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Napoleon Defense in Defense of
Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37207653
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(Higonnet, 1) Quite to the reality of our future, that which he has produced in the defense of the rights of man will not be retracted. Nor will be his association to these accomplishments. Therefore, both to protect ourselves from the righteous indignation of a public who will not bear to see the disgracing of its champion and to serve with justice rather than with arbitrary defensiveness the legacy of Napoleon Bonaparte, this statement is to implore your judgeship to disregard St. Helena as a suitable place to exile any human being so much as one whose may be regarded as having so gracefully served those in his public.

orks Cited:

Higonnet, P. (1983). France Under Napoleon. The Journal of Modern History, 55(3).

Rank, J. (2007). The Napoleonic Code. Law Library: American Law and Legal Information. Online at

Works Cited:

Higonnet, P. (1983). France Under Napoleon. The Journal of Modern History, 55(3).

Rank, J. (2007). The Napoleonic Code. Law Library: American Law and Legal Information. Online at  

Napoleon's Influence on Lee Robert
Words: 5078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41605524
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" (p. 164) the army of Charles was defeated in this battle however, it was not destroyed. The total loss of life in this campaign for each side of the battle was astronomical.


The work of Lieutenant Colonel Herman L. Gilster entitled: "Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory" published in the Air University Review (1972) states in the attle of Chancellorsville, in Virginia in May 1863 involved a battle between the Union Army of the Potomac, headed by Major General Joseph L. Hooker and the Army of Northern Virginia, led by General Robert E. Lee. Specifically stated is:

During the campaign, Lee, with a force approximately half the size of Hooker's, repulsed the North's advance into Virginia and achieved a strategic victory that has been studied by students of military art throughout the world. However, today's critics of the quantitative-oriented decision tools being used by our military services…


Alexander, Bevin (2007) How the South Could Have Won the Civil War. Online available at:

Bell, Jason (2006) Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg - and why it failed" Army Lawyer 1 Aug 2006. Online available at 

C.H. Lanza, ed., Napo/eon and Modern War. His Mi/itary Maxims (Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1949), Maxim 77. In Ross (1985)

Carhart, Tom (2005) Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg and Why it Failed.

Napoleon and the Transformation of
Words: 808 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27912374
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Even with the fact that it was part of the Grand Empire, there were little interactions between Portugal and the French.

The Illyrian provinces were even more disadvantaged because of their connection to France. This area had little to win out of the fact that it had become part of the Grand Empire. However, the taxation system imposed by the French was unbearable. Napoleon's influence in certain countries was not directly proportional with the reputation he had in these respective countries. In spite of the fact that Poland was not necessarily advantaged because of its connection to the French leader, it stood by his side until his last days. One could say that Napoleon awakened a spirit of nationalism in Polish people.

Napoleon is responsible for the fact that the feudal system slowly but surely started to lose authority across Europe. His reforms came in disagreement with the policies supported…

Works cited:

1. Grab, Alexander, Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

2. Popkin, Jeremy D. A History of Modern France, Third Edition. Pearson, 2006.

Grab, Alexander, Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, IX.

Napoleon by the Late Eighteenth
Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72109172
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The Enlightenment ideals that Napoleon clung to also underwrote many of the despot's policies including the liberation of the Jews from the ghettos. Napoleon established the Civil Code that obliterated feudal law while welcoming social equity. The Civil Code was part proof that Napoleon did subscribe to some of the core ideals upon which the Revolution was built.

Although Napoleon's government was strong, centralized, and bureaucratic, it was nevertheless a civil government at first. Napoleon helped stimulate the French infrastructure with programs of modernization that the monarchy before him had never feigned interest in at all. A national banking system, roads, canals, and bridges all become symbols of Napoleon's earnest desire to help the French people.

Napoleon held strong to the idea that France required strong centralized leadership: just not the traditionally monarchic kind. His government would nevertheless become tyrannical and undemocratic. Napoleon's military campaigns bolstered his power and popularity…

Works Cited

Holmberg, Tom. "Napoleon and the French Revolution." Retrieved April 5, 2009 from

PBS. Napoleon: Politics in Napoleon's Time. Retrieved April 5, 2009 from

Napoleon Was Sent to French Military Schools
Words: 492 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18200317
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Napoleon was sent to French military schools at Brienne and Paris. He received his commission in the artillery in 1785. After the outbreak of the French Revolution, he attempted to join the Corsican patriots led by Pasquale Paoli, but his family was thought to be pro-French. A political event was to reopen his career overnight. In Oct. 1795, a royalist Parisian rebellion attacked the Convention, and Paul Barras convinced the Convention to place Bonaparte in command of the troops. Napoleon dispersed the mob with what he called "a whiff of grapeshot" -- which killed about 100 insurgents. He was given command of the army of the interior. After drawing up a plan for an Italian campaign, he was, made commander in chief of the army of Italy with Barras's help.

He left for Italy in March 1796. Assuming command of an ill-supplied army, he succeeded within a short time in…

Great Britain had never succumbed, and the Continental System proved difficult to enforce. Napoleon's first signs of weakness appeared early in the Peninsular War (1808 -- 14). The victory of 1809 over Austria had been costly, and the victory of Archduke Charles at Aspern (May, 1809) showed that the emperor was not indomitable. Forces were gathering everywhere to cast off the Napoleonic yoke.

Napoleon's decision to invade Russia marked the turning point of his career. His alliance with Czar Alexander I, dating from the treaties of Tilsit and extended at the Congress of Erfurt (1808), was tenuous. When the czar rejected the Continental System, which was ruinous to Russia's economy, Napoleon gathered the largest army Europe had ever seen.

In December, Napoleon left his army, returning to Paris to bolster French forces. Of his allies, Prussia was the first to desert; a Prussian truce with the czar (Dec. 30) was followed by an alliance in Feb. 1813. Great Britain and Sweden joined the coalition, followed (Aug., 1813) by Austria, and the "War of Liberation" began. At the Battle of the Nations (Oct. 16 -- 19), Napoleon was forced to retreat.

Western Enlightenment
Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99502114
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Napoleon Bonaparte

Interpretive Analysis: A Day in the Life of a Great Leader

Baron Claude-Francois De Meneval in his work on Napoleon remembers the French leaders as seemingly "immortal," someone who was vigorous and struck down "by a terrible storm" and someone that was worthy of remembrance in many ways (p. Ix). De Meneval describes a day in the life of Napoleon shortly after a return from a trip to Egypt, where Bonaparte had been interested in spreading his influence. The author describes Napoleon as "gentlemanly" and suggest that he was an individual set on task and of clear mind, explaining to his colleagues among other things the plausible motives he might use to satisfy "the desire of the population" (De Meneval, 1894:9).

Further Napoleon is described as someone whose presence that particular day inspired warm enthusiasm from the population at large in part a testament to his "zeal and…


Claude-Francois De Meneval, B."Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from

1802 to 1815 vol. 1" New York: D. Appleton & Co: 1894

Geyl, P.M. & Renier, O.M. "Napoleon: For and against." New Haven: Yale University

Press: 1949

Western Civilization 1350-1815
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82479707
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Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte are the most important personalities of French history; their political achievements impressed people of all generations who admitted the fact that unified strong and highly developed modern France is the main result of their activities. Both Louis XIV and Napoleon were politicians of a new type and had very progressive political views which helped them strengthen their country and defeat political opponents. Period of French history since 1643 till 1812 is full of great changes in social, economical, political and cultural aspects of French life and the outcome of this process was unified French nation, strong state ruled by able bureaucracy and French cultural predominance for many centuries.

To begin with we have to remember, that French nation didn't have strong and unified state before Louis XIV: French kings tried fighting for dominant position in the political system but failed as they were directed in…

Battle of Waterloo
Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53791650
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Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon last days as an Emperor. The paper briefly touches upon the war strategies of both sides and explains why Bonaparte encountered a crushing defeat at Waterloo.


Battle of Waterloo fought in Brussels marked the end of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte's illustrious military career. The Battle of Waterloo was fought on a very small area with relatively smaller armies and less military equipment, yet it occupies an extremely important place in history because of its impact and the number of deaths that occurred on this battlefield. Napoleon may have been severely disliked by other European powers, but the man enjoyed a great position of power in his own country and was seen as a true liberator of sorts. While his career was marked with frequent battles that began with French evolution in late 1790s and war with European nations in 1803, he…


BBC-UK-, Battle of Waterloo:

Eva March Tappan, ed., The World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song and Art, 14 Vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914)

Waterloo, Battle of," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2002

Romantic Art and 18th Century
Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58643885
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The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.

The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…

American Expansion American Territorial Expansion The Louisiana
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48885937
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American Expansion

American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase

American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.

The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…

Work Cited

1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

Frank O'Connor's Guests of the Nation
Words: 1815 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53076152
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Guests of the Nation

Frank O'Connor's writing frequently deals with the issues of everyday violence which people have to engage in, whether they want to or not. Some people commit crimes because they believe that they have no choice. Other people kill in the name of religion. One of the most universally acceptable reasons for widespread acts of murder is nationalism. Two political factions, if not more, fight against one another in order that their perspective becomes accepted by the other population. For soldiers, particularly those who are members of the lower infantry ranks, they are given orders which must be carried out. If a soldier is told to kill, then he must continue killing until he is given an order to stop. It is a fact that soldiers are ordered to kill other human beings for reasons which may not be clear to them, which they may not even…

Works Cited

Korner, S. (2008). Frank O'Connor's 'Guests of the Nation.' 21st Century Socialism.

O'Brien, E. (2007). Guests of a nation; geists of a nation. New Hibernia Review. 11(3). 114-30.

O'Connor, F. (1987). Guests of the nation. Poolbeg Press: Dublin, Ireland.

Renner, S. (1990). The theme of hidden powers: fate vs. human responsibility. Studies in Short

Lynn Hunt's Book The French
Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 4090890
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This document highlighted that human rights need to be universal in order for society to be healthy. The document influenced French people in general to get involved in the revolution and to express interest in reform.

5. Calvinists and Jews were persecuted groups up until the revolution and they thus played an active role in devising the human rights agenda. "On December 21, 1789, a deputy raised the question of the status of non-Catholics under the new regime; his intervention started a long debate that quickly expanded to cover Jews, actors, and executioners, all of them excluded from various rights before 1789" (Hunt 84).

6. The idea of slavery was questioned even before the French Revolution started, as there were numerous influential individuals who denounced the institution of slavery. The French National Assembly actually held individuals who believed that black people should have rights and that slavery needed to be…

Works cited:

Avery Hunt, Lynn, "The french revolution and human rights: a brief documentary history," (Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996)

What if History Was Different
Words: 2215 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17531573
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attle of Waterloo was the concluding and pivotal action of the Napoleonic Wars that successfully put an end to the French control of the European landmass and brought about extreme changes in the political frontiers and control of Europe. Taken place on June 18, 1814, near Waterloo, which is now known as elgium, the battle levels as a huge turning point in present history.[footnoteRef:1] It is clear that the attle of Waterloo is distinguished for the reason that it is in this battle, that one of the world's utmost war stars, Napoleon onarparte, suffered a humbling loss and the end of his livelihood at the hands of a comparatively unfamiliar ritish general. Assuming Napoleon won his war against the Russians and English and maintained his triumph, and was able to pass his regime on to latter administrations which could have held the wins, here are some likely ways the world…


And if Napoleon had won the Battle of Waterloo? May 7, 2014.  (accessed September 19, 2015).

Cornwell, Bernard. Waterloo: The History of Four Days, Three Armies, and Three Battles. New York: Harper, 2015.

Leggiere, Michael V. Napoleon and the Struggle for Germany: The Franco-Prussian War of 1813 (Cambridge Military Histories) (Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Muir, Roy. Wellington: Waterloo and the Fortunes of Peace 1814-1852. Yale: Yale University Press, 2015.

Naval History France Only Had Britain as
Words: 1795 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83359345
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Naval History

France only had Britain as its enemy between 1803 and 1805. Napoleon Bonaparte, the famous French leader and politician, after conquering Italy and Egypt had its eyes on England territory for occupation. His Grand Armee sat idly around Boulogne in the hundreds of anchored ships in the channel ports. Napoleon's naval strategies to crush the British oyal Army using his French and Spanish fleets failed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (Dugdale-Pointon January 07, 2006). [1: Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)."]

The Naval Strategies of Britain and France (1803-1805)

Both France and Britain derived towards war due to a mutual misunderstanding. Both the countries were not fully prepared to conduct a renewed war against each other. There were no geo-strategic reasons that compelled the two opponents to declare a war against each other. Britain wanted to rebel against France simply because they could no more…

References" An Admirable Hero; His Radical Tactics Paved the Way for Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar. Now the Navy Is Paying Tribute to the Scot Who Saved Britain."The Daily Mail (London, England), October 11, 2010, 15. , T., and P. Craig. Naval Historical Society of Australia, "Trafalgar - the Men, the Battle, the Storm." Last modified 2005. Accessed December 7, 2011., T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." Last modified January 07, 2006. Accessed December 7, 2011. Fisher, Herbert. 1913. Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt and Company. , "HISTORY OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS." Accessed December 7, 2011. .Rodger, N. BBC, "Trafalgar: The Long-Term Impact." Last modified February 17, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2011. .Stilwell, A. The Trafalgar Companion. West way, Borley: Osprey Publishing, 2005., Battle Of. 2009. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press.  (accessed December 7, 2011).]

The Ripple Effects of American
Words: 4742 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 5699076
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In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…

Works Cited
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at

Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at

Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge

Josephine A Life of the
Words: 2755 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87643121
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She did not have a lover or a husband who loved her, and she spent much of her time as Empress being treated badly by her husband. In fact, she lived an unhappy adult life for many years, and her story is sad and a bit depressing. She never regained the happiness and gay abandon of her youth, and at a time when she should have been enjoying her power and position, she really only wanted to escape the palace and spend time with her children and grandchildren. She is not a pathetic figure, but she is certainly sad, and that shows in the haunted look in some of the portraits the author chose to include in the book. She ended up living alone, unhappy, and in poor health, after Napoleon divorced her for a younger woman who could give him royal blood and an heir to the throne, which…

Bibliography is rather limited, and it seems as though more original source docs, directly from the Bonapartes themselves, might have been helpful. Perhaps those documents no longer exist, although the author does quote some of their letters to each other and others. She admits that many of these documents are lost (which certainly is not her fault), but it would have been more conclusive if the author included more research documents, even if they were secondary sources, to help back up her primary sources and give the reader more of a sense of the character's real words and actions. It is too bad that Josephine did not keep a journal, for that would have fleshed out many areas where the author seemed to have filled in gaps in information, which led to the conjecture mentioned above.

This book is a good history of one of the most well-known women of all time. Josephine enjoyed many years of happiness, but underneath her Empress facade, there was great sadness and it seems a great deal of bitterness. I would recommend this book to anyone interested in women's or French history, and I would keep it on my bookshelf if I was deeply interested in those topics. I believe the author's research could have been better, but the book still paints a very believable portrait of this troubled woman. It is well written and engaging, and it seems that even people who are not as interested in history, but enjoy a good story, would enjoy this work. Josephine's life seems as if it would make an engaging film, because there are so many twists and turns to it.

In conclusion, this story of Empress Josephine's life is extremely satisfying and a bit disappointing at the same time. The richly detailed characters and settings make the reader feel as if they are right there, experiencing everything Josephine experienced during her life. The reader can almost feel the jubilant highs and disappointing lows that followed Josephine throughout her life. However, the author's tendency to add romantic or imagined details to fill out areas where she could find no concrete research is a bit disturbing. It calls into question the authenticity of the entire book, and makes the reader constantly question of what they are reading is true or conjecture. It is a well-written book, but this lack of concrete facts is its major downfall, and a disappointment to this reader.


Erickson, Carolly. Josephine: A Life of the Empress. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Byman Daniel L And Kenneth M Pollack
Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37851514
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Byman, Daniel L. And Kenneth M. Pollack. (2001). "Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In." International Security. Vol. 25, No. 4. 107-146.

This article works to sow that historically, individuals have made a difference in politics, conflicts, and society. It starts out by making the argument that individuals have indeed affected the outcome of international relations. More specifically, the field of political science does not often acknowledge this, and gives more credit to specific theorists and governments for changing the history of politics and international relations. The article also makes the case that states or governing bodies of states do not always make decisions or act based upon the common principles of international relations as we understand and learn about them today. This is to say that their behavior is often times what a political scientist would refer to as "irrational" and non-conforming to the ideals…

Antonio Canova Was an Italian Sculptor From
Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17446066
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Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from Venice who lived from 1757 to 1822. He primarily worked in marble and believed that he could use that medium to render an artistic view of human flesh. He is most famous as someone who rejected the excesses and filigree of the Baroque to return to classical style, making him one of the foremost artists of the neoclassical style. For a number of years, Canova's work was considered to be the greatest example of European sculpture -- to the point that in 1802, Canova was invited to Paris to carve marble portraits of the emperor Napoleon and family. Most art critics find that the combination of returning to mythology and discreet eroticism that flowed out of the enaissance and into the modern era, without all the unnecessary frills of the Baroque, to be his greatest contribution to art.


Canova was born in…

References, "Introduction to Neoclassicism." Last modified April 2000. Accessed December 27, 2013. .

Bindman, David. Warm Flesh, Cold Marble. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.

Durant, Will & Aiel. The Age of Napoleon: The Story of Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.

Friedel, E. A Cultural History of the Modern Age. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1999.

Truth About War and Peace
Words: 1882 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75422020
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Life's Subjections: Changes To The ays Of Life Found In Tolstoy's ar And Peace

ar and Peace is a truly epic novel in that details a number of important themes as well as major events in the lives of its characters. In this respect it actually uncovers some of the most major events that are bound to take place throughout a person's life -- birth, death, marriage, divorce, war and peace. hat makes this particular novel so compelling is the fact that it largely depicts these life altering events through the fates of a couple of aristocratic Russian families during the time in which the usurper Napoleon Bonaparte is wreaking havoc on the European continent in the early part of the 19th century. As such, there is a certain romantic quality to this tale and to the life-altering events it depicts of people who in some cases are noble personages…

Works Cited

Close, Adam. "Sancho Panza: Wise Fool." The Modern Language Review. 68(2), 344-357. Print. 1973.

Knowles, Alexander. Count Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy, The Critical Heritage. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Books. Print. 1997.

Southgate, Beverly. "Tolstoy and Ethical History: Another look at War and Peace." Rethinking History. 13(2), 235-250. 2009. Print.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Web. 1805.

Enlightened Jews When One Thinks
Words: 4390 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21306330
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ut the rabbi could also serve as the connection between a Jewish ghetto and the surrounding Christian community. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. ut the shifts in French society that occurred in the decades just preceding and following the French Revolution created cracks in the isolation of European Jews.

The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. ut the revolution was intended not simply to overthrow the Second Estate -- the nobility and royalty -- but also the First Estate -- the church and the clergy. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence. ut even more broadly, the revolution allowed people…


Alexander, Uri. The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. European Judaism 35, 2002.

Arkush, A. Moses Mendelssohn and the Enlightenment. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Berkovitz, Jay. The Shaping of Jewish Identity in Nineteenth-Century France (Paperback) Indiana: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

Brann, Ross and Adam Sutcliffe. Renewing the Past, Reconfiguring Jewish Culture: From al- Andalus to the Haskalah. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

Nation States the Formation of
Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23854205
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Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.

Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of 1789 and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1793. During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty. Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late 1796, various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in 1797, France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.

Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…

Country of Portugal
Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6820280
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Portugal 16th Century to Present


Portugal: 16th Century to Present

Portugal: 16th Century to Present

Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…


Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Portugal. Available from: . 2012 August 01.

Facts About. (2012) Portugal History and Timeline & Facts. Available from: . 2012 August 07.

HistoryWorld. (2012). History of Portugal. Available from: . 2012 August 04.

Migration Policy Institute. (2002). Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration. Available from: . 2012 August 05.

Post-Revolutionary French Art and Are Titled Nudity
Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66979381
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post-revolutionary French art, and are titled; Nudity a La Grecque in 1799 and Colonization Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa share some fundamental commonalities. The similarities that these two articles share are their methodology, formal artistic analysis and their account and implicit description of the relationship between art and social history. Both of these articles also provide historical accounts of artistic criticism of post-Revolutionary history painting. Most significantly Grisby's articles provide a view of post-Revolutionary France where art, history and politics all combine to allow readers to more fully understand cultural and social issues of great importance of the time.

Darcy Grimaldo Grisby sets out to dispel commonly held notions and opinions regarding Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa. The most significant theory he seeks to dispel is one that claims the painting is simply a government commissioned propaganda piece created to enlarge the image of the then, soon to be emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte…

Works Cited

Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.

Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization in Gros's Plague-Stricken of Jaffa." references 51 (1995): 1046-1093. Print

Reign of Terror
Words: 1832 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80790327
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eign of Terror

Criminal Justice

Historians have marked the French evolution with several interesting and unusual events. A specific time period during the French evolutio is called as "The eign of Terror." This began on September 5, 1793 and ended on July 27, 1794. This can be best explained in these words: Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 signaled the beginning of the French evolution. Within three years, the king was executed, and the following year a revolutionary tribunal was established to judge "enemies of the people" (Henty 02). During the French evolution, the Convention didn't establish a democracy; instead they established a war dictatorship. The government's radical takeover was to create a epublic and this was then called as "eign of Terror." The Committee of General Security, the Committee of Public Safety and several other agencies controlled it. One of those agencies was the evolutionary Tribunal. The…


Andress, David. The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.

Henty, George. In the Reign of Terror: A Story of French Revolution. New York: Dover Publications, 2008. Print.

Reign of Terror. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.

Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 28 May. 2012. < >.

Qualities of Leadership the Concept
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So, in some case, leadership does not necessarily link with responsibility for the men, but rather with the relationship with the persons who are led. Napoleon was able to concentrate the energies of his men in a way that served his best interests.

