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Desert Indian Woman: Stories and Dreams, by Frances Manuel and Deborah Neff. Specifically, it will discuss and include Frances Manuel's tribal origins, traditions, and culture of this American Indian woman in the past, present, and future, along with contemporary issues as she functions in Tribal and non-Indian societies. Frances Manuel is a woman caught between the culture of the past and the society of the future. As she struggles to keep her native traditions alive, she watches her people change, and must change with them in order to survive.
DESET INDIAN WOMAN
Frances Manuel is a Papago Indian (they call themselves Tohono O'odham, or Desert Indians), from southern Arizona, who was born in the Indian village of Ko:m Wawhai in 1912. She is a storyteller, a basket maker, and a woman vitally concerned with making sure the legends and stories of her people are recorded for posterity. She says," I…… [Read More]
For the most part, the evolutionary Era reinforced many of the roles women played in society. Native American women would continue to lose status as the country grew and they continued to be pushed from their native lands. African-American women would neither gain nor lose ground; they were still slaves with all the subjugation associated with their status. White women did not gain any material freedoms, such as owning property or the ability to divorce, but they did gain a measure of independence in that some women began to speak out against wrongs, such as slavery. Later, more women would begin to fight for women's rights, and women would begin to write, speak out, and discuss the changes they wanted to see in society.
In the beginning, this short work indicates the prejudice of men toward women who did not take their "work" seriously, that is, the work of taking…… [Read More]
For Indian women, it thus meant even more than losing their race rights, it also meant losing their traditional gender rights.
3. Dolphus, a Cheyenne River Lakota Native American, says that "I was supposed to attend a Halloween party. I decided to dress as a nun because nuns were the scariest things I ever saw." She has a very plastic way of remembering what the boarding school experience meant for Native American women. Going of to Christian schools from tender ages, often no older than four or five, meant that these individuals would be separated from their families for a whole year, with rare visits mainly due to boarding rules and affordability for the Native American family. On the other hand, many have witnessed abuses from boarding schools and have later told accounts of their mistreatment there. From all these point-of-views, boarding schools were definitely not a positive experience and…… [Read More]
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws…… [Read More]
Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.
To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.
In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…… [Read More]
1896 saw the expansion of the American Jewess with the opening of a New York office, though the content of the magazine appeared largely unchanged at the beginning of 1897. The January issue of the publication contains many articles that were themed similarly to the previous issues of the magazine, though there is a decidedly more practical nature to many of the articles included in the issue. "Household hints" and similar sections had been regular appearances in the magazine since its inception, but this issue contains articles on creating happiness in the home and on the history of the shoe -- with a definite feminist-Jewish perspective. hile still engaging in abstract, intellectual and scholarly pursuits, the content of the magazine is also shifting towards direct daily usefulness.
The issues began to shorten noticeably as 1897 progressed, and as the number of articles depleted the ratio of directly targeted articles…… [Read More]
Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…… [Read More]
However, although his identity is false, the goodness he has done for the Native population is true, and although he has lied about his past, his lies have not hurt his community, rather they have been a source of healing. The priest's goodness while a priest, however, is one reason why he finds the dissemblance of members of his community so frustrating. In contrast to the life-sustaining lies of Father Damien, that help others with the fullness of a community-sustained myth or holy legend, Sister Leopolda, a nun on the reservation, has made a claim to have Christ's stigmata simply to secure her own sainthood for selfish reasons, in a way that divides the community. She lies in a form that sustains gender stereotypes of women needing to physically suffer to serve as well.
This is one reason why Father Damien believes the woman's actions are evil as well as…… [Read More]
One of the most underserved populations in America with respect to health care is Native Americans. This community has a higher burden of illness, injury and premature death, and the health care needs of this population are seldom part of policy discussions because of its relatively small population (Katz, 2004). More are uninsured than most other groups as well, which creates problems with respect to access to care. Katz (2004) notes that almost half of low-income Native Americans are uninsured (prior to the ACA), and that over half of this group has incomes more than 200% below the poverty line, the impact of lack of access is widespread.
