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Hentoff the Novel The Adventures
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31136238
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I agree with Nat Hentoff that the book "Huck Finn" should be read in all public schools across the nation. Whether or not we want to admit it, racism did, and always will, exist within our society. It is only through discussing that racism at a young age, and by confronting the ideas of racism that we can teach children how to accept all colors and creeds.

A also agree that the portrayal of Jim in "Huck Finn" is that of a positive one. While there is no question of the racist world he is living in, Huck doesn't see those issues, and accepts Jim for who he is. That in and of its self is enough of a reason to teach the novel, in my opinion. Children of all ages need to learn to accept others, and the positive portrayal of Jim is a positive experience for all who…


Hentoff, Nat. "NAACP wants Huck Finn Expelled." International Herald Tribune 27 November, 1999: A23.

Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois
Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94179686
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Du Bois

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was a pioneer of sociology and a forerunner to civil rights activists later in the 20th century. DuBois used sociology as a tool or lens for viewing structural problems in the society, especially racism and racial inequality. W.E.B. DuBois earned his degree from Harvard University and after that established one of the first sociological research centers in the United States, called the Atlanta Sociological laboratory.

One of the issues that DeBois explored was the phenomenon of "double consciousness." Double consciousness refers to the fact that whites assume they are the normative person, and so have a singular consciousness as an American. Black people, on the other hand, refer to themselves (and are referred to) as African-Americans. The difference is powerful when viewed from a sociological perspective, and can explain a lot about the identity that black people develop in opposition to white dominant…

What Led Me to Choose My College Major and Community Contributions
Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10090371
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college major was picked and what career that will lead to. In the second part of the essay describe your most significant contributions to your community.

Evaluating my career decision and how my current activities affect my community.

Selecting the right career will have an impact on your entire life. Sometimes, learning how to volunteer in your own community can provide you with the skills necessary to help you be successful in a future career.

Explain what led to your interest in your particular major and what career you ultimately wish to pursue think that it is important to chose a college major based on your own likes and dislikes and also to consider what industries are doing well in the economy. My college major is twofold: music production and business. I think it's important to have a background in business for any career that I may have chosen. My…

History of Multi-Cultural America Different Mirror A
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38747750
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History of Multi-Cultural America

Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki

What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.

But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…

6) Why do you think the author named this chapter, "Through a Glass Darkly"? One can see that the tumultuous times following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor were "dark" times in more ways than one. First, the fear and loathing generated against Japan by the sneak attack on Hawaii was nearly universal and immediate among the American population. And secondly, it is a dark time indeed in American history when pure paranoia is the motivation for "interring" (e.g., placing in concentration camps) tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans. Even so-called responsible media members such as the LA Times (380) behaved with racist spite; "A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched," the Times editorialized. "So a Japanese-American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."

7) To what was the NAACP responding when they said, "A Jim Crow army cannot fight for a free world"? Discuss the effect of the 1941 Executive Order 8802 on the U.S. labor force. The NAACP statement was responding to the fact that a) many blacks felt that they didn't really enjoy all the fruits of democracy in American anyway, so why would they shed their blood to "save democracy" from the Nazis; and b) while fighting for the U.S. In WWII blacks were in general assigned to segregated units because, according to the War Department, "social relationships" between blacks and whites had "been established...through custom and habit." Racial segregation is very much akin to Jim Crow laws from the South's history. When FDR instituted Executive Order #8802, it in effect allowed over a million blacks to take jobs in the defense industry during the war. But more than that, it set in motion the movement of many blacks from the South to better paying jobs in the industrial north.

8) List three (3) things you learned from your cross-cultural presentation and one (1) you learned from someone else's cross-cultural presentation.

Too White Too Black
Words: 1104 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71507033
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ace in early television programming [...] black women and the roles they played in early television. Two female characters illustrate the great differences in how blacks have been portrayed on television. In "Beulah," the lead character was a bossy, unattractive black woman stereotypical of the ideas of black females in the 1950s. By 1968, ideas had changed, but the character "Julia" was the opposite of Beulah, and she did not seem black at all, but more like a white black woman active in a white society that accepted her because she was almost one of them. These stereotypical characters represent what was acceptable to a mostly white audience, and indicate the distance between reality and television personas.

Beulah" had been a successful radio program before in debuted on television in 1950. It was the first show with a female African-American as the lead character. Beulah was a maid in a…


Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "Beulah." The Museum of Broadcast Communications. 2004. 17 May 2004. 

Caldwell, John Thornton. Bstyle, Crisis, and Authority in American Television. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Giovanni, Nikki. Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources. Ed. Jessie Carney Smith. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Jeter, James Phillip, et al. International Afro Mass Media: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Missouri Ex Rel Gaines v
Words: 2797 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48083427
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However, Justice Vinson went further, adding his historical comments to Gaines by saying that the Fourteenth Amendment rights were "personal' which meant that "it is no answer... To say that the courts may also be induced to deny white persons rights of ownership and occupancy on the grounds of race or color."

