of tis music on oters. Wile listening to te music, people say tat it "relaxed and sooted," upon monitoring wit medical equipment it is observed tat te music lowered bot teir blood pressure and eart rates. Te reason is tat Mozart's concerto affects individuals in bot a psycological and pysical sense. Wile te classical music made people…
Vanasco, Jennifer. American classical music: Exploring roots, reflections. Jan.
1998. Chicago Chronicle. 3 Feb. 2007 http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/980108/musymp.shtml .
West Side Story
Like all musical films, the West Side Story relates to a production where the characters sing songs and sometimes dance too, all with the view of developing the characters and advancing the plot of the film
However, the movie brings to the fore various special features, which notably set it out as a historical document. The era in which the film was produced is also of massive importance considering the numerous special events that occurred during the period and how they influenced the production of the move. West Side Story is also typified by a number of features, just like all the other movies are. As such, the aspects of the plot, the production of the movie, the criticism and reception by the public are considered to have substantial significance to all the concerned parties. Shot in the United States, the movie relates a lot to the…
Culture monster, Review: 'West Side Story' on Broadway, Retrieved From, ?
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com /culturemonster/2009/03/review-west-sid.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The whole concept of Christianity is that all people are sinners, but that God will forgive those sins and those sinners if they only ask for redemption. The lyrics say, "I lost my way but now I'm on my knees / if it's not too late won't you tell me please / You gotta place for me / a little grace for me" (Bentley). That lyric is not about the prodigal son, it is about all who have lost their way, which is every Christian. hat this song makes clear is that the idea of redemption as it has been portrayed in Christianity may have its beginnings in the parables told by Jesus, but those parables were broadened by the crucifixion and resurrection, and they changed them in the same way that they changed all of the other traditions of Judaism.
Bentley, Dierks. "Prodigal Son's Prayer." AZLyrics.com. N.p.…
Bentley, Dierks. "Prodigal Son's Prayer." AZLyrics.com. N.p. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Carter, Joe. "Finding God in the Gaps of Country Music." First Things: On the Square. N.p. 9
Feb. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Luke 15. New International Version. N.p. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Gangster Rap Responds to Police Brutality
Gangster Rap Speaking Out Against Police Brutality
Art often reflects life. When life creates situations that are dire, the art projected from that experience echoes that sense of urgency for change. In today's modern existence, the values of various subcultures do not always correlate with that of the dominate culture. This can often result in a clash of cultures, where minority groups are left to deal with the judgment of the majority group. A prime example of this is the gangster rap coming out of Los Angeles in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. At the time, gang violence was increasing, thus prompting for up scaling of law enforcement strategies. Ultimately, this led to LAPD acting out often much too aggressively in order to curb the increasing violence of the region. The art coming from such circumstances thus illustrates a clear defiance for…
Nursing & Humanities, Alice Munro
SLIDES FOR A PRESENTATION OF HUMANTIES AND NURSING: CHRONIC AND TERMINAL CARE ISSUES PRESENTED IN ALICE MUNRO'S "THE DAY OF THE BUTTERFLY," BELLE & SEBASTIAN'S "IT COULD HAVE BEEN A BRILLIANT CAREER," AND TONY KUSHNER'S "ANGELS IN AMERICA"
"The Day of the Butterfly" by Alice Munro is a quiet portrayal of elementary schoolgirls in 1950s Canada learning one of their classmates has a terminal illness.
"It Could Have Been A Brilliant Career" performed by Belle and Sebastian is a song about a young stroke victim and his caregiver.
"Angels in America" is a television-film adaptation of the Pulitzer-Prize-winning play by Tony Kushner, and depicts the AIDS epidemic in 1986 before any cure or medication had been discovered.
From the standpoint of a professional Nurse, these artistic depictions of terminal and end-of-life illness teach us emotional lessons about the experience of survivors -- they ask…
In the Qur'an, music is presented as something that can bring pleasure to Muslims. Numerous prominent religious individuals in Islam have apparently claimed that music should not be present in Muslim houses. Even with that, Muslims are aware that Allah cannot possibly prohibit something that does not harm the individual or society in general. It is divisive whether or not Islam allows its followers to enjoy music, considering that the Qur'an can also be interpreted (Neusner, Chilton & Graham, 2002).