From a structure level, the US government has responsibility for providing health care to members of federally recognized tribes, and this is carried out by the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS is known to be chronically underfunded – in…… [Read More]
Modern research on the subject shows that "Native photogenic self-portraits of either gender were rare until relatively recently, perhaps even culturally inconceivable before extreme circumstances encouraged this self-inflicted invasion of privacy," (Rushing 136). Thus, this rise in popularity shows how the art of Native American women is contributing to the indigenous recovery movement that asks people of all indigenous peoples to honor and continue their ancient heritage. Modern artistic expressions of Native American women then attest to the indigenous recovery movement and bring a new light to ancient cultural traditions. They create their art not only for an external audience, but for the internal tribal societies; "many Native women photographers see their prime audience as Native people," (Rushing 79).
Thus, both ancient and contemporary art of Native American women presents the uniqueness of life in tribal societies. Such art is a direct testament to the practicality and aesthetic elements of…… [Read More]
Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, and Mary Jamison coped with captivity in their own way. The stories of their captivity revealed the great variety of customs among native American through the greatly different treatment afforded to the three women. Depending on the customs of the tribe that they encountered, or the specific political situation, each of the women was treated differently as either prisoners of war, slaves, or adopted as family members. Natives took captives in order to show their resistance to the settler's occupation of their land, as a custom to increase the members of their tribe, or even for monetary gain.
Mary hite Rowlandson, wife of Puritan minister Joseph Rowlandson, was captured by native Americans in February of 1676. During this time, King Philip, the leader of the ampanoag tribe of southern Massachusetts organized a rebellion against the incursion of white settlers on native land. In total 23 settlers…… [Read More]
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…… [Read More]
Symbolism in "The Origin of Stories"
In "The Origin of All Stories" we can see an example of the importance that the Seneca -- a Native American tribe -- placed in their oral tradition, stories, as well as symbolism. Symbolism, especially, figures prominently in "The Origin of All Stories." It is the figurative device through which this story impresses upon readers the importance of storytelling to the Seneca people. Literally, storytelling formed the basis of the sense of history that the Seneca possessed. ithout it, vital cultural information could not have been passed down from generation to generation. The purpose of this essay is to examine some of the usage of symbolism in "The Origin of All Stories" and detail how those examples of symbolism demonstrate the centrality of the oral tradition to the Seneca people.
To begin, I should make it clear what it means that the Seneca had…… [Read More]
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…… [Read More]
Choose (1) Native Ameican tibe esiding continental United States (Lowe 48 states) time Euopean contact. Reseach aspect chosen tibe's cultue histoy. Topics eseached include limited: Descibing tibe's pe-Columbian histoy, including settlement dates cultual details.
Comanche Indians: Histoy and belief systems
The Plains Indian tibe of the Comanche, accoding to anthopological and linguistic evidence, began as a hunte-gathee mountain tibe "who oamed the Geat Basin egion of the westen United States" (Lipscomb 2012). They wee one of the ealiest Native Ameican tibes to acquie hoses, and became famed fo thei powess as ides. The Comanche acquied hoses faily ealy -- in the late 17th centuy -- and this gave the tibe both militay powe and mobility. "By moving south, they had geate access to the mustangs of the Southwest. The wam climate and abundant buffalo wee additional incentives fo the southen migation. The move also facilitated the acquisition of Fench…… [Read More]
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…… [Read More]
In general, both sides fought using impromptu raids and very vicious and undercutting tactics. However, this was the traditional fighting method used by Native Americans during this particular era and could be understood in terms of their cultural perspective.
The fifth criteria of just warfare is that "war must be the only possible means of righting the wrong done." This particular standard is another very flexible standard for warfare. oth sides of any conflict must justify their actions as "last resort" even if other opportunities were open for negotiation. However, in this historical context it could be argued that war was inevitable. This is because population tension within the eastern border mandated that a push by the colonials west of the Ohio River was inevitable. As a result, land that was traditionally Native American would ultimately get taken away from their ownership by the colonists. This it is an unavoidable…… [Read More]
" In other words, there will be land and between "firmament" there will be water. Continents and oceans were created this way. It is interesting to note that the Christian God spoke but the Sioux Creating Power sang. The Native Peoples had creative ideas.
