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So denotes Hobsbawm in considering the era of revolutionary independence. Here, Hobsbawm asserts that nationalism "aimed to extend the scale of human social, political and cultural units: to unify and expand rather than to restrict and separate. This is one reason why Third-world national liberation movements found the 19th century traditions, both liberal and revolutionary-democratic, so congenial. Anti-colonial nationalists dismissed, or at least subordinated, 'tribalism', 'communalism' or other sectional and regional identities as anti-national, and serving the well-known imperialist interests of 'divide and rule'." (Hobsbawm, p. 2)
This indicates that nationalism is not the imperative driving independence so much as the assertion of its existence is an instrument for helping to justify entitlement to this independence. In many ways, this concept of nationalism is countered in the exhaustive text by Smith (2010), which instead concedes to defining nationalism according to the traits superficially attributed thereto. For instance, Smith indicates that…
Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso.
Gellner, E. & Breuily, J. (2006). Nations and Nationalism. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
Guibernau, M. & Rex, J. (2010). The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration. Polity Press.
Hobsbawm, E. (1991). Address. American Anthropological Association.
This had a great role among the European people as it provided the people a sense of community. This means that Europeans felt a sense of belonging to a community. At the same time nationalism fosters a sense of tradition within the Europeans. Through nationalism a set of moral standards were impacted among the people that ensured that the people were morally upright and act according to what is required of them morally.
Europeans also derived a sense of motivation when it came to engaging in political activities. This means that they took part in politics and leadership role with their focus centered on uplifting their nation among other nations that broke away and give a justification to their political system (The Expansion Factor, Inc.2010).
It is worth noting as well that nationalism contributed significantly in the establishment of the democracy across Europe during the 20th century. Nationalism was a…
Matic D., (1999). Understanding the role of nationalism in "new democracies." Retrieved February 25, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10402727
Mentzel, P. (2013).Eastern Europe Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Retrieved February 25, 2013 from http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=372
The various branches of the American military, for example, have their own form of nationalism that is represented by hard power and military supremacy. This does not mean that nationalism must be necessarily political in nature, but often the two are tied together due to the ease in which they go hand in hand. This can be said of geography as well, especially political geography.
Often, political geography is mistaken for being the same as cultural identity, particularly when language comes into question. In countries that contain minority language speakers in large concentrations, such as Quebec, Canada or Basque, Spain, the various cultural differences inherent in native language is typically seen as the dominant factor of identity. Geography can play a large factor in student identity as well, however, and cannot be discounted, even amongst communities that have several languages within a small area, Queens, New York for example. The…
Schlosser, Kolson; White, George; Leib, Johnathon; Dalby, Simon. (2011) Nationalism in geography classrooms: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Geography, doi: 10.1080/00221341.2011.540252
This is because the ideas of self-determination would help inspire large numbers of people who shared a common identity and values. Yet, because they were being oppressed for whatever reasons these common ideas would fuel thoughts of self-determination. This is significant because this was the intention of all corresponding revolutions. However, this would morph into something more twisted. In many ways this would help fuel the rise of nationalism throughout Europe, as these ideas of self-determination were spread by Napoleon. At which point, his policies and unpopularity would support the rise of German nationalism. This is important because this would rival French nationalism and would result in a number of different wars (the most notable being World War II). While simultaneously, Russian nationalism would quickly rise from the ideas of communism. Where, the Soviet Union would be an ally of Germany and the West. This was because both Germany and…
A Short Overview of Russian History. 2008. Study Russian. http://www.studyrussian.com/history/history.html (accessed April 201, 2010).
Marquis de Lafayette. 2003. The American Revolution. http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/lafayett.htm (accessed April 20, 2010).
Nationalism. 2010. Answers.com. http://www.answers.com/topic/nationalism (accessed April 20, 2010).
The Impact of the French Revolution. 2004. Cambridge. http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521579117&ss=exc (accessed April 20, 2010).
By the end of the century, many world leaders began to reject the ideals of nationalism. Instead of stressing responsibility to one's country, they began to stress responsibility to the world. In fact, the world economy was subject to globalization, and growing concerns about the effects of environmental pollution on all of the people in the world ushered in a growing sense of cosmopolitanism. However, that does not mean that nationalism died out. On the contrary, many Western nations continued to engage in a sort of cultural nationalism, in which they linked financial and other forms of aid for foreign countries to certain cultural conditions. In addition, though many countries discussed a global agenda, the majority continued to promote national interests at the cost of others, especially third-world nations.
Today, nationalism continues to be a force for divisiveness. In almost every setting, nationalism is touted as a source of unity,…
" (Githens-Mazer, 2007)
2. Use of Figures Labeled Martyrs in the Contemporary Discourse Regarding the Nationalist Movement
The concepts of nationalism and the effects of Nationalism on language are stated to be based on Joshua Fishman's essays entitled: "The Nature of Nationalism" and "the Impact of Nationalism on Language Learning and Language Planning." (Sharon, 1995) Sharon states that Nationalism is defined by Fishman (1972) as "the organizationally heightened and elaborated beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of societies acting on behalf of their avowed ethnocultural self-interest." Nationalism and Nationism were distinguished by Fishman (1972). Nationalism is stated to contain three components:
1) the expansion or generalizing of the perceived ethno cultural characteristics;
2) the stress on the recognition and importance of these characteristics; and 3) an emphasis on the past traditions, values and symbols normally preserved by the lower classes. (Sharon, 1995)
Nationalist movements are stated by Sharon (1995) to generally "originate…
Githens-Mazer, Jonathan (2007) Ethno-Symbolism and the Everyday Resonance of Myths, Memories and Symbols of the Nation. Everyday Life in World Politics and Economics. International Conference - Centre for International Studies, LSE, Penryn, Cornwall, 11 May 2007.
Sharon, (unknown) (1995) Title Not Stated: Chapter 2. Online available at http://ponce.inter.edu/vl/tesis/sharon/chap1.html
Martyrdom (2009) Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Accessed March 28, 2009. Online available at http://www.merriam-webster.com /dictionary/martyrdom
Views from a Former Christian Conservative (2004) rghojai. Daily Kos 6 Nov 2004. Online available at http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/11/7/2421/07447
So, elgium chose a proportional representation system in 1899 in order to avoid a permanent confrontation between the two sides.