Education is not an essential part of Islam, as Muslims are certain that it adds "nothing to the authenticity of the Holy Qur'an in terms of human knowledge" (Ryce-Menuhin, 1994, p. 123). In the present day, Muslims are reluctantly engaging in providing themselves and their children with education, seeing that it is the only way for them to keep up with the advancements performed in society. The need to integrate…
1. Ansari, S. "14 The Migration Factor: Comparing the Experiences of the Muslim and Jewish Communities of South Asia," Jung and the Monotheisms: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, ed. Joel Ryce-Menuhin (New York: Routledge, 1994).
2. Boullata I.J. "Arabic Oral Traditions." Retrieved August 05, 2010, from the Oral Tradition Web site: http://journal.oraltradition.org/issues/4i-ii/editors_column
3. Neusner, J. Chilton, B. & Graham, W. Three Faiths, One God: The Formative Faith and Practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2002).
4. Palm, D. "Oral Tradition in the New Testament." Retrieved August 05, 2010, from the Coming Home Journal Web site: http://www.chnetwork.org/journals/sola/sola8.htm
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
Songs from completely different eras, historical contexts, and musical genres can often share point of comparison and remarkable musical similarities. Gershwin’s “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down,” is from the colloquial English-language opera Porgy and Bess with lyrics/libretto by DuBose Heyward. Conductor John DeMain reworked the original Gershwin compositions with Houston Grand Opera, staging Porgy and Bess to win both a Tony and a Grammy Award, thereby anchoring the production firmly within the realm of pop culture. Being from an opera, the song “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down” is lyrically driven, and the vocals remain the cornerstone of the piece. “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down” occurs about halfway through the opera, and is a light, whimsical piece sung by a chorus as opposed to any musical lead. The DeMain arrangement includes a range of instruments including tubas serving as bass lines and a full horn section as accompaniment. Although Porgy and…
However, at the same time, the Dominican Republic is also a Hispanic speaking island and thus the Latin influence is also heavy in their version of Reggae and other musical tastes. Finally, as the band grew up in the Bronx, their musical background was also heavily influenced by the growth of American style hip-hop, which grew up out of the Bronx area. This diverse, mixing pot of musical heritage was combined by the band Aventura to create the unique musical character of Bachata.
Overall, I found the Avnentura Kings of Bachata concert to be of high quality and highly entertaining. Watching the band perform on stage shows you how much they care about their music and how much they enjoy performing it for their fans. These facts bring a high level of energy to their show, which I found captivating. The band played their songs at a fast, energetic pace…
He doesn't mention Apple's iPod, iPod Touch, and iPad, but those devices also pose a challenge for traditional radio broadcasting. People can "…select music that suits their individual tastes and many have wider repositories of music in their own libraries" -- thanks to the iTunes and similar services -- than are offered on the playlists of radio broadcasters (Picard, p. 1).
Moreover, Satellite and Internet radio are offering "hundreds of choices of highly focused music formats," Picard continues, making radio "…a less relevant platform" for music and entertainment than it was previously (p. 1). Besides using Satellite radio -- and being willing to pay for a service that specializes in exactly the music genre listeners prefer -- users are downloading podcasts on a number of topics that interest them, Picard explains. The problems for radio resulting from these alternative audio choices are "compounded" in the United States due to the…
Clear Channel. "Corporate Fact Sheet." Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://www.clearchannel.com .
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). "How do public broadcasters obtain programming?"
Retrieved November 9, 2011, from http://www.cpb.org/aboutpb/faq/programming.html .
Forbes. "CBS Radio Faces Pandora Threat." Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://www.forbes.com . 2011.