Sioux Creation Story / Christian Creation Story: At first, the animals and people drowned in the Sioux story. Then the Creating Power pulled four animals from his pipe bag: a loon, an otter, a beaver and turtle. Soon there also came "the shapes of men and women." In the Christian story, God created heaven and then He also created: grass, fruit trees, seasons, stars, "great whales" and "every living creature" that moves, including birds. On the sixth day "God created man in his own image…male and female created he them." Then He "breathed" the breath of life into the man and humanity was born.
The similarities…… [Read More]
Their neutrality across time has granted them with a long-lasting and strong community.
hat is intriguing about the Zuni people is that their language does not resemble any other language of the neighboring Pueblos. Moreover, they are the only people in the world to speak the Zuni language. (Minnesota State University Mankato)
The Pueblo society has usually been ruled in a theocratic manner, with the head of the tribe also being the priest of the tribe. The Zuni community has also been extremely religious and has kept most of its religious traditions to this day. In the Zuni religion, everything in the world is united under one spirit and gods are still present in the lakes of Arizona and New Mexico. (Minnesota State University Mankato)
During a Zuni religious festival the tribe chiefs and the shamans pray together to the gods. Their prayer is intended to praise the gods, which…… [Read More]
Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…… [Read More]
ASIAN-AmericanS & SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES OF POVETY, ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTHCAE SEVICES, FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTACEPTION PACTICES
The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic issues of poverty, access to quality health care services, family planning and contraception devices among Asian-Americans.
Today's health care environment in the United States is a setting with a great diversity of patients of many race, ethnic and cultural groups and today's practitioners must be knowledgeable about providing health care services that are effective and that assist their patients.
Family Planning Disparities
The work of Dehlendorf, odriguez, Levy, Borrero and Stinauer (2010) reports in regards to family planning disparities, "Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this…… [Read More]
The Seinfeld “Native American” scene from Season 5, Episode 10 illustrates several sociological concepts. Like most episodes of Seinfeld, this one highlights Erving Goffman’s (1956) concept of embarrassment and social organization, as well as Goffman’s (1959) analysis of self-presentation and dramaturgy. In this scene, Jerry buys Elaine a “Cigar Store Indian,” a “kitchy” and darkly humorous relic from the past, from a time in which sensitivity to diversity, cross-cultural awareness, and political correctness were not yet normative. A “Cigar Store Indian” is a stereotypical representation of a Native American, and is understandably offensive especially to people from Native American backgrounds. It also just so happens that Elaine’s friend Winona is Native American, and Jerry also has a crush on Winona. His excited purchase of the Cigar Store Indian represents a major social faux pas, something that is not normative, and an act that causes embarrassment to Winona, Elaine, and also…… [Read More]
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…… [Read More]
Native Americans and those non-Indian-American settlers have very different traditions for recording history. The Native Americans live in an oral culture that records history and important information in language. This is common in societies that lack the written language. For many with the written language, it is difficult to relate to the accuracy of cultures that use an oral tradition to record knowledge. The record of written language dates back many of thousands of years and have been embedded in a cultural conscience. If you have grown up in a culture in which writes down its important information, it can be hard for you to fully appreciate other traditions.
I think the primary thesis can this argument can be related to some of the same kind of trends that are occurring today as communication mediums evolve. As email has replaced written letters in mainstream culture, the appreciation for…… [Read More]
Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver. Specifically it will discuss how Kingsolver portrays Native American and Hispanic people in the novel. Codi, the main character in "Animal Dreams," returns to her small hometown of Grace, Arizona, after a long absence. She learns to love her past and her family during her return, and she encounters her high school sweetheart, a Native American who wants to settle down with her. Throughout the novel, Kingsolver portrays Hispanic and Native Americans favorably, and even idealistically, but her writing style and devotion to her subjects make these idealistic portrayals succeed in the novel.
Codi and her family are Hispanics, although Kingsolver never really states this in the novel. It becomes clear as the novel progresses and the culture of Grace becomes known. Their real names are Hispanic, many of the townspeople are Hispanic, and their celebrations are all based on Hispanic celebrations, such as the…… [Read More]
Even though many sought change, it took many decades for their reform to take hold and of course, like all change there were many set backs along the way. One popular writer of the time quipped that the women of New York City should be paid as street sweepers for each stroll they took. Reform of the era's fashions may have been hard to come by because dress reform was a dangerous topic. The Victorian era was a male dominated culture intent on maintaining the boundaries between the masculine and feminine genders.
The United States in the nineteenth century was a time when abandoning the accepted norms of fashion could provoke violence and ridicule. Even clothing for children was slow to change. Infants were almost habitually dressed in long night gowns and older children in both urban and rural families wore poorly fitted dress like clothes until they could work…… [Read More]
On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.
In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…… [Read More]
The specific attitude toward women in medieval times was that they were inferior to men. Generally, women were taught that they should be meek and obedient to their fathers and husbands. This view of women was consistent to women of mythology in many ways. Many of the myths and legends created were directed towards women, to teach them lessons in humility and obeisance. They explained the social laws and rules which women had to obey, despite their influence over their husbands.
Medieval women had major responsibilities and were not at all inferior to men in terms of daily effort. Most worked and did not stay at home. Many toiled alongside their families in the fields, and some were employed in workshops or were trades-women. omen sometimes had the responsibility of running large estates, due to the death of a husband. They settled local disputes and arranged estate finances. They…… [Read More]
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…… [Read More]
As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)
Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…… [Read More]
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…… [Read More]
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…… [Read More]
Women and Acts of Violent Crimes in the Year Of
The increased involvement of women involved in violent crimes in the year of 2013 has led to the development of more equitable services in a system primarily created from research based on male adolescent offenders (Sondheimer, 2001). Studying women and violent crimes has been crucial to understanding their acts compared to men. Statistics show that there is a growing amount of violence coming from women in the past two years when compared to women. Since 2012 the amount of female defendants convicted of felonies in State courts has grown at more than 2 times the rate of rise in male defendants. In 2013 an estimated 960,000 women were under the care, control, or custody of correctional agencies & probation or parole organizations verseeing 75% of these offenders in the community. The entire equals a rate of around 1 woman involved…… [Read More]
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…… [Read More]
Some writers had been overwhelmed by the sudden changes brought by the Harlem Renaissance and they preferred writing about certain things which didn't involve it. Sometimes they chose to write about a place in the U.S. which had a special effect on them at some point of their lives.
3. Black people had not been the only ones struggling to receive credit for their writings during the 1920s, as it had been also hard for women to become appreciated in a majority of men writers. Despite having to fight the severe gender discrimination which existed during the period, many American women writers managed to become successful.
Bess Streeter Aldrich is one of the women who succeeded in getting a positive feed-back from a public that had not been accustomed with women writers. Aldrich's writing "A Lantern in Her Hand" had won her international recognition for having created a great literary…… [Read More]
American Modernism and the Edenic Themes
Langston Hughes and Jay Gatsby: Different Strokes for Different Folks in the Search for an Edenic orld
The search for Eden has always had an eternal quality since the development of primordial man. At times, this search has manifested itself as a quest for a promised land full of natural resources, while at others, it has taken the form of a journey seeking social acceptance and harmony. Either which way, man's search for Eden has always been motivated by a desire to secure material and emotional well-being. Though this search is not unique to the people of America, the promise held out by a vast, virgin continent and new beginnings led to the belief that a life in the pursuit of wealth and happiness was possible here. This great 'American Dream,' however, soon proved as susceptible to human greed, bigotry, and the struggle for…… [Read More]
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]
A black woman walking up to the counter at Macy's will be a customer, not an American-American customer; a Latino buying a car at a used car lot in Memphis won't be a Mexican-American he will be a customer. That's how it should be.
