Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Myers-riggs Type Indicator (MTI) is a self-reporting inventory developed from Swiss Psychologist Carl Jung's theory of psychological types and functions by Katharine riggs and her daughter Isabel Myers. The MTI instrument has become the largest personality inventory being used by non-psychiatric individuals. It is claimed that the inventory assists in an understanding of human behavior and potential area of growth. MTI has found applications in workplace and careers, managing life styles, education, psychotherapy and general health issues.
The test results in a 4-letter type code, which describes the personality of the individual. The critic of the test doubt its accuracy and argue that its utility for evaluations such as career, employment and human behavior is meaningless as the person taking the test can respond to the evaluation to suit his purposes to get the desired results.
Human beings have always been interested in understanding their own personality and the…
1. Boukalov, A.V., Is the American statistics of types and intertype relations under the test of Myers-Briggs reliable? J. Socionics, Mentology & Personal Psychology, No. 4, 1996
2. CPP Inc., Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Interpretive Report (Sample), 2005, http://www.cpp.com
3. Freud, S., The Basic Writings of Sigmund, Amazon, 1977, ISBN: 0394604008
4. Harvey, R.J. (1996). Reliability and validity. In A.L. Hammer (Ed.), MBTI applications (pp. 5-29). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Both of these concete pesonality taits, which the MBTI instument was not designed to measue, wee moe diectly measued though the utilization of othe moe specifically and concetely designed instuments, and the values ecoded by vaious individuals on these instuments compaed with thei esponses on the MBTI instument, in ode to detemine whethe o not the instument has geate applicability and validity in detemining pesonality taits than its ceatos intended.
The esults of the study showed that thee did appea to be a high degee of convegent validity, but the authos point out that the constucts used to establish this validity ae diffeent than those suggest by the authos of the MBTI. This makes this measue of convegent validity less diectly significant fo a eview of the MBTI instument itself.
Bown, F. & Reilly, D. (2009). "The Myes-Biggs type indicato and tansfomational leadeship." Jounal of management development 28(10), pp. 916-32.…
references demonstrated on the MBTI and the SII, and predictive values for these two tests were then established. Analysis took part in a two-phase manner, however, with correlation to responses on the SII alone being established, and then the difference in correlation to the use of both instruments was measured to determine the specific predictive value of and practical assistance provided by the MBTI instrument itself.
This value was not found to be especially high; the SII alone had a predictive validity of 45.4% in this instance, and the MBTI increase this only to 48.3%. Still, this shows a high degree of convergent validity for the MBTI, which ahs been heralded as one of the instruments strengths.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a psychometric personality assessment questionnaire that measures individual preferences with regards to decision making and worldviews. The MBTI is grounded in the psychodynamic approach exemplified through Carl Jungs theoretical interpretations of personality. The following will discuss the development of the MBTI in relation to its theoretical background, as well as details associated with the psychometric tool, including its purpose, uselfulness, reliability, validity, benefits, and limitations.
The MBTI consists of four dimensions, including the EI (extroversion-introversion index), the SN (sensation-intuition index), the TF (thinking-feeling index), and JP (judging-perceiving index). The first three dimensions of the MBTI are based in the personality types developed through Jung's theory. The EI index relates to preferences of individuals to obtain information in a direct way from other people, which indicates the trait of extroversion. On the other hand, individuals may obtain information through actions such as personal reflection or reading,…
Validity of the MBTI has been less conclusively supported by research evidence (Carlson, 1989). With regard to interest validity, some of the dimensions of the MBTI have been effectively related to measures like Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and Eyesenck's Personality questionnaire (Carlson, 1989). In regards to criterion validity, research has demonstrated that the scales are somewhat discontinuous and unsystematic, but still show some predictive power (Carlson, 1989).
Carlson, J.G. (1989). Affirmative: in support of researching the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 484-6.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator results were somewhat accurate, but they did not completely describe me. The test showed warmth and cooperation, which I do have, but the test also said that I like to work with others, which is not entirely true. While I don't mind working with someone else if it is necessary, I really prefer to work by myself, since I think I often get more done on my own than I do when I work with someone else. The reason for this is that I do enjoy talking with and getting to know people, and when I work with someone else, I tend to talk to them a lot. When I do this, I don't get much done, so over the years I have realized that it is much easier for me to work by myself and leave the socializing until I am done working and have time…
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) seeks to capture an individual's personality typology in a psychometric instrument. The MBTI grew out of Jung's type theory as interpreted primarily by Isabel Briggs Myers. Such technology relies on a sophisticated and intricate analysis of the fundamental modes of various human experiences. The instrument consists of four separate dichotomies or indices (Briggs and Briggs-Myers (1983): Extroversion (E) -- Introversion (I), Sensing (S)-Intuition (I), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F), and Judgment (J)-Perception (P). Within the system, an attitude polarity of introversion vs. extroversion (EI) is present. Additionally, two psychic function polarities are present -- a polarity of rational or judgmental functions (thinking vs. feeling (TF)); and a polarity of irrational or perceptual functions (sensing vs. intuition (SN)). The last dichotomy measures the preference for Judgment or Perception (JP) in which J's having a more planned, orderly way of life and P's being more spontaneous.…
Briggs, K.C., & Briggs Myers, I. (1983). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Mental Measurements Yearbook
Humanmetrics. (2012). Jung Typology Test. Retrieved from http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp
Psychometric Success (2009). Personality tests: Even popular tests are controversial. Retrieved from http://www.psychometric-success.com/personality-tests/personality-tests-popular-tests.htm
Furthermore, people change over time as a result of experience. Thus, the MBTI may capture one's current state, but can not predict one's state in the future.