The sub-societies of elgium recognize and respect each other and they all agree on a principle of self-organization. The elgian government is based on a principle of mutual recognition of the segments, and permanent compromises between them to spread over public goods (Lijpharrt, 1977).
The federalization of the state was another consequence of the split of elgium in two. Regions managed to gradually have more independence in the federations, convincing traditional political parties to grant more competences to the regions, so that they could manage their problems themselves. This led to the situation that the elgium state is more an empty framework, than a state as the classical definition. The decision-making process is made at regional level, while policies are implemented to one of the two segments of nation, while…
Brass, Paul R. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison, New Dehli: Sage, 1991;
Crawford Young, M, Revisiting nationalism and ethnicity in Africa, UCLA International Institute, James S. Coleman Memorial Lecture Series, 2004;
Deprez, K. And Vos, L.(eds.), Nationalism in Belgium, Shifting Identities, 1780-1995, London:MacMillan, 1998;
Lijphart, a., Democracy in Plural Societies: a comparative exploration, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977;
Figueiredo posits that ambiguity regarding the leader's intentions is the key factor which determines whether a leaders is successful in inciting and ethnic group to violence.
Leaders who are "Gambling for Ressurrection" are unpopular leaders who have little to lose and much to gain by inciting conflict. However, Figueiredo astutely notes that unpopular leaders often hold little credibility among the citizenry, especially when the leaders are asking them to bear the costs of ethnic violence against their fellow citizens.
Figueiredo posits that unpopular leaders can be successful when there are aggravating factors which enhance the plausibility of the leader's threats to an uninformed citizenry.
These aggravating conditions are certain power and informational conditions that induce a rational person to rule out the possibility that the leader's threats are bogus.
Figueiredo observes that "Generating sufficient support for ethnic conflict requires a particular interaction with the opponents, which can lie beyond the…
Keith Darden. Resisting Occupation: Mass Literacy & the Creation of Durable National Loyalties. New York: Cambridge University Press (2011)
Michael Hechter. Containing Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press (2000).
James D. Fearon, "Rationalist Explanations for War." International Organization 43:3, p. 379-414 (1995).
Rui J.P. de Figueiredo and Barry R. Weingast. "The Rationality of Fear: Political Opportunism and Ethnic Conflict": Civil Wars, Security, and Intervention, ed. Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder. New York: Columbia University Press (1999)
Nationalism & Ethnic Conflict
Nationalism and the Modern Nation State: Two Critical Readings
In Umut Ozkirimli's work, entitled Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction, the author attempts to come to grips with the idea of how ethnicity functions in the construction of modern nation states. In early, primordial history, nationality and nationhood could be taken as virtually synonymous. However, with the increasingly complex global and geo-political reality, ethnicity has become one of the most complex yet core claim of any particular new nation's defense of its right to exist. Ozkirimli discusses the importance of "ethno-symbolism," suggesting that ethnicity is often of an equally symbolic importance as it is of practical importance in creating a functional nation. (167)
In his chapter on the subject, Ozkirimli quotes the theorist John Armstrong, who suggests that the idea that particular group people inherently form an ethnic unit should not necessarily be taken as an…
Ozkirimili, Umut. Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Foreword by Fred Halliday. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. pg. 167-233
Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 2001, pg ix-x, 1-48.
It reads: "esolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved," (Jensen 20). Yet it soon became clear that there was a need for some strength in a centralized federal government in terms of foreign relations and trade. Thus, the Articles were revised and the Constitution was written around ten years after the actual evolution. The Constitution allowed for states to keep elements of their sovereignty, but also included stronger federal power that could be used to help regulate the states and deal with foreign relations and trade. Yet even the creation of the very document that was supposed to unite them, "From the start of the new government under the Constitution,…
Jensen, Merrill G. (1951). Regionalism in America. University of Wisconsin Press. Retrieved using Questia.com scholarly library December 13, 2009.
They offer a very insightful and at the same time entertaining view on nations and nationalisms as each of them tend to argue a different point-of-view.
Ernest Gellner is considered to be a theorist of the modern comprehension of the idea of nationalism. In this sense, one of the most important aspects of his theory revolves around the discussion of several time periods. More precisely, he advocated the belief that the society was in its history split in three major eras: "The hunter-gatherer; the agro-literate, and the industrial" (Revision Notes, n.d.). This is a consideration of the history of our civilization from an economic point-of-view which has an echo at the political level as well. Before moving any further it must be said from the beginning that Gellner takes on a different approach which includes this differentiation from an economic point-of-view and consider that in fact nations were born at…
Hobsbawm, E. (1962) the age of revolution. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Mccrone, D. (1998) the Sociology of Nationalism: Tomorrow's Ancestors. London: Rutledge.
Nationalism Studies information Clearinghouse. (2007) the Nationalism Project. Accessed 18 July 2008, at http://www.nationalismproject.org/what/Bodypage.html
In “Flagging the Homeland Daily,” the author shows how nationalism and patriotism are constructed in subtle, daily ways. The physical symbol of the flag is a visible reminder of nationalism, but itself not sufficient for the deep and meaningful ways nationalism is inculcated. Nationalism is inculcated through daily discourse, in words, phrases, and gestures that are often taken for granted. Even if nationalism on an overt level is no longer in vogue, a more “banal” type of nationalism has taken its place, according to Billig. This banal nationalism is “not necessarily benign,” which is the author’s central argument throughout the text (p. 94). For example, the citizens of nation-states still have an us-them mentality, conveyed through the discursive meanings of seemingly innocent terms like “the people,” (p. 94). It is difficult to recognize these subtle forms of brainwashing because they have become habits of speech.
The mass media is of…
Billig, Michael. “Flagging the Homeland Daily.”
Because of the laws prohibiting individuals from working anywhere but 'home' and the fact that the war he fought in was supposed to be for a national identity and home, home provides such a potent, gripping force for Halid that he does not leave his own town, even though he knows his 'friends' desire to kill him. The idea of friends is now confusing, as the Christians he once called friends before the war now loathe the sight of him. Thus the skill of Homecoming is that it shows the paradox of national identity. The power that we invest in the concept of home and national self-determination often kills us, and kills our sense of self, even though it is supposed to provide these essential elements of our character. National identity and familial ties are not so powerful that they can erase the memory of wartime atrocities committed on a…
LAmerica." Directed by Gianni Amellio. 1994.
Miss Sarajevo." Directed by Bill Carter. 1993.