In Missouri, the state where Gaines had sought to attend law school, his case was significant in that the undergraduate college he attended, Lincoln, seized the opportunity to use the Missouri law and grant money set aside to educate black graduate students, to create a black law school in St. Louis. Less than a year after the Gaines decision had been handed down by the Supreme Court, some thirty students enrolled in the St. Louis law school that had been created for black law students as a result of the Gaines case.

In the years that followed the…

Works Cited 

Abrams, Kathryn. "The Legal Subject in Exile." Duke Law Journal 51, no. 1 (2001): 27+. Database online. Available from Questia,

Arc of Justice
Words: 2037 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19087976
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black history, the emphasis is on the events leading up to the Civil War or the advances made during the 1960s. Arc of Justice instead covers race relations in the 1920s through the experiences and court trial of Ossian Sweet, a black physician charged with murder for protecting himself, wife and child from a Detroit mob that was terrorizing their home. The event led to the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Legal Defense Fund and nationwide action on residential segregation. The history contained in the book is interesting, but more so are the portrayals of the people involved. The author, Kevin Boyle, shows all sides of individuals as Sweet as well as defense attorney Clarence Darrow, NAACP assistant secretary Walter White, and the prosecutor obert Toms.

Sweet became the tragic hero of an incident that he would have done anything to evade. He was…

Reference Cited

Goodman, Bonnie. "Interview with Kevin Boyle, Winner of the National Book Award."

History News Network. January 24, 2005. 14, November 2005 hl=en

Race Discrimination and Education Racism and Discrimination
Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9094694
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ace, Discrimination and Education

acism and discrimination have been long-lasting impediments to equality of education in the United States. It was only in the mid-20th century that African and Native Americans won legal access to equal education. Much of America's early history of racism still lingers within the educational system. Today, poverty and poor literacy skills often plague African-American and Hispanic students, and Native American groups continue to pressure the government for self-determination and equality in educational attainment. Groups like the NAACP continue to work to see racism and discrimination in education eliminated in the United States, and significant progress has been made over the last decades, although racism continues to be a problem in American schools.

The history of racism and discrimination in the United States is almost as long as that of America itself. The fledgling nation of the United States reserved education largely for its white, male,…


American Indian Education Foundation. History of Indian Education in the U.S. 02 May 2004.

Corley, Mary Ann. Poverty, Racism and Literacy. ERIC Digest, Publication Date: 2003-00-00. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 02 May 2004. 

Francisco, Richard P. 2001. Racism: the real enemy that will destroy the United States. Black Issues in Higher Education, Oct 11, 2001. 02 May 2004. Available at 

McLean Donaldson, Karen B. 1987. Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.

Era Through the Great Depression_ the Economy
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63188824
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era through the great depression_

The economy of the United States was faced with fair share of challenges towards the close of the 19th century that had to be mitigated lets they got out of control. Other than the economic woes, there were also widespread social injustices. There was eminent war between capital and labor. Progressive era was realized in the very last years of the 19th century up to 1917 (Sage, 2010). The progressive era was a dawn of new ideas and progressive reforms. Some of its advantages are enjoyed to date. Some of the major events that characterized the progressive era were the birth of the American oil industry in 1901 and the initiation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.

The first American oil was prospected in Texas' Spindletop and this set precedent for evolution of the nation's oil sector. The Texan…

References Bridgen, K. (2012). The war on women: Women's right to vote. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

Commercial Laws. (2012). What is the Hepburn Act 1906? Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

Grossman, J. (1973). The origin of the U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from .

NAACP. (2012). National Association for the Advancement of Colored

People Victories. Retrieved from  

Du Bois vs John Lennon Sociology
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18244924
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Q1. Research the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois and discuss his contributions to society.

W. E. B. Du Bois, the author of The Souls of Black Folk, was one of the most notable African-American activists of the early 20th century. In this seminal work, Du Bois outlined what he called the double consciousness of African-Americans, “the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (Du Bois 5). Black people were simultaneously excluded from mainstream American society yet also forced to understand it, given that they were rendered into a state of economic dependence on whites, thanks to the legacy of slavery Du Bois also made a claim for African-American culture to be the most American of all cultures, given that it was a unique hybridization of African and European ideas, religion, music, and life.

Du Bois, who received his doctorate from Harvard University and taught sociology…

Shirley Sherrod Was the Director
Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6615151
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In a context in which the majority of the media sources were blaming Shirley Sherrod of racism and bigotry, some journalists showed signs of professionalism and documented the entire situation. One such example is constituted by Matt McLaughlin who sought the tape with the entire video and gave it context. McLaughlin revealed that after the initial delegation of the white farmer to a white lawyer, the latter party failed to help the farmer. The help needed came from Sherrod who learnt the lesson that help was needed not only by the blacks, but by all poor people, regardless of race.

"The farmer called me and said the lawyer wasn't doing anything. And that's when I spent time there in my office calling everybody I could think so to try to see -- help me find the lawyer who would handle this. […] Well, working with him made me see that…


Breitbart, a., 2010, Video proof: the NAACP awards racism-2010, Big Government,  last accessed on February 9, 2011

McLaughlin, M., 2010, Full video vindicates Sherrod, destroys Breitbart's accusations of racism, Media Matters,  last accessed on February 9, 2011

Saletan, W., 2010, the lynching of Shirley Sherrod, Slate,  last accessed on February 9, 2011

2010, Video shows USDA official saying she didn't give 'full force' of help to white farmer, Fox News,  / last accessed on February 9, 2011

Constraints of Blacks Discussion the Geographic Spaces
Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86897351
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Constraints of Blacks

Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.