The MBTI is currently the fourth most frequently used standardized test in community-based treatment settings. The test is intended for subjects 14 years and older. Versions adapted for other countries have been developed. The test administrator must have a college degree and have completed a college course in the interpretation of psychological tests and measurement. The test may be taken in a pencil-and-paper or computer format. The original MBIT was published in 1962 by Educational Testing Services. Publication of this instrument was assumed by Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. In 1975. evisions to the MBTI include a standardization of Form F. And a new Form G. In 1975. In 1998, a major revision to Form G. was implemented as well as a new Form…
Carlson, J.G. (1985). Recent assessments of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. J Pers Assess, 49(4), 356-365.
Carlyn, M. (1977). An assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 461-473.
Harasym, P.H., Leong, E.J., Juschka, B.B., Lucier, G.E., & Lorscheider, F.L. (1995). Myers-Briggs psychological type and achievement in anatomy and physiology. Am J. Physiol, 268(6 Pt 3), S61-65.
Harvey, R.J. (1996). Reliability and validity. In a.L. Hammer (Ed.), MBTI Applications (pp. 24). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Evaluating the Myers Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, introduced in 1943 by the social scientists from which it draws its name and revised frequently thereafter, is a questionnaire-based instrument designed to provide personality profiling data on its respondents. As the discussion hereafter will demonstrate, it can be used to produce useful general personality trait outlooks or for diagnostic purposes where mental illness may be present.
Characteristics, Uses and Purposes:
At its root, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is designed to reflect the core personality dichotomies initially conjectured by Karl Jung. These denote that in four separate personality trait characteristics, the MBTI can be used to determine where a respondent will fall along a particular spectrum. Accordingly, the document by Briggs & Myers (1983) asserts the primary impetus for its design. Here, Briggs & Myers explain that "The instrument was designed to implement Jung's theory…
Briggs, K.C. & Myers, I. (1983). Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Mental Measurements Yearbook.
Carlson, J.G. (1985). Recent Assessments of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(4).
Francis, L.J.; Craig, C.L. & Robbins, M. (2007). The Relationship Between Psychological Type and the Three Major Dimensions of Personality. Current Psychology, 25(4), 257-271.
Janowsky, D.S.; Morter, S.; Hong, L. & Howe, L. (1999). Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Differences Between Bipolar Patients and Unipolar Depressed Patients. Bipolar Disorders, 2, 98-108.
The Rorschach test is comparatively less useful in the context of understanding ordinary psychological differences among individuals within the normal range of behavior, but may contribute more directly to identifying various organic psychological dysfunctions related to biochemical processes. Because of its subjective nature, (both in terms of the test itself as well as with respect to its analysis), it is not particularly well- regarded or widely used within the overall scope of behavioral psychology.
Self-help books vary in their value, depending on the qualifications of their authors (or lack thereof), their underlying premise, and the degree to which their information lends itself to practical application by readers. Those authored by credentialed experts in the field of psychology are helpful, but more so in the context of relatively minor personal issues. More serious matters and conditions attributable to organic processes are not readily addressable by self-help books, but likely require more…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Hall, C., Nordby, V. (1999) a Primer of Jungian Psychology. Ontario, CA: Mentor
But once again, these people are likely to fall into the trap of misinformation since they do not rely on calculated scientific measures.
Feeling is an indication of a person's ability to respond with empathy. These people would respond to information from the inside. Thus they like to know how it feels to be in that situation and then they respond to it. Thinking would then be in direct contrast to this since people with higher score on thinking would stay more detached from the actual situation and make a decision based on things other than their personal feelings towards it. There is no better or worse way of responding and thus both are considered equally rational.
Now let us see how a person with NF as function would behave. Such a person would be more sensitive to the environment and would like to work on gut and…
Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers (1980, 1995). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
Testing and Assessment in Counseling Practice, ed. C. Edward Watkins and Vicki L. Campbell, 2nd ed. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000)
Testing and Assessment in Counseling Practice, ed. C. Edward Watkins and Vicki L. Campbell 116
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
It is used to determine how dependable a candidate is, as well as how organized that individual is. A sample interview question that would competently assess the one's conscientiousness and emotional stability is: can you provide an outline a five-year plan for your professional and financial goals, which would include your acceptance to this position? The way that people choose to organize what it is that they are trying to achieve, and how they would go about doing so, would indicate their conscientiousness.