Radojcic, Natasha Homecoming. Random House, 2005.
Nationalism and Its Importance in the Development of Nations in the 1900s
Nationalism is considered as the proliferation of a homogenous political identity to a community that is bounded by a territory through various means of communication. In some cases, nationalism is described as the feeling of patriotic zeal for an individual's country. Nationalism was a common factor in the development of nations in the 1900s that also contributed to the First orld ar. This concept played a crucial role in the development of nations in the 1900s by developing a sentiment that bounded large groups of people on the idea that they have certain things in common such as religion, culture, and ethnicity. However, the modern concept of nationalism is based on a sense of common national identity. Given the patriotic fervor it generates, nationalism played a significant role in the development of nations in the 1900s.
Best, Antony. The International History of East Asia, 1900 -- 1968: Trade, Ideology and the Quest for Order. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.
Burke, Matthew. "Liberal Nationalism's Role in the Development of the German Nation-State." Historia. Eastern Illinois University, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. .
Lewis, Dakota. "Nationalism in Europe 1815-1900." Prezi. Prezi Inc., 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. .
O'LEARY, BRENDAN. "On the Nature of Nationalism: An Appraisal of Ernest Gellner's Writings on Nationalism." British Journal of Political Science 27 (1997): 191-222. Print.
Effectively, then, the insurgency is leftist, and in the cases of these films, the left wins, either by proxy or by morality and the world is once again a better place.
EFEENCES and WOKS CONSULTED
Braudy, L. And M. Cohen, eds., (2009). Film Theory and Criticism. Oxford University
Burgoyne, . (2010). Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. University of Minnesota Press.
Hayward, S. (2006). Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. outledge.
Santas, C. (2007). The Epic in Film: From Myth to Blockbuster. owman and Littlefield.
TAILES and PEVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
"Cossack Brotherhood." (1962). Taras Bulba. Cited in:
"Lion of the Desert." (1981). Film Clip. Cited in:
"Michael Collins," (1986). Cited in:
"Taras Bulba." (1962). Cited in:
"The Patriot." (1998). Cited in: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120786/
"The Patriot." (1998) Film Clips. Cited in:
"V for Vendetta." (2005). Film Clips.…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Braudy, L. And M. Cohen, eds., (2009). Film Theory and Criticism. Oxford University
Burgoyne, R. (2010). Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. University of Minnesota Press.
Hayward, S. (2006). Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge.
Two distinct political movements influence the course of modern Taiwanese history: groups that are pro-independence and those that favor eventual unification with mainland China. In the year 2000, the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party came into power in Taiwan, taking over from the well-established Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party). The official websites of these two major Taiwanese political parties display different approaches to the independence issue as well as to Taiwanese history and culture. The tone of writing, content, and design layout of these websites also distinguish the attitudes of these opposing political parties.
The Kuomintang enjoys the honor of being the most well-established and historically popular political party on the island of Taiwan. Started by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the Kuomintang savored relatively unchallenged political dominance until the year 2000. The Kuomintang website at http://www.kmt.org.tw/e_index.html, which only offers one page of information in the English language, only briefly mentions the peaceful…
Democratic Progressive Party. http://www.dpp.org.tw/ .
For Li & Brewer, the foremost different between nationalism and patriotism is that patriotism is "love of the country" and "attachment to national values based on critical understanding" (Adorno et al. As cited in Wei, oy, Wells, ethen and Huang, 2006). Meanwhile, McConnachie (2003) believes that the main difference between the two is that "a patriot is one who expressed emotion - love. A patriot loves his country whereas a nationalist is someone who expresses his love or concern for his nation in an active political way - someone who takes a hands-on political approach."
McConnachie, a. (2003). Understanding Patriotism and Nationalism. Sovereignty, October 2003. etrieved March 4, 2009 from www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/articles/edit1/html.
Nationalism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. etrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com.
Patriotism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. etrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com.
Wei, L., oy, S., Wells, J., ethen, M., & Huang, C.T., (2006). Patriotism or Nationalism?: The…
McConnachie, a. (2003). Understanding Patriotism and Nationalism. Sovereignty, October 2003. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/articles/edit1/html.
Nationalism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com .
Patriotism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved March 4, 2009 at
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
These, and a combination of other issues, will cause Singaporeans to become more nationalistic and to revolt against a foreign presence. Toffler has been correct with past predictions; indications indicate that he may well be correct with this one too.
Singapore is already a diverse nation. Unlike Germany whose citizens saw themselves as German, Singapore's citizens see themselves in terms of their background races even if these background races have been in Singapore for already several generations. The four races have their own color, language, creed, and religion and have been long content to remain as this. Nationalism, therefore, seems unlikely to occur in a country that is so diversified -- and content with this diversity - as it already is. Moreover, Singapore is a main island that is surrounded by 60 islets. Nationalism has historically originated in countries that were geographically one solid bloc of land and…
Cy. Nationalism in Singapore? Aug. 8. 2008.
Kerr, a. Sticks and Stones and Lee Kuan Yew. http://http-server.carleton.ca/~gfrajkor/zine97/group2/kerr.html
Malik, a. The People's Friend. Feb. 4, 2011. burnrallytogether.blogspot.com/2011/02/case-for-national-socialism-in.html
Anyone who has ever talked to a relative who lived through that era, or read personal accounts of orld ar II knows that while the German forces were referred to as 'Germans,' the Japanese were called 'Japs.' Anti-Japanese propaganda often portrayed the Asian enemy in quite explicitly racist terms, because of the Japanese's 'foreign' racial status, in the eyes of most Caucasian-Americans of European ancestry. Unlike the Germans, the American government even allowed the internment of Japanese-Americans, solely because of their race, even though many Japanese-Americans fought loyally on the United States' side during the conflict. hile Germans are always 'Nazis' in films, the Japanese are always 'villainous Japs' (Beidler 1998, 12).
Noting the racism that was often exhibited in American propaganda, however, hardly excuses the racism that was also present in Japanese propaganda. One interesting subgenre of this phenomenon is in Japanese films like China Nights, which portrays the…
Beidler, Philip D. The Good War's Greatest Hits: World War II and American Remembering.
Atlanta: Georgia Press, 1998.
Chambers, John Whiteclay & David Culbert. World War II, Film, and History. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1996.