Alexina Louie is a Canadian composer of Chinese descent. Born in Vancouver in 1949, she studied at the Jean Lyons School of Music as well as at the University of California. Her compositional works include pieces for orchestra and piano and may be labeled as being of a variety of different musical genres, from electronic music to string quartet to operatic works. She has also composed for film (Orford, 2014).
Her social and political context is situated in latter decades of the 20th century, from the 1980s onward, thus putting her at her creative height during the eaganomic years, the post-Vietnam return of Establishment politics, and the fallout from disillusionment with both right and left culturally speaking (Stone, Kuznick, 2012). The 1990s were a decade of disenfranchisement, dissatisfaction, disaffection, and distaste -- expressed musically in the emergent sounds of the grunge rock era, and reflected in Louie's discordant melodies and…
Chu, E. (1997). On the Musical Silk Route: Piano Music of Alexina Louie. CA:
Focks, A. (2011). Andrew Focks performs Alexina Louie's I leap through the sky with stars. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_ve0j6iQ9k
Kim, Y. (2009). The evolution of Alexina Louie's piano music. OhioLink. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ucin1241858005/inline
Orford, E. (2014). Music in the hemispheres: an interview with Alexina Louie.
Rock History -- Analyzing Songs
Since I Don't Have You -- the Skyliners
The arrangement by the Skyliners is very effective and fairly typical of 1950s music, in that there is an strong orchestra opening -- dramatically powering the listener into the mood of the song -- for a few seconds. And suddenly the group's harmony comes blasting in, joining the orchestra, and musically informing listeners that this is a slow dance tune. This is Do-Wop dance music from heaven, for lovers that don't want to dance fast but love clinging on to each other in a slow dance. The beat is strong but slow, and as the lead voice reaches high for emotional impact, other members of the group join in harmony by "Ahhhhh-ing" wordlessly along with the lead singer.
The arrangement is extremely friendly to the listener. As the lead singer Jimmy Beaumont rockets high notes, going into…
The importance of a strong opening and closing, practicing, staying organized and focused and taking the stage with confidence are skills that I continue to apply in my class presentations.
At times my classes, especially the General Education classes, have been quite challenging. Having proven to myself that I have the intellectual capacity, discipline and drive to pass these classes, I am inspired and encouraged when presented with some of the challenges of life. A significant aspect of a college education is developing critical reasoning. It is not so much to memorize facts and figures, but to be able to penetrate ideas and concepts and extract their essence. Understanding the way mechanisms work is a sine-qua-non condition of gaining the ability to deconstruct ideas and theories and applying them to one's personal and professional life. It is through this kind of individualized approach, I believe, that higher education is particularly…
incongruous to try to compare the artists illiam Shakespeare and Bob Marley. These two men, separated by centuries and embodying two very different forms of art, both make up part of the history of popular culture. One man is considered the premiere playwright in the history of the English language, a man whose name is synonymous with high culture. The other man is known for his success in a musical genre and a culture that uses a different meaning for the word high. hat could these men possible have in common one might ask? Examining the history and writings of both Renaissance writer illiam Shakespeare and reggae musician Bob Marley it becomes evident that they both use emotional appeals and heavy symbolism to prove points about the human condition and to promote understanding between people from different stations of life, all of which are used to persuade others that the…
Backus, Truman J. 1897. "William Shakespeare." The Outlines of Literature: English and American. Sheldon: NY. 90-102.
Laroque, Francois. The Age of Shakespeare. Harry N. Abrams: London.
Marly, Bob, 1973. "Get Up, Stand Up." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Marley, Bob, 1973. "I Shot the Sheriff." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Today many mainstream popular artists have Rhythm and Blues influences. In addition some artists fluctuate between signing R&B and pop music. Although there are often distinctions made between the two genres R&B is definitely a type of popular music that has been greatly influenced by all of the above Genres.