Reconstruction Period

Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.

This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…

Late Twentieth Century through the Present

Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.

While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.

Partnership Pitfalls in Nonprofit Organizations
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89570258
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Case Study: Avoiding Partnership Pitfalls
On its official website, La Piana Consulting identifies its core mission as improving leadership and management practices within the nonprofit sector so that nonprofits can change the world. As noted in the Andreasen & Kotler (2007), La Piana is motivated by his belief that nonprofits function best when they are run like for-profit organizations. Strategic planning, business planning, corporate restructuring, change management, and governance are all examples of services La Piana’s firm provides to nonprofits that have been, until now, traditionally associated with for-profit entities.
Some of La Piana’s client firms include Habitat for Humanity, which it enabled to engage in organization-wide restructuring to the NAACP, which La Piana assisted in enabling the organization to refine its vision and mission statement, centered around the core tenants of “Economic Sustainability, Education, Health, Public Safety and Criminal Justice, and Voting Rights and Political Representation” (“NAACP,” 2018, par.1).…

Harlem During 1920-1960 the United
Words: 8300 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50358846
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This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,

On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."

In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…


African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: ,(accessed 16 September 2007)

Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1

Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website.,(accessed 16 September 2007)

Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.

Brown v Board of Education
Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87332662
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Brown vs. Board of Education

A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.

Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…

Works Cited

Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. 1954. Appeal from the United States

District Court for the District of Kansas [online]. Washington, DC: The National


for Public Policy Research; available from

Brown v Board of Education
Words: 3294 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67838020
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Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.

The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…

Works Cited

Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)

Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)

Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus

Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998. . Accessed November, 2002.

Changes in Culture and Society
Words: 302 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82244064
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Culture and Society

One of the most well-known formal organizations of prior generations is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). It was founded in 1909 with the purpose of improving the quality of life for African-Americans and promoting social justice.

Ever since its beginnings, the NAACP has protested and battled against violence, segregation, and discrimination against African-Americans. The NAACP has grown stronger since it was first founded. Today, it is one of the nation's chief civil rights organizations and continues to be an affective presence in promoting the rights of people of color. The current generation continues to benefit from the rewards of their century long struggle, such as affirmative action laws. Future generations will also continue to benefit from the persistence of generations past.

The personal and social development of people of color would not be the same today without groups such as these.…


Economic development" 2003. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. February 11, 2003. .

What is LCLAA?" 2003. Labor Council for Latin American Advancement. February 11, 2003. .

Reparations Are Americans of African Decent Entitled
Words: 2317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94564139
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Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods? Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U.S. government. (Conyers 2003) This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur. It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist.

Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In 1989, Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H.R. 40 titled, "Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act."…

Works Cited

Brian Kuzma Black Month Should Be History 2/14/2002  Accessed April 19, 2003

Conyers John  Accessed April 19, 2003

Damu Jean web site article

Engerman Stanley Inikori Joseph, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Duke University Press, 1992

GM Case on Job Bias
Words: 2899 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39308154
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GM 1983 Discrimination suit

G.M. And acial Discrimination

The civil rights movement in the United States began slowly. Changing centuries of discriminatory practices across an entire country was not a task that was without opposition, and ignorance on the part of the average citizen. However, when that ignorance was institutionalized within businesses, the wheels of justice needed a significant push in order to begin to afford black American access to the same opportunities which Caucasian-Americans enjoyed. Toward this end, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission actively sought out target candidates which would have the largest impact on moving the civil rights agenda forward.

In 1973, a suit filed against the worlds largest automaker, General Motors, the EEOC alleged that the corporation actively discriminated against black, Hispanic and women workers. At the time of the suit's filing, the company had 6.4% of its journeymen (skilled labor) positions filled by minority workers. Under…


Agence France Presse. Minority workers sue General Motors for 7.4 billion dollars


Brunner, Borgna. Civil Rights. 2003. Info 2 Dec 2003. .

Civil Rights: an overview. Legal Information institute. 2003. Cornell University. 2 Dec. 2003. .

Three Most Significant People Since 1865
Words: 2704 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48066797
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people in American history. Specifically it will discuss the three most significant people in American History since 1865: George Washington Carver, Shirley Chisholm, and Thurgood Marshall, and tell why they are significant and how they affected the course of U.S. history. Each of these three individuals was extremely important to American history. Black, driven, and significant, they helped change the course of education and agriculture, politics, and criminal justice, and they live on today as heroes of the Black community. They show that anyone can make a difference in American society, and that hard work and dedication really do pay off, for individuals, and for society.

Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was born on November 30, 1924, in Brooklyn, New York. Her mother and father were both Caribbean, and moved to New York a few years before Chisholm was born. She was the oldest of three daughters. Her mother, uby,…


Haskins, James. Distinguished African-American Political and Governmental Leaders. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Kessler, James H., et al. Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1996.

