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From Musical to Film
It is rare to find a quality musical that is beautifully adapted from the stage onto the screen. In fact, throughout the years, American cinema has ping-ponged between deaths and revivals where musical film adaptations are involved. Flops such as ent (2005) and The Phantom of the Opera (2004) have shown the world the disappointing result of adaptation. Yet in essence, a successful adaptation is possible; this is evident in the likes of such musicals as Chicago (2002) and Mamma Mia! (2008), all three of which brought back the reason why people view musicals in the first place: for the glitz, the glamour, and the flair of character, song, and dance number. Yet with all of these adaptations, there is no denying the fact that each musical has carried over the same core elements that allow for the production of a movie of the…
Chicago. Dir. Rob Marshall. Perf. Catherine Zeta-Jones, Renee Zellweger, and Richard Gere. Miramax Films, 2002. DVD.
Edney, Kathryn. "Resurrecting the American Musical: Film Noir, Jazz, and the Rhetoric of Tradition in City of Angels." Journal of Popular Culture 40.6 (2007): 936-952. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 7 June 2011.
Kenrick, John. "What Is a Musical?" Musicals101.com - The Cyber Encyclopedia of Musicals. 1996. Web. 07 June 2011. .
Mamma Mia! Dir. Phyllida Lloyd. Perf. Meryl Streep, Amanda Seyfried, Pierce Brosnan, Colin Firth, Stellan Skarsgard, Dominic Cooper, Julie Walters, and Christine Baranski. Universal Studios, 2008. DVD.
" Bob Fosse reached his peak with such shows as "Chicago" and "Dancin." The 1980s saw a decline of musicals, reviving in the 1990s with shows by Andrew Lloyd Weber and Walt Disney and a revival of musical comedies (Musical101.com).
For over two centuries, musical theatre has entertained Americans nationwide in urban areas as well as smaller communities. Many professionals now worry about the death of the musical. Others call it evolving rather than dying. With music and storytelling being so much a part of the heritage of this country, it is much easier to agree with those who see a continuing evolution.
Allen, Robert C. Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque and American Culture. Chapel Hill, NC:
University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
The Daily Tribune. New York: 12 March 1847.
Henderson, Mary C. Theater in America. New York: Times Mirror, 1986.
McNamara, Brooks. The huberts of Broadway. New York: Oxford Press,…
Snyder, Robert. In The Encyclopedia of New York City Kenneth T. Jackson (Ed.) New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995, 1226.
Sobel, Bernard. Pictorial History of Vaudeville. New York: Citadel Press, 1961.
Traub, James. The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square. New York: Random House, 2004.
Film and the Choreographed Dance Sequence
Entertainment based on film has been paramount in this country since the beginning of the motion picture in the early 20th century. The movie-going experience spread throughout the world in a few quick years, and was enhanced subsequently by technological developments. Today, movies range from action to musicals to drama and animations. One type of movie mentioned above, the musical, however involves not only talented actors and singers, but also talented dancers and choreographers to enable a musical to have all the elements necessary for a great entertainment recipe. This paper will discuss the choreographic aspect in movies how to this must be filmed by referencing previous history and work in the field.
The moving pictures were invented by Thomas Edison, and ever since, film has been utilized to capture actors, singers and dancers at work in fantastic movements. According to a…
I have included this description above to state just how choreography and dance should be placed in films and how they should make a viewer feel when watching. Flying Down to Rio became quite a famous movie, but there were other musicals as well that became hits, including 42nd Street, Singing in the Rain, and West Side Story, who can be found on YouTube and provide a great background for how dance should be utilized in Film. Though these are old movies, they are indubitable classics that can teach important lessons. [3: Larson, B. (2010). "The 35 Best Dance Sequences in Film." Retrieved May 28, 2011, < http://flavorwire.com/74975/the-35-best-dance-sequences-in-film >.]
Soon after the magic of the 1930's and 1940's on screen, Broadway choreographers and other talented actors aligned to make great movies throughout the 1950's and 1960's. According to Kenrick (2010), "from the 1950s onwards, most of the important Hollywood musicals were screen adaptations of Broadway shows […], Broadway choreographers were given the opportunity of recreating their stage dances for the big screen." As a result of this process, there are movie versions of some of the most popular musicals of all time, including Oklahoma, The King and I, West Side Story, and many others, including Mary Poppins, which was a great and talent-packed hit in the 1960's. However, after these decades, dance became much less important in the decreasing numbers of screen musicals. Kenrick (2010) mentions the 1978 adaptation of Grease, which was quite popular at the box office, but states that "Patricia Birch's period spoofs did not rate as anyone's idea of inventive choreography." Eventually, the importance of musical choreography was relegated to the bottom, and was often enhanced with edition instead of true dancing. According to Kenrick, "fast, inventive editing and lots of electronic razzle dazzle made the most of the sometimes limited dancing talents of the performers. As the 21st Century dawned, live action screen musicals like Loves Labour's Lost (2000) and Moulin Rouge (2001) used such MTV-inspired techniques to make their non-singing, non-dancing stars look and sound like musical pros. The results were, at best, uneven." [4: "Dance Sequences in Film." (2011). Retrieved May 28, 2011, < http://www.hitormissmovies.com/2011/dance-sequences-in-film/>. ] [5: Kenrick, J. (2004). "Dance in Screen Musicals." Retrieved May 28, 2011, . ] [6: Kenrick, J. (2004). "Dance in Screen Musicals." Retrieved May 28, 2011, . ]
As a result of the fact the some of the best figures in the movie business advocate for classical dance sequences as far superior to modern ones, choreography in today's musicals should not copy but build on such classical pieces as those mentioned above, instead of rely on special effects and talentless extras. Dance sequences involving a lot of individuals should be filmed just as those involving a few individuals. The camera must pan on those talented who move best, and not occupy itself with mediocre dance that can be re-edited. Therefore, it is perhaps a good idea for the movie industry to borrow from Broadway's talent for musicals, who can prove to be a great success.
Technology in Musicals
Musical theatre has existed in some form for centuries. Theatre is an art form that allows many emotions to be expressed through acting and music. hile talented performers are most responsible for being characters to life and performing the music contained in the production, musical theatre also relies on other factors to guarantee the success of a musical. These factors are inclusive of ambience (i.e. The way that theatre is designed), production quality and technology. The latter of these factors has become increasingly vital to theatre production since the opening of The Savoy theatre in 1881. Indeed, technology has forever changed every facet of life. hilst, musical theatre productions are still steeped in many types of traditions, there are many changes that have occurred in theatre productions as a result of technology. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the historic use of technology in theatres…
Adalf, L. 2004. The Rise of Computerized Broadway. [Online] Available at:http://www.adlaf.net/BACKUP/papers/School/Adlaf_Computerized.pdf
Bay-Cheng, Sarah. 2007 . Theatre Squared: Theatre History in the Age of Media
Theatre Topics, vol.17, no. 1, March 2007, pp. 37-50
Mick, David G., Buhl, C. 1992. A Meaning-Based Model of Advertising Experiences. The Journal of Consumer Research vol. 19, No. 3, 317-338 > Dec., 1992
West Side Story, filmed in 1961, was one of the most ground-breaking works not only in terms of subject and genre, but also in terms of the boundaries it broke with its musical scores and choreography. Indeed, the film's dance sequences often form part of its plot. Its musical scores depict the deep distrust and underlying violence in the uneasy truces between the street gangs whose members form the basic plot background of the film. What is most interesting is that the film not only broke the romantic plot norm with its "omeo and Juliet" story, it also broke some norms in the minds and physical exertions of its dancers. One example of such norm defiance is "Cool," one of the songs just before full violence broke out between the gangs and the final tragedy of its outcome.