A good question to gauge a candidate's agreeableness is: how do you perceive the values of autonomy compare to those of teamwork? This is a trick question, because trust and collaboration is essential to both of these concepts, which candidates should reveal with their answers.
A good question to assess a candidate's level of neuroticism, which can encompass self-conscious, anxious behavior at one end and a sophisticated…
preferences: 1) Introversion-Extroversion; 2) Intuition-Sensation; 3) Thinking-Feeling; 4) Judging-Perceiving
Introversion is the quality of being focused on one's inner world. Extraversion is the quality of being more interested in what is going on outside of oneself. Introverts tend to be more analytical and thoughtful in nature, and less prone to going to parties. Extraverts prefer parties to being alone, and like talking and being around others as much as possible.
Intuition refers to gut instinct. Someone who prefers intuition usually demonstrates the tendency to rely on gut instincts or dreamy perceptions rather than on logic when making decisions. A sensation-oriented person needs hard evidence gathered from their physical senses. An intuitive will say, "I have a good feeling about this person, I will date them." A sensation-driven person will say, "I like her hair, I think I will ask her out."
All persons think and feel. However, the preference for…
Personality and Motivation
Most scholarship defines personality as some sort of combination of the emotional, behavioral and attitude patterns for an individual. Different theorists ascribe differing ways the personality is acquired, but there are a few agreed upon ways that help us define a person's personality. For instance, there tend to be five major traits that help define human personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Over time, different ways of focusing on these attributes help make up ways of describing a person (Lucas and Baird, 2004, pp. 473-85).
One way to measure personality types evolved from the work of psychologist Carl Jung. Using psychological preferences of how people perceive their universe and make decisions, Briggs and Myers developed a way to consider types of personalities based on personality preferences that focus on the manner of human values, experiences, needs and motivations. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a…
Lucas, R. And Barid, B. (2004). Extraversion and Emotional Reactivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86 (1): 473-85.
Quenk, N. (2009). Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessments. New York: Wiley.
Work and Management
The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.
This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.
This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.
For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…
Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html
Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.
I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.
However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…
The classroom with likely be culturally diverse, and students will be encouraged to bring their cultural experiences from the home into the learning environment.
My orientation towards feeling is important, because gaining an empathetic rapport with students when they experience personal and academic struggles is essential, so they do not blame themselves, or their teacher, or the subject itself. Judging in a fair manner, however, is also important to me, and I will not be so eccentric in my assignments to fail to use more standardized forms of assessment to drill students in basic skills and areas of knowledge. Students must have a sense of mastery of, for example, basic grammar, even if these principles are reinforced with fun assignments like writing a letter to their pet.
Understanding, I believe is best realized through activity and sorting out problems in open-ended assignments as well as drills. Creating challenging activities where…
I get excited about ideas I have for new products and services, and I'm motivated for them to succeed on a personal level. Of course, the income helps motivate me too! I really feel pressure to succeed so I can take good care of my family, so I think that's the extrinsic motivator for me, making sure my family is well taken care of and secure. Otherwise, it's all intrinsic for me, I love the feeling I get when I succeed at something, and it works. it's very satisfying and it makes me feel in control and in charge of my own life and destiny.
ME: I think I'm intrinsically motivated, as well. I find I do much better on assignments that interest me, (like this one), than on assignments that I don't feel any connection with. I think that's the same in many areas of my life. Outward motivation,…
As a team leade o team membe, it is vital to foste communication and undestanding within the team. Teamwok is the key to a successful poject, whethe the team consists of one supeviso and one woke, o if the team is a lage goup assigned to a paticula task. Team membes can use a vaiety of methods to bette undestand communication in the team setting, as well as finding motivation to do the best wok possible.
When developing a team, it is impotant fo the team leade to select membes that will be poductive and pleasant. The team membe selection pocess is among the most impotant duties the team leade will have to pefom as a pat of the team. The team needs to be a positive mix of people with the ight combination of skills that will make the goup successful. Accoding to the BPR Leaning Cente…
references in the MBTI system are based on four basic categories, which in theory affect the way the team member will perform tasks. The first subscale is the extroversion vs. introversion, and is a measurement of how outgoing and sociable someone is. Those who are very extroverted will likely interact openly and willingly with other group members, sharing ideas readily. Introverted team members may be more independent and less open socially. The second subscale is the intuition vs. sensing, which measures how much attention someone pays to their imagination vs. reality. Team members that are very sensing are more likely to focus on practicalities. The third subscale is thinking vs. feeling, which measures
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory
Introduction to Carl Jung
Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)
Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory
The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…
Boeree, C. George (2006) Personality Theories. Retrieved from: http://www.social-psychology.de/do/pt_jung.pdf
Briggs Myers, I. And Myers, PB (1995) (Gifts Differing Understanding Personality Type). Nicholas Brealey Publishing 1995. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yb_Vwmf1G6QC&dq=carl+jung+personality+test&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Thomason, Sally (1992) The living spirit of the crone: turning aging inside out. Theology and the Sciences. Fortress Press 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=b3lOtWoob9EC&dq=Carl+Jung+Personality+Iceberg+Theory&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Vocational Assessment Test eview: Myers Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality assessment that can help guide people to suitable vocations, but which is also useful in other scenarios. It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cooks Briggs, from a Jungian psychology perspective. Although they began working on it in the early 1940s, it was first published in 1962. It is a self-report questionnaire, which examines the individual's preferences along different components of personality. It was created for a normal population distribution and can be used for members of any demographics that can process the test, though it is probably most appropriate for late teens and beyond; perhaps ages 14 and up. The MBTI is a multiple-choice test and is written at a 7th grade reading level. It takes approximately 20-30 minutes to administer the test, but the test is not timed and…
Carlyn, M. (1977). An assessment of the Myers Briggs type indicator. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 41(5), 461-473.