1946 Heman Sweatt an Intelligent
Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89338851
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Ferguson required that the decision of the lower court be affirmed. The Court agreed with Mr. Sweatt. While the University of Texas School of Law "may properly be considered one of the nation's ranking law schools," Justice Vinson wrote for the Court, such could not be said for either version of the law school for African-American students (d. At 633). "n terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior, " noted the Court (d. At 633-634). Moreover, Justice Vinson continued, in no way could the new institution compare with the University of Texas School of law in terms of more intangible measures, either (d. At 634).

Although the decision in Sweatt was a vitally important step in the creation of justice…

It was amid this turmoil that the U.S. Supreme Court then issued its decision in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), or, as the case is colloquially known, Brown II. Faced with the problems and impediments to integration created by Senator Byrd's "massive resistance" campaign in Virginia, the Court made it the responsibility of the U.S. District Courts to implement school desegregation and ordered that they do so "with all deliberate speed." (Id. At 234).

Few today can argue the correctness of the Court's decision in Brown v. Board, or the case that came before it, and upon which it so heavily relied, Sweatt v. Painter. Few cases exist, moreover, that were of greater importance, and so directly affected the lives of so many.

Ultimately, the State did open the Texas State University for Negroes in Houston with "a faculty of five full-time professors; a student body of 23; a library of some 16,500 volumes serviced by a full-time staff; a practice court and legal aid association" (Id. At 633). This law school, at Texas Southern University, is today named the Thurgood Marshall School of Law.

Singular Events Can Have Profound
Words: 2179 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 961984
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Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.

It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.

The 1990s: The First Gulf War

The decade opened with a literal bang when…



About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at

Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at 


African-Americans & Hispanic-Americans Are Currently
Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50200951
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As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.

Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.

It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.

Institutional Networks

Institutional networks continue to play…


Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: 

Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site:

Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December

1, 2007 from African-American World web site:

Brown v Board of Education
Words: 1959 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46321383
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When Brown vs. Board of Education came to the courts the judges ruled that the school law allowing "separate but equal educations" was unconstitutional which set the stage for the later examination of special education students being "separate but equal" in the district's treatment of their education.

I agree with the decision that was handed down and believe that one justice decision summed up the facts when it comes to any student, including racially divided or special educationally divided or gender divided students when he said:

Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken…


Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07) 

Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)

Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement by Barbara Ransby
Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 82718590
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Ella Baker

Barbara Ransby has written a thoughtful, analytical and very readable account about the uniquely important political life of American civil rights activist Ella Josephine Baker. The work is incredibly significant because Baker is one of those handful of people to whom very much is owed by very many. Beyond the documentation of a critical era in American history, the book is a seminal investigation of the history of the African-American freedom and civil rights movement in America. This is not to mention that Ransby has added immeasurably to the understanding of black women's history as well. In the age of the teleprompter and prepackaged news, original thinkers like Baker are a rarity and their stories need to be treasured like gold. She is proof that even little people can have an impact for good. Truly, her activism provides a template for anyone who wants to have an impact…

Works Cited

Ransby, B. (2005). Ella baker and the black freedom movement: A radical democratic vision . Chapel

Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
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Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the United States Supreme Court upheld racial segregation of passengers in railroad coaches as required by Louisiana law. Three years later the Supreme Court was asked to review its first school case dealing with equal treatment of school children. In Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899) the court found that the temporary cessation of services for minority high-school children did not violate equal protection even though services continued at the high-school for Caucasian children. The Court reasoned that the closing of the school was based on economic considerations, and was not found to represent bad faith or an abuse of discretion. The court concluded that although all must share the burdens and receive the benefits of taxation, school finance was a matter belonging to the states and federal interference without a clear and unmistakable disregard for…

Works Cited

"Brown v. Board of Education." Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation. 2011. 14 June 2011. <>

"Brown v. Board of Education - 1954,1955." United States Courts. The History of Brown v. Board of Education. 2011. 14 June 2011.

Cambron- McCabe, Nelda H., Martha M. McCarthy, and Stephen B. Thomas. Public School Law: Teacher's and Student's Rights. 5th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc., 2004.

Meador, Derrick. "Brown v. Board of Education Summary." Teaching. New York Times Company. (2011). 16 June 2011.

Reducing Recidivism Through Counseling
Words: 864 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21321838
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Criminal Justice

The author of this report has been asked to offer a series of answers to a questions. These questions. The questions center on the construction and testing of a theory. In the case of these questions and this report, these questions would center on the idea of testing the theory that some short-term counseling of young offenders will counteract the notion that some of these young offenders are prone to have and that would be that their incorporation into the prison and legal system is a rite of passage and "no big deal." To test this theory, there will be definitions of the theory itself, the hypotheses that will be tested via experimentation and study, how that study would be carried out, how the hypothesis would be tested and the limitations that would exist as part of the study. While testing the above material would not be an…


CCSF. (2015). The Scientific Method. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from 

NAACP. (2015). Criminal Justice Fact Sheet. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet

NIJ. (2015). Recidivism -- National Institute of Justice. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from

James Meredith James Meredith's Role
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Mississippi is fortunate in having men at its leadership who have vowed to prevent integration of our schools. The very sovereignty of our state is threatened'."