The first and most important pioneering element of the dance sequences in…
Sivitz, R. (2007, Apr. 24). An Analysis of West Side Story's Songs "Cool" and "America." Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/an-analysis-west-side-storys-songs-cool-america-50871.html
Theatre Today & Theatre for Me
Theatre, as a genre of creative expression, is still very much valid in the 21st century. It originated thousands of years ago, and still draws crowds in the 21st century around the world. Many of the classic plays of many cultures are still performed, as well as adaptations of other forms (such as films, songs, etc.) are transformed into plays that interest and captivate audiences. Of the plays we read in the course this term, I was able to find value in all of them, but I did not personally enjoy all of the plays.
Theatre today is sometimes based on historical events and figures, as well as new takes on old ideas in modern forms. Many plays are period pieces, and in many cities, such as New York City and London, there is a proliferation of one-person plays (one man show, or a…
Since the dawn of the classical Broadway musicals like Oklahoma! And My Fair Lady, musicals have captivated audiences in America and worldwide. The power of the musical cannot be underestimated. As Chapter 13 points out, musicals have their roots far back before New York City or Broadway. China has a long tradition of opera, in which dramas are set alongside poignant musical numbers. European operatic traditions are also the forebears of the modern stage musical. Musicals can be funny, like Guys and Dolls and The Book of Mormon, or straight like West Side Story and Wicked. Rock musicals add to the canon of tradition that graces stages worldwide. Even television shows have embraced the musical fully, capturing the sense that some emotions and ideas cannot be conveyed in any other format. For example, both The Simpsons and South Park have created whole musical episodes out of animated comedy.
Regarding the Concentration of West End Musicals
Michael BIllington believes that the theatre boom in the West End contributes to the degradation of the quality of theatre in London. I agree with Billington's position. The ticket prices in the West End coupled with the excessive amount of repetitive productions is not good for the theatre tradition or for the consuming public. Furthermore, I believe that the audiences have the power to effect creative change in the West End.
In his 2011 article, Billington has two primary concerns. One concern is the escalating prices of theatre tickets. His secondary concern is the reduction in originality and creative ingenuity of the theatre community. Thus, not only are tickets too expensive, audiences are paying rising prices for old ideas. The revivals and older plays are not even produced with a new creative spin -- like a Shakespearean play with a contemporary or…
I have been lucky enough to have attended dozens of different concerts, in many different genres. Most recently I have been interested in electronic music and have seen a few local DJs as well as a few international ones. I have also seen some avant-garde rock, underground hiphop, punk, and "electroclash," like Peaches. I have seen symphony orchestras and arena rock, such as Bruce Springsteen too. hen people ask me what my favorite music is, I usually have a difficult time answering because I enjoy so much music, especially when it is performed live. Live music is special because it is never the same performance twice. hen I see a band or artist live, I am taking part in a moment of history.
People have become accustomed to listening to music with their headphones, which is great, except that headphones offer a limiting sonic experience. Other ways of…
Gilmore, J.J. (n.d.). Why live music? Retrieved online: http://www.ncsymphony.org/images/media/672EB8EC-1D09-64E9-48CCBDA53E6E5FF0.pdf
Janaro, R. & Altshuler, T. (2011). The Art of Being Human. Pearson.
Roxie was always infatuated by fame, particularly the case of Velma Kelly, a woman on the same cellblock as herself, who is accused of double murder of her sister and lover (who were cheating on her).
he musical suggests that sexual indiscretions are a part of life, not simply something produced by the sexual revolution of the 1970s. Sexual scheming is seen as human nature. It offers a very jaded perspective of the American justice system, which can be easily manipulated by media-savvy lawyers. In one musical scene, the lawyer Bobby Flynn manipulates Roxie like a puppet, speaking her words for her during a 'press conference' ragtime dance which emphasizes that "We Both Reached for the Gun" (Roxie's defense). Although the play is set during the gangster era, it is as much a commentary upon the mid-70s, a decade in which the nation had endured the end of the failed…
The musical suggests that sexual indiscretions are a part of life, not simply something produced by the sexual revolution of the 1970s. Sexual scheming is seen as human nature. It offers a very jaded perspective of the American justice system, which can be easily manipulated by media-savvy lawyers. In one musical scene, the lawyer Bobby Flynn manipulates Roxie like a puppet, speaking her words for her during a 'press conference' ragtime dance which emphasizes that "We Both Reached for the Gun" (Roxie's defense). Although the play is set during the gangster era, it is as much a commentary upon the mid-70s, a decade in which the nation had endured the end of the failed Vietnam War and Watergate. The play ends with Roxie's acquittal and the rise to stardom of Velma and Roxie, based upon their beauty and murderousness. The one woman who does not have a good attorney on their cellblock meets her untimely demise, even though she is the only person who seems innocent of her accused crime.
If Chicago was a ground-breaking commercial failure (although its later revivals have been extremely successful), Grease (1971) was a nostalgic success, a backward-looking musical that portrayed a simpler, pre-sexual revolution era when a 'bad girl' like Rizzo was called names for sleeping with boys and smoking (gasp) cigarettes. Grease is nostalgic as Happy Days for a past American glory age, although it contains certain 'winking' at the audience, regarding its sexual innuendo. And the climax of the musical portrays good girl Sandy going 'bad' in black leather for her beloved object of desire, Danny. The musical takes place at Rydell High School, and the teens have no other cares in the world than doing their hair, polishing their cars, and engaging in gossip over their romantic lives.
The focus in Grease tends to be more on the music than the spoken word and the 'book' in terms of advancing the plot, as is the case in Company and Chicago. But Grease's music is lively and uncomplicated and the musical's dancing, while energetic, harkens back to an earlier era of sock hops and doo-wops. Of these three musicals, it is Chicago that strikes the modern listener as the most innovative -- its collapsing of the third wall between audience and actors, its open use of characters playing 'personas' rather than inhabiting traditionally-rounded characters, and its utter amorality makes it seem more like a musical of the 21st century than the 20th.
Gershwin/Someone to Watch
"Someone to Watch over Me" ("STWOM") was featured in a long-running musical called Oh Kay!, written by George and IA Gershwin, that made its world debut on Broadway's Imperial Theater. The date was November 8, 1926. The musical enjoyed great success, even including a Broadway revival in 1990. STWOM, the best-known song from the musical, was a hit three times the following year, starting with Oh Kay's star Gertrude Lawrence's recording, which was on the charts for eleven weeks. Gershwin himself released a version. George Olsen and His Orchestra had a hit with an uptempo version; interestingly, the Gershwin brothers originally intended the song to be an upbeat rhythm piece. George experimented with tempo one day and the brothers quickly realized it had more potential as a wistful, slower piece (McElrath.). Of course they were right. The purpose of this paper is to examine the score's refrain…
Dvarionaite, A. (2007). Frederic Chopin -- Prelude in E-Minor (op. 28 no. 4). YouTube.
Kamien, R. (1998). Music: An Appreciation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
McElrath, K.J. (n.d.). "Someone to Watch over Me" JazzStandards.com.
1955 Film Version of Oklahoma: An Evaluation
Oklahoma is a musical set in the turn of the 20th century which concerns two cowboys who spar against a malevolent ranch hand and a migratory vagrant for the union of the hearts of the women they love. The video being examined today is the 1955 film version of this very musical. The musical debuted in 1943 and was largely considered to be quite innovative for a multitude of reasons: the play integrated a range of songs with the main storyline in a harmonious and engaging fashion and also showcases a simplicity and austerity of production designs. This film version of the musical was able to present the bulk of the songs which were generally removed from the bulk of the stage presentations. There was a slight streamlining of the story which differed in a certain sense from the musical: Laurie (played by…
Zinnemann, F. (Director). (1955). Oklahoma [Motion Picture].