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…
America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm
Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275
World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm
World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053630
Causes of orld ar II
orld ar II was generated by a combination of worldwide economic distress, nationalism, and ineffective attempts to stem the tide of fascism. The unsatisfactory solution of the Versailles Treaty laid the groundwork for political unrest which eventually led to another mass upheaval throughout Europe, Asia, and most of the European colonies. The failure of appeasement to contain Hitler combined with the lack of an effective international governing structure to broker an agreement due to the weakness of League of Nations further exacerbated the existing problems simmering beneath the surface.
Although all nations suffered in the wake of the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, in Germany the suffering was particularly acute. Despite then-President oodrow ilson's desire for a peace without victors after orld ar I, France insisted that Germany be heavily penalized. The Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany by forcing it to assume responsibility for…
"World War II: Causes." History on the Net. August 14, 2014.
http://www.historyonthenet.com/ww2/causes.htm (accessed December 28, 2014).
Nationalism was a global trend by the time the Great War broke out. Each nation state developed its own national identity via the use of myths, symbols, and ideology that ranged from ethnic solidarity to political values. Nationalism in Germany became especially potent after the Franco-Prussian War, during which Bismarck wielded his political and military prowess in formidable ways. Crucial to winning the war campaign was a sense of national pride and identity, which Otto von Bismarck promoted through an idealized unity between disparate religious and cultural groups within the various German-speaking states. In addition to promoting a sense of regional identity, Bismarck also championed the vision of an epic, legendary, heroic German state grounded in a sense of power and prestige. Also characteristic to German nationalism was a sense of pride in the act of struggle itself, another point that Bismarck promoted through his speeches. German nationalism had been…
Bismarck, Otto von. The Imperial Proclamation, January 18, 1871
Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856
Otto von Bismark: Nationalist Speech. April 1, 1895. Retrieved online: https://kquazza.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/blood-and-iron-nationalist-speech.pdf
Johann Gustav Droysen: Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, 1848
Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison of the ork of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson
The objective of this study is to compare the work of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson and to answer as to which argument is the most persuasive for why nations and nationalism exist.
Definition of 'Nation'
Anderson (1991) defines the concept of nation to be such that results in theorists of nationalism being perplexed by three specific paradoxes include: (1) the objective modernity of nations to the historians eye vs. their subjective antiquity in the eyes of nationalists; (2) the formal universality of nationality as a socio-cultural concept -- in the modern world everyone can, should, will 'have a nationality as he or she has a gender vs. The irremediable particularity of its concrete manifestations, such that, by definition, 'Greek' nationality is sui generis; (3) the political power of nationalism vs. their philosophical poverty and even…
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.
Geertz, C. (n.d.) The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States.
Hobsbawm (1980) Nations and Nationalism Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laitin, DD (n.d. Identity in Formation: The Russian -- Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Cornell University Press. Ithaca and London.
French Quebec Nationalism
A major turning point in the history of Canada was the fall of Quebec which resulted in the transformation of a French colony into a ritish colony. Had it not happened, English would never have become the first language of the country. The battle of Quebec was one of the numerous wars fought between the ritish and the French over fur and land during the 18th century. The fall of Quebec ensured the control and domination of ritish in major parts of North America. New ideas were brought forward by new generations who came in power and redefined the political scenario of the province. The Quebec Act was drafted by the ritish government which motivated the growth of nationalism in Quebec and since then, the nationalist movement has remained powerful and dominated the politics of the province.
Troubles in Manitoba
In 1870, the ritish government introduced the…
Belanger, D. (2004). Henri Bourassa (1868-1953). Informally published manuscript, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal, QC. Retrieved from http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/bios/henribourassabio.htm
Crunican, P.E. (2012). Manitoba schools question. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/manitoba-schools-question
Gall, G.L. (2012). Quebec referendum (1995). Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/quebec-referendum-1995
Rene Levesque. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/337886/Rene-Levesque
For example, the conflict in former Yugoslavia is often studied as a case of ethnic conflict, and the Serbian atrocities against Bosnians is usually described as "ethnic cleansing." But Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians "are all South Slavs, sharing a common ethnic origin and speaking basically the same language: Serbocroatian" (Perlmutter). Serbs and Croatians share the same religion as well (with different denominations), while Bosnians, with the exception of their Muslim identity, have experienced a shared history with the other two. And all three are former Communists. Nevertheless, all three groups have identified themselves as different ethnicities during the conflict in the 1990s.
Dominique Moisi (2007) argues that, in addition to the problem of clash of civilizations, the world today faces a clash of emotions. There is a culture of fear, displayed by the est, of foreign nationals, of losing the identity in a complex world, of losing their economic power,…
Moisi, Dominique. "The Clash of Emotions." Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2007).
Psalidas-Perlmutter, Foulie. "The Interplay of Myths and Realities." Orbis 44.2 (2000): 237.
Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Implications for Cross-Strait Affairs
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the United States of America.
This story of the evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and its interaction with the process of modernization and democratization is important to understand. In spite of the common "roots" mainlanders and Taiwanese share, the Japanese colonization of Taiwan for half a century, the ill-conceived policy of the garrison government that questioned the loyalty of the Taiwanese and culminated in the February 28, 1947 massacre, and the domination of the government by mainlanders who accounted for only about twenty percent of the population together have given rise to this "peculiar kind" of nationalism on Taiwan. Once formed and released, Taiwanese nationalism was the major catalyst precipitating Taiwan to make a transition to democracy, which, in turn, empowered the Taiwanese electorate to…
Chun, A. (1994). "From Nationalism to Nationalizing: Cultural Imagination and State Formation in Postwar Taiwan." The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31.
Cohen, M. (1988). Taiwanese at the crossroads; human rights, political development and social change on the beautiful island. Washington: Asia Resource Center.
Gold, T. (1994). "Civil Society and Taiwan's Quest Identity." Cultural Change in Postwar
The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.
The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.
Muslim communities scattered about the…
Boose, Lynda E. 2002. Crossing the river drina: bosnian rape camps, turkish impalement, and serb cultural memory. Signs 28(1), 71-99.
Brinkman, Richard, L. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: dead or alive. Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 425-434.
Kuzio, Taras. (2008). Democratic breakthroughs and revolutions in five postcommunist countries: comparative perspectives on the fourth wave. Demokratizatsiya, 16(1), 97-109.
Molchanov, Mikhail, A. (2000). Post communist nationalism as a power resource: a russia-ukraine comparison. Nationalities Papers, 28(2), 263-288.