This links with Raymond Carver's story, in the sense that good leadership is also about good communication, about the ability of passing the appropriate message. The main theme of his story is that of communication (or lack of), namely of finding the right words to pass on to the others. The right words are fundamental, because they help connect individuals and fostering this relationship is perhaps the most important part of good leadership.

The most important point in "Cathedral," from a leadership perspective, is when the husband finds himself at a loss of words when trying to describe the cathedral to Robert. He is, throughout the story…


1. O'Brien, Tim (1990). The Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

2. Carver, Raymond (1983). Cathedral New York: Knopf

3. Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers

European Colonialism in the Middle
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Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.

Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…


Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.

Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.

Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.

Public Broadcast Service. 2008. 'Kuwait: Country Profile', retrieved March 15, 2011, from .

Marcus Garvey
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Marcus Garvey was the central figure in, perhaps, the largest African-American movement in United States history. He stood as the most outspoken proponent of the notion that Africans should return to Africa and start their own nation; this has come to be known as the "back to Africa" movement. "His phenomenal success came at a time when African-American confidence was low and unemployment was considered a way of life. Garvey harnessed these conditions to build momentum for his cause." (Carter, 2002). This state of affairs for African-Americans in the early twentieth century, coupled with Garvey's personal deliberations and philosophy brought him to the ultimate conclusion that abandoning the Americas was not only justified, but required for Africans to reach their potential in the eyes of God and the world. Following his death Amy Jacques-Garvey -- his wife -- compiled The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, which details the motivations…

Work Cited:

1. Carter, Shawn. "The Economic Philosophy of Marcus Garvey." Western Journal of Black Studies, Spring 2002. Vol. 26, Iss. 1, pg. 1-5.

2. Gale, Thomson. "Marcus Garvey: Bibliographical Essay." Thomson Corporation Company, 2005.

3. Garvey, Marcus. The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Dover: Majority Press, 1986.

Enlightenment on the French and
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.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).

The Haitian evolution:

While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…


Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. .

Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005. .

Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. .


Leadership Can Be Defined as
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As a political leader, we can refer to Napoleon Bonaparte and his actions as First Consul and Emperor of the French. The shared goal with his followers was to promote the French Revolution ideals in Europe through continental domination and, at the same time, to bring glory to the country and its army. Napoleon's soldiers, the 'followers', believed in the ideals of French supremacy and glory in Europe and fought for 20 years to achieve it, from Spain to Russia.

As a community leader, Martin Luther King is an example of how the interests of a community (in this case of a minority) could be promoted and defended through direct action. Again, the social component is very important in characterizing this leadership example, as well as the common objectives that the followers and leader strived to achieve.

As a religious leader, Mohammed is the best example of the social interaction…

French Associate Their Country With a Geometrical
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French associate their country with a geometrical shape.





Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters

North and Western Coastal Regions

Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees

Central and Eastern France

The South (also known as the Midi)

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind

North and Western Coastal Regions


Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees


Central and eastern France


The south (the Midi)

Question 4

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…

Honore De Balzac's Views on Family Honore
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Honore De alzac's Views On Family

Honore de alzac had a talent for exposing French social life, particularly in relation to families. Through Cousin ette, Father Goriat and Lost Illusions, alzac expressed his belief that modern society, with greed, corruption and temptation, threatened the basic family structure, making families into monetary units of far less importance than they had been in previous days.

In Cousin ette (alzac, 1991), the main character, Lisbeth "ette" Fischer, is a homely, middle-aged spinster who has lived her whole life in envy of her pretty cousin Adeline, who is married to aron Hector Hulot DErvy, a prestigious military and government official who does not make a lot of money and is a complete womanizer. Hector has a slew of mistresses, despite his wife's loyalty and devotion to him. Their daughter, Hortense, develops a crush on ette's "boyfriend," Wenceslas Steinbock, a young Polish sculptor, and marries…


Balzac, Honore de. (1991). La Cousine Bette. Powell's Books.

Balzac, Honore de. (1999). Pere Goriot. Econo-Class Books.

Balzac, Honore de. (2001). Lost Illusions. Modern Library.

Cartage. (2002). Balzac, Honore de. Retrieved from the Internet at

Dark Satanic Mills Human Cost of the Industrial Revolution
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Industrial Revolution

It might be argued that the Industrial Revolution throughout Europe was not a revolution in the traditional sense, insofar as it involved no violence. Anyone making this argument, however, is unaware of the existence of the Luddites. Active in England in the early nineteenth century, at the height of the industrial revolution, Luddites were English textile workers who revolted against their replacement with industrial machinery and responded by destroying that machinery. The ritish government responded by sending in the army. The labor historian Eric Hobsbawm notes that "the 12,000 troops deployed against the Luddites greatly exceeded in size the army which Wellington took" to defeat Napoleon, which may give some sense of where governmental priorities actually lay.[footnoteRef:0] The real point is that the Industrial Revolution was tremendously disruptive to the lives of ordinary workers and people, and what is remarkable in retrospect is only that there was not…


Blake, William. "Jerusalem." (accessed March 6, 2014).

Hobsbawm, Eric. "The Machine Breakers."  (accessed March 6, 2014).

MacLeod, Donald. The Stonemason: Donald MacLeod's Chronicle of Scotland's Highland Clearances. Ed. Douglas MacGowan. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2001.

Umachandran, Shalini. "Chequered History of a Textile Company." Times of India, March 12, 2010.  (accessed March 6, 2014).