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…
1) Giulia De Dominicis - Article Title: The Roman Theatres in the Age of Pius VI. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 81.
2) Live Hov - Article Title: The 'Women' of the Roman Stage: As Goethe Saw Them. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 61.
3) Garret Fagan - Article Title R.C. Beacham. Power into Pageantry: Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Journal Title: Comparative Drama. Volume: 35. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 465+.
4) The Columbia Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia Article Title: Drama, Western. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004.
Dane Johnston gave a stunning performance in the title role of the play. In fitting with the modern interpretation of the classic, Johnston's rendering of Hamlet is akin to the "emo" youth subculture - just as Ophelia is meant to conform to the "gothic" subculture. At the same time, Johnston delivered Hamlet's numerous long monologues with sophistication and ease, proving to the audience that you do not have to fake a British accent in order to accurately capture the Shakespearean essence of the role.
Hamlet's best friends, Horatio (Kit Fugard) and Marcella (Vanessa Downs), were also portrayed as "scene kids," but obviously of an artistic and intelligent nature. Angela Donor's interpretation of Ophelia tended to be a bit melodramatic at some points during the play; at the same time, it can be said that such over-acting may be necessary, as it is part of Ophelia's true nature.
Overall, the technical…
Constantin Stanislavsky is the father of modern acting theory. His theories which he extols in his four books, My Life in Art (1924), An Actor Prepares (1936), uilding a Character (1941), and Creating a Role (1961) have had an unparalleled effect on actors and acting instructors throughout the world. Acting theorists such as Vsevelod Meyerhold, Uta Hagen, and ertold recht have all taken his theories into account while developing their own. Indeed, entire movements in world drama have been in part inspired by the work of Stanislavsky.
ut what of his influence on Russia? During Stanislavsky's life and his career Russia went through many changes. Two major events in Russian history would determine the fate of theatre and as a result Stanislavsky. The first was the failed revolution in 1905. "The great rehearsal," Lenin called it and that's exactly what it was. The second major event was the 1917…
Staislavski, Constantin. An Actor Prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books. 1936.
Brockett, Oscar G. The History of Theatre. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. 1991.
Meyerhold and Stanislavsky: Art and the Politics in the Russian Theatre." Russian Theatre Website. http://rutheater.home.att.net/stana.htm
Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky." King Norton Boys. http://www.kingnortonboys.bham.sch.uk/sujects/drama/pages/stanisl.pdf
He, therefore, continued experimenting with new musical style, and his 1964 album, Another Side of Bob Dylan hinted at the things to come. The album was categorized a "folk album" only because Dylan had not yet decided to go electric and continued to use an acoustic arrangement for his songs. As for the content of his songs on Another Side, they had already veered away from the political protest of folk. The album started with the light-hearted and personal "All I Really ant to do" and ended rather significantly with "It Ain't Me" -- Dylan pointedly saying adieu to his folk audience. The album's departure from folk traditions was a prelude to a more dramatic change in Dylan's musical style that was to be unveiled in the following year.
Dylan goes Electric
The year 1965 was the start of perhaps the most concentrated, magical, and impressive two-year period of creative…
Hentoff, Nat. "Liner Notes for 'The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan" Bob Dylan.com. 1964. May 12, 2005. http://bobdylan.com/linernotes/freewheelin.html
Shelton, Robert. "No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan." Ballantine Books: New York, 1986
Wilentz, Sean. "Liner Notes -- Live 1964 at Philharmonic Hall." December 2003. May 12, 2005. http://bobdylan.com/linernotes/live1964.html
From the song it's All right Ma (I'm only Bleeding) from the album "Bringing it All Back home" (1965)
It has also been very popular both with musical performers and their audiences throughout its history; artists as diverse as Elvis Presley and Luciano Pavarotti have performed on the Olympia's stage, and MTV continues to host events and concerts there on occasion.
Despite its popularity, however, the Olympia has faced some difficult times. In 1975, the theatre was scheduled for demolition, but was purchased by businessman Maurice Gusman and donated to the city along with the historic Olympia Office Building next to it. The entire complex was renamed in Gusman's honor, and earned a place on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The theatre is still not entirely safe from the clutches of time, however, and careful restoration work on the aging building is a constant and painstaking process -- but well worth the effort to preserve…
This is perhaps most notable in the punctuating words of the witch. "One midnight gone!" cries the witch at the mid-point of the first act, then sings "It's the last midnight," before she leaves the play. The return to the words and themes of the woods is the only constant of the play. This is because the play is about journeys, not about coming to some final moral conclusion. The woods, unlike the safety of the home, is unpredictable -- not even the witch knows that the spell she weaves to regain her beauty will deprive her of her magic, or that the golden floss first provided by the baker will come from her own beloved, adopted child Rapunzel.
Interestingly enough, Rapunzel is the one character who never says 'Into the Woods,' and when other characters provide often humorous reflections on what they have learned in the woods, such as…
Measurement and Marketing
The Boston Ale Theater
In this scenario regarding marketing questionnaires at the Boston Ale Theater, marketing director Betty Lucas has shown poor judgment in the authorship of her questionnaire, the choice of venue of the marketing questionnaire, and methodology of her information-gathering strategy. All of these factors in combination are sure to result in improperly measured and skewed statistical results.
While the intern in question may be quite competent, this is no guarantee that this individual has a sense of what type of questions will give clues as to the audience the Boston Ale Theater desires and is likely to attract. The intern might simply ask generic questions about age and gender, rather than include other, equally important questions that are more pertinent to the focus of what the public wishes to see.
More importantly, the gender and age break down for the single show being surveyed…
miami./theatrearts/ring.html performance south pacific write a concise 500-word critical response
Students of the University of Miami's Jerry Herman Ring Theater Alvin Sherman family stage put on a very credible performance of South Pacific, which is running through the month of April. This work of drama is, of course, a musical. Therefore, it was highly significant that some of the most important actions that the audience witnessed during the performance were related to the singing, dancing, and music involved in this production.
It certainly helps that, since this musical was a Pulitzer Prize for Drama winner in 1950, many of the songs performed within the musical are classics, very famous, and were carried out in a polished manner. The two best numbers of the evening included I'm Going to Wash That Man Right Outta My Hair and Some Enchanted Evening. Andrew Leonard was involved in the latter, whereas the former utilized…
"South Pacific" explores a fairly crucial theme, one that was particularly relevant for the time in which the play was initially performed (in 1949). In those pivotal postwar years, this drama explores what ultimately resulted as the shrinking of the world as globalization began in earnest following the conclusion of World War II. However, the play deals with this thematic issue from a decidedly personal point-of-view, as it chronicles a pair of love stories in which there are significant cultural differences between the lovers. Therefore, the major theme of the play is to determine if conventional notions of prejudice still apply in the newly developing world, especially when they are involved in something as crucial to human feeling as love.
The intentions of the director, Michaeljohn McGann, seemed to be fairly clear. I believe the director was attempting to utilize as many different mediums and components of theater to convey the sense that true love is stronger than tradition or racial prejudice. This hypothesis is supported by the full-on, multimedia package that South Pacific encompassed. The production was not only powered by acting, but also by the three-dimensional aspect of music in the dances of the performers, their singing, and in the craftsmanship of the musicians who accompanied the singers. There were also a number of disparate elements of theater that largely entangled the director to accomplish this goal. These included, most saliently, the background scenery, which routinely changed during different acts and scenes to reflect an accurate visual depiction of the various physical locations the play took place in. The acting and directing were believable, and the actors seemed to bring a new vivacity to 60-year-old characters that helped to modernize the work. David Upton did a great job with the lighting, to present subdued and dramatic moments.