But Nazism was, in fact, an internationalist movement of expansion, much like the expansionist aims of the Soviet state. Similarly, what is most feared today is not Islamic nationalism, but rather Islamic fundamentalist internationalism, the result of the Arab Muslim world's "shallow-rooted, kleptocratic" authorities that preside over disenfranchised "impoverished Moslem populations" with little sense of national loyalty (Wiebe 204). In his conclusion, Wiebe argues for a weaker nation state with more deeply-rooted local and less expansionistic ties as the antidote to the negative effects of nationalism.
At the end of Wiebe's preface to his book, he writes: "my hope is not that you will come to like nationalism -- I am not its advocate -- but that you will come to see it as so thoroughly human that no simple judgment does it justice" (Wiebe xvii). However, while Wiebe may be fair in reproaching most American's poor sense of history…
Wiebe, Robert. Who we are: A history of popular nationalism. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2001.
While it was possible for Dolores to understand the plight of the asque people, to desire that they receive the freedom to speak their own language, maintain their own culture and be a self-determining nation of people, at the same time, for Dolores, the means simply did not justify the ends. History relates that even a twelve-year period of time was not enough time to dissipate the extremist type of revenge that the ETA is known for perpetrating upon those who oppose them and specifically those which this group views as traitorous to their cause. For a group that is so vehemently in support of their own right to be a group that is self-determined this group certainly did remove that choice when the life of Dolores Gonzalez was so heinously ended in front of her innocent child.
Mart'nez-Herrera, Enric (2002) Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in…
Mart'nez-Herrera, Enric (2002) Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979-2001, International Journal on Multicultural Societies, Vol. 4, No. 1, http://www.unesco.org/most/vl4n1martinez.pdf
Hooper, John. 'The Basques.' In the New Spaniards. London: Penguin, 2006. 231-51.
Arregi, Joseba I. And Crull, Adnra (1996) Basque Nationalism and the Spanish State in 1995. Fourth World Bulletin, Spring/Summer 1996. Online available at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/public/fwc/Issue10/Europe/basque-1.html.
Nationalism (nd) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism/ .
This makes it possible for the general public to comprehend that a community that seems to be strong can easily be divided by people's personal beliefs and by their backgrounds. It is very likely for individuals to express interest in detaching themselves from a group that they are associated with as a consequence of feeling that they do not actually belong to the respective community (Verdery, 232).
Jewish groups in Palestine considered that they were exposed to a series of threats as a result of the fact that they lived in mixed neighborhoods. They believe that they would be stronger if they had the opportunity to unite in a community that would no longer accept to be persecuted. Even with this, many Jews were hesitant about getting involved in a group that would act against Ottoman principles and feared that they would suffer if they adopted a nationalist attitude. The…
Baumgarten, Elias, "Zionism, Nationalism, and Morality," Retrieved December 19, 2011, from the Web Environment Website: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elias/zionism.htm
Campos, Michelle U. "BETW EEN "BELOVED OTTOMANIA" AND
"THE LAND OF ISRAEL": THE STRUGGLE
OVER OTTOMANISM AND ZIONISM AMONG
In this light, globalization is expressed through regionalism.
Regionalism can also be seen as a response to globalization. As different regions around the world start to share similar views and become cooperative with one another, regional loyalties and models become more accepted and promoted.
In some ways, globalization seems to drive regionalization. For example, globalization is widely blamed for diminishing the American dollar, which means that imports are no longer as attractive. While this is no so good for America, a long-term decline on the dollar will drive local suppliers to develop new capacities. In addition, as the price of oil and fuel rise due to transportation, local, pricier suppliers suddenly do not seem so expensive, as companies are starting to accept the real price that is paid for a good or service.
Globalab (2007) argues that there is no direct causal relationship between globalization and nationalism, but that the…
Bhagwati, Jagdish (2004). In Defense of Globalization. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Breuilly, John. (1993). Nationalism and the state. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Brym, R.J., ed. (1986) Regionalism in Canada. Toronto: Irwin.
Kacowitz, Alex. (December, 1998). Regionalization, Globalization, and Nationalism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Mills (n.d) explains that historians often dichotomize African nationalism into two distinct groups according to their long-term nationalist goals for post-independence Africa. The first type of group was termed as being the primary resistance, which was characterized as consisting of individuals whose goal was to reinstate the traditional African societies that existed prior to the advent of colonialism. The second type of group was termed as the secondary resistance, which consisted largely of Africa's intellectual elites who wished to develop modern civil societies within post-independence Africa. Mills noted that groups tended to often display both types of resistance tendencies, thus making the dichotomy inapplicable to every situation.
African nationalism came about as a strong reaction towards the unjust political, economic, and social domination of Africa by its European colonialist masters. Nationalists were affected by several ideological influences from outside Africa. Foremost among these influences was the ideology of Pan-Africanism. This…
African nationalism." Hutchinson's encyclopedia website. (2005). Retrieved April 18, 2005 at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029558.html
Mills, Wallace G. "Nationalist and independence movements in British colonies." (n.d.)
Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course317/13African_Nationalism.html
Mills, Wallace G. "Origins and development of African nationalism." (n.d.) Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course322/17African_natm.html
In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy had faced a great number of obstacles that would have impeded a united Italy, but for the movement of the leaders and the fighters who banded together under the same ideal. Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Italy itself was split into many states and kingdoms, in accordance to the different ethnic peoples of the country. Through the political activism engaged by such celebrated names as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour, Pallavicino and Victor Emmanuel II, and the people's enthusiasm to see their kingdoms united, Italian nationalism was not just a dream shared by many. In all respects, Italian nationalism also became a reality.
The Leaders of Italian Unification
Of the proponents regarding Italian unification, perhaps one of the most vocal of the group would be revolutionary activist Giuseppe Mazzini. As many nationalists believed, the strength of a nation came not from the…
Courchene (2004) also discusses the changing nature of relations between federal Canada and Quebec and suggests that increasing cooperation has become a new vision that is now being explored. Brown (2003) takes particular note of the actions being taken in Quebec, and he notes that the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) issued a paper "calling for a new federalism 'de concertation et de cooperation,' consisting of a better effort to manage global interdependence, a respect for the federal spirit (i.e. respect for provincial jurisdiction), a better fiscal balance between the federal and provincial governments, and more concerted interprovincial cooperation" (Brown, 2003, p. 6). In terms of how the Copuncil of the Federation, Brown finds that this may be little more than a continuation of the Annual Premiers' Conference under a different name, or it could lead to a return to the earlier practice seen in the Mulroney era when annual…
Brown, D.M. (2003). Getting Things Done in the Federation: Do We Need New Rules for an Old Game? Institute for Research on Public Policy (1).