Rap music or hip hop is also a prime example of the influence of African-American Music on popular music. Rap music actually comes from the ancient art form of poetry. The original intent for rap was to tell a story -- provide a narrative. ithin the context of African-American folk tradition storytelling is extremely important -- the griot is important. Griots are the keepers of the oral traditions -- the storytellers. According to Powell (1991) "To the accompaniment of drums or other percussive instruments, griots entertain and educate their audiences by reciting tribal history and current events. Their performances are…
Powell, CT. (1991) Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3,
Progler., J.A.(1995) Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm
Section Ethnomusicology, Vol. 39, No. 1,, pp. 21-54
Instead, he has been doing the production and promotion for other artists. He also collaborates with other musicians, such as Elizondo to product Eminem's single "The Real Slim Shady. He hopes to get out another album in 2008, which would have several different contributors. Even he admits that his message has mellowed out since his first hits in the '90s, Regarding earlier years he says: "That was my past. What I thought was the thing to do then. I mean, I think 'Straight Outta Compton' was a classic hip-hop album. ut I do look back on a lot of the things we were saying and doing then and go, "Damn!." ut the ***** was dope at the time." Would he ever do that same material now? "No. No way. I'm more into totally positive moves."
Admittedly, not everyone was or continues to be keen on Dr. Dre and similar musicians.…
Bennett, Andy. Bennett Cultures of Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open UP, 2001.
Dr. Dre. Biography. http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/Dr.-Dre-Biography/49B29B5DD87AEC0C482568860008957D Accessed 24 November, 2007.
Dr. Dre's My Space. http://www.myspace.com/drdre . Accessed 24 November 2007.
Farley, Christopher "Hip Hop Nation." Time Magazine. 8 February,1999. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101,00.html . Accessed 24 November, 2007.
Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, a documentary by Byron Hurt aims to investigate the underlying social issues that have permeated hip-hop and been propagated through the music and culture. The documentary offers multiple perspectives from industry professionals and artists that aim to dissect prominent social issues such as violence and hypermasculinity, stereotypes, homophobia, and the misogyny that pervades hip hop music and culture. Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes provides insight into these issues and raises awareness about these issues impact hip-hop yet the insight appears to be slightly skewed and only focuses on men and hip-hop.
The documentary begins by focusing on issues of violence and hypermasculinity and why these issues are so prevalent in hip hop music. While the documentary points to how these issues are not only a major concern in hip hop, but rather an overarching social issue that has been propagated through the media as far…
Media Has Shaped the Ages through Music:
Music is a medium that has shaped the ages in relation to its significant role in social movements. Actually, music has acted as one of the various methods and vehicles through which social movements have existed and developed. The role and significance of music in shaping the ages is primarily attributed to the fact that it represents more than entertainment as it has spoken for generations and exemplified belief systems. Generally, music has had a tremendous relationship to and impact on social movements in every decade from the 1960s through 2000-2010. Music has been used as a means of exemplifying the mood of the decade in terms of high profile events or movements that took place in the respective decade.
Music through the Decades:
As previously mentioned, music has played a significant role through the ages by shaping social movements and exemplifying the…
Hector, H. (2013, June 14). Understanding the History of Slavery through Bob Marley's 'Redemption Song.' Retrieved August 2, 2014, from http://www.one.org/us/2013/06/14/the-true-meaning-of-bob-marleys-redemption-song/
Holz, A.R. (2010, October 18). Musical Decades: The Revolutionary 1960s. Retrieved August 2,
2014, from http://www.pluggedin.com/upfront/2010/musicaldecades5-therevolutionary1960s.aspx
Suddath, C. (2011, October 21). ALL-TIME 100 Songs. Time Magazine. Retrieved August 2,
Hip Hop and American Youth Culture
Everyone enters a stage of growth when a strong urge to break out of parental dependence, when he recognizes his own person and desires to assert himself. This sense of individuality is an inherent in the American character, especially the youth. Aligned with this restlessness is the restlessness endured for centuries by the Blacks. Their elders may have learned to live with the malignity, although without yielding to it, or have less energy to fight. But African-American youth found a way to vent their revulsion towards the discrimination and abuses to which they are subjected as a race. That discovery happened in the 70s when the hip-hop spirit evolved into a concept and then into music, dance, poetry and many other creative forms of letting the sea of anguish flow out of their soul.