General James Mattis Leadership
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General James Mattis is one of the prominent military leaders and highly successful in his 40 years of service. This paper examines how General Mattis’ utilized strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities that are comparable to those of past Maverick leaders. The analysis also demonstrates how General James Mattis adapted these strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities to work in the contemporary operating environment. As part of this analysis, a discussion of the moral and ethical compass of General James Mattis is also included. As shown in the paper, the strategies utilized by Mattis include intellectual risk-taking and people-centered approach in commanding troops whereas the styles include combative approach and strategic thinking. On the other hand, General Mattis’ behaviors include extreme aggressiveness and interaction with subordinates while his qualities include intellectualism, positive attitude, and courage.

Comparing General James Mattis to Maverick Leaders of the Past

General James Mattis is recognized as…

Alexander Volta and the First
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It was used by Michael Faraday in the 1800s in his experiments on electromagnetism. Other inventors improved on the battery's original design and these improvements produced telegraphs and doorbells. Napoleon onaparte was so impressed with the invention that he recommended honors for Volta, including making him a count in 1810 (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).

From this first and crude battery evolved electrochemistry, electromagnetism, and modern applications of electricity (CIRL, 2011; Rubin, 2011; Scratch, 2011; Corrosion Doctors, 2011). Even the defeated principles of Galvani on animal electricity served as the initiative to the development of electrophysiology and modern biology. From Volta's name came the unit of electromotive force, called volt, while from Galvani's name was coined the galvanometer, the instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).

Significance and Influence during the Industrial Revolution

It is when power is cut off that ancient means of…


CIRL. Alexander Volta Center for Integrating Research & Learning: National High

Magnetic Field Laboratory, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from 

Corrosion Doctors. Alexander Volta. Corrosion, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from

HBCI. Nature Obeys Rules, Too. Hiawatha Broadband Communications, Inc.: Hayden

Earth as the People of
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There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. hat is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.

hile Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not…

Works cited:

1. Atkins, Pope G. Wilson, Larman Curtis. The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism. University of Georgia Press, 1998.

2. Bakewell, Peter John. "A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present."

3. Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski. Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

4. Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic." Retrieved June 12, 2009, from Hispaniola Web site:

English Legal System the Law
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For example, the Parliament passed the "Year and a Day ule" Act in 1996 that changed the previous murder and manslaughter law that specified that a person could be charged with murder or manslaughter if the victim died within a year and a day of receiving his injuries. The change was made to reflect modern development in medical science, which enabled injured people to remain alive for longer periods.

Changes in the UK laws have also reflected the growing strength of the egalitarian ideal over the last two centuries. It has led to changes in laws that have encouraged the gradual emancipation of married women and the prohibition of discrimination based on race or sex. For instance, an old law applicable until recently did not allow married women to refuse sex with her husband. However, in . v (1991), the House of Lords decided that if a wife did not…


Atiyah, P.S. (1995). Law and Modern Society (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Harris, P. (2007). An Introduction to Law (7th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Martin, J (2005). The English Legal System (4th ed.). London, UK: Hodder Arnold

Lord Justice Coke described customs as "one of the main triangles of the laws of England" (Martin, 14). Others dispute this theory and contend most of the "customs" were in fact invented by the judges themselves.

History of Terrorism Historical Depictions
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There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.

Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…

Works Cited 

Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 .


Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 .

European Muslims in the Aftermath
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These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.

A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…

Reference List

Al-Rawandi, I. (2002, Spring). Islam and Armageddon: Looking Behind the Myths. Free Inquiry, 22, 36+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Benthall, J. (2004). Islam in Europe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(3), 733+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Gottlieb, S.F., Williams, K.J., Dale, L., Balch, M., Wile, F., Kupersmith, W., et al. (2005, March). Islam and Europe. Commentary, 119, 8+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Hunter, S.T. (Ed.). (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape / . Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

U S 1800-1860 During the 1800-1860
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While unable to purchase land in their original locations, Europeans and Americans alike moved to the West as this region presented them with the ability to capitalize more on their money. Additionally, the decreased cost of transportation would have also contributed to the movement of the population. Last, it is also argued that the migration was generated by technological developments. All these in essence worked together to create a more appealing image of the West and it came to a situation in which the actual exodus led other people to also move to the West.

"Population growth and technological innovation worked in concert as the main driving factors of Western Expansion. Specifically, the decrease in transportation costs induced Western migration and the redistribution of the American population -- without it only 30% of the population would have been in the West in 1900, compared to an actual historical figure of…


2008, What caused westward expansion in the United States? Science Daily,  last accessed on December 12, 2011

California Gold Rush, Learn California, last accessed on December 12, 2011

Westward expansion 1800-1860: business and economy,, / last accessed on Westward expansion, Son of the South,  last accessed on December 12, 2011

Historic Cities Online How Is
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The next category that visitors are prompted to use in this website is the 'picture gallery' that consists of about nine pictures that the visitor to Verona must see before he visits the famous city. Each picture- the pictures being that of famous and historic monuments in Verona, come with an explanation of where the monument is, and also short snippets of information on the monument. For example, under the picture of Juliet's Balcony, some information on the history of Juliet's Balcony, and also its location are given in small sentences.

This enables the visitor to the website to assimilate this important information, and judge for himself, after viewing the pictures, if he wants to visit the city or not. However, the feeling that is generated by the picture gallery is one of excitement that one would soon visit and experience these majestic monuments and be a small part of…


Barrhead Travel Company, UK. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 January, 2004

Discount Hotels, Verona. Retrieved at Accessed on 17 January, 2004

Jason's Trip. Retrieved at on 17 January, 2004

Kryssten's Verona Page. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 January, 2004

Foundation of Peace
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Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.

Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…


"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.

Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office

Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from

Clauswitz at the End of Chapter One
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At the end of Chapter One, Book One of On War, Carl von Clausewitz famously gives his "paradoxical trinity" in regard to the nature of the forces arrayed against each other in war. He tells us war is a "total phenomenon" in which there are three "dominant tendencies" that characterize the nature of warfare, and that any theory of war which neglects or ignores any of these tendencies would both "conflict with reality" and thus be "totally useless."[footnoteRef:1] These three tendencies are so intertwined that they act like "three different codes of law, deep rooted in their subject and yet variable in their relationship with one another;" that is, each of the three tendencies is variable in its operative force, and the strength of each strand dominates or is diminished in any given particular case, but nevertheless, each magnet is still intimately involved in a given war or engagement.[footnoteRef:2]…

Ethics Care Public Administration Using Stensota Articles
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ethics care" public administration? Using Stensota articles readings, describe "ethics care." After describing ethics care, give examples "ethics care" a modern employee public sector.

In my opinion, the fundamental part of Stensota's article is her argumentation, where she mentions that the concept of an "ethics of care" is centered on "human dependency" and on "relations between people." This means that the concept of ethics shifts from the obedience to norms and authority towards a more complex model in which the interest is also towards acting in the interest of the community and of society.

In public administration, as Stensota points out, the concept of ethics of care becomes relevant since public administration is, overall, determined or impacted by the relationship between the state apparatus and bureaucracy and its citizens. The more public administration is directed and managed in a way that positively impacts the population, the more one can evaluate…

However, some of these wars can also be justified with the explanations that he actually fought to carry into Europe the ideas of the French Revolution, many of which are the basis of today's society. He was just as efficient in implementing these changes as he was in his wars, which brought death and destruction. Many of the European countries today use his judicial codes and public administration today is also a reflection of his work. He was efficient both in implementing these and also in creating mechanisms that ensured they lived after his death.

As mentioned, he was also efficient in the way he managed his war machine. Entire generations of French people were wiped out. In the last campaigns, his soldiers were all 17-18 years old and many perished in the subsequent battles. Eventually, one can wonder whether his motivation was carrying the ideas of the revolution into Europe or whether, eventually, he just wanted to conquer all the countries. By 1812, he invaded Russia, after having defeated and annexed almost all the other countries in Europe.

So, the dark side to effective leadership can be the fact that it can be directed in a wrongful manner, that it can be used to do bad deeds rather than to the benefit of all people.

Military Strategies Employed by Alexander the Great
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military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.

Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…


Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68

Eighteenth Century
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Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.

Society and Culture

In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).

Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…

Works Cited

AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. 11 May 2004. 

Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004.

Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004. 

Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004.

Prior Learning US Historic Travel
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American History

Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.

In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…


Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.

Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.

Night at the Museum Battle of the
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Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian Extra Credit Scavenger Hunt

The 2009 comedy film "Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian" is set in the famed Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., but in reality many of the scenes were shot inside New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNA), where the main character Larry Daley (played by Ben Stiller) actually worked in the first film. This means that much of the artwork and architecture seen on display throughout the film can actually be observed at either the Smithsonian or the AMNA. The following list highlights several of the most interesting examples of artwork, animal skeletons, cultural artifacts and other displays shown in the film that actually exist in either of these two incredible museums.

These are paintings and sculptures that I noticed on display in the background, or in the case…

Ethics and Torture
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This resulted in many countries rejecting majority if not all of the aspects regarding torture. However, torture is still being practiced in quite a few countries although they would rather not accept it in front of their own public or on the international level. There are a number of devices that are being used in order to bridge this gap such as "need to know," country denial, using jurisdictional argument, "secret police," denying the torturous nature of the treatments, appeal to different laws, making claim regarding the "overriding need," and many more on. In the history and even today as well there are a lot of countries that have taken part in torture (unofficially), what this means is that all of these countries have stopped their efforts in trying to stop this trend of torture and have started making use of this technique again (Vreeland, 2008).

United States in one…


Levinson, Sanford (2006). Torture: A Collection. Oxford University Press, USA.

Parry, John T. (2010). Understanding Torture: Law, Violence, and Political Identity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Reddy, Peter (2005). Torture: What You Need to Know, Ginninderra Press, Canberra, Australia.

Schmid, Alex P. And Crelinsten, Ronald D. (1994). The politics of pain: torturers and their masters. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.

Comparative Justice Systems Criminal Justice
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nations, what particular historical developments may have had a major effect on their formation of criminal law and criminal justice administration?

The six model nations are China, France, England, ermany, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The criminal law and justice systems of each of the aforementioned countries are shaped by some key developments in history.

France: French criminal law is shaped by a number of historical events, the most significant being the 1789 passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen by parliament (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This declaration asserted several rights including the freedom from arbitrary detention, the right to equality, the right to liberty, the right to a presumption of innocence, and the need for power separation (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). It forms the basis of the principles that govern criminal law in France today (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The rising to power of…

Germany: the most significant event in the history of criminal law development in Germany was the unification of the criminal code across local territories locally referred to as Lander (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The unified code developed thereof (Reichsstrafgezetzbuch) forms the basis of German criminal law today. Like the French Penal Code, it distinguishes between crimes on the basis of seriousness such that felonies are punished more severely than misdemeanors (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Owing to this unification, individual territories are given the discretion to handle their own affairs in relation to lower court administration, corrections, and policing; however, all their laws and provisions must be within the confines of the provisions of the unified code.