Burelle, a. (2003). The Council of the Federation: From a Defensive to a Partnership Approach. Institute for Research on Public Policy (3 English).
Cameron, D. & Simeon, R. (2002). Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism. Publius 32, 2, 49-70.
Chennells, D. (2001). The Politics of Nationalism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
This is not a revelation to those alert, informed, intelligent citizens who pay attention to news broadcasts. Still, the ongoing media bias towards distinct racial groups is intolerable in democratic societies, whether the U.S., Australia, or Britain. An article in the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology (Voorhees, et al., 2007) states it very well in terms of the media portrayal of minorities in the U.S. Gulf Coast during and after Hurricane Katrina. Storm survivors (there were 1,500 deaths) indicated a "misrepresentation of minorities in media coverage" and this "systematic negative portrayal...contributes to...negative mental models, stereotypes, prejudices and ideologies about others, and hence," worst of all, "...indirectly [leads] to the enactment and reproduction of racism" (Voorhees, p. 418).
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black oman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview:…
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black Woman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html .
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview: Christiane Amanpour: 'Somehow I don't feel it
In my gut.' The Guardian. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.guardian.com.uk.
The ge of Colonialism was drawing to a close, as the spirit of nationalism swept over the subcontinent. s similar political movements took place throughout Europe and other parts of sia, India found itself in a unique position. India had been a diverse, heterogeneous region for centuries; even millennia. The nationalist movement highlighted the differences between the various ethnic groups in the subcontinent, revealing their core differences in political and social philosophy. Initial nationalist movements were led by the Indian National Congress Party, as well as the Muslim League. The Indian National Congress Party did not start out as being a Hindu organization, and never officially declared itself as such. Yet over time, the Congress Party became associated with Hindu goals. The Congress Party was founded as early as 1885, when it was a umbrella group for a diverse constituency. Their only shared goal seemed to be the…
Although most Muslims did support the Indian National Congress Party, a large number sought more robust representation in the nationalist movement and supported instead the All-India Muslim League. Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim Indians started brewing during the early 20th century. In 1905, the state of Bengal was divided -- partitioned along religious lines. Indians did not approve of the British interference with their nationalist movement, seeking instead of more holistic political rubric under which to form a new nation. The populist revolt forced the British to reunify Bengal. After British conscripted Indian soldiers to fight in World War One, the anger against the colonialist government grew. The British passed ever-stricter acts in an attempt to quell the civic unrest. Protests that began peacefully ended in violence on the part of the British government.
Gandhi's model was appealing to Indians on many levels and from many backgrounds. Satyagraha hearkened to the roots of Indian philosophy, which transcended sectarian beliefs. Non-violence and peaceful coexistence with neighbors had been part of the Indian culture for centuries prior to the Raj. The Raj seemed to exacerbate ethnic and religious differences, as if a "divide and conquer" methodology was used by the Crown in order to rule over the complex colony. The Indian Nationalist movement therefore became linked inextricably with Gandhi's nonviolence movement. Gandhi became a model for India's future: one that was free of colonial rule but which would also be poised to be a world leader.
Unfortunately, continued clashes between Hindu and Muslim citizens led to an imperfect solution in the subcontinent: partition. As early as the 1930s, the foundation for Pakistan was laid. There were many stones left unturned in the northern subcontinent, though: as Bangladesh later separated itself and the Kashmir issue has yet to be solved peacefully.
Power & Nationalism
Koreans seems to have grown tired of the American presence in their country. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status? The American presence in the Korean Peninsula dates from the Korean War, which was the first major war after the Second World War. The war started in 1950 with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in 1949, however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…
Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)
http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)
rise of the nationalist faction of Taiwan and enumerates on its implication on the Taiwan-U.S. political relations. It has 9 sources in APA format.
The evolution of the Taiwanese has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the U.S.
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and the process of modernization and democratization
Ever since the Chinese Nationalist Party declared Taiwan as a free province after the victory of the Chinese revolution, Taiwan has remained as a political flashpoint between countries like China and the U.S. The fact that the superbly growing economic status of the country has been a factor that elicits international support does not come as a surprise because in the new world order, economic or political hegemony over such 'profitable' countries is a factor that can be quite advantageous to the super powers like the U.S. Off late, the tensions between countries like the…
Taifa Y, (2004). Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Ramifications for Cross-strait Relations, retrieved at http://www.cnponline.org/Press%20Releases/Events/AbstractYu.htm. On March 5, 2004
Zeitlin A (2000). China-Taiwan conflict endangers Hong Kong free media, journalists charge, The Freedom Forum Online, retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=2964on March 6, 2004
Baker, WB (2003). Cross-Strait Paradox: The China - Taiwan Tensions," retrieved at http://students.washington.edu/wwbaker3/Documents/School/ChinaTaiwan.htm. On March 6, 2004
Leach, PT., (2003) "Bridge Across the Taiwan Strait"; ProQuest-Journal of Commerce
Munich and the Role of Nationalism in Sports
Sports figures have always been a glorified group within traditional societies. From cultures around the world, sports stars are honored and praised much more so than other members of the societal group. As a result, sports has become just as much of a mythological part of a nation's culture as it is a practical source of entertainment. hus, a nation's sports teams and power can have an impact on the society's sense of nationalism. his is exactly what is seen in the movie Munich, where Israel feels the need to violently avenge the murder of many of its sports superheroes. he film clearly shows how sports teams and events can help bolster a strong sense of nationalism, especially within the context of international competitions. his same sentiment remains the same today, although the degree to which it affects nationalism may have been…
The film was a shocking revelation of secret events after a major international incident. Directed by Steven Spielberg, the 2005 film is a historical rendition of actual events that occurred in the early 1970s. Black September terrorists had attacked and killed many Israeli athletes in the 1972 summer Olympics. The group was mainly Palestinian descent, thus fueling the tension between Israel and Palestine and impacting the overall feeling of nationalism within the Israeli state. In response, the Israeli government secretly approved assassins to hunt down members of the Black September group, the Mossad. However, the movie turns dark after several assassinations. The main character, Avner begins to openly question the morality of the actions he and his team is undertaking. The end of the film shows the actions undertaken by the Mossad as nationalistic revenge, but it can also be seen as an act of terrorism in itself.