Ultimately, the enduring nature of the theme of the play helped to ensure that it is still socially relevant in contemporary society. Imperialist developments in our own world virtually ensure that cultural meshing will still take place. It is nice to know that in doing so, timeless values of love and romance can take center stage. Also, the imperialist tendencies of the United States imply that situations that occurred in South Pacific, such as romantic involvement between people of respective cultures, is still a part of today's society.
Michael Bennet-What makes him unique
Michael Bennett was born in 1943 under the full name of Michael Bennett DiFiglia. He was devoted to the theater and over the course of his life was a dancer, choreographer and director; before succumbing to AIDS complications at 44 years old. His unique style was his legacy to Broadway -- particularly regarding Musical Theater.
Musical theater has a rich and storied history; dating back centuries. First conceived as "narration with song and dance incorporated"; it was meant to glorify beautiful females, dancers, singers and the occasional comedian (eynolds, 882). Broadway Musicals were not always successful; but dance continued to be integral and professionals of all genres fell under the purview of the choreographer (eynolds 693).
By the 1970s the cost of staging a Broadway show was exorbitant. It was often decided to pare back dancing and choreography as a means of saving money (Clark).…
Clark, Daryl Kent. "Michael Bennett: A Singular Sensation,." 100 Treasures - Michael Bennett. Dance Heritage Coalition, Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. From http://www.danceheritage.org/treasures/bennett_essay_clark.pdf
Cerasaro, P. 2013 Tony Awards Clip Countdown: #7 - Michael Bennett Masterpieces. 2013. Web. 8 Feb. 2014. http://www.broadwayworld.com/article/2013-Tony-Awards-Clip-Countdown-7-Michael-Bennett-Masterpieces-20130603
Cohen, Selma J., and Dance Perspective Foundation, eds. "Musical Theater."International Encyclopedia of Dance. Oxford: Oxford University, 2005. Online.
Dietz, Dan. Off Broadway Musicals, 1910-2007: Casts, Credits, Songs, Critical Reception and Performance Data of More than 1,800 Shows. Jefferson, NC: McFarland &, 2010. Print.
theater and particularly its musical performances, have changed dramatically over the years. Their tone and style have reflected historical and cultural changes as well as shifts in attitudes toward musical theater. Recent productions like Book of Mormon and Hamilton would have been inconceivable just a generation ago. Broadway musicals are unique in that they straddle the line between popular and high culture. They have popular culture appeal, packed within the fine art of theater. In some ways, musical theater is a popular culture version of the opera. Broadway theater has matured and expanded its repertoire considerably, moving from the relatively limited domain of Steven Sondheim and Andrew Lloyd eber productions towards a more diverse and creative one. As Lewis points out, "How sadly limiting that was; it surely took some kind of toll on alternative voices trying to break free of cliche expectations," (2). Broadway has broken free, finally, and…
Lewis, David H. Broadway Musicals. Mcfarland, 2002.
Perpetua, Matthew. "The Book of Mormon,' Triumphs at the Tony Awards." Rolling Stone. Retrieved online: http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/the-book-of-mormon-triumphs-at-the-tony-awards-20110613
Schutte, Harm K. and Donald G. Miller. "Belting and Pop, Nonclassical Approaches to the Female middle voice: Some preliminary considerations." Journal of Voice, Vol 7, No. 2, 1993, pp. 142-150.
Stone, Matt and Parker, Trey. Book of Mormon.
Jerome Robbins: Something to Dance About
Judy Kinberg's 2009 motion picture Jerome Robbins: Something to Dance About provides a view into the life of a person who played a significant role in the twentieth century's art movement. Jerome Robbins used his mastery to make Broadway musicals much more intriguing and choreographed some of the world's greatest ballet dancers. The film uses a great deal of resources with the purpose of providing viewers with a complex understanding of the artist's life. Things like personal journals, confessions from witnesses that interacted with Robbins (some of them were close to him), and videos showing his performances all come together in painting a picture of the artist.
It would be safe to say that Robbins changed the way that many people perceived dance and music. His involvement in the industry provided these people with a completely new point-of-view on the domain and made it…
This was the beginning of America's Golden Age of Musicals and thus it is important to understand what actually went into making a great musical. This was also a time when the Broadway show was assuming a standard format, one in which we still see to this day: two acts and several scenes. The first act being the key. The major songs are performed in the first act and then they would be later reprised, sometimes in both the first and the second acts. The show would open with a fast song, usually a dance number, employing all the chorus and introducing the principals into the play (2003, 84). The first love song would have to come soon enough so that it can be repeated in the first act. In Gershwin's Lady, Be Good!, the first love song was "So Am I."
The year 1926 was a big year for…
Green, S. (1980). Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. De Capo Press.
Hyland, W.G. (2003). George Gershwin: a new biography. Praeger.
Jablonski, E. (1998). Gershwin. De Capo Press.
Pollack, H. (2007). George Gershwin: his life and work. University of California Press; 1st edition.
Jazz dance is an integral part of American history. The various types of jazz dance all come from a fusion of African and European traditions, which is why jazz dance symbolizes American culture itself. According to Tilton's film Jazz Dance, jazz dance first evolved in the Deep South and spread as far as Europe before returning home to America. Jazz dance is not monolithic, and it is important to recognize the differences between types of dancing such as tap and swing in order to understand the contexts in which the dances were or are used. For example, some dances became popular in theater, while others were more comedic. Jazz dance might not seem to have a political or even an economic dimension, but it certainly does. The impact of jazz dance on American society has been felt on almost every dimension including political, economic, and social realms. In particular, jazz…
Hill, Constance Valis. Tap Dancing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Nalett, Jacqueline "Jazz Dance History." Retrieved online: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CEcQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uh.edu%2Fclass%2Ftheatre-and-dance%2F_docs%2Fnalett%2FJACQUELINENALETTJazzDanceHistory2.doc&ei=6F2AUtW0C8aG3AXtpIC4BA&usg=AFQjCNHhplX8I-J6Tc2cChANwl32kdS0oQ&sig2=SCTcAFKh_ZPTxob_htvq6Q&bvm=bv.56146854,d.b2I
Stearns, Marshall and Stearns, Jean. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. Da Capo, 1994.
Tilton, Roger. Jazz Dance. [Feature Film]. 1954. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-DPiVVQJlY
Singer, Barry. "In Yiddish Music, a Reurn o Roos of Tormen and Joy." New York
Times (Augus 16, 1998): 32.
In his aricle, Barry Singer noes he changes Yiddish music underwen as Jews emigraed from Europe o America, and compares he evolving naure of Yiddish folk songs during he nineeenh and wenieh cenuries o more recen developmens in Yiddish music. This aricle is useful because i allows one o race an unbroken line from he earlies Yiddish songs regarding immigraion o America o musical developmens occurring oday, even if whaever was disincly Yiddish abou hese rends seemed o have been los or covered over when Yiddish musicians became he creaors of American popular culure in he 1940s and 50s.
Warnke, Nina. "Immigran Popular Culure as Conesed Sphere: Yiddish Music Halls,
he Yiddish Press, and he Processes of Americanizaion, 1900-1910." Theare
Journal 48, no. 3 (1996): 321-335.
This essay looks a…
the Yiddish Press, and the Processes of Americanization, 1900-1910." Theatre
Journal 48, no. 3 (1996): 321-335.