Most whites in the state opposed Meredith's admission, and the Governor of the state vowed not to allow Meredith to enter the school, or segregate other schools. A reporter notes, "The following day Barnett spoke on the air, saying, 'No schools will be integrated while I am your governor.' Calling Meredith's admission 'Our greatest crisis since the War Between the States,' Barnett said that the federal government was 'employing naked and arbitrary power'."

In fact, even after the courts assured Meredith he could enroll; Governor Barnett met him on the steps of the school and denied him admission. Meredith did finally attend the University for a year, and graduated in 1963 with a law degree.

Of course, his year at Ole Miss was not…


Editors. 2007. About James Meredith. Jackson, MI: Online. Available from Internet, ttp:/ / accessed 16 April 2007.

Fisk, Candace D., and Beth Hurst. "James Meredith at Ole Miss: 'Victory over Discrimination'." Social Education 68, no. 6 (2004): 418+.

Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Mazama, Ama. "Paul Hendrickson. Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy." African-American Review 37, no. 4 (2003): 662+.

American Civil Liberties Union
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American Civil Liberties Union

(Friend or Foe)

America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…


1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.

Reconstruction Were Disappointing in That
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This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).

Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…

Works Cited

DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from .

The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from

Brown v Board of Education
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Brown v. Board of Education

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning that soon afterward white and black students would attend public schools side by side, with no administrative restrictions remaining on black students. The title of the Brown court case was Oliver L. Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas), which was filed in federal district court in Kansas on Feb. 28, 1951, by Charles Bledsoe/NAACP of Topeka (Clark, Chein and Cook 497).

The number of plaintiffs affected by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling were 13 parents on behalf of 20 children. In summary, a black male, Oliver Brown, sued a Kansas school board on behalf of his daughter Linda who was in third grade, on the basis of racial discrimination in her schooling. Mr. Brown was…

Works Cited

Clark, K.B., I. Chein, and S.W. Cook. "The Effects of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation: A (September 1952) Social Science Statement in the Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Case." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 495-501.

Fine, M. "The Power of the Brown V. Board of Education Decision: Theorizing Threats to Sustainability." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 502-10.

Hogan, T.D. "Evaluating the Demographic Impact of Societal Events through Intervention Analysis: The Brown Vs. Board of Education Decision." Demography 21.4 (1984): 673-82.

Pettigrew, T.F. "Justice Deferred a Half Century after Brown V. Board of Education." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 521-9.

Hispanics to Study Law One
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However, the law did engender social change; fifty years after the Brown decision, there is no system of legal segregation in America.

While changing the law through the use of the court system by challenging laws that violate the Constitutional guarantees of equality is an effective means of social change, it is insufficient to provide the broad scale social change needed to protect the rights of Hispanics in America. One of the problems facing Hispanics is the fact that English, while not declared an official language, is used in a way that excludes Hispanics from participating in many facets of American life, including the American legal system. The use of English-only is not discrimination and does not violate the letter or the spirit of the Constitution. Therefore, it is only by having Hispanics involved in the legislative process that such disparity can be corrected. The fact is that legislators, while…

Early American History
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Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…

Works Cited

Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.

Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.

Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.

Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.

Modern Criminal Justice
Words: 5887 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10050857
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Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.

Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…


Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.

Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.

Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001

History and Fate of the Civil Rights Movement
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Freedom and Equality in the 20th century


Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies

The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).

The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…


AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/

Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership

Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from 

Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from

Why America Is Not the Greatest
Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25685671
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While every American wants to believe that America is the greatest country, the reality is that in order to be the greatest, a country has to work hard at it. That means having the best systems, and constantly working to improve the country in all aspects. There are some things that America does better than any other country, to be sure. But using many objective measures, it is clear that there are ways in which America stands to improve its performance. Indeed, looking at this issues is a critical component of keeping America on top. A country that buys into the rhetoric that it is the greatest will start to believe its own hype. That country will start to think that it will always be the greatest, just by showing up. But nations all over the world are working hard to make themselves better, and as a result many…


Berlow, A. & Witkin, G. (2013). Gun lobby's money and power still holds sway over Congress. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved May 31, 2015 from 

CIEB (2015). Top performing countries. Center on International Education Benchmarking. Retrieved May 31, 2015 from 

Goldman, D. & McGlynn, E. (2005). U.S. Health Care: Facts about cost, access and quality. Rand Corporation. Retrieved May 31, 2015 from 

Mehta, S. (2014). Global 500-2014. Fortune. Retrieved May 31, 2015 from

Review of Wellness Program
Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58146305
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1968 Olympics Black Power Salute

Black Power Salute (Dominis, 1968)

Photograph Description and Context

The picture is a black and white photo that was taken at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. Two Olympics sprinters stood atop the podium wearing the gold and bronze medals. Their names are Tommie Smith and John Carlos. They are shown holding their first in the air as an expression of solidarity with the Black Power movement. It is argued that they are expressing their disillusionment with a nation that so often fell behind, and still does, relative to racial equality (Dominis, 1968).