The film presents interesting concepts in regards to the relationship between nationalism and sports in 1972. Clearly, the era was one where there was an enormous source of tension between Israel and the Arabic world. In that sense, the summer Olympic Games presented Israel a chance to prove itself as a superior country over its international competitors. However, this was cut short with the massacre of the many athletes that died at the hands of Palestinian terrorists. What resulted was a massive blow to the nationalism of Israel that then prompted a need for revenge. This clearly shows a strong connection between sports performance within an international context and the ability for a country to have pride within its own nationalism.
This continues even today, as it has existed for almost as long as international sports competitions have as well. In today's international competitions, sports figures represent their societies' sense of nationalism. American athletes proudly wear the colors of the American flag, as well as other countries do so with their own respective colors. This shows a strong connection between presenting pride in ones' nationalism in an international sports venue. Victory only increases that sense of nationalistic pride. However, today it is clear that most societies do not go to such an extreme to protect and avenge their nation's sense of nationalism. Since the 1970s, there has been a claim of nationalism within sports, but not to the degree that is exhibited in the movie itself. The events in 1972 were an extreme case, and although there remain strong ties between nationalism and sports, there is much lesser of a degree of retaliation when that nationalistic pride is damaged.
By nationalism they meant not only the cultivation of love for their land and nation but also the development of an identity -- A sense of who Africans were and what they stood for which would be based on nothing that white people had been teaching but on something that would be exclusive to Africa and African consciousness.
The new sense of self would then reflect in all the actions of African people including their writings. It was believed that oppressors so dominate the minds and souls of the conquered people, that the latter start believing in their inferiority and try to please their oppressor by producing work that would be more universal in its subject. However that had to change if Africans wanted to believe in themselves. They would need to address their own people, their own problems and their own cultures and write for their own audiences which…
Israel has a long standing history of conflicts of a religious nature with the Palestinians, but also with Lebanon and other Middle Eastern states; despite the numerous attempts at peace, armed conflicts still occur; this brings instability and fear not only in the political and civilian life, but also to business operations
Similar to any other global region, Israel is characterized by both opportunities, as well as threats. The decision of whether or not to expand one's business operations into this land is a complex one and depends on a series of forces. For this situation however, the advice is that of launching operations within Israel. The rationale behind this recommendation is a dual one and refers primarily to the multitude of benefits revealed by the western Asian country. The second reason is pegged to the historically proved ability of Israel to succeed in adverse circumstances.
Israel, County Studies U.S., 2009, http://countrystudies.us/israel/77.htm last accessed on October 15, 2009
Israel Culture, Israel Public Relations, http://www.israelpr.com/doingbusiness.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
Israel -- Infrastructure, Power and Communications, Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2008, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Israel-INFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-and-COMMUNICATIONS.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
The World Factbook -- Israel, Central Intelligence Agency, 2009, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/is.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
When we consider the career of Rabindranath Tagore as a "nationalist leader," it is slightly hard to find comparable figures elsewhere in world-history. Outside of India, Tagore is most famous as a poet: he won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature for his engali poetry collection Gitanjali. Perhaps the closest contemporary analogue to Tagore would be the Irish poet and "nationalist leader" W.. Yeats, who would win the Nobel Prize for Literature ten years after Tagore. Ironically enough, it was Yeats who introduced Tagore to Europe, quite literally -- the English translation of Gitanjali had an introduction by Yeats recommending Tagore in the highest possible terms to European readers. And Yeats was a "nationalist leader" in the same way as Tagore: Yeats, after all, believed that his own poetry and drama in favor of Irish independence had inspired the 1916 Irish "Easter Rebellion" against the ritish Empire, and…
Guha, Ramachandra. Makers of Modern India. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.
Metcalf, Barbara, and Metcalf, Thomas. A Concise History of India. London: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Nationalism and Anthony Smith's anti-primordialism in his view of modern Asiatic history and the construction of what is 'Asia'
Nationalism and what makes a nation a cohesive and functioning unit has been one of the essential questions of modern political philosophy, particularly in Asia today, where in India, China, Tibet, Japan, Vietnam, and Korea, a plurality of different regional and religious identities fight to dominate particular national territories. Anthony D. Smith is one of most important contemporary scholars of nationalism and is the author of many books on the subject including such classics as his 1986 The Ethnic Origins of Nations, a book of supreme relevance in particular for the region, given the frequent rhetorical role of ethnic identity in a people's claim to territory and nationhood.
According to Smith, the idea of essential ethnic origins of nations has caused some scholars to assume nationalism and nations as preexisting entities,…
Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India: a case study of Punjab. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Smith, Anthony D. "Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations." Nations and Nationalism 1. Bo. 1 (1994): 3-23.
Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1986.
Nationalism as a Construct
Emotional attachment and loyalty to one's nation are concepts that are strongly related o the respective individual's comfort zone. Both South Korea and North Korea are the product of centuries of individuals coming together and sharing their passions, their interpretation of the world, and generally creating an environment that they identified with. Henry H. EM makes it possible for his readers to gain a more complex understanding of the factors that encouraged these people to get actively involved in wanting to promote their cultural values.
Even from the time when Koreans were accustomed to answering to an aristocratic form of government, there were songs meant to have them identify with their culture and to be proud of it. The fact that Koreans shared cultural values during the Koryo period meant that they began to think of themselves as a united community and that they started to…
Not only does this benefit them as a port destination, but the influx of trade goes through Taiwan with the majority of manufactured goods of the Pacific region flowing through their ports. Since Taiwan has a favorable relationship with the Western states, it has been able to absorb the growth of the East Asian region and serve as an effective broker for traffic of goods. Thus it plays a central role within the region as a broker between lesser developed nations and the developed super powers.
Not only does Taiwan hold an enviable position within global trade, but it also has developed its internal capacity to become a manufacturing force. Taiwan has focused its industries on two key developments, high end technology products including semi-conductors and high end technology product development. The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company is the world's largest independent semiconductor foundry. As a joint venture through subsidized state…
Lee, Pei-shan, "Regime Transition and Economic Governance: The End of Development. Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Political Science Association, National
Sun Yat-sen University. 9-10 December 2000.
Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question (London: Polity Press, 1999), p.241.
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…
Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for ews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.
Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many ews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between ews and Arabs.
At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of ewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that ews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…
Judea Pearl. "Early Zionists and Arabs," in Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008, p. 75.
Martin Gilbert. Israel: A History. London: Black Swan, 1998, p. 16.
Colin Shindler. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 12.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
Alberto Williams and Nationalism
Introduction & Brief History Lesson
Generally speaking, the term nationalism is used to describe a sense of identification which individuals within a society or culture share regarding their state of residence. Most countries are characterized by this identification to some degree or other and Argentina is no exception. However, if one considers the fact that Argentina has been an independent country since 1810, what is striking is how long a true sense of nationalism took to fully blossom (Douglas). Specific to the topic of this paper, Alberto Williams was not born until 1862. Furthermore, his music would not have been able to affect the listeners in his country until he reached adulthood and was able to actually compose it. Then one must consider that the music would have had to have been accepted by Argentine society and then disseminated across a wide enough area of the…
19th Century." Argentour.com Web Site. 11 Apr. 2003. http://www.argentour.com/historia/19th.htm
Alberto Ginastera." Fundacion Ostinato. 11 Apr. 2003. http://members.tripod.com/~ostinato/ginas.html
Alberto Williams (1862-1852): Music for Piano, Vol 1 - Primera Sonata Argentina, Op. 74."
11 Apr. 2003. http://www.recordsinternational.com/RICatalogFeb00.html
Cosmopolitanism International Law and the Persistence of the Sovereign Nation-State
Seyla enhabib can only point to the European Union as an effective and practical example of transnationalism or post-nationalism in today's world. International law and organizations have certainly become more important than they were in 1945, but integration has proceeded much farther in Europe than any other region of the world. Today, this has become a political, social and cultural arrangement, not simply a free trade zone established to create larger markets for capitalist interests. Most rational observers would agree that this has been beneficial for all concerned and that the condition of Europe today is far preferable to that in 1918 or 1945. Will Kymlicka has no argument against European integration per se, and even welcomes the expansion of liberal nation-states to areas once ruled by fascists and Communists. His main argument with ehabib is that the nation-state cannot…
Benhabib, Seyla. "The Philosophical Basis of Cosmopolitanism" and "Democratic Iterations" in Seyla Benhabib (ed). Another Cosmopolitanism (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 13-44 and 45-82.
Kymlicka, Will. "Liberal Nationalism and Cosmopolitan Justice" in Another Cosmopolitanism, pp.128-46.
Jeremy Waldron and Melissa S. Williams (eds). Toleration and its Limits (New York University Press, 2008).
Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.
Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.
The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…
But Bush administration as always failed to see that nationalism was the actual force and by using flawed policy to counter terrorism, it aroused intense nationalism even among people in which it was formally absent. Fundamentalists have thus stood to benefit from the flawed U.S. policy because it enraged the general public in Muslim nations that had previously been speaking against Fundamentalist. They now have a keener and clearer sense of a nation and they are as much against U.S. policies and fundamentalists have always been. "In invading Iraq, the Bush administration made a gift of Iraqi nationalism to the Islamic fundamentalists. Without nationalism, the fundamentalist cause is weak." This consistent pattern can be observed in previous cases of terrorism too. United States needs to learn from its repeated failed attempts to curb terrorism and this will help in the creation of a more effective U.S. policy.
Cesaire's Discourse On Colonialism And Wild Thorns
The novel describes living conditions under foreign or colonial occupation. It also describes nationalist sentiment among colonized peoples. Using material from the novel, as well as Cesaire's Discourse on Colonialism, discuss the proposition that nationalism is a solution to the colonial problem. Using specific examples from the texts, discuss how the authors present the relationship between colonialism, capitalism, and nationalism. How are the authors' positions on these issues similar or different? Do the authors provide hopeful representations of nationalism and capitalism? Why, or why not?
An easy, pure, and smug sense of African or Palestinian nationalism offers no solution to the overall problem of how to construct a national identity and a decolonialized mindset in one's people. Recent historical events have illustrated that an unquestioning assertion of national identity leads to horror and bloodshed -- but if one cannot accept the oppressor's vision…
Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2006). A concise history of the middle east. Boulder:
Kinninmont, J. (2008). The politics of chaos in the middle east. Middle East Policy, 15(4), 161-
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Through policies of systematic discrimination and persecution of national minorities, Serb nationalists indirectly strengthened the radical wing of Albanian nationalist movements. The wing was represented by KSA (Kosovo Liberation Army). Most of the KSA leadership, Hedges writes, has formerly been imprisoned for separatist activities, and many were imprisoned by the Tito's communist government. The KSA's ideological base, Hedges writes, comes from a bizarre mixture of fascist and communist factions. Later in the 1990s, KSA began to receive financial and logistical support from Islamist radical groups in the Gulf States as well.
Hedges argues that KSA initially did not have the support of the majority. The radical group began to garner support after the policies pursued by Ibrahim Rugova have allegedly failed. The continuing mistreatment of Kosovo Albanians by the Serbian state and the inability of the international community to resolve the issue (for example, the European Union's recognition of Yugoslavia…
Hedges, Chris. "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs 78.3 (1999): 24-42.
Mertus, Julie. "Slobodan Milosevic: Myth and Responsibility." OpenDemocracy (16 March 2006).
Discuss the problem of how people feel excluded from society and how that leads to rebellion.
Within the fabric of every society are groups of people bonded together through their similar values, culture, race etc. The groups that bond together are prone to exclude others because of their differences. At times these similarities and differences work well together to produce a productive feeling; however, at times the feeling becomes negative and affects the society adversely as one group begins to feel resentment towards the other. This resentment can lead to full fledged rebellion and usually takes place when the basic needs of the group are affected. Consider feelings of nationalism, racism, economic upheaval all of which can individually or collectively combine to create a vortex of aggressive emotions.
In the French Revolution the masses rebelled against the aristocracy as they were getting richer at the expense of the poor.…
1. Gellner, Ernest Nations and Nationalism New Perspectives on the Past Series Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983
2. Collins, Eamon Killing Rage Grata Publications, 1998
3. Frantz Fanon. Concerning Violence. In The Wretched of the Earth. New York, 1961, p. 38-39/53-54. Retrieved March 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.hyperghetto.de/texts/fanon/concerning_violence