The voice of the young American who seeks individual freedom…
Aponte, Christian Andres. 2013. "When Hip Hop and Education Converge: a Look into Hip Hop-based Education Programs in the United States and Brazil." Carnegie Mellon
Blanchard, Becky. 1999. "The Impact of Rap and Hip-Hop Music on American Youth." Ethics
Of Development in a Global Environment.
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
If you know a local or up and coming band play their work, try it out on the crowd and build a reputation for innovation. Local newspapers, show magazines, gig websites and current rapidly changing blogs are all great resources, beyond word of mouth and getting out there to listen to other artists work and play. ("The Dj Q & " 46) ord of mouth and local participation with other DJs can also be one of the most fundamental aspects of success in the business. There are also a growing number of trade conferences across the world, which provide vital links to people and places as well as great ideas and most importantly social and professional networking ops. ("CULTURE: Tables Are" 15) was just going to quit," she recalls. Now the seasoned DJ realizes that, up until that point, her skills had developed in isolation, and what she really needed…
Clubbing News; Van Dyk Takes World's Top Dj Title for Second Year." Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland) 10 Nov. 2006: 46. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…
African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1
Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
Martin (2005) are that music played an integral role in the mid-twentieth century African-American freedom struggles and that a variety of black musical genres and artists contributed towards arousing black social consciousness and activism. Much of the evidences used to support these points were derived from the works of various cultural historians and black art theoreticians.
The main points of the article by Aidi (2003) were that Islamic traditions were slowly being incorporated into mainstream estern pop culture due to large-scale conversions among minority members of estern society and the increasing popularity of Islamic hip-hop. Much of the evidence for verifying the conversion rates came from statistics compiled by Islamic organizations and social science researchers. The evidence indicating the emergence of Islamic hip-hop was derived from the works of estern social commentators and journalistic sources.
The ideas expressed by Martin (2005) have convincingly portrayed the black freedom struggle's use of…
Aidi, Hisham. "Let us be Moors: Islam, race and 'connected histories'." Middle East Report 2:29 (Winter 2003): 42-53.
Martin, Waldo. No coward soldiers: black cultural politics and postwar America. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2005.
Information Systems for a Nostalgic ecord Store
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Comparison of Five Systems' Cost and Benefits
Launching a new record store that concentrates on nostalgic music can potentially be lucrative as many music fans like to listen to their favorite musicians and artists who may not be played on popular radio today. For a small brick -- and mortar music store specializing in nostalgic music, it is recommended that a series of five systems be considered for managing the business. These five systems include the following:
E-Commerce Website and supporting system
Pricing and Merchandise Management System
The benefits and drawback of each of these systems id briefly described in this paper.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Each of the systems that the record store needs in order to operate profitably are defined in this section along with their benefits…
Sarapovas, T., & Cvilikas, A. (2008). The evaluation of e-commerce impact on business efficiency. Baltic Journal of Management, 3(1), 71-91.
Wichmann, H. (1983). Accounting and marketing - key small business problems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 7(4), 19-19.
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
Michael Bennet-What makes him unique
Michael Bennett was born in 1943 under the full name of Michael Bennett DiFiglia. He was devoted to the theater and over the course of his life was a dancer, choreographer and director; before succumbing to AIDS complications at 44 years old. His unique style was his legacy to Broadway -- particularly regarding Musical Theater.
Musical theater has a rich and storied history; dating back centuries. First conceived as "narration with song and dance incorporated"; it was meant to glorify beautiful females, dancers, singers and the occasional comedian (eynolds, 882). Broadway Musicals were not always successful; but dance continued to be integral and professionals of all genres fell under the purview of the choreographer (eynolds 693).