The two individuals received significant negative reaction to their expression. For example, they were suspended from the U.S. Track team. They were vilified at home and they even later received death threats for their public display. Yet, the picture has become one of the iconic photographs from this period that deals with…


Dominis, J. (1968). John Dominis Collection. Retrieved from Photographers Gallery:

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.

Martin Luther King Jr
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Martin Luther King Jr.: The End of a Dream

ev Michael King together with his partner, Alberta, gave their firstborn son the name Michael. He later changed his name and his son's to Martin Luther. This was to honor the great 16th century reformer[footnoteef:1]. Just like his namesake, he, Martin Luther, Sr., dedicated his lifetime to rectifying wrongs. As a preacher of Ebenezer Baptist, the ev pressed the church members to fight Jim Crow rulings - local rulings. These laws denied fair treatment to the African-Americans. The rulings violated human rights guaranteed to every U.S. citizen under the U.S. Constitution[footnoteef:2]. ev Luther did not just preach about human rights. He demonstrated his words with action. In January of the year 1935[footnoteef:3], he organized a demonstration against the separation of elevators in the local district courthouse. After eight months, the ev ran an initiative to register the African-Americans as electorates. In…


Bruyneel, Kevin. "The King's Body: The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial and the Politics of Collective Memory." History & Memory 26, no. 1 (Summer2014 2014): 75-108.

Burrow, Rufus, Jr. "The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.: To Save the Soul of America, January 1961-August 1962." The Western Journal Of Black Studies no. 3 (2015): 256.

Carson, Clayborne. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Grand Central Publishing, 2001.

Frady, Marshall. Martin Luther King, Jr. : A Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.

Martin Luther King's Contribution to
Words: 1598 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62678338
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Martin Luther King's contribution to the Civil Rights movement in America was certainly significant. He was more than just a figurehead with tremendous oratory skills. As an advocate of non-violent protest he helped formulate, and implement, one of the most important strategies of the Civil Rights era. However, his most important contribution to the Movement was his ability to connect with a majority of Americans. His message concerning injustice and equality swept away divisions based on class or color because he reminded the nation that its very foundations were based on such ideals. Without King's message it is unlikely that history of the Civil Rights Movement would even be recognisable. Consequently, King's contribution to the Civil Rights Movement in America was undoubtable extremely significant.


ryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "lack Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss." The Journal of lacks in Higher Education (53): 60 --…


Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 60 -- 71.

Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny a. Russell. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press, 1992.

De Leon, David (1994). Leaders from the 1960s: a biographical sourcebook of American activism. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994.

King, Martin Luther Jnr. "Letter From Birmingham Jail," 17 March 2010

Ida Wells-Barnett and Sociology Ida
Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54556854
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The simplification of issues will often cloud the challenges and prevent comprehensive understanding of problems.

The third contribution relates to the role of gender and power on a wider scale. Wells-Barnett was able to elucidate an elusive relationship. Power is prepared to evoke gender to accomplish its purposes. Thus, within gendered conflict the overarching power structure is more concerned about maintaining and survival than addressing concerns. Both men and women become pawns in that power structure and gender becomes subservient to the wider cause of control.

The work of Wells-Barnett provided impetus to several issues. Her tenacity and determination meant that she was virtually unstoppable once she was convicted of a cause. With the use of sharp logic and purposeful argumentation, she addressed the concerns of her era. Thus, her propitious contribution to the modern feminist movement is deniable. Women both black and white owe a debt of gratitude to…


Carby, H.V. (1985). "On the Threshold of Woman's Era": Lynching, empire, and sexuality in black feminist theory. Critical Inquiry 12(1) 262-277.

Guy-Sheftall, B. (1992). Black women's studies: The interface of women's studies and black studies. Phylon 49(1) 33-41.

Perloff, R.M. (2000). The press and lynchings of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies,

30(3) 315-330.

Women Authors and the Harlem
Words: 4238 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4923057
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Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).

Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…


Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in: 

Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About

Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.

Progress of African-Americans Historical Progress
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e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.

The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)

The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…


Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley

Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.

Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia

Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.

W E B Du Bois W E B Dubois
Words: 1100 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7270303
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It was in 1919, when Dubois represented the NAACP at the Paris Peace Conference that he decided on organizing a Pan-African conference, aimed at bringing Africa and Africa's problems to the knowledge of the entire world. Although the conference eventually was not organized, mainly because Dubois failed to coagulate sufficient participants and other African- American organizations, it reflected Dubois Pan-Africanism and the idea of double conscious.

Indeed, Dubois promoted and sustained the idea that, in order for lacks to be free anywhere, they should be free everywhere. At that point, after the end of the First World War, there were only two free countries in Africa: Liberia and Ethiopia, the rest being European colonies. Dubois wanted to tie the Negro emancipation and civil rights campaigns in the United States with a more global idea of universal civil rights and lack emancipation on the African continent as well.