Japan: the development of the Japanese criminal code dates back to 604 AD, when the Seventeen Maxims of Prince Shotoku were developed, and the 700s, when Codes of Yoro and Taiho were established (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The 1868 Meijji Restoration, however, marked the beginning of Japan's development of structured legal codes because it was then that the French Penal Code was adopted for use in Japanese criminal law (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This would mark a series of a couple of other adoptions -- the German Code in the late eighteenth century and certain aspects of U.S. Law at the beginning of the 19th century (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Today, the Japanese Criminal Code is merely a hybrid of the American, French, Chinese, and German (predominant) criminal law. It is made up of 3 integrated codes -- prison law, the criminal procedure code and the penal code (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Unlike other countries, however, the Japanese Penal Code does not categorize crimes on the basis of seriousness, rather, it divides them as i) crimes against society ii) crimes against individuals, and iii) crimes against the state (Dammer & Albanese, 2013).

England: originally, English law did not distinguish between civil and criminal proceedings; it was not until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 that this distinction was made (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The legal system also became more organized after the conquest in 1066, with William the Conqueror establishing the King's Court (Curia Regis) to hear and decide criminal cases. The bases upon which these cases were

Reasoning Behind the Birth of the First French Republic
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irth of the First French Republic

The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…


McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,


Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2008.

The Covenant Leadership Style
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Narcissistic leaders are part of society and take on roles that promote at times progress, at other times, chaos. This is because the narcissistic leader only cares about him or herself (Maccoby, 2012). Although such leaders may be useful in certain settings, in others, they can create long-term damage amidst subordinates and followers. Covenant leadership on the other hand generates the highest performance leaders via motivated, high-trust, and committed relationships. These leaders have a good understanding of life through successful integration of ethics and leadership, applying the private and public aspects of life into an integrated whole. The problem with covenant leadership is that it takes time to build such connections, leading to frustration and problems in the short-term. This essay hopes to examine both leadership styles and see how the narcissistic leadership style causes problems and how the covenant leadership style can offer solutions.

Narcissism has its roots in…

French Russian War
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Russian Soldier


French/Russian War

As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.

No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…

Karl Marx the Founder of Modern Socialism
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Karl Marx, the founder of modern socialism and communism and son of a lawyer was born on 5 May 1818 in Trier, and received his classical education. He studied jurisprudence at Bonn and later in Berlin, his obsession with philosophy turned him away from law. However, after spending five years in the "metropolis of intellectuals," he returned to Bonn aiming to habilitate in 1841 (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).

At the end of 1842 he took over the editorship and was received the honor of sending a censor ilhelm Saint-Paul from Berlin particularly to take care of the Rheinische Zeitung. However, this proved of no benefit since either the paper was made to undergo dual censorship, or additionally to the common procedure, every issue was subjected to a second stage of censorship by the office of Cologne's Regierungspr sident (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).

However, this…

Works Cited

The Life and Work of Karl Marx. Outstanding Dates.

Karl Marx, 1818-1883. History Guide.

Karl Marx, German social Philosopher and Revolutionary. The Windows Philosophers.

Engels Frederick. Bjorn's Guide To Philosophy - Marx. July 1868.

Arabic Literature Thrived From the 4th to
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Arabic literature thrived from the 4th to 7th century which mostly involved poetry about love, fighting and courage. ith the arrival of Islam, literature lost its value and the Quran (Noble Book of the Muslims) became the focus of all study. Arabic poetry underwent a period of decline from which it arose during the reign of the Umayyads. Many works were translated in Arabic during the reign of the Abbasids between 750-1258. In the 8th and 9th century, various subjects such as philosophy, mathematics, law, history and science were written about. During the 19th century, printing in Arabic started. The centers of Arabic printing were Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. Arab writers tried to express their opinions about themselves and their position in the modern world. Interest in modern Arabic literature arose after 1988 when the Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz won the Nobel Prize in Literature ("Arabic Literature").

During the 19th…

Works cited

Abdul Sattar, Sufiyan. Mystical Arabic Poetry: Concept and depiction of love and its significance from others.. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, n.d. E-book.

El-Enany, Rasheed. Naguib Mahfouz. London: Routledge, 1993. Print.

"Arabic literature.", 2013. Web. 11 Dec 2013. .

Al-Madhoon, Raeem. "Ghassan Kanafani: The Symbol of the Palestinian Tragedy.", 2012. Web. 11 Dec 2013. .

Monarchy Primarily Refers to a
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A journal entry from that era wrote "you do remember it: cholera was everything; it had absorbed everything, politics, uprisings, theater, intrigues" (Delacroix, ca 1832).

The effects of the July Monarchy would be far-flung and its effects would be felt for decades to come. Child labor laws were enacted, the free press was virtually legislated out of business, and there was an abundance of 'reform' including the establishment of elementary schools for boys in 1833, which was expanded to include girls in 1836.

The bourgeoisie were the main power brokers of the Monarchy and they wielded the power in an effective manner. Louis Philippe was their leader and reigned supreme ousting his predecessor Charles X who abdicated his rule during the July evolution.


Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection

Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social…


Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection

Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social identities in France, 1830-1835, Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 147-149

Ideology of Ridley Scott's Kingdom of Heaven
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Kingdom of Heaven

The great irony of Ridley Scott's 2005 film "Kingdom of Heaven" is that its central argument is calculated to seem inoffensive to contemporary audiences, but does so by being historically inaccurate. I take the central message of the film to be what Liam Neeson says approximately 22 into the film, as the ailing Crusader Godfrey of Ibelin (a somewhat fictionalized depiction of Godfrey of Bouillon) tells his son why he will be journeying from rural France to the Holy Land. The son, played by Orlando Bloom, asks his Crusader dad what the Crusader King of Jerusalem could possibly ask him to accomplish. Neeson, as the ailing Crusader, responds with the speech that gives the film its title:

"A better world than has ever been seen. A kingdom of conscience, a kingdom of heaven. There is peace between Christian and Muslim, we live together. Or, between Saladin and…