By the 1970s the cost of staging a Broadway show was exorbitant. It was often decided to pare back dancing and choreography as a means of saving money (Clark).…
Clark, Daryl Kent. "Michael Bennett: A Singular Sensation,." 100 Treasures - Michael Bennett. Dance Heritage Coalition, Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. From http://www.danceheritage.org/treasures/bennett_essay_clark.pdf
Cerasaro, P. 2013 Tony Awards Clip Countdown: #7 - Michael Bennett Masterpieces. 2013. Web. 8 Feb. 2014. http://www.broadwayworld.com/article/2013-Tony-Awards-Clip-Countdown-7-Michael-Bennett-Masterpieces-20130603
Cohen, Selma J., and Dance Perspective Foundation, eds. "Musical Theater."International Encyclopedia of Dance. Oxford: Oxford University, 2005. Online.
Dietz, Dan. Off Broadway Musicals, 1910-2007: Casts, Credits, Songs, Critical Reception and Performance Data of More than 1,800 Shows. Jefferson, NC: McFarland &, 2010. Print.
The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals
By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a way of engaging in cultural expression. This means that at its core, folk music is not intended to command a commercial value nor is it necessarily folk music by definition once a form has been co-opted by an outside culture. However, this is also a definition for folk which has long been rendered obsolete by the aesthetic and vocal qualities that listeners tend to associate with the genre today. This is because the most historically significant instances in which folk music converged with the commercial zeitgeist would come to produce a highly distinctive set of sounds.
Indeed, when we think of folk music, one tends instantly to conjure image of a young Bob Dylan with harmonica rack and guitar, wheezing his…
EW. (2013). The Great Folk Rock Revival: how bands like Mumford & Sons and the Lumineers are leading a global phenomenon. Entertainment Weekly.
Holden, S. (2013). When They Hammered Out Justice in the '60s. The New York Times.
Jacobs, P. (2006). Bringing It All Back Home -- The Folk Music Revival. Rewind the Fifties.
McCormick, N. (2011). Folk Music: A Quiet Revolution. The Telegraph.
Carlos also proved that the music of ach was dimensionally ever-changing and could be expressed quite well through the use of electronics.
Pink Floyd, one of the most influential "psychedelic" groups from England, utterly transformed the entire spectrum of music in the late 1960's and early 1970's through the use of the synthesizer and other electronic devices. On their "Dark Side of the Moon" album, Pink Floyd, especially bassist/keyboardist Roger Waters and keyboardist Richard Wright, completely altered all previous ideas concerning how the synthesizer could take the listener on a new voyage of discovery into uncharted territories of sound. For Pink Floyd, the synthesizer was far more than just a tool -- it was a machine with the capabilities of transforming the landscape of sound into something cosmic in origin.
In conclusion, electronic music, from its humble beginnings in the 1940's and into the present day, has greatly influenced most…
Appleton, Jon H., ed. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
Darter, Tom. The Art of Electronic Music. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1984.
Electronic Music with the Theremin." Popular Electronics. April 1955: 19-26.
Horn, Delton T. Electronic Music Synthesizers. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1980.
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
" Mozart used the play, about a maid, Susanna, who is to marry a valet, Figaro, as the story line of his opera. Together Figaro and Susana seek to outwit their master who is trying to seduce Susanna. A master had "first night rights" to the female servants when they married in those days.
Figaro" successfully champions the ingenuity of the lower classes and the wit of the female over the self-serving, arrogant nobility. The debate that followed the success of this opera is representative of the questions in everyone's minds during those years when the rights of the aristocracy were put into conflict with the rights of the common man and woman (Fiero 165).
Although Mozart appeared to be much more concerned with music and all of its forms, and kept his favored place in the eyes of the aristocracy because of his genius, he had his problems with…
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanist Tradition, Book 4: Faith, Reason and Power in the Early Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2002.