Fretwell, C., Lewis, C., & Hannay, M. (2013). Myers-Briggs type indicator, A/B types, and locus of control: where do they intersect? American Journal of Management, 13(3), 57-66.
Lok, C. (2012). Career development: what's your type? Nature, 488, 545-547.
Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…
Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.
Keely, L. Strategic Choices. Dublin Group presentation materials, unpublished. 1999.
Mahler, W., & Drotter, S. The Succession Planning Handbook for the Chief Executive, Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Co. 1986.
McKinsey and Co. The War for Talent Survey, New York, NY: McKinsey and Co. publication. 1997.
Ref: Leading My Team
As you know, a new department has been formed to match our need to develop a new market segment. A team of three people has been assembled with that purpose in mind. In order to be successful, a proper leadership strategy has to be identified and implemented, one that would match different leadership approaches with each of the team member's personalities. The purpose of this memo is two-fold: (1) to analyze the personality of each of the team members, according to the approach that will be described below and (2) to propose leadership approaches that, according to theory, will match these.
In order to analyze the team members' personalities, we have used the Myers-riggs Type Indicator (MTI), proposed by Isabel Myers-riggs and Peter riggs (1995). The indicator proposes several typologies, namely extraversion vs. introversion, sensing vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling and judgment vs. perception. Depending on…
1. Robbins, Stephens; Coulter, Mary. 2012. Management. Eleventh Edition. Prentice Hall
2. Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers. 1995. Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
3. Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. 1998. MBTI Manual (A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition
milestones in my career as well as identify principle actions and advice that assisted me in moving forward in my career. People often are not aware of the difficulties that entail being a career counselor. It requires a myriad of skills of which take time to learn and master. The first major milestone I discuss is the utilization of the Myers-Briggs Test. This test not only helped me identify options for people career-wise, but also categorize them in a way that was easy to discuss and examine.
My next major milestone involved the four phases of assessment. It takes time to evaluate and understand where the client is intellectually and emotionally. By assessing things like education level, preferences, it makes it easier to understand where that person can take their career in relation to their current skills or plans for future skill development. Everything takes time to fully grasp and…
Braunstein-Bercovitz, H. & Lipshits-Braziler, Y. (2015). Career-Planning Beliefs as Predictors of Intentions to Seek Career Counseling. Journal of Career Assessment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072715616129
GOTTFREDSON, S. & GOTTFREDSON, D. (2009). THE LONG-TERM PREDICTIVE UTILITY OF THE BASE EXPECTANCY SCORE. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(4), 276-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2311.1993.tb00783.x
Zunker, V. (2015). Career counseling (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Conversely when respondents see the risk as being controllable and to an extent observable, the factor of interest would inversely correlate to the knowledge of risk axis while clustering on the controllable vs. uncontrollable risk vertical axis, settling into the region of the quadrant where motorcycles, fireworks and alcohol accidents are. Again this is an approximation yet is the strength of psychometrics overall and the use of orthogonality to enforce validity and reliability is shown in this example.
In terms of communication of risk statement, it's clear from psychometrics that the more known a risk can become with credible, third-party data that accurately portrays its true threat in conjunction with an accurate measure of how controllable a risk is or not, equitability and individuality of risk, and the risk not being globally catastrophic would minimize risks as analyzed using the psychometric paradigm as defined in Figure 1 and throughout the…
Myers-Briggs Foundation (2006) - Overview of the personality programs and the basics of their testing programs, accessed from the Internet on September 1, 2006 from location:
Slovic (1987) - Perception of Risk., Science Magazine. Volume 236. April 17, 1987.
Management of Stress and Tension
Goals-- What do you wish to complete?
The answer to attain a postgraduate degree can develop into a very long journey. For me, the contending aspects of time and financial resources constantly appeared to present problems and control the situation. In truth, it would be considerably much easier to provide every single argument present against returning to institution at this time. One can say that numerous considerable life-changing occasions experienced just recently would be cause or motive enough to put off the commencement of the Master's of Business Administration (MBA) program. Concerns associated with household loss and task modification can be made use of as proof in support of delay. Financial pressures can likewise exist yet an additional motive that the moment in time, endeavor, and cost needed for an MBA would not be a required use of resources. Nonetheless, regardless of every one of…
Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc.. (2011). What are archetypes. Retrieved from http://www.capt.org/discover-your-archetypes/about-archetypes.htm
Cohen, B. (2001, April 21). Average Salary for First Year Accountants. Retrieved from eHow Money: http://www.ehow.com/info_8271661_average-salary-firstyear-accountants.html
Curtis, J. (2009). Life change stress test. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/life-change-stress-test
Hansen, R.S. (n.d.). The Master of Business Administration: Is the MBA Worth the Time, Effort, and Cost? Retrieved from Quint Careers: http://www.quintcareers.com/MBA_degree.html
RESOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT
Management Theory and Thought: Identifying and Resolving Organizational Conflict
Understanding Individual Preferences
The modern business environment has become more complex and diverse than ever before. Globalization has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and business networks that span the globe. Employees today expected to handle workloads that push their productivity beyond that of any generation in the past. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity found in this environment often significantly increase the potential for organizational conflict. Teams are now more commonly spread out across geographic locations and often represent individuals from far different backgrounds.
There are many perspectives that can be used to try to build organizational conflict resolution capabilities in an organization and this objective can be viewed from many perspectives. For example, you can try to build conflict resolution skills in the individual,…
Brenner, M., Fairris, D., & Ruser, J. (2004). "Flexible" Work Practices and Occupational Safety and Health: Exploring the Relationship Between Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Workplace Transformation. Industrial Relations, 242-266.
Gherri, B., & Eimer, M. (2011). Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(4), 832-844.
Hunt, G., & Cusella, L. (1983). A field study of listening needs in organizations. Communication Education, 32(4), 393-401.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
Felder-Silverman model is similar to the better-known Myers Briggs model. It features four areas of personality that contribute to learning: active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global (Adultlearn.com, 2011). It reflects the idea that different people learn in different ways, based upon the personality of the individual learner. If I could attend a training program designed around one of the learning style preferences in the Felder-Silverman model, the learning style preference that I would choose would be sensory, verbal, reflective, and global. This was actually a difficult question for me to answer, because I would generally not choose to attend a training program designed around any of the learning style preferences in the Felder-Silverman model. I find that I learn the best through reading well-prepared materials, and then having access to a trainer who can provide answers to any questions I may have after reading the material. I would much prefer that…
Adultlearn.com. (2011). Learning style models. Retrieved from:
Coaching Learners. (2011). Felder-Silverman learning styles. Retrieved from:
(Consensus Decision-Making: g8-binder.emmett)
According to laboratory studies undertaken by Professors Martin Kocher and Matthias Sutter reported in the Economic Journal, it was revealed that teams definitely surpass individuals in arriving at economic decision-making. The two researchers demonstrate that the type of decision maker- an individual or a team makes a vital difference in an interactive economic environment, regardless of it being the investment and marketing strategies of companies and funds managers or the budget and monetary policy-making of governments and central banks. Small teams take efficient decisions compared to decisions taken at the individual level as they work better at processing information and better at other decision-makers choices. The mounting relevance of teams in firms, consulting and decision-making in general makes these findings very pertinent. (Teams Make Better Decisions than Individuals)
Consensus in its true sense implies fulfilling the needs of everybody. Consensus decision-making is planned to negate the responsibilities…
Bradley E, Wright; Rohrbugh, John. 1999. Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of group decision-making processes: A Competition Values Approach. Group Facilitation. Winter. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3954/is_199901/ai_n8830418Accessed on 28 may, 2005
Consensus Decision-Making. Retrieved at http://g8-binder.emmett.ca/process/consensus.html. Accessed on 28 may, 2005
Consensus decision-making. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus_decision-makingAccessed on 28 may, 2005
Huitt, W. 1992. Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Psychological Type. Vol: 24; pp: 33-44. Retrieved at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/papers/prbsmbti.html . Accessed on 27 may, 2005
The open communication and team objectives will make the COA team realize high energy, renewed commitment to the change process, and openness. In this stage, the FHA team has adopted the change, and requires leadership to sustain the drive. At this stage, an effective leadership style to maintain the drive to change is the management by objectives (Bridges & Bridges, 2009). This leadership style drives people to connect to the objectives of the change process and to the change plan. I would also motivate the team by recognizing the effort in the change process to avoid complacency.
Key Elements in the Leadership Organizational Change Process
The leadership model created in the change process was accentuated with smart-power or the model of visionary leadership. In this model, organizational and project team communication was achieved by adopting the principals of strategic control, balance of constraint and creativity, transfer of information,…
Bridges, W. & Bridges, S. (2009). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 3rd ed., Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Kondalkar, V.G. (2010). Organization Effectiveness and Change Management. PHI Learning.
Martini, P.H. (2008). Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study. Regent University, Proquest, AAT 3340923.
Nieuwenhuizen, C. & Rossouw, D. (2008). Business Management: A Contemporary Approach. Cape Town, South Africa; Juta & Co.
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
In my opinion, finding a problem in such a case study is strictly related to whether you agree with the LMX theory or not. In this sense, stimulating a certain part of your personnel may be considered efficient or less efficient, in which case there may be a problem.
However, there several issues that should be discussing when referring to the way Jim is applying the LMX theory. First of all, the permanent and main reason for which he is using the in-group personnel is that he "doesn't have to do it himself" or because he is reticent about stepping up front. This doesn't seem to me to be a leader-like attitude. Using in-group people for certain jobs should be directed towards increasing the overall efficiency rather than covering up for yourself as leader.
The second thing that should be discussed is related to compensation and…
This section has used some of the explanations presented at
We can compare the healthcare workplace to what is seen by a person when he/she looks through a kaleidoscope: since there are numerous different patterns that appear as the moments pass by. The shortage of nurses which has been publicized widely and the high turnover rates amongst the nurses are some of the unwanted patterns which have occurred. The dependence of healthcare institutions on the nurse-managers for the retention and recruitment of nurses is steadily increasing (Contino, 2004).
There are a number of routes through which the critical care nurses have become the leaders. Most of these routes don't have any educational or managerial training as a part of the process. There is a need for effective strategies for the care leaders who provide critical care in order to inspire the staff and manage the departmental operations in an effective manner to get positive results. One of the strategies…
Adams, J., Erickson, J., Jones, D., & Paulo, L. (2009). An evidence-based structure for transformative nurse executive practice, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 33(4), 280-87
Advisory Board Web site. (2004). Available at: http://www.advisory.com .
Ales, B.J. (1995). Mastering the art of delegation. Nurs Manage. August; 26: 32A, 32E.
American Organization of Nurse Executives (2005). AONE Nurse Executive Competencies. Nurse Leader, 3(1), 15-22.
Performance Management Model
Program Coordinator of Partners for a Healthy Baby
The Program Coordinator of Partners for a Healthy Baby will have the challenge of implementing a program designed to facilitate positive health, growth, and educational development of teens and their babies. The position requires a strong background in social work, adolescent development, and health-related fields. The Program Coordinator will act both as an educator and a facilitator in conjunction with the performance expectations of this role.
Practices and theories in regards to recruitment and performance evaluation
The character traits required for the Program Coordinator are strong interpersonal skills; the ability to multitask; yet also the ability to evaluate evidence-based research to be able to provide adequate scrutiny of the existing information on teenage pregnancy and to ensure the programming makes optimal use of all available data. The Coordinator will work with the Program Chief to oversee administration-related…
Department of Social Services of Wilson, NC. (2015). Retrieved from:
DSS Success in Schools receives award. (2012). Wilson County. Press Release.
Retrieved from: http://www.wilson-co.com/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=316&ARC=627
Leadership and management are often assumed to mean the same thing or are at least very similar (riggs, 2015). oth involve controlling people towards the accomplishment of agreed goals. Some sources, however, emphasize their differences. They say that a leader inspires what a manager plans for execution or implementation. A leader praises and a manager criticizes, they also say. A manager directs while a leader asks questions. ut in most cases, the attributes of one are also found or expected in the other. And either can be effective or ineffective (riggs).
ut a leader is central to an organization (Robbins, 2015). That is why he leads. He is taken by the company to inspire or motivate all organizational ranks to blend and achieve common goals as one force. Like a manager, his inspiration sets the direction and transmits this direction to everyone within the organization. It is his work to…
Briggs, M. (2015). Leadership and management. Team Technology: Myers Briggs Team
Building. Retrieved on September 4, 2015 from http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadershp/management/overview
Robbins, S. (2015). The difference between managing and leading. Entrepreneur: Entrepreneur
Media, Inc. Retrieved on September 4, 2015 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/57304
The personality of individuals, without a doubt, can have an influence on several things they partake in. One particular aspect that they can impact is the career and life decisions undertaken by an individual. In accordance to the Jung Typology Personality Test, my personality type is ESFJ, which is Extravert, Sensing, Feeling, and Judging. One of the aspects I have learned regarding my personality is that I revel in being in charge. Individuals with ESFJ as their personality type are able to perceive problems in a clear manner and thereafter delegate tasks easily. In addition, such individuals are eager to offer assistance and also expect others to reciprocate the same. This influences my career in that ESFJ personality types have a preference and tend to take part in occupations that encompasses plenty of direct interactions with other individuals, for instance clients and other members of staff. It also encompasses career…
Social Media Trends: Health Psychology
One of the most notable trends in recent years is the rise in interest in the field of popular psychology. People conduct personality tests on themselves, engage in self-diagnosis, and simplify psychological conditions (both common and uncommon) and apply them to their daily lives. The ubiquity of the Internet has made this even more accessible. Although self-help books have been best sellers for more than a hundred years, and even 19th century magazines printed personality self-quizzes, the ease of taking and scoring them online has caused an explosion of self-analysis (Bisceglio, 2017). Although some of the quizzes are clearly silly, others, like online versions of the Myers-Briggs, are also used in a serious setting as a method of analyzing prospective employees. “In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning…
The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information that students receive that make decision-making difficult: 8) inconsistent information due to unreliable sources;
9) inconsistent information due to internal conflicts, such personal identity and 10) insistent information due to external conflicts with significant others.
Once students have had a an opportunity to learn more about their personal traits in relationship to careers and the type of positions available, they want to actually have an opportunity to learn more right from the source. However, even at community schools, only two percent…
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.
Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)
Shape of riting
Upward Sloping Line
Upward Sloping Line
Firmness of Line
Lateral narrowness of m's and n's
Heavy bars on t's
Length of bars on t's
Length of bars on t's compensating
Closed as and o's
Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.
In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…
Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert
Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.
Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]
Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style
Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…
1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',
2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at, http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf
3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.
4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
Jung's instrumental role in affirming psychology as a science is downplayed by modern researchers. Yet as the author notes, much of what Jung unearthed in his research and clinical work has bled through to modern clinical psychology. The most obvious implication that Jungian psychology has become part of the mainstream social sciences is the Myers-Briggs test.
However, the concept of the archetype is Jung's. So, too, are issues like extraversion and introversion. Jung is renowned for detailed personality typing, a process that is integral to healing. Typing indicates the quest for self-awareness. Like going backwards, the process of being more aware of the self is often akin to diving into a dark pool.
We Jungian therapists might sometimes be called upon to delve into primitive landscapes ourselves, searching for cultural emblems and icons that match a client's budding self-awareness. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, which contains a plethora of useful…
Gambini, R. (1998). The challenge of backwardness. Chapter 9 in Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. p. 149-234. Routledge.
Robertson, R. (2005). Jung and the making of modern psychology. Psychological Perspectives, 48, 1.
Schwartz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and character transformation. pages 133-169
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung. pages 141-313
Teamwork is highly valued at Spectrum, and a matrix structure would exploit this advantage in a flexible and effective manner. A matrix structure also reduces costs, because it allows top talent to be shared between divisions: "because key people can be shared, the project cost is minimized" (Matrix organization, 2010, VisitAsk). The disadvantage to a matrix structure is the diffusion of responsibility. Shared authority and responsibility can reduce accountability -- although it can inspire a corresponding increase in innovation. The greater bureaucracy of a multidivisional firm, in contrast, seems less well-suited for the current market environment and the company's desire for greater flexibility in its approach.
Three examples of potential communication problems: Correctives
Matrix structures are hardly problem-free, of course. There can be confusion regarding who is in charge -- the project manager or functional manager -- regarding specific decisions. While matrix teams may make use of shared synergies, there…
Hoskisson, Robert E., Charles W. Hill, & H. Kim. (1993). The multidivisional structure:
organizational fossil or source of value? Journal of Management. Retrieved August 3,
2010 from FindArticles.co at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4256/is_n2_v19/ai_14561089/
Matrix organization and project management. (2010). VisitAsk. Retrieved August 3, 2010 at http://www.visitask.com/matrix-organization.asp
Cindy said she could see herself managing a fashion boutique, makeup studio, or retail store. This would use her flair for design, knowledge of business, and also her astute knowledge of people. Although she might need some additional education in beginning her own business, this would not be as extensive as going back to school, which Cindy feared she would have to do, to remain competitive in the working world.
Application of data to client
Cindy is a 'people person' at heart. Hopefully, this forced career change will be the proverbial blessing in disguise and allow her to explore previously hidden internal aspects of her vocational self. Although Cindy was frequently called upon to show leadership of other administrative personnel, she was often relegated to a supportive capacity at her previous place of employment. At the helm of her own business, in an occupation she loved, this would not be…
Bolles, Richard. (2009). What color is your parachute? Ten Speed Press.
Keirsey, David. (1987). Portraits of Temperament. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
Shavik, Andrea. (2002). Passing synchometric tests. How to books.
Straker, David (2008). . Changing minds: In detail. Syque Press.
" (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of:
(1) assessing the impact of six dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors -- contribution and affect -- on citizenship behavior; and (2) to test the mediating impact of the LMX on the transformational leadership behaviors-citizenship relationship." (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
It is reported that the subjects of the study were full-time employees and managers working in the educational organization in the country of Iran. This survey included 220 respondents. Data is reported as having been collected "...on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of transformational leadership behaviors, LMX, and organizational citizenship behaviors. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested through statistical analysis of the data." (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Results are stated to indicate that "...dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors are more likely to…
Asgari, Ali and Silong, Abu Daud (2008) The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 4 (2008).
Atwater, L.E., Roush, P., & Fischtal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.
Atwater, L.E., Waldman, D.A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: supervisors' cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53 (2), 275-298.
Avolio, B.J., & Howell, J.M. (1992). The impact of leadership behavior and leader-follower personality match on satisfaction and unit performance. In K.E. Clark, M.B. Clark & D.P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of Leadership (pp. 223-235). Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
Another interesting aspect of this book is that the authors present differing ideas about leadership, draw some conclusions, but allow the reader to draw their own conclusions, as well. Thus, they acknowledge there are many differing attitudes about leadership and how it functions, and that while some theories may be outmoded, they are all relevant in a discussion of modern leadership. In essence, the authors have researched numerous studies, research, and theories about leadership, and gathered them all together for the reader to assess and process. Instead of dealing with numerous reports and assessments, the authors bring them all together in one document, making serious leadership theory study much easier for the reader.