This essay looks at the Yiddish music hall as a special place of cultural mixing during the early twentieth century, and acts as a companion piece to the Heskes' essay about Yiddish music as social history. Instead of focusing on the music itself, Warnke's essay looks at the contested space of the Yiddish music hall, where the identity of Jewish immigrants was being established by proxy, on the stage through plays and musicals. This resulted in competing Jewish actors' unions and rival critics assailing those music halls deemed "illegitimate." Warnke argues that over a couple decades, however, these distinctions become blurred as the ongoing debate itself becomes absorbed into the Yiddish-American identity and ultimately expressed again through music. This essay is useful because it gives details regarding the history of Yiddish music halls themselves as well as provides an analysis of the changes going on in Yiddish music itself during the same time period.
Gershwin was influenced by French composers of the early twentieth century. The orchestrations in Gershwin's symphonic works frequently seem comparable to those of avel; similarly, avel's two piano concertos demonstrate an influence of Gershwin. Gershwin asked to learn with avel. Gershwin's own Concerto in F. was condemned for being connected to the work of Claude Debussy, more so than to the probable jazz style. The association did not discourage Gershwin from enduring to explore French styles. The title of an American in Paris replicates the very voyage that he had intentionally taken as a composer (Biography, 2010).
Aside from the French influence, Gershwin was fascinated by the works of Alban Berg, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, and Arnold Schoenberg. He also asked Schoenberg for composition teachings, but Schoenberg refused. ussian Joseph Schillinger's persuasion as Gershwin's teacher of composition (1932 -- 1936) was considerable in providing him with a technique…
A Complete Guide to George and Ira. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from Web site:
Biography. (2010). Retrieved February 1, 2011, from Web site:
combined music "arts" create a "combined" product. Use specific examples "e-book," website resources, web research, reading, . support discussion. Include discussion program music, opera, ballet, musical theater, music -western cultures.
Music in connection to other domains
Individuals in the Middle Ages observed that music was appreciated to a larger degree when it was combined with other artistic elements. Minstrels often travelled from town to town and provided the masses with a wide artistic diversity, ranging from singing to juggling, and sometimes doing both concomitantly in an attempt to win the audience's hearts. Music played an important role in performing a series of activities, as it contributed to influencing people that they were transported to a whole new environment where beauty dominated the mind of every individual.
Music was most probably strongest connected to writing during the Middle Ages, as the fact that writing was not wide spread played an important…
Bonds, Evan, "Listen to this," (Prentice Hall, 24.09.2010)
Balanchine to Petipa
George Balanchine was born in the year 1904. He was invited to come over the United States of America by Lincoln Kirstein, in the year 1933, and subsequently, Balanchine arrived in America in the month of October 1933. One of the very first things that Balanchine is reputed to have done after his arrival in the United States, was to found the 'School of American Ballet', which opened in the year 1934, with a class of twenty five students. It must be stated here that although Balanchine and Kirstein made several attempts through many years to start a Company, they did not succeed in their endeavor, but the School of American Ballet, however, has endured and remains intact, to this day. This was the Scholl through which Balanchine was able to present his very first ballet to the entire world, in America, which was named the 'Serenade'.…
Ballet Training Techniques. Retrieved From
http://www.the-ballet.com/techniques.php Accessed 15 October, 2005
Balustrade. Retrieved From
For instance, renowned designer Barbara Matera explained that when Glenn Close first tried on the Norma Desmond costume described above, she "winced under its weight" (New York's Top Costume Shop Reveals Its Secrets 1996:3). The costume's designer, Anthony Powell, instructed Close to turn around and face the mirror, and "upon seeing the stunning result her whole attitude changed" (4). Other anecdotal accounts on the design process from Matera included: "e love shows that have underwear scenes" (referring to bustles, corsets, and pantaloons), and "bird costumes can be very taxing"; these comments provide some insight into the creative challenges that face costume designers and makers today.
Each character that appears in a production must be individually assessed, and gradually each movement of each character and each costume must then be integrated into a cohesive whole that presents the imagery desired. "At any rate," Cole et al. say, "slowly, harmoniously, must the…
Awards & Prizes. (May 2002). American Theatre, 19(5):9.
Barbour, David. (2001). You'll know who. Entertainment Design, 11:27.
Barnes, Denise. (May 28, 1998). Columnist Will Tell Times Readers Where Bargains Are. The Washington Times, 10.
Brennan, Sandra. (2004). The New York Times Movie Guide: Biographies. Available: http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=79275&mod=bio .
Experiencing Art in Person: A review of Godspell
For my 'Experiencing Art in Person' project, I elected to watch a performance of the musical theater production Godspell at the Production Studio on April 27th at 7:30pm, performed by an ensemble cast. My goal in watching this production was to learn about a play that had such a seismic impact upon American theater. I am an international student. I come from Saudi Arabia and was unfamiliar with the show, but I had heard many of my American friends talk about how they had performed or seen the play in school and church productions. The fact that there is no corresponding play in my own culture, with my own religion made the play especially intriguing to me.
Godspell is a loosely-structured musical without a tightly-constructed plot. It is based on the Gospel of Saint Matthew and some of the other gospels in…
Brown, Scott. "Is Godspell worthy?" Vulture. 7 Nov 2011.
"Original Godspell Cast on The Today Show" You Tube. Posted 28 Dec 2009.
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
aesthetic terms from the days in which the musical accompaniment of a film consisted primarily of a pianist or organist sitting in the theater and taking cues on what to play by watching the silenced action on the screen. And yet, in other and probably more important ways, we have come no real distance at all, for music now (as it did since the very first movie) helps to determine the overall emotional impact of a film. This paper examines the film scores from two recent productions, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" and "Iron Monkey."
Overall, the musical score for a film helps knit together all of the different technical elements of a film as well as all of the different thematic elements:
Picture and track, to a certain degree, have a composition of their own but when combined they form a new entity. Thus the track becomes not only a…
Flinn, Caryl. Strains of Utopia: Gender, Nostalgia, and Hollywood Film Music. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. http://staging.gomemphis.com/mca/movie_reviews/article/0,1426,MCA_569_845469,00.html
Handel's Messiah was composed in 1741. The musical period is baroque.
An oratorio is a large musical work that includes an orchestra, choir, soloists, and staging. Operas are musical theater and oratorios are exclusively concert or musical only pieces.
An aria is a melody or musical piece that is made exclusively for one voice and there is orchestral accompaniment. Arias are most commonly found in operas.
There is a kind of call and response between the lyrics and the music in Ev'ry Valley. The singer guides the music and the instruments complement and mimic what the singer does with his voice. Handel was probably considering rhythm, structure, and movement when considering the lyrics.
The texture of the refrain of the Hallelujah chorus is strong. The texture is rich and vibrant. The syllables hang in the air, especially the "ha," yet there is a definite swiftness and movement to…
No listed author. (2013). Ludwig van Beethoven. Web, Available from: http://www.lvbeethoven.com/Bio/BiographyLudwig.html . 2013 March 17.
Vickers, D. (2012). George Frideric Handel. Web, Available from: http://gfhandel.org/ . 2013 March 17.
After the success of these Biblical musicals, Lloyd ebber severed from Rice to explore different methods of conveying his musical vision, such as the more dance-inspired "Cats." In this musical, Lloyd ebber abandoned many of the rock elements of his former work "in favor of what critics found a pastiche style that borrowed from classical and opera sources. He had also become a brand name" and created his own a corporation, the Really Useful Company that attempted to bring commercialism, in a positive fashion, to the musical theater industry ("Andrew Lloyd ebber, Answers.com, 2007).
Cats" was not simply one of the most successful musicals of all time, it also spawned t-shirts, mugs, and yes, many jokes, as well as a soundtrack album and other, more conventional methods of generating interest in the show -- and revenue. Since "Cats," was created by Lloyd ebber, almost every other major musical has attempted…
Andrew Lloyd Webber: Official Biography." Andrew Lloyd Webber Official Website.
2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.andrewlloydwebber.com/sections/biog/index.php?section=biog#andrew
Andrew Lloyd Webber." Answers.com. 2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/andrew-lloyd-webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber." Internet Broadway Database. 2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?id=12073
Carl Orff a German composer, was born in Munich, Germany on July 10, 1895. Munich had been the place where Orff grew up and where his life had been shaped. The childhood days of Orff brought him a lot of memories that he used later as inspirations for his works and compositions.
Carl Orff started to develop his talent in music at the age of 5. He received his first piano, organ, and cello lessons in 1900. At the age of 16, he had already composed almost 50 songs using the text of classical authors such as Heinrich Heine and Friedrich Hoelderlin (www.dhm.de).When he was at the age of 19, Orff served in First World War for a short period of time
Carl Orff's genius in music was nourished and developed into a master's art at the Academy for the Musical Arts, a music school in Munich where Orff studied.…
Johnson, S.E. Carl Orff and the Orff Approach. Available at http://www2.potsdam.edu/CRANE/campbemr/curriculum/teaching-texts/orff-approach.html . Internet. Accessed 28 November 2003.
Harris, William; Levey, Judity. "Carl Orff.," in The New Columbia Encyclopedia.
Schmerda, Susanne. 2000. 50 Years of Music for Children.
Also, a few new Nohs have been written and some 'retired' ones have been re-activated. Noh has also blended with other forms of entertainment and theatrical genres.
That is the extent of the change, though as there is a very sincere and earnest call for tradition and custom throughout the Noh industry. The field remains very codified and the emphasis from within the field is much more so on tradition than innovation. The society of Noh preserves and espouses the traditions. One of the traditions is the regimented progression of Noh characters than an actor/actress can portray during the course of their lives.
The Noh remains an integral part of Japanese culture. Ezra Pound maintained a pursuit of sharing the Noh with the est for most of his adult life. His endeavor was a success as the Noh has indeed been shared all over the world while remaining particularly sacred…
Ewick, D. 2003. Sadakichi Hartmann, The influence of Japanese art on Western civilization.
Japonisme, orientalism, modernism: A critical bibliography of Japan in English-
language verse. http://themargins.net/bib/A/01.htm (accessed October 7, 2010).
Fenollosa, Ernest and Ezra Pound. The noh theatre of Japan: with complete texts of 15 classic plays. Dover: Courier Dover Publications, 2004
Trip to Chinatown / Hello, Dolly!
One might not ordinarily associate comedienne Carol Channing with formidable erudition, but the Broadway premiere of Hello, Dolly! In 1964 would manage to unite them both thanks to the participation of Thornton ilder. ilder remains persistently underrated in the canon of American drama, partly because his own achievement had originally derived from fiction -- yet an examination of ilder's own notebooks reveals that his own successful stage plays were frequently based on his own critical and scholarly engagement with the most abstruse sort of Modernist texts. ilder would claim that his sprawling 1942 comedy The Skin of Our Teeth, which would win that year's Pulitzer Prize, had been based on James Joyce's Finnegans ake (which presumably would have come as a great surprise to Tallulah Bankhead, who starred in ilder's play). Yet it is my contention that among the many learned influences upon ilder's…
Cather, Willa. "Music and Drama." Nebraska State Journal, 1 November 1894. Willa Cather Archive. Accessed 1 April 2011 at: http://cather.unl.edu/j00078.html . Web.
Herman, Jerry. Hello, Dolly! New York: Edwin Morris, 1964. Print.
Hoyt, Charles. A Trip to Chinatown. In Clark, Barrett H. (Editor), Favorite American Plays of the Nineteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943. Print.
Gassner, John and Quinn, Edward. The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama. New York: Crowell, 1969. Print.
Songs from completely different eras, historical contexts, and musical genres can often share point of comparison and remarkable musical similarities. Gershwin’s “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down,” is from the colloquial English-language opera Porgy and Bess with lyrics/libretto by DuBose Heyward. Conductor John DeMain reworked the original Gershwin compositions with Houston Grand Opera, staging Porgy and Bess to win both a Tony and a Grammy Award, thereby anchoring the production firmly within the realm of pop culture. Being from an opera, the song “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down” is lyrically driven, and the vocals remain the cornerstone of the piece. “Oh, I Can’t Sit Down” occurs about halfway through the opera, and is a light, whimsical piece sung by a chorus as opposed to any musical lead. The DeMain arrangement includes a range of instruments including tubas serving as bass lines and a full horn section as accompaniment. Although Porgy and…
Silent Period -- I was impressed by how this chapter explains the development of film and the innovations people like Porter and Griffith made that would help to define the techniques that evolved into modern cinema.
Early Sound -- One of the things I liked about this chapter is how it explains the purpose of synced sound in film; sound enhances an image by sonically creating meaning.
Imaginative Documentary -- This chapter succeeds in demonstrating how propaganda, or politically charged film, can influence individuals. However, this chapter could use more examples of how documentary and propaganda come together.
The Influence of the Documentary -- This chapter succeeds at providing good parallels between film and real world events, and it makes good use of images to further support the examples presented. On the downside, the chapter contains too much filler information to the point that the conclusion best summarizes the chapter.…
She has killed the modern wordsmith Joe, the representation of young Hollywood, and resurrected her reputation, but in an ugly, negative way.
Psycho," like "Sunset Boulevard," ends with an image of the character that has thoroughly unraveled. hile the image of the young Joe Gillis opens "Sunset Boulevard," the image of the insane, older Norma closes the tale, and in "Psycho," the image of the sane Marion Crane opens the film, while the image of her murderer, Norman Bates, closes the film. Even more so than the domineering Norma, Norman Bates takes over the narrative of "Psycho," transforming it into what should have been Marion's tale of liberation and escape into a story of her murder. Likewise, what should have been a story of Joe's success in Hollywood instead becomes a story about Norma, even though Joe is a professional screenwriter.
The idea of 'rewriting' and 'retelling' reoccurs in all…
Psycho." Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1960.
Singin' in the Rain." Directed by Stanley Donan and Gene Kelley. 1952.
Sunset Boulevard." Directed by Billy Wilder. 1950.
The term "art-horror" was new, and after the author defined it, it made perfect sense. There are differences in the genre between films, books, and theater, and it is easy to see how much of the horror genre could be considered "art-horror." In addition, the section on plotting was extremely enlightening, especially the characteristic horror plots, which were extremely familiar once the author laid them out. In addition, the author's definitions of different genres and how they are analyzed was helpful in showing the vast differences between genres and what they hope to accomplish.
This book helped put the entire horror genre into better focus. If anyone is interested in writing horror novels, this book should be on their list of books to read and emulate. The author has a deep understanding of the horror genre, but more than that, he seems to respect and admire it, which would serve…
Carroll, Noel. The Philosophy of Horror, Or, Paradoxes of the Heart. New York: Routledge, 1990.
evolution Movies Marketing
Workers Protection Acts
Investigate ways in which community arts organizations develop and maintain an audience
In the recent past, there has been a notable improvement in the field of arts. Many people in the community are now garnering interest in arts like never before. As a result, there has also been an increase in the community art organization. This is of course due to the need to fulfill the demand for the interest in art. However, it is an enormous challenge for organizations to acquire audience. Furthermore, the bigger challenge is to maintain the audience that they already have. Therefore, it is imperative that there are strategies that can happen in both situations. Community art organizations need to use all the appropriate methods to acquire a new audience. This is possible through advertising although the most suitable is to get to know the target group. There should…
Carpenter, G., & Blandy, D.E. (2008). Arts and cultural programming: A leisure perspective.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cherbo, J.M., Stewart, R.A., & Wyszomirski, M.J. (2008). Understanding the arts and creative sector in the United States. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press
Daragh O'Reilly. & Finola Kerrigan. (2010). Marketing the arts: A fresh approach. Taylor & Francis. London.