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
In the "hard-core" sub-genre of hip-hop, one sees a much clearer emphasis on street and urban authenticity -- rather than on sampling. For N.W.A., hip-hop is an expression of lived life -- a kind of militant message passed down to urban blacks from men like Malcolm X
But not all hip-hop comes from such types. The Beastie Boys are an example of hip-hop artists who thrive on a different message. Much of their music is centered on adolescent/teenage angst -- white suburban kids enraged by suburban living, but moved by urban beats. They inter-mingle their own white perspective with samplings from an assortment of other artists -- thus making their mark on the hip-hop scene. Their aggression appears to be real, like 50 Cent's -- even if it is different in its source. The Beastie Boys are, of course, legends in hip-hop -- but Mickey Hess denies that their authenticity…
Alridge, DP 2012 'From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: Toward a Nexus of Ideas', the Hip
Hop Project, pp. 1-28
Arewa, OB 2006 'From JC Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context', North Carolina Law Review 84, pp 548-558
Best, S; Kellner, D 1999 'Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference', Enculturation 2:2
.. (p. 79).
The research showed that Walker has "ridden the horse" that got him there and has parlayed his country music savvy into an enormous commercial success. Today, Walker has eleven number one single hits to his credit and has sold more than eight million albums. Moreover, Walker's forthrightness and courage following his diagnosis with multiple sclerosis has further endeared him to his legions of fans, and his country music continues to enjoy stellar sales. The last chapter has clearly not been written in the Clay Walker book, and most observers agree that he will continue to enjoy a highly popular career in the years to come.
Andsager, J.L. & oe, K. (1999). Country Music Video in Country's Year of the Woman. Journal of Communication, 49(1), 79. etrieved January 31, 2005 from Questia Library Database.
Carr, P., Cash, J. And Mcdill, B. (March-April 1998). The row on…
Andsager, J.L. & Roe, K. (1999). Country Music Video in Country's Year of the Woman. Journal of Communication, 49(1), 79. Retrieved January 31, 2005 from Questia Library Database.
Carr, P., Cash, J. And Mcdill, B. (March-April 1998). The row on music row. The American Enterprise, 9(2), 52. Retrieved January 31, 2005 from Questia Library Database.
Clay Walker. (2005). Country Music Television (CMT).com. Retrieved January 31, 2005 at http://www.cmt.com/artists/az/walker_clay/bio.jhtml .
Clay's Story. (2005). Clay Walker's Multiple Sclerosis story and biography - Band against MS foundation. Retrieved January 31, 2005 at http://www.bandagainstms.org/clayinfo_story.html.
Beethoven uses choral voices in his 9th Symphony to produce a sound that no man-made instrument could produce. Beethoven is attempting to achieve the highest and most joyful sound in the final movement of the symphony and so therefore uses human voices to compel the listener to the rapturous heights that he wants them to witness.
or what might look at the importance of tone and key. n the 20th century, composers like Schoenberg wrote atonal music that made music sound fractured and splintered and, in a word, off. This effect allowed Schoenberg to artistically represent a world around him that seemed to be going off its head -- with war, loss of conviction, and devaluation. There seemed to be no real key to happiness, and so the earlier keys that were used by Bach are rejected here by Schoenberg.
6) Using the illustrations found throughout chapter five, name the…
It is likely that the people of Japan continue to perform and listen to their own folk tunes even today because their culture is more tied to their past than ours. America's history is relatively brief, and its inhabitants come from all over the world. America has been likened to a melting pot of cultures; therefore it is not surprising to find that it has no real connection to a folk music tradition.
Japan on the other hand has existed for many centuries and its people are rooted in their heritage. Their culture is part of their lives and defines who they are and how they live: their folk music is an expression of their past, which they continually look back upon and reflect upon. They have also been more isolated from the West: it is only relatively recently that Japanese society has begun to reflect the social conditions of the Western world. It has made the attempt to become industrialized and be a viable element in the world's economy. It manufactures a great deal of the West's goods. But still it knows its heritage, and Japanese people know that while they seemingly work for the West, they are not of the West. Their folk music tells them this.
American culture tends to look only toward the future: it rotates its Top 40 continuously and calls music "classic" that came out thirty years ago. It does not know its ancestry and were it told to it, it would likely balk at the revelation. Americans do not like to consider the culture from which they came: they are not supposed to think of culture. They are like the people in Orwell's 1984 -- controlled, manipulated, and coddled. History is re-written by those in power, and those in power do not want the citizens thinking for themselves. To do so might cause dissonance.
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins