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During the attacks of 9/11, the people of the United States once more shared a unified identity, a wholesome approach. This unified approach is what many call "patriotism" (Huntington 330). Since the very start of the country, "American's have been a flag-oriented people" (Huntington, 330), meaning the country prides itself on its sense of unity an identity. It is important that people identify themselves as being American, because doing anything else would suggest the person was not patriotic. It is important ethnic, racial and "gender identities" as outlined in the Bedford eader (p.331) are acknowledged, but they must not become more important than the national identity. If they do, the United States may be at risk for internal strife. People may lose their sense of loyalty to the country, and this historically has led to civil wars and other disasters. The United States and the people living within have no…
Angelou, Maya. "On the Pulse of Morning," New York Times, January 21, 1993, p. A14.
Huntington, Samuel. "The Crisis of National Identity." in, the Brief Bedford Reader, pp.330-35, by X.J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron. 2004
Korostelina, Karina. "The Impact of National Identity on Conflict Behavior: Comparative
Analysis of Two Ethnic Minorities in Crimea." International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 45.3-4, 2003: p.213.
Modernism and National Identity in Brazil, or How to Brew a Brazilian Stew -- Styliane Philippou
This article outlines some of the efforts that the Brazilian culture has made to separate themselves from the cultures of Europe and other influences. Brazil was granted its political independence in 1822 however the countries cultural emancipation came much later. Pilippou (2005) writes:
One hundred years after Independence (1822), the second discovery of Brazil aimed to couple political independence with cultural emancipation, and demanded the invention of an authentic hybrid Brazilian tradition on the basis of which to construct an autonomous Brazilian art. The quest of modernity was parallel to an intensified quest for brasilidade, which embraced all things that had remained relatively untouched by what was viewed as an intensive nineteenth-century re-Europeanisation of Brazilian society and culture with its consequent economic and cultural dependency. During the Empire which followed Independence, economic…
Pilippou, S. (2005). Modernism and National Identity in Brazil, or How to Brew a Brazilian Stew. National Identities, 245-264.
These examples show how clothing and fashion generate and support the social construction of a particular reality in a certain historical period. The uniform of the Chinese people in the Maoist period was a factor in enforcing ideological perceptions in much the same way as the Japanese aristocracy promoted the idea of social status and class through fashion and appearance. The Maoist uniform was effective as a means of reducing class distinctions as well as other sexual and social differences, in order to enforce their essential role as workers in communist ideology.
Various examples from both Japan and China indicate that national identity was shaped partly by fashion in the progression towards the cultural ideal of the great nation- state. In a study of children's fashion in China, Children's Day: the Fashionable Performance of Modern Citizenship in China, tephanie Hemelryk Donald states that fashion plays a major role in shaping…
Stephanie Hemelryk Donald, "10 Children's Day: the Fashionable Performance of Modern Citizenship in China," in Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship / ed. Wendy Parkins, (New York: Berg, 2002), 208.
Stephanie Hemelryk Donald, "10 Children's Day: the Fashionable Performance of Modern Citizenship in China," in Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship / ed. Wendy Parkins, (New York: Berg, 2002), 215.
Cultural and National Identity
In the midst of globalization, cultures are coming together unlike ever before. As a result, refugees and immigrants are faced with challenging circumstances that threaten to weaken their national or cultural identity. This essay will explore two examples of how individuals strive to maintain their identity in this new and changing world.
In Cyberspace in Diaspora, we learn about the Eritrean Diaspora and how they are using the internet to maintain their cultural and national identity (Bernal, 2006). Through the internet the Eritreans debate issues concerning the history, culture, democracy, and identity of their country. This community has raised money for war, arranged demonstrations, created nation-building projects, and have influenced to Eritrean government, all while residing in various countries around the world. They also have a web board titled "Dehai: Eritrea OnLine" (www.dehai.org) which they use to maintain a sense of community and communicate about political…
Beatie, T. (2008, April). Labour of love. The Advocate. Retrieved from http://www.advocate.com/Society/Commentary/Labor_of_Love
Bernal, V. (2006). Diaspora, cyberspace and political imagination: the Eritrean diaspora online.
Global Networks, 6(2), p. 161 -- 179.
Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches and you fall down: a Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=FeDqIZeZ90UC&pg=PA20&dq=The+Spirit+Catches+You#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Americans' national identity rests largely upon
shared political ideals.
The American ideal of equality
promotes the idea that all citizens should be equal in their standard of living.
is fully consistent with individualism.
does not include the idea that everyone is entitled to fair treatment under the law.
has helped minority groups to achieve their goals.
has always been fully implemented in U.S. history.
The American political culture includes all of the following ideals except
belong to the government only.
b. belong to individuals but can be denied by government.
belong to individuals and cannot be denied by government.
d. do not exist in the United States.
e. are not mentioned in the Declaration of Independence.
Cultural beliefs are said to be mythic ideas, which means that they are
a. almost completely unreal.
Slavophilia and National Identity in Russia
Slavophilia is the love of "Mother Russia" that every true Russian feels for his native country. This love is not founded in any absurd or materialistic attachment to the country, but rather to the spiritual and natural goodness of the country -- its morality, its religion, its land, its simplicity and the virtues of peasants. These concepts are what form the basis of the Russian national identity. It is a concept that is noble in mind and the opposite of the self-interested, individualistic conceit of other cultures, such as the American culture. The slavophile is rooted in the communal, collective experience -- the native experience, the peasant experience, the basic, humble elementary aspects of life that give one a spiritual joy because one is connected to an entire community -- a national family -- that is like one mystical body, like that mystical body…
Aksakov, Sergey. Memoirs of the Aksakov Family. Calcutta: Englishman Press, 1871.
Anand (2000) explores the narratives that shape Tibetan identity, especially the notion of a national identity among those in diaspora. The author explores the impact of Western orientalist theorizing of Tibet on Tibetan self-consciousness, claiming that Tibetan self-consciousness and national identity has been shaped by these orientalist narratives.
The author argues that Tibetan national identity has been historically and socially constructed, via discursive practices relating to orientalism: an idealized narrative of what Tibet means.
Theories and Concepts
Anand (2000) invokes social constructivism, identity construction, and discursive identity construction in the analysis.
To support claims and substantiate positions, Anand (2000) provides an overview of the Tibetan diaspora. The author also cites authors with similar views on nationalism, and also shows how Tibetans in diaspora have had access to the means by which to create and maintain national identity. Anand (2000) also refers to several example…
In the fifth place, some English language cinemas compete directly with Hollywood within its own playing field. The sixth and seventh cinema types are interesting, since they attempt to retain a singular identity without external influence. One of these is the cinema that exists entirely within a state-controlled industry, which is often subsidized by the same state. Finally, there are those national cinemas that hold such a specific identity that they distance themselves, in terms of language or culture, from the nation-states within which they exist.
Having identified these categories, Crofts also points out the importance of recognizing their permeability. The author uses the example of French, Australian, and Indian films to demonstrate this point. The French, for example, would operate in the fields of differing from Hollywood, not competing directly with it, but occasionally delivering critique on its films and practices. On exceptional occasions, French cinema would also venture…
Abbas, a. (2007). Hong Kong. The Cinema of Small Nations. Edited by Hjort and Petrie. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Altman, R. (2012). Film/Genre. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Bergfelder, T. (2000). The Nation Vanishes: European co-productions and popular genre formula in the 1950s and 1960s. Cinema and Nation. Edited by Hjort and MacKenzie. London and New York: Routledge.
Crofts, S. (2008). Reconceptualising National Cinema/s. Theorising National Cinema. Edited by Vitali and Willemen. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Having unleashed Demon, the Song is now welcomed into the gang and begins sporting the traditional "black suit" of the gang members. Here, again, it is important to remark on the deviation from stereotype to contemporary national image that wardrobe and props bring to the film. There are no robes of silk, no long, silky geisha looking women waiting on men in the community baths. Rather, Landlady, one of the protagonists in the film, barely makes a move without a burning cigarette hanging out of her mouth. She is in white satin lingerie throughout most of the film. hile Landlord is often seen in his silk robe, and is often being beat by Landlady. Landlord and Landlady and even Demon serve to reinforce the positive image of Asian family in that Landlady and Landlord are not elderly, but late 40s, and Demon is definitely 50 ish.
Together, good or bad,…
Chanan, Michael. "The Changing Geography of Third Cinema." Screen 38.4 (1997): 372-388. Questia. 23 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98737571 .
A lugo, Marvin. "4 Authorship, Globalization, and the New Identity of Latin American Cinema." Rethinking Third Cinema. Ed. Anthony R. Guneratne and Wimal Dissanayake. London: Routledge, 2003. 103-125. Questia. 23 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104539205 .
identity is a means of classifying an individual when it comes to private matter and the government. How a government identifies someone or an institution, is through the use of an identity card. An identity card has a serial number and a picture that helps law enforcement, government agencies and other organizations identity an individual for potential jobs, loans, and even for medical care. However there are some issues with identity cards. For instance, are can people who have access to this information treat individuals unfairly, will there be higher instances of identity theft? Can "Big Brother" use this as a means of spying on civilians? It's important to look at this issue from various angles.
The UK has, for a number of years, set in motion creation of a system to update their identity card regulations and procedures. "A law was passed which established the intention to create a…
Andreouli, E. And Howarth, C. (2012). National Identity, Citizenship and Immigration: Putting Identity in Context. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 43(3), pp.361-382.
Beynon-Davies, P. (2011). The UK national identity card. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases, 1(1), pp.12-21.
Even during the golden years of the beauty contest between the wars there were unresolved problems with the nature and purpose of such competitions:
There remained elements of discomfort and tension, only superficially palliated by the scientific discourse, patriotic rhetoric and philanthropic gestures of the contest's organisers. These tensions would be released again in the 1970s when a new generation of feminists added discrimination on the grounds of race and disability, together with a more unequivocal rejection of standardised and homogenised ideals of the body and beauty, to the critique of their forebears.
Yet this phenomenon can be seen as consistent with the change in the status of the beauty contest, from a celebration of values that were of universal appeal (even reflecting ideals of national identity) to a tawdry matter of selling sex. y the 1980s and 1990s such contests were experiencing a decline in entrants, with young women…
Sarah Banet-Weiser, the Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999
Colleen Ballerino Cohen, Richard Wilk and Beverly Stoeltje (eds), Beauty Queens on the Global Stage: Gender, Contests and Power, New York and London, Routledge, 1997. Useful collection of essays with a global perspective.
Lois W. Banner, American Beauty (New York: Knopf, 1983). A detailed study of the history of the Miss America contest.
Liz Conor, 'Beauty contestant in the photographic scene', Journal of Australian Studies, no 71, (2001). Interesting points on the importance of modern communication/reproduction technologies in 1920s beauty contests.
"The reason being that the colonized intellectual has thrown himself headlong into Western culture. Like adopted children who only stop investigation their new family environment once their psyche has formed a minimum core of reassurance, the colonized intellectual will endeavor to make European culture his own. Not content with knowing Rabelais of Diderot, Shakespeare or Edgar Allen Poe, he will stretch his mind until he identifies with them completely" (Fanon 156). When this fails, the intellectual tends to fixate an idealized version of native culture, creating a romanticized, but ultimately false version of the past. "Seeking to cling close to the people, he clings merely to a visible veneer. This veneer, however, is merely a reflection of a dense, subterranean life in perpetual renewal" (Fanon 160). However, the colonial intellectual does not realize that even when he attempts to perceive the 'pure' past, he is still using the aesthetic standards…
Identity Themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima
As marginalized people from around the world gain their voice in print, contemporary interpretations of identity become especially timely and relevant. Indeed, in an increasingly globalized world where multiculturalism is the norm rather than the exception, an analysis of how identity is perceived by these diasporic peoples is timely and relevant. To this end, this paper provides a comparative analysis of the identity themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima, including an examination of these issues in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature. Finally, a summary of the research concerning these identity themes and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall
Although people form an individual sense of identity over time, this sense change can…
Alexander, Simone A. Mother Imagery in the Novels of Afro-Caribbean Women. Colombia, MO:
University of Missouri Press, 2001.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge,
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
National Education Association. (2012). Main Website. Retrieved from:
Moe, T. (2011). Special Interest -- Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools. Retrieved From: Brookings Institution Press. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2011/specialinterest.aspx
Identity and racial politics in Europa (1990)
Europa Europa (1990) is the tale of a young German-Jewish boy named Solek who undergoes a series of identity transformations in his efforts to escape the Holocaust. At the beginning of the film, Solek and his family live in Nazi Germany. They decide to flee, first to Poland, and then as it becomes increasingly clear that not even Poland is a safe place, the boys' parents send their sons to the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. is ironically a 'safe' place for their children because at least they will not be persecuted as Jews. Solek is separated from his brother and when found by the Nazis in a Soviet orphanage he pretends that he is a German Latvian named Josef Peters. The Nazis adopt him and find him useful, thanks to his fluent German and Russian. Thus, during the period of identity definition of…
Europa Europa. Directed by Agnieska Holland, 1990
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…
Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.
Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.
Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
Forget National Humiliation by Zheng Wang
This central chapter looks at how the CMT manifests in China's central consciousness and how this myth can have a massive impact on the national identity at large. Chapter two works hard to explore the nuances of the CMT and the moments in history which still wreak havoc on the consciousness of China today. The chapter deftly avoids regurgitating history, but has a strong focus on the specific manner in which the Chinese recount history. One of the strengths of this chapter is how it asserts that the very sense of chosenness is something that is such an entrenched belief in China, it even manifests in the collective language.
Another strength of the chapter is that it focuses on how strongly humiliation figures into the national psyche of China. "For example, William Callahan believes that humiliation is a key component of modern…
Wang, Z. (2013) Never Forget National Humiliation. New York: Columbia University Press.
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.
The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
Art Generating Identity
Analysis of Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says by Haley (2014).
A key component in persuading individuals to go along a certain path is establishment of a vision. Speeches are viewed as a means to persuade an audience; likewise, images can also be just as convincing as verbal rhetoric. Art plays a rhetorical role, as well, making viewers believe the authenticity of that which is represented. Cultural and social values and famous historical occurrences are reflected often in art works. Seeing art which reflects ideals, values and life experiences may prompt spectators to think through a reality which may otherwise have been neglected by them. This kind of art, at the very least, drives individuals to challenge large societal problems, thereby, increasing the likelihood of reactive action by the community (Howard & Hoffman, 2013).
The nature of public art isn't merely aesthetic; cultural,…
Efroymson, D., Thanh Ha, T.K. & Thu Ha, P. (2009). Public Spaces: How They Humanize Cities. HealthBridge - WBB Trust.
Haley, C. (2014, Mar 14). Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says. McClatchy - Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1507232112?accountid=45844
Howard, A.D., & Hoffman, D.R. (2013). A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Building American National Identity Through Art. Perspectives on Political Science, 42(3), 142-151. doi:10.1080/10457097.2013.793517
Proshansky, H.M., Fabian, A.K., and Kaminoff, R. (1983), Place-Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3.
The Evolution of American Identity Through Literature
The diversity within the American experience, and as well within the canon of American literature, precludes the possibility of singling out two or even ten of the novels, poems, or short stories that best encapsulate what it means to be American. From the colonial and early national era and the fledgling formation of national identity through the struggles of emancipation from slavery and transcendentalism, onwards to the industrial and capitalist eras, American literature has provided an accurate reflection of the lives of individuals and communities that comprise life in different regions of the country. Geographic and cultural differentiations also help to expand what it means to be American, taking into account race, class, gender, and generation. Threads that tie together Americans throughout time and in spite of radical differences in worldview include staunch independence and self-reliance, coupled with a profound optimism. Trust in…
This paper discusses all the facets and considerations inherent to a cultural identity essay. Namely, the paper describes the importance of cultural identity, the definition of cultural identity, and examples of cultural identity—both theoretical and literal examples in the world today. This paper seeks to show how one’s cultural identity is so much more than just a melee of one’s race, environment and heritage. Cultural identity is made up of so many factors and influences, both positive and negative, and both direct and covert. This paper sheds light on how one’s cultural identity manifests and how the cultural identity of two people from the same family can be slightly or tremendously different, as a result of a difference of lived experiences and preferences. Finally, this paper investigates some of the more dominant theories of cultural identity.
One’s cultural identity is closely connected to one’s social…
media's role in time of national crisis. The writer explores what occurs in a national crisis and argues that the media has a duty to exercise caution when reporting during times of national crisis. There were ten sources used to complete this order.
Does Media have a role to play in time of National Crisis
When there is a national crisis the media takes a lot of heat. If it reports everything without holding back it is accused of sensationalism and drama seeking antics. If it holds back information it is accused of slanting the news and of political motivation. egardless of what angle the media takes there will be someone to say it was the wrong one. In the end the media can only follow an ethical and professional path and let the chips fall where they may. One of the most hotly debated topics in recent years regarding…
Anchoring the nation.(Peter Jennings)
American Journalism Review; November 1, 2001; Robertson, Lori
Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration.
Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Billeaudeaux, Andre Domke, David Hutcheson, John S. Garland, Philip
National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association reports that in terms of today's school curriculum "knowledge is no longer a scarce or stable commodity. Especially in science, engineering, and technical fields, knowledge is changing so rapidly that the specific information may become obsolete before a student graduates and has the opportunity to apply it." (2004) There are more in the way of those providing knowledge as well as the many educational offerings for all ages of learning, and is reported to have "diversified the structures, purposes, and outcomes of education." (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association, 2004) Not only is knowledge plentiful it is simultaneously inexpensive due to the Internet and has "created a broad space for competitive claims about the legitimacy and veracity of information." (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association, 2004)…
Ganzel, Bill (2007) Education in Rural America. Wessel's Living History Farm. Retrieved from: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/life_12.html
Hancock, L. (2011, September 9). Why Are Finland's Schools Successful. Retrieved from Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/Why-Are-Finlands-Schools-Successful.html?c=y&page=2
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience (2004) The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and The American College Personnel Association. Jan. 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf
Mourshed, M. And Chijioke, C., and Barber, M. (2010) How the World's Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better. Education. Nov. 2010. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from: http://mckinseyonsociety.com/downloads/reports/Education/How-the-Worlds-Most-Improved-School-Systems-Keep-Getting-Better_Download-version_Final.pdf
national cultue on poject contol: emiates poject manage in *xyz company case study
This wok addesses effects of national and intenational cultue upon business, using a copoate oganization in the UAE as an example. Theoetical aspects of cultue ae discussed and a detailed eseach pogam is outlined, with data fom a Pilot Study being pesented, as a basis to plan and delineate the best appoach to the oveall eseach potocols.
The goals of this manuscipt ae to evaluate the XYZ oganization in the UAE in tems of the effects of national and intenational cultue upon a business.
The vaious aspects of a given national cultue ae used to develop theoetical hypotheses concening the manne in which cultue influences copoate actions.
This wok offes a contibution to the field though data-povision and analysis focusing on common pesumptions that copoate actions ae modified accoding to the 'home county' cultual…
Adler, NJ (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior. 2.ed. Boston: Kent Publishing.
Ali, A.J. (1990). Management theory in a transitional society: the Arabs' experience. International Studies of Management and Organization. 20, 7-35.
Al-Rasheed, A (1994). Traditional Arab management: evidence from empirical comparative research. In Proceedings of Arab Management Conference, Bradford: 89-114.
Atkinson, R (1999). Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management. 17(6). 337-42.
National health plan [...] how and why a national health plan should be introduced in the United States. Health care in the United States is a big business. As such, a national health plan threatens the bottom lines of gigantic health maintenance organizations, and they have fought national health care consistently. They fight a plan that could cause their demise, but ensure the increased health and well being of millions of Americans. It is time we stopped letting big business set the agenda for the health of the American people.
NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN
The Clinton administration's plan for national health care reform did not become a national health plan, but it opened the door for argument and debate about health care reform in the United States. Many experts and citizens still believe a national plan for health care should be instituted in America. How to institute a workable and viable…
Editors. "Health Care Information." Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP). 2003. 26 April 2003. http://www.pnhp.org/
Epstein, Richard A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999.