Conductor Dong-hyun Kim rendered Symphony No. 4 composed by James Cohn flawlessly; he led the orchestra through its erudite and diverse mix of idioms, its meditatively vague initial movement and blustering, anguish-driven finale, a summoning of Hungary's Soviet invasion in the year 1956. One would not be exaggerating if one were to label this as the 1812 Overture of Cohn, though it culminates on a markedly unresolved and muted note. Nervously tricky metrics replaced indirect, grey-sky, wounded graphics as well as a spurt of abrupt certainty, when suddenly the inescapable conclusion manifested itself. The composer is possibly a more familiar face in the European region than here (three of his symphonies were recorded, by the Slovak Radio Symphony recently). A much larger audience would be enriched by his music (LucidCulture, 2015).
The audiences will first get to hear James Cohn, whose music was composed during the…
Edmonds, L. (2015, September 24). Queensboro Symphony Readies New Season. Retrieved from Queens Tribune: http://queenstribune.com/queensboro-symphony-readies-new-season/
LucidCulture. (2015, October 02). A Towering, Exhilarating World Premiere and a Rare Symphonic Gem at This Fall's First Queensboro Symphony Orchestra Concert. Retrieved from lucidculture.wordpress.com: https://lucidculture.wordpress.com/page/2/?pages-list
For Stroman, the musical numbers must be integrated within a narrative rather than standing as more autonomous (or hegemonic) components of the Broadway Musical.
Michael Bennett brought a less-defined style than Stroman or Fosse, although he made a great impact on the Broadway musical. His costuming was more colorful than the previously accepted norm, as he incorporated garish neon pink, green, and yellow tones into his costume design for the 1975 play a Chorus Line (Hecht). By focusing on costuming, Bennett made the costuming a more integral component of the Broadway musical than previously been accepted.
(B): How Can Prospective Dancers Use Information About Dance Style to Develop Their Style?
There are many ways in which up-and-coming dancers can utilize information about dance styles and audition techniques to enhance their dance career. ith regard to audition technique, every prospective dancer should have a strong knowledge of the source text for…
Cowsell Jr., R.L. "Broadway Retrogresses: The Bookless Musical." The Journal of Popular Culture xii.3 (1978): 545-549.
Felleman Fattal, Laura. "The Search for Narrative." The Journal of Aesthetic Education 38.3 (2004): 107-115.
Hecht, Thomas. "Dance Costume." The Berg Companion to Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. New York: Berg, 2010. 195-198.
Exoticism in Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Opera
The objective of this study is to answer as to what is meant by exoticism in nineteenth and early-twentieth century opera and as to what the appeal of exoticism to European librettists and composers. This work will take two operas as case studies and explore both the ways in which the librettists handle their subject matter and the ways in which the composers attempted to represent exoticism in musical terms. For the purpose of this study, the opera Salome by Richard Strauss and Aida by Giuseppe Verdi are chosen. This study will first examine Salome followed by an examination of Salome.
Salome the Opera
It has been said that Salome is the "most important event in German opera since the work of Richard Wagner." (Manitoba Opera 2011-2012) In fact, according to critics 'its concentrated power, eerie and sinister harmonies, and extraordinarily exotic orchestration…
Aida by Giuseppe Verdi (2011) Calgary Opera Study Guide of Aida. Retrieved from: http://www.calgaryopera.com/Aida%20Study%20Guide.pdf
Aida Giuseppe Verdi (2010) Canadian Opera Company. Retrieved from: http://files.coc.ca/studyguides/aidastudyguide.pdf
Guarracino, S. (2010) Verdi's Aida Across the Mediterranean. California Italian Studies. 2010. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9tj7h4wv#page-5
Tydeman, W. And Price, S. (nd) Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from Google eBooks at: http://books.google.com/books?id=TaFB0epfdmQC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=Aida+and+Salome:+exoticism&source=bl&ots=MVipLVcbF2&sig=YDLezJXbNciquCepaebOkq6tecY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QcwQT9_SMsnb0QGC6uSPAw&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Aida%20and%20Salome%3A%20exoticism&f=false
art is "te creation of beautiful or tougt-provoking works" according to te World Englis Dictionary
It is wit tat definition in mind tat I argue tat teatre is most definitely an art form. Teatre can be defined as wen someone cooses to make dramatic performance (acting) teir profession muc as a dancer cooses te ballet as teir profession. Te roots of teatre can be traced as far back as te ancient Roman Empire, troug te Renaissance in Europe and finally to te 20t century, wic saw te emergence of commercial teatre suc as musicals tat are performed in suc venues as Broadway.
Witout question, acting is someting tat only select people are really great at. Likewise, few people can really draw or paint, dance, write, sing or play music. Tese are all considered art forms and te teatre is a culmination of all of tese in one way or anoter.…
15 Feb 2002
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…
Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.
Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.
Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.
Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
Theatre among Serbs has a tradition that is more than eight centuries old. Theatre in Serbia was not created without the occasional interruption. Serbian theatre performances in the Middle Ages had a basically secular and entertaining function. They featured improvisations without written texts, and were staged in public places. The theatre, at this time, remained beyond the bounds and influence of the Orthodox Church. In the thirteenth century, church authorities forbade their congregation to attend gatherings where actors showed their performances (Library of Serbian Culture, par. 55).
The traits of staged scenes and sport festivities lived on in the Serbian fourteenth century as well. In the painting The Mocking of Christ, created between 1317 and 1318 in the monastery of Staro Nagoricino, the endowment of King Milutin, three characters in long sleeves, together with several figures with unusual instruments, are seen in the foreground. Serbian rulers, who had…
Mihailovich, Vasa. Landmarks in Serbian Culture and History.
Library of Serbian Cutlure, Accessed on September 27, 2003, at http://www.rastko.org.yu/index.html.
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
It is the last thing Mama carries out of the apartment when the family moves, symbolizing the family's failure to thrive in their neighborhood. Both the plant and the Younger family are expected to blossom in their new surroundings.
alter Jr. wants to use the money to buy a liquor store with his friends. He believes that owning a business will give the family the financial freedom that will make a better life possible for all of them. alter's sister, Beneatha, attends college and dreams of being a doctor. She very much wants the money to attend medical school. In a way, her dream distances her from her brother and the rest of the family. She is better educated than they are and her dream, if fulfilled, would take her much farther than a new home or a family business ever could. She is eager to forge her own identity…
"A Raisin in the Sun." Wikipedia. 1 May 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.
Ardolino, Frank. 'Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun.' Explicator. 63.3 (2005): 181-183. Online. 5
Gordon, Michelle. "Somewhat Like War": The Aesthetics of Segregation, Black Liberation, and 'A Raisin in the Sun.'" African-American Review 42.1 (2008): 121-133.
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…
Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm
New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO
The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
Those who watch the play make comments about how silly the play is and the play becomes more and more ridiculous, adding the parts of a Lion and Moonshine, played by two more rustics. In the play, the principle actors, Thisby and Pyramus kill themselves, as Romeo and Juliet did, then Pyramus rises to sing about his death, slumps into death, and then rises again to ask the audience if they would like to see an epilogue. Being refused an epilogue, the rustics leave and four fairies come in to dance and Puck chases them away with a broom before Oberon and Tytania appear with the other fairies, who claim they are off to bless lovers, as they themselves are in love.