The authors do not rely on old data, however. They present the newest concepts in leadership, as well, such a "e-leadership," a development of the rapidly changing digital age, women's rise in leadership roles, and even more…
Antonakis, John, Anna T. Cianciolo, and Robert J. Sternberg. The Nature of Leadership: Reptiles, Mammals, and the Challenge of becoming a Great Leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 2004.
The first flow of influence is disarming, the process of omitting any signs of power or control on the part of the seller. Second is liking, or how rapport is established and relationships are trigger with strangers. Third is distinctiveness, which refers to the degree that the seller's approach differs from others to which the buyer has been exposed.
Williams (1998) suggests that firms who want to move from traditional transaction oriented selling to relationship building must look closely at all aspects of sales management including recruitment, training, remuneration and sales planning. Conti and Cron (1998) state that the field sales force must be particularly involved in targeting individual customers, implementing relationship-specific offerings, and evaluating relationship outcomes for relationship selling to be effective. To accomplish those objectives, they suggest a planning framework that includes criteria that are conducive to collaborative relationships. The key criteria include; 1) the customer's business philosophy…
Alessandra, Tony & Barrera, Rick. (1993). Collaborative Selling: How to Gain the Competitive Advantage in Sales. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Anderson, Rolph E. (1996). Personal selling and sales management in the new millennium. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 16 (4), 17-32.
Boorom, Michael L., Goolsby, Jerry R. & Ramsey, Rosemary P. (1998). Relational communication traits and their effect on adaptiveness and sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (1), 16-30.
Borys, Bryan & Jemison, David B. (1989). Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, 14 (2), 234- 249.
Consultation and Coaching
Coaching vs. consulting: The case of Darren
Coaching, as opposed to consulting, is action-oriented and personal in its focus. Consulting offers a wide-ranging, long-view plan designed to aid a particular organization. Consulting focuses on policies more than it does individual people. Coaching is highly specific and targeted, with the improvement of the individual as its overall goal, rather than the improvement of the organization. In fact, coaching usually transcends the organization, and may direct the subject to find a job elsewhere, based upon the employee's needs and the coach's judgment.
This is why coaching is such a valuable and appropriate approach to take with Darren. Darren states that he is seeking fulfillment, something he is not currently getting in his career in landscape architecture. Unlike consulting, which focuses on deficits in standard operating procedures, Darren is not fundamentally dissatisfied with the way his company operates. He has…
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…
Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.unl.edu/buros/bimm/html/index01.html
Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf
Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.
gifted middle school students and the efficacy of the instruction provided by their teachers is entitled A synthesis of research on psychological types of gifted adolescents, which was written by Ugur Sak. One of the particular benefits of this article was the many recommendations directly related to instruction of gifted students which was offered based upon the findings of the studies conducted, which were synthesized results of 14 studies that had been coded with 19 different samples. In total, there were 5,723 gifted participants in middle and high school that were evaluated for personality types and inherent proclivities inherent within them based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. One of the potential gaps in this type of population sample can be attributed to the fact that since the studies were synthesized and came from published articles, books technical reports and unpublished dissertations, there may have been unforeseen variables in their results…
Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Moon, T., Tomlinson, C., Callahan, C. (2005). The feasibility of high-end learning in a diverse middle school. National Research Center of the Gifted and Talented. Retrieve from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm05210/rm05210.pdf
Callahan, C., Tomlinson, C., Hunsaker, S., Bland, L., Moon, T. (1995). Instruments and evaluation designs used in gifted programs. National Research Center of the Gifted And Talented. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm95132/rm95132.pdf
Callahan, C., Hunsaker, S., Adams, C., Moore, S., Bland, L. (1995). Instruments used in the identification of gifted and talented students. National Research Center of the Gifted and Talented. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm95130/rm95130.pdf
Sak, U. (2004). A synthesis of research on psychological types of gifted adolescents. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education 15 (2) 70-79. Retrieved from http://www.sengifted.org/articles_social/Sak_SynthesisOfResearchOnPsychologicalTypes.shtml
Students are required to position their own personal set of values, opinions and convictions in view of the theories and topics justifying them rationally and using a philosophical approach and language taken
Developing Emotional Intelligence (EQ) to build a more effective sales team
Being a salesperson is a demanding job. It demands verbal acuity, a quick grasp of facts and figures, but above all emotional intelligence. The architect of the theory of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Daniel Goleman, defined the five basic components of the attribute of EI as follows: emotional self-knowledge, emotional self-governance, the ability to independently motivate one's self, the ability to regulate one's own emotions, "recognizing and understanding other people's emotions," and the ability to manage the emotions of others in an effective manner to reach personal goals (Chapman 2009). Enhancing the emotional intelligence skills and competencies of a group of ten sales associates working in a wireless…
Chapman, Alan. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Business Balls. Retrieved October 26, 2010 at http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm
Goleman, Daniel. (2000). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.