Goold, Susan D. "Health Care Reform and the Battle for the Body Politic." Vol. 26, Contemporary Women's Issues Database. 3 Jan. 1997, pp 98+.
Palmisano, Donald J. "Health Care Labor Relations Issues: Donald J. Palmisano." Congressional Testimony. 29 July 1998.
National Institute of Health Care Management Foundation
Founded in 1993 and based in Washington, D.C., the National Institute of Health Care Management Foundation (NIHCM) is a not-for-profit, non-partisan organization the works towards "improving the health of Americans by spurring workable and creating solutions to pressing health care problems" (NIHCM, 2017). The Foundation exists between the ideological space occupied by think tanks on the one side and associations on the other side. By providing evidence-based research and reports, the Foundation "sparks insights and collaboration" among health care groups, who then implement solutions to overcome obstacles in the health care industry. The Directors of the Foundation include some of the top CEOs of health insurance companies, while NIHCM's advisory board consists of academics, doctors, and former government workers.
Specific actions taken by NIHCM in the past include the sponsoring of grants for research to the amount of $2 million over the past…
national symbols used in marketing products, sometimes to evoke a feeling of viewpoint, sometimes to add credibility to the project, and sometimes to actually encourage the consumer to purchase based on the symbol. The American Flag, for instance, is used in marketing to prove that something is American made or that purchasing it will help America; it can also be used in certain political campaigns to evoke the feeling of patriotism and therefore the desire to use that particular product to be patriotic. The American Eagle is often used in the same way -- to purchase minted coins, stamps, or as a symbol of freedom and individualism. Flags or strategic positioning of symbols (Mexican sombrero, Irish flag or Leprechaun, etc.) help consumers identify the nation with the brand.
DP 5-2 -- Enculturation is a learning process in which an individual learns the values and behaviors required of them to belong…
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
Consumer Beware: The Growing Problem of Identity Theft
American consumers today are increasingly concerned, with good reason, about how to avoid joining the ranks of unfortunate millions who are already victims of the newest, most widespread national financial crime: identity theft. According to the web article "The Crime of Identity Theft": It can happen to anyone. The phone rings and a collection agency demands that you pay past-due accounts for goods you never ordered. The supermarket refuses your checks because you have a history of bouncing them." Stealing (most often by strangers) of personal information about individual consumers (e.g., full name; birth date; social security number; bank account numbers; credit card numbers, and other confidential data) has in recent years become epidemic. ithin the United States in particular (one reason for the phenomenon of identity theft in America in particular is that the United States is the only nation with…
Bellah, Ashley. Personal Interview. June 22, 2005.
'The Crime of Identity Theft. Coping with Identity Theft: Reducing the Risk of Fraud. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Retrieved June 23, 2005, from:
'Groups Push for More Protection Against Identity Theft. Freep: The Detroit Free
Moreover, it seems less than completely effective to urge people to make connections to each other because being self-centered really leads to a healthier community. Yes, keeping up our networks does help each one of us. But this does not seem to be the kind of inspirational call to a wider world that will transform the current problems in the nation.
elational, Not Instrumental Connections
Lawler, Thye, & Yoon argue that it is not simply sufficient to create the shell of the kinds of institutions that can encourage and support community. ather, we must consider the ways in which we can shift the connections between people and institutions and between institutions and institutions from being essentially instrumental to being more deeply relational.
This volume argues that there are fundamental social conditions under which transactional, purely instrumental ties to a group tend to become relational and expressive. We reframe the transactional-relational…
Lawler, E., Thye, S., & Yoon, J. (2009). Social commitments in a depersonalized world. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications.
Putnam, R. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American communities.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wuthnow, R. (2002). Loose connections: Joining together in America's fragmented communities. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…
"Allentown." You Tube, 1982. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
"Where I Come From." You Tube, 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
Fetterley, Judith. Writing Out of Place. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
religion shaped identity political entities ussia (us', Soviet Union, ussian federation) ways 'Historically, there has been a somewhat tricky dichotomy between religion in what is today known as ussia and the political situation that has governed this country. The relationship between these two crucial elements of society -- religion and politics -- has at times been in accordance with one another, and other times dangerously at odds with each other. Today there is a degree of tolerance and temperance between these two aspects of ussian life that have served to produce a great deal of friction throughout the country previously.
During the period of Czarist ussia, which concluded in 1917, politics exerted a great deal of influence over religion. With the Czars governing the country, ussian Orthodoxy was essentially the only religion supported by the state. Despite the fact that this religion was prevalent throughout the country well before the…
McCarthy, B. (2012). "Grappling with a post-Soviet identity." PRI's The World. Retrieved from http://www.theworld.org/2012/01/post-soviet-identity/
No author. (2007). "Religious and political history of modern Russia." Mary Mother of God Mission Society. Retrieved from http://www.vladmission.org/history/religiouspoliticalhist.htm
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights
This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.
What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…
Gerd, B. (1999). The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Reliogious Identities (Zones of Religion). Routledge.
Gordon, W and Newfield, W. (2000). Mapping Multiculturalism.
Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. And Norman, W. (2000). Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford University Press.
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…
As a result Cuypere et al. conducted a study which evaluated the physical and sexual health of individuals that received reassignment surgery. The participants were 107 Dutch speaking participants that had the surgery between 1986 and 2001 (Cuypere et al. 2005).
The results demonstrate that those participants going form Female-to-males had more problems establishing a secure relationship following the transition (Cuypere et al. 2005). In fact the study found that a third of the female-to-males did not have a sexual partner following the surgery even though their sexual drives were intact (Cuypere et al. 2005). The results also found that in spite of the fact that participants had masculine presentations and sex organs, many of them steered clear of a relationship with a potential partner. This avoidance was present because he participants were not yet confident in their maleness (Cuypere et al. 2005). The study also found that when transsexual…
Bartlett N.H., Bukowski W.M., Vasey P.L. (2002) Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Page Number: 753.
Bodlund, O., & Kullgren, G. (1996). Transsexualism -- General outcome and prognostic factors: A five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 303-316.
Carroll L. & Gilroy P.J.(2002) Transgender issues in Counselor preparation.
Cuypere G.D., Beerten R., Sutter P.D., Hoebeke P., Monstrey S., Rubens R., Selvaggi G., T'Sjoen G., Vansteenwegen Al. (2005) - Sexual and Physical Health after Sex Reassignment Surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume: 34. Issue: 6. Page Number: 679.
The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.
arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.
"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…
Barbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
Biography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
Benavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…
Regional Identity and Its Literal Purpose
Regionalism is a common sense of identity. It is an expression of an identity that shapes activities in a particular geographical region. In early 1980's regions resurgence of regional self-consciousness was part of the general democratization process. Members of different regions, minorities and majorities, reclaimed what they considered as history leading to regional development. The process of increasing social and political awareness has led to rise of cultural and political dimensions of regionalism (Roth 59). A group of identity is politicized when it affects human judgments on political issues, or affects human decisions on how we act politically like voting for someone. This can define regionalism as the politicization of regional identity. This implies that regional populations have certain common interests that they can advance as a group. They advance these interests to preserve cultural identity, which is threatened by cultural standardization and to…
Diaz, J., San Francisco, C. "Regional Business News." Inside a House Devided, 2012.
Fitjar, R.D. The Rise Of Regionalism: Causes of Regional Mobilization In Western Europe. Atlanta: Taylor and Francis, 2009.
Roth, K., Ulf, B. Region, Regional Identity Regonalism In South Eastern Europe. Chicago: LIT Verlang, 2010.
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
American National Character
America can almost be thought of as a massive experiment in culture. Here we have a nation inhabited almost entirely by immigrants; all with different languages, customs, beliefs, and appearances who are forced to somehow reach a common understanding and identity. Through the over two hundred years of American history many differences have threatened to unravel our diverse nation, but still, many commonalities have ultimately held it together. Amidst such a range of economic, political, and racial mixtures it is a daunting task to identify what characteristics are uniquely American.
Yet, what can be considered "American" can also be traced to the roots of the nation. The place now called the United States was founded by puritan settlers who valued the notion of all men's equality in the eyes of God. Accordingly, the authors of the U.S. Constitution included equality under the law as one of its…
Bellah, Robert N., et al., eds. Habits of the Heart. Los Angeles, California: University of California, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas C. The Puerto Rican Businessman: A Study in Cultural Change. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1959.
Hacker, Andrew. The End of the American Era. New York, New York: Atheneum, 1968.
Klausner, Samuel Z. "A Professor's-Eye View of the Egyptian Academy." The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Jul.-Aug., 1986): 345-369.
Improving Group Productivity
The National Call Center for the Veteran's Administration (VA) Education Department employs over 700 people, which can be called upon to answer incoming calls from veterans. Within the four regional offices, there are employees of various positions, including Case Managers, Educational Liaison Representatives, application processors, and leaders who verify compliance, productivity, etc. With all employees being called upon to answer incoming calls, each employee needs to be aware of changes on an immediate basis, which can incorporate over 50 changes on a given day. As a result of work demands on all employees in different roles of the organizational structure, adequate training programs are of extreme importance in ensuring employees are properly trained, contain clear definitions of expectations in the various roles, and support teamwork within the groups to provide for efficiency in operations as well as performance goals and objectives.
A key component to the process…
Anthony, L. (2013). How do I Improve Team Communication? Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/improve-team-communication-3077.html
Archibald, R.D. (2013). nlocking a Project Team's High-Performance Potential Using Cognitive Readliness: A Research Study Report and Call to Action. PM World Journal, vol 11, issue XI, 1-46 Retrieved from http:/;/pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/pmwj16-nov...unlocking-high-performance-FeaturedPaper.pdf.
Fisher, R. (2005). Intergroup Conflict. Retrieved from Colorado University: http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/fishint.htm
GI Bill. (2013, Nov 22). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: http://gibill.va.gov
New King Fahad National Library in iyadh
The rise of the electronic medium of media amongst the masses has become the main motive of decrease in the progress of printed tools and materials along with the decrease in using the academic materials. Each one of these new developments combined with the data of students visiting the library has laid down numerous claims on the entire abolishment of the standard structure of a library. Nonetheless, some researchers have aggressively suggested incorporating the "social" spaces such as for example cafes, museums and theaters; creating a mutual group study and forming "information commons," while some have simply given up the idea of the subsistence of the traditional form of libraries. The assorted reactions to the down sides of the King Fahad National Library have embedded the concept that libraries facilitate a lot more than just being truly a storeroom or a storage facility…
Armitage, C.J. And C. Mark (2001). "Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta analytic review." The British Journal of Social Psychology 40: 471.
Bagozzi, R.P. And Lee, K-H. (2002). "Multiple routes for social influence: The role of compliance, internalization, and social identity." Social Psychology Quarterly 65(3): 226.
Barbara Fister, "Common Ground: Libraries and Learning," Library Issues, 25 (Sept. 2004): 2.
Beagle, D. (1999). "Conceptualizing an Information Commons," The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 25 (Mar. 1999): 85.
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; Baup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and Bipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Zadie Smith's hite Teeth and the 'us vs. them' post-colonial discourse of identity
One of the difficulties of constructing an identity through the post-colonial discourse of race, religion and ethnicity is the difficulty of filtering out the discourse of the oppressor, the 'us vs. them' binary that defines colonialism. Colonialism is constructed upon a series of binaries, of 'savage vs. civilized,' 'English vs. native,' 'white vs. non-white,' and of course 'good vs. bad' and 'pure vs. impure.' The logical response for the rebellious colonized peoples of the world who wish to oppose colonialism would seem to be to vow to become everything that colonialism is 'not.' To be against colonialism is to celebrate a pure, native culture, before it was impinged upon by colonialism. However, to do so is impossible -- no identity is 'pure.' Even native cultures themselves are fusions and hybrids, and tensions exist within the…
Smith, Zadie. White Teeth. New York: Vintage, 2000.
Voice & Identity in "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
This essay discusses the book NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS, AN AMERICAN SLAVE: WRITTEN BY HIMSELF, by Frederick Douglass, John W. Blassingame, John R. McKivigan (Editor) and Peter P. Hinks (Yale University, 2001).
Frederick Douglass was an early-19th century American slave who escaped the South and found freedom in the North. Seven years after his escape, Douglass published "Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave," his story of his life under the brutal system of American slavery, as well as his ability to prevail under and escape such difficult circumstances. It has become an American classic.
Narrative of the Life," published in 1845, was the first book of Douglass' writing and journalism career. He went on from "Narratives" to become an accomplished speaker and journalist, arguing passionately for the abolition of slavery, and describing…
Clash of Identities
Is a private identity a curse or a blessing? Is it necessary or valid to hide who you really are? According to "Aria: Memoir of a bilingual childhood" by Richard Rodriguez and "How it feels to be colored me" by Zora Hurston, creating a private identity and leaving your public identity behind, may be necessary, especially living, growing or entering an environment where it is not that accepting to cultural differences, there is probably not other culture during these times such as the exchange students from the Islam culture from the Azerbaijan State that can relate. "You need to study abroad! In the United States!" are two sentences many high school seniors, that do not live in the United States, hear from their mothers, fathers and counselors. There is a current obsession for children to get educated in the United States. The Azerbaijan State has gone as…
Author's last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Publication Date Published: Pages.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Online Article." Title of Online Publication Version (Year Published): Pages. Date Accessed .
"Title of Article." Title of Media. CD-ROM. City: Publisher, Year.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Implementation Plan
Introduction and Business strategies
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory continully receives increasing competition in the information services industry. To reinstate the effectiveness and generate consumer satisfaction, as well as company presence in the market, a proactive strategy must be formed to increase functionality and service, as well as generate a wider consumer base, all while minimizing overhead and operational cost. Along with this aim, an implementation plan must be executed. The plan will consist of a five-step problem-solving model. This model will identify and address concerns, while establishing a process of improvement for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and create increases in the company's wireless service efficacy. "The 5-Step model is a process to; categorize the situation, label and frame the central issue, articulate final goals, possible alternatives, and evaluate those alternatives" (Kundra, United States, & Chief Information Officers Council (U.S.),2010, p. 12)
The model as…
Haugen, D.M., Musser, S., & Lovelace, K. (2009). Outsourcing. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Kundra, V., United States, & Chief Information Officers Council (U.S.) (2010). 25 point implementation plan to reform federal information technology management. Washington [D.C.: The White House, [Chief Information Officers Council.
Lacity, M.C., & Hirschheim, R.A. (1995). Beyond the information systems outsourcing bandwagon: The insourcing response. Chichester: Wiley.
Laudon, K.C., & Laudon, J.P. (2002). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
person's identity may develop differently in a collectivistic vs. An individualistic culture. hen explain how your own identity has been impacted by your culture (collectivistic or individualistic). Finally, explain how your identity might differ if you were raised in the other type of culture.