The conference was…


1. Hynes, Gerald. A Biographical Sketch of W.E.B. DuBois. On the Internet at retrieved on December 16, 2007 retrieved on December 16, 2007

Last retrieved on December 16, 2007

Hynes, Gerald. A Biographical Sketch of W.E.B. DuBois. On the Internet at retrieved on December 16, 2007

Pioneer Social Workers Pioneers in
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Whitney M. Young Jr. was born in 1921 in Lincoln idge Kentucky and lived until 1971. Young is most notably remembered as a black American civil rights leader and administrator of social work, and was considered one of the most influential civil rights leaders in America during the 1960s. His career as a race relations expert began when Young served as a go-between for white officers and African-American enlisted men in a segregated U.S. Army company in Europe during World War II. Young obtained a Master of Arts degree in social work from the University of Minnesota, after which he worked for the Urban League and later became executive secretary at one of the organization's branches. He was named Dean of Atlanta university's School of Social Work when he was only 33, and later became executive director of the National Urban League. In this director position, Young secured training and…


No Author Given (2001). Jane Addams biography. Women in History, retrieved 6/18/2007 from Lakewood Public Library,

No Author Given (2004). Roger Cummings biography. National Association of Social Workers Foundation, retieved 6/18/2007 at

No Author Given (2007). Whitney M. Young Jr. biography. National Association of Social Workers, retrieved 6/18/2007 at .

No Author Given (2006). Whitney Moore Young Jr. biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography, retrieved 6/18/2007 at

Social Times and the Culture
Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5402298
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They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at .

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.


United States Military's Efforts to
Words: 2355 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61315156
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Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization.

Anti-female bias in the military

The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted. This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military.

Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in 1949, it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children. This was not changed until the 1970's.…


Borlik, A. (1998, June). DOD Marks 50th Year of Military Women's Integration

Retrieved January 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Defense website: 

Blumenson, M. (1972). Eisenhower

American History Changes That Have Occurred in
Words: 2934 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44982136
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American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.

After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…


Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.

Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.

Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site:  

Crisis at Central High the
Words: 2470 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57024844
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Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.

In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…

6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.

7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17

8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)

American Orwellian Tyranny Although the Apocalyptic Vision
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American Orwellian Tyranny

Although the apocalyptic vision of the future that Orwell presented in 1984 has not yet occurred, some of the most chilling concepts he described are gradually becoming doctrinal pillars of law in the United States. An analysis of contemporary society reveals that an Orwellian manipulation of language is causing a dramatic shift in the way people think and is exerting tyrannical control over the common American. This control is being brought about by newly formed standards of speech backed by governmental regulation and which commands that government approved behavior be displayed. These events parallel the control that Orwell's "Big Brother" (1) exerted on the populace in 1984 but which is commonly referred to today as political correctness.

Three of the most potent ideas discussed in Orwell's 1984 are "doublethink" (3), the destruction of actual events (17) and "thoughtcrime" (8). These ideas work collaboratively to bring about the…

Works Cited

Arnold, Catherine "Minority Report." Marketing News 15 Nov. 2004: 38

"Makeup test: More history, less P.C." Newsweek 15 Apr. 1996: 127

Wright, Ellen "U.S. Senate Passes Hate Crimes Act." Lesbian News Aug. 2004: 30

Abraham, Delphine "Changing Websters Dictionary." Essence Mar. 1998: 28

International Strategic Management in the
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The following Table labeled Table 1.0 shows the Direct Competition Comparison in the industry sector of Marriott International, Inc.

Table 1

Marriott International is known for being creative and especially so in relation to the IT dollar. In a report entitled "The Keys to Marriott's Success" stated is that "Marriott and its IT department have documents and system, policies and procedures and even history and philosophy to guide their decisions frees them to focus on real resourcefulness creatively combined with the commitment to wring the most value from every IT dollar." (International Data Group)

The Courtyard by Marriott was found to be the "Champion in Best Practice" which is evidence in the Intranet System which replaced manuals and printed materials. Siguaw, et al. (2004) The Courtyard by Marriott also recently claimed the award as the Corporate-level Overall Best-practice Champion in the mid-scale segment. The Cornell Hotel School along with the…


1. Deng, Ni (2004) Can Service Recovery Help When Service Failures Occur? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 2004 Aug 01 [Online] Highbeam Research

2. For Global Hoteliers MICROS-Fidelio Financials is the answer; MFF Provides an Integrated, IRFS Complaint Solution (2003) M2 Presswire 2003 Dec 9 [Online] Highbeam Research

3. Wyndham and NYU Release Completel Women Business Traveler Study Online; Profile of Today's Woman Business Traveler Determined (2000) PR Newswire Dallas 2000 June 6 [Online] Highbeam Research

4. Campbell, Steven. E. Dr. (2000) Prosperity Bodes Well for the Hospitality Industry in the New Millennium The Black Collegian 2000 Feb 1 [Online] Highbeam Research

Race in Your Community My
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Not everyone is fond of Italian-Americans. Many believe that anyone with an Italian name must in some way be connected to the Mafia, and thus are leery of personal relationships, fearing some godfather figure lurks in the shadows somewhere. And I have seen Asians be the target of several types of discrimination, from hiring practices to business patronage. There has always been discrimination against African-Americans in some form or another. Today, it is the general belief of many that all African-American youth belong gangs, which is much like the idea that all Italian-Americans are Mafia.