The ending shows that purity and innocence win out, and that the ideal is the goal for all. Puck has the final say as he declares "all is…
Britten-Pears Foundation. A Midsummer Night's Dream, 2007. http://www.brittenpears.org/?page=britten/repertoire/opera/midsummer.html .
Karadar Classical Music. "Benjamin Britten's a Midsummer Night's Dream." Composer's BiographyComposer's Biography. http://www.karadar.com/Librettos/britten_dream.html.
Britten, Benjamin. A Midsummer Night's Dream (the recording). February 6, 1990 http://www.amazon.com/Midsummer-Nights-Dream-Britten-London/dp/B0000041WB .
He is perfectly well aware that he possesses 'star quality', which is the lodestar of his life. In his case, it might be defined as the ability to project, without effort, the outline of a unique personality, which had never existed before him in print or paint." (Eller, p. 1)
So to an extent, the various characterizations used to present the Bliss family may in some manner echo the various personas between which Coward could move so easily. In the Bliss children especially, we can speculate that Coward is of a mixed sentiment regarding his entrance into high society in spite of his low society birth. A spot of dialogue between Simon and Sorel underscores this sentiment. Here, Sorel asserts, "I sometimes wish we were more normal and bouncing Simon." hen Simon presses her on this proclamation, she tells, "I should like to be a fresh, open-air girl with a…
Coward, N. (1954). Hay Fever: A Play in Three Acts. Samuel French, Inc.
Eller, M. (2010). Hay Fever by Noel Coward. Central Washington University.
Kellaway, K. (2012). Hay Fever -- Review. The Guardian.
Kenrick, J. (2000). Noel Coward: Biographical Sketch. Musicals 101.com.
" Mozart used the play, about a maid, Susanna, who is to marry a valet, Figaro, as the story line of his opera. Together Figaro and Susana seek to outwit their master who is trying to seduce Susanna. A master had "first night rights" to the female servants when they married in those days.
Figaro" successfully champions the ingenuity of the lower classes and the wit of the female over the self-serving, arrogant nobility. The debate that followed the success of this opera is representative of the questions in everyone's minds during those years when the rights of the aristocracy were put into conflict with the rights of the common man and woman (Fiero 165).
Although Mozart appeared to be much more concerned with music and all of its forms, and kept his favored place in the eyes of the aristocracy because of his genius, he had his problems with…
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanist Tradition, Book 4: Faith, Reason and Power in the Early Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2002.
e all delight in Don Giovanni's 'badness,' Leporello's actions suggest. Don Giovanni does what many of us wish we could do, but dare not. The Don loves women and leaves them, without any care for social conventions. hile Leporello's decision to not engage in transgressions with women may be class-based in some instances, even the Don's higher-born counterparts do not openly defy conventional sexual wisdom to the same degree as he does. The celebratory and openly joyous nature of the "Madamina" aria is a kind of celebration of sexuality members of the audience may wish to engage in, but do not. Despite the literal word-painting of the appearance of the blondes and brunettes, there is a stark contrast between the 'mind in the gutter' literal wordings of Leporello's leering commentary with the agile beauty of Mozart's music.
Elvira is silent throughout the aria, conveying her sense of resistance and disgust.…
Fisher, Burton D., ed. Mozart's Don Giovanni (translated from Italian and including music highlight transcriptions). 2002. Opera Journeys Libretto Series. Coral Gables, Florida.
"Madamina" from Don Giovanni. Sung by Luca Pisaroni. July 2011.
Retrieved from YouTube, November 2011:
Today, Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) is best known for his instrumental, choral, and operatic compositions as well as being the co-founder of the English Opera Group and the Aldeburgh Festival (Radloff 426). Although Britten's music is likely familiar to many modern observers, his name is probably unfamiliar to most and facts about his early life even less well-known. To determine these facts and the impact of his work, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the composer, Benjamin Britten, including an in-depth analysis of one of his compositions. A summary of the research and important findings concerning Britten and his work are provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
On November 22, 1913 (St. Cecilia's Day), Edward Benjamin Britten was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk, England (Craggs 3). Benjamin was the youngest child of five sons and two daughters (Brann 2) born to Robert…
Brann, Vincent. (2003). "(Edward) Benjamin Britten -- 22 November 1913-4 December 1976."
Stanford University College of Music. [online] available: http://opera.stanford.edu/
Craggs, Stewart R. Benjamin Britten: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002.
Denis and Michael enthall used the space for productions and actor training. From 1963 -- 76 it was the temporary home of the National Theatre of Great ritain (see Royal National Theatre). riefly closed due to funding cuts, it reopened in 1983. Again threatened by lack of funds, it was purchased and preserved by a charitable trust in 1998. In 2003 Sir Elton John became the theater's president, a restoration drive was organized, and the formation a new Old Vic company was announced. Directed by the American actor Kevin Spacey, the group is intended showcase new theatrical talent (Old Vic, 2003).
During the 1920s and '30s Lilian aylis put on all of Shakespeare's plays, opera, and ballet. She and her troop did it all on a shoe string: ginger beer crates made up the scenery, and the casts were so poorly paid that Lilian often made dinner for them…
Coloson, P. (2006). Georgian Portraits. Read Books.
Lilian Baylis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from absolute astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Lilian_Baylis
Old Vic. (2003, March 16). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Everything2: http://everything2.com/title/Old%2520Vic
Thorndike, S. & . (1990). Lilian Baylis. Taylor & Francis.
Though Umberto Giordano's work has often been overshadowed by that of his rather more famous contemporary Giacomo Puccini, Giordano's Andrea Chenier offers the ideal site for one to engage in a critical examination of nineteenth century opera and the various thematic and stylistic strains popularized at the time, as well as the complications which arise from modern interpretation and performance. In particular, examining the critical history of verismo alongside the historical context of Andrea Chenier serves to demonstrate how fully a modern performance of the opera seemingly subsumes and dissolves any revolutionary character that might have been present in the original text by reproducing the story of doomed love during the French evolution in a gaudy, ahistorical performance.
Before conducting an analysis of a modern performance of Andrea Chenier, there are a few key topics one must investigate further in order to place the subsequent analysis in its…
Giger, A. (2008). Landscape and gender in italian opera: The alpine virgin from bellini to puccini. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 61(2), 431-438, 454.
Giger, A. (2007). Verismo: Origin, corruption, and redemption of an operatic term. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 60(2), 271-315, 472.
Gilman, L. (1915). Drama and music. The North American Review (1821-1940), OL. CCI., 439-
Giordano, U. (1896). Andrea chenier [Theater].
In June, 1966he first appeared in Covent Garden in another Donizetti role, Tonio in la Fille du egiment and was so skilled at the difficult range of the role the press dubbed him the "King of the High C's" (Woodstra, Brennan and Schrott, iv; (Ah Mes Amis - Live at Covet Garden 1966).
He began recording and adding to his repetoire; 1969 opposite enata Scotto in I Lombardi, the rarely performed I Caputelti e I Montecchi, and a complete L'Elisir d'Amore with his now famous friend, Sutherland. On Feburary 17, 1972, Pavarotti made a stunning breakthrough at the Metropolitan Opera in La Fille, receiving 17 curtain calls and wild raves from both the crowd and critics; as well as doting praise from Mirella Freini (emembering Pavarotti; a Mes Amis - Live at the Met 1972).
From then on, Pavarotti was in demand as a world-class tenor. He was brought into…
"Ah Mes Amis - Live at the Met 1972." 1972. You Tube. November 2010 .
"Ah Mes Amis - Live at Covet Garden 1966." June 1966. YouTube. November 2010 .
Arendt, P. "It Was All About the Voice." 7 September 2007. The Guardian. November 2010 .
Block, M. "60 Minutes Story About Singer." 15 October 2004. Television Newswriting Workship. November 2010 .