Individualism vs. collectivism: Identity
Despite the variation that exists within different cultures regarding values and behaviors, it has been noted that certain character traits appear to manifest themselves cross-culturally, in the form of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (McCrae, n.d.: 2). In other words, all individuals, in all cultures to some degree can be said to exhibit these traits, or can be classified as lacking in these traits (introversion being the opposite of extroversion, etcetera). However, the extent to which these traits are valued or problematized within a culture is highly contextual and relative to cultural norms.
For example, in a capitalistic and individualistic culture…
Thus, while the characteristics of extroversion may be present to varying degrees in members of all societies, the extent to which that characteristic is prized will not be the same. Someone who is very extroverted and dislikes doing what everyone else is doing in Japan may find him or herself highly criticized. As a student, he or she may feel frustrated by a more conformist system of education, particularly if the student is not particularly strong in another value praised by the Japanese, that of conscientiousness. In America, that same student might be gently rebuked for being 'too social' or for talking back to his or her teachers, but provided his qualities of extroversion find a positive channel (such as in business, in the arts, or other areas of modern American life which value independent thinking and creativity), that student will come to have a positive self-concept. The same is not likely to be true of a Japanese student with similar qualities in his or her collective society.
Even within national cultures, however, the same characteristics as manifest in different persons may not be valued 'the same.' A young woman who is very extroverted, not particularly conscientious, or agreeable will likely be viewed in a more censorious fashion than a male with those same characteristics in either the United States or in Japan. Both societies have clearly different gender role expectations for both men and women, and it has been observed that more developed nations have more marked personality differences between the genders, regardless of whether the cultures are collective or individualistic (Schmitt et al. 2008).
It would seem that based upon a comparison of Japan
Culturally Bases Interview
Interview amount to stress at whatever point and wherever they take place. In one's own particular nation or society, it is less demanding to recognize what is in store and how to validate. Interview in a nation other than one's own can be a difficult experience. The way of life being referred to in this task is Mexican and takes unmistakable fascination on the individual's character. Along these lines, I decided to interview a Mexican. My thoughts, initially on this social component include: the capacity of the possibility to exhibit a capability to structure powerful work connections through a mix of individual and expert data; expect the contender to carry on as per his or her family's status in the social and financial values of importance; expect the possibility to utilize pleasantry, (for example, analogies and metaphors), humor, or cultural and/or historical references to show his…
Green, R. (2013, January 18). 4 Steps to Self-Actualization and Becoming the Best Version of You. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/r-kay-green/personal-development_b_2479253.html
Multi-Cultural Counseling Competencies and Standards. (2012). Retrieved February 7, 2015, from
ugby -- a Lot More Complicated Than You Might Think
It would be the rare Australian who has not seen a rugby game. Indeed, it would be the rare Australian who has not seen dozens of rugby games. But most of the time when a person is watching a game, s/he is concerned with the score along with how well one's favorite player is doing. but, if one steps back a pace or two, rugby takes on a range of meanings: ugby is an important part of the culture of Australian and therefore worthy of serious analysis as a way of understanding the national culture.
Culture does not refer simply to was gets put into a museum or acted out on the stage, although these are certainly examples of culture. ugby is culture in the sense that those who study society define it: It is a complex set of behaviors…
American Moderns: Fashioning a New National Culture
Literature and historians alike look to the past to define the present. In many ways, one can look at the defining moments in American history to understand the foundation in which today's culture exists. This paper asks one to examine the specific period of time after the Civil ar and how the men and women born of these decades until the First orld ar created a new American culture. This involves looking at the work of historians like Christine Stansell in order to gain a better understanding of the pillars and forces that shaped American culture at the time.
It is apparent that times were changing drastically from the Victorian era to the Modern era. People's morals and values were changing as writers and artists pushed the envelope and introduced new ideas into the mainstream. It can also be assumed that these "new…
"American Moderns." The Journal of American History 88, 3 (2001): 79.
Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. Free Books Online.
Cohen, Patricia Cline. "Village Voices." The New York Times Online Book Review
globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.
Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…
Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/56/2/114/
Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393826
Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8yo2Fp6UAEMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA232&dq=fiedler%27s+leadership&ots=2YX-FkEKy0&sig=WEtmbDIw5HZywNFFIi5Z1zYYkTw
Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.angelfire.com/nj4/ambass148/Harris_ch7.doc
Hispanic vs. Latino
In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…
Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.
Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.
Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.
Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
A brief look into Argentinian literature
Countries in recent history have sought independence from their mother country to create a country and government for the people and by the people. This was seen in the United States, to some extent in China, and most recently in the last century in various parts of South America. Argentina, a land of constant political instability, racial discrimination, and gender issues, as seen conflict arise for two centuries. From these conflicts emerged writers who sought to show the struggle between the people of Argentina and their rising concerns with identity and development of a nation.
Amalia is a novel written by Jose Marmol, an exiled Argentinian author who wrote the story in order to criticize the ruler of Argentina from 1829 to 1852, caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas. The author placed the setting in a Bueno Aires post-colonial period done in two parts.…
Burgett, Bruce. Keywords For American Cultural Studies, Second Edition. 2nd ed. New York City: NYU Press, 2014. Print.
Ma rmol, Jose, Helen R Lane, and Doris Sommer. Amalia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Rosenlee, Li-Hsiang Lisa. Confucianism And Women. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006. Print.