Stereo-typing is common. In fact it could be considered normal, since everyone, no matter the color of their skin or ethnic background, is guilty of it. Each group sees the other as different, the same in many respects, but different nonetheless. My great-grandmother may indeed be rolling in her grave over the fact that my…

Works Cited

City Council: Yonkers, New York. Retrieve July 23, 2005 at 

Yonkers New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at,_New_York 

Yonkers1 New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at

Ida B Wells a Biography
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With men off to fight and die, women in America took to the workforce to both support their men and Uncle Sam's war effort.

Because women could now be seen as part of the war, no part of society was safe from war. The idea of total war began to emerge: this was the concept that civilians could be attacked like any other soldiery in the war. In a way, the disasters of world war were simply the expression on a macro level of what was happening in the U.S. On a micro level. Ida B. Wells helped illustrate the senseless violence occurring in the U.S. against Negroes when she wrote "Lynch Law" in 1893 at just 31 years of age. "Lynch Law" described the violent prejudice being visited on Southern blacks. As she writes, the Negro as a person has been "murdered by masked mobs for trying to vote,"…

Reference List

Fridan, D. (2000). Ida B. Wells: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement. NY: Houghton


Friedman, L.J., McGarvie, M.D. (2003). Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Giddings, P.J. (2008). Ida: A Sword Among Lions. NY: HarperCollins.

Racial Democracy Struggles for Racial Democracy in
Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 38099952
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acial Democracy

Struggles for racial democracy in Sunflower County in the 1980 substantially differed in many aspects from freedom struggles that were there in the 1950's and 1960's. Civil rights movements in the 1980 were not a monolithic entity. Tensions that were witnessed at the national level were not prominent at the local level. The civil rights movements' activities in the sunflower county illuminated problems unique to one area. Sunflower County was inhabited by isolated, dependent, unskilled, unneeded, and unwanted people a clear indication that the black freedom movement involved issues of class as well as those of race. Struggle for racial democracy in the Sunflower County in 1980 was the struggle to liberate the less privileged that made up about 70% of Sunflower County (Moye, 2004).

Unlike the 1960's Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that targeted Sunflower County as a civil rights activism because of Eastland's political prominence, the…

References List

Moye, J.D. (2004). Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1985. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina


Oates, S.B. (1994). Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper


Second Reconstructions One of the Most Dramatic
Words: 6309 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52783284
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Second Reconstructions

One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?

Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…


Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.

Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.

Club Amazon com Finding the Book of
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Club /

Finding the Book of the Month Club at the URL given for this assignment was not possible. For some reason, accessing, leads to something called Indeed, appears to be attempting to sell the site visitor the URL to Book of the Month Club - "Domains for sale," yells the header. Is this some kind of Internet skullduggery? However, by going to Yahoo! And searching for Book of the Month Club, one discovers that the URL is meantime, as to which company ( or has the better site and marketing mix - it seems very clear that is far out in front in the sheer volume of offerings for the Web consumer. If shoppers just want books or movies, then is an easy site to navigate. But when looking for clothing, electronics, toys, software, and the kitchen sink, is the…

Academic Profile of Home Schoolers a Case Study
Words: 16937 Length: 62 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 56680433
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Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study

Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods

Home Schooling Methodology

Focus of the Practicum


Area of Inquiry

Subject/Topic Areas

Home Schooling as an Alternative

Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling

The Success of Home Schooling

Evaluation Design

Conditions for Change



Legislative Information:

Maryland: A Legal Analysis

State Laws and Regulations - Maryland

Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County

Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"

Home Schoolers in the Trenches"

Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"

Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.


The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers

Case Study

The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.

Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…


Monticello, IL.

Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.

Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT

Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.

Black Women at Work 1900-1970
Words: 1662 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97279105
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Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century

Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.

African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…


Benjamin, Lois H. "Black Women in the Academy: Promises and Perils." University Press of Florida: 1997

Coquery-Vidrovitch, C., Raps, B. "African Woman: A Modern History." Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

Fassinger, Ruth E., Johnson, J., Linn, Sonja, Prosser, J., Richie, B., Robinson, S. "Persistence, Connection, and Passion: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving African-American Black and White Women." Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 44, 1997

High Beam Research, LLC. "History." {Online}. Available: /ipa/A0878427/html

Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal
Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452
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Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…


Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved 

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: 

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:

Understanding the African American Civil Rights Movement
Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74474002
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Coming of Age in Mississippi" by Anne Moody

In her article "Coming of Age in Mississippi," dating from 1968, Anne Moody tells the story of her participation in a blood shed sit-in demonstration at Woolworth's lunch counter. She was a student at Toogalo College in Jackson Mississippi, member of the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The Association, under the leadership of John Salter, Moody's social science professor, undertook a boycott in public stores as one of the numerous forms of manifestation within the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. The story begins with three young African-American students were peacefully asking for the right to be served at the same lunch counter where the whites were sitting.

With a lack of sentimentality and with deliberate detachment, Moody succeeds to present a realistic picture of the heaviest segregated place on earth in the sixties, Jackson, Mississippi. Moody, along…