THREE: Why is the focus so different between male authors and female authors? For the same reason that men see the world from a very different lens than women see the world. Naomi Wolf has a very good perspective on why there is such a dramatic difference between what men write about and what women write about, and I agree with her wholeheartedly. There were archaic yet potent attitudes toward women a century ago, Wolf explains, in which "normal female activity, especially the kind that would lead women into power, was classified as ugly and sick." In fact, there were whispers that if a woman engaged…… [Read More]
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…… [Read More]
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]
American Orwellian Tyranny
Although the apocalyptic vision of the future that Orwell presented in 1984 has not yet occurred, some of the most chilling concepts he described are gradually becoming doctrinal pillars of law in the United States. An analysis of contemporary society reveals that an Orwellian manipulation of language is causing a dramatic shift in the way people think and is exerting tyrannical control over the common American. This control is being brought about by newly formed standards of speech backed by governmental regulation and which commands that government approved behavior be displayed. These events parallel the control that Orwell's "Big Brother" (1) exerted on the populace in 1984 but which is commonly referred to today as political correctness.
Three of the most potent ideas discussed in Orwell's 1984 are "doublethink" (3), the destruction of actual events (17) and "thoughtcrime" (8). These ideas work collaboratively to bring about the…… [Read More]
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]
French and the Native American: A Mutually Beneficial elationship
When considering the history of the United States and its inception, the most common conception is of Native American tribes being tortured, murdered, and generally emaciated from their contact with the Europeans. And certainly, this was generally the case. However, in the often sad history of contact between the new entrants into the Americas and the native tribes, there are also a few sparks of light, where the native tribes and Europeans in fact benefited from their interactions with each other. Although these benefits were often not without their complications, the relationships between the French and the native tribes with whom they came into contact were generally of a far less violent and murderous nature than most other Indian-European interactions. Indeed, the mutual benefits of these relationships began based upon the fur trade and later progressed to intermarriage and intercultural relationships.…… [Read More]
ho is Yellow oman? Unfortunately for the fussy reader who prefers everything in a narrative to be neat and orderly and clear-cut, this is a question that has many different answers. But as difficult as it is to define yellow woman in specific terms, one can make several general observations about her. For starters, there is a pluralistic quality to yellow woman. That is to say, yellow woman is a metaphor for many different things.
In the preface to the Yellow oman stories in the collection, Spider oman's Granddaughters, this fact is pointed out, "Yellow oman, like the tradition she lives in, goes on and on. She lives in New Mexico (or that's what they call it at present), around Laguna and other Keresan pueblos as well. She is a Spirit, a Mother, a blessed ear of corn, an archetype, a person, a daughter of a main clan,…… [Read More]
Perhaps she realized her husband did not really love her. or, she may have realized that her married her simply to convert her, and she chafed at giving up her own culture and roots. Probably, she followed him willfully as his wife (and as a woman's duty), but she could have found that marriage without love is not nearly as satisfying as a loving relationship, and she may have been disappointed and disillusioned, something that clearly shows in her proud features. Whatever the painting explores, it shows a rigid and seemingly unhappy woman, and this seems to mirror many women's lives at the time. They were subservient to men, and even more, they played little role in most of society, and so, they were not masters of their own fates or well being. They could not own property, they could not vote, they could not hold office, and most of…… [Read More]
The number of people incarcerated in the United States has been on the rise and women have greatly contributed to this trend. Through their increased numbers in jail it is estimated that their numbers grow annually by about 8%. Women from minority groups form the major part of this population. These are the women who come from low economic backgrounds and areas neglected politically. The women of color are the majority of those incarcerated. They come from neighborhoods that are typically poor, have little access to mental health facilities and receive little or minimal help from social services. These women make up the larger proportion of inmates at jails, prisons, and detention centers. Irwin (2009) and Jenness (2010) states that these women are in jail for committing non-violent offences related to poverty, drug abuse and being abused domestically.
This paper will focus on the ethnography of…… [Read More]
" (498). Upon finishing his statement the narrator does not refuse, either she agreed with him or thought of it as truth. Silva's role to adapt to the yellow woman story made it more convincing for the narrator. All of the persuasion the narrator feels is possible in today' time which makes it relevant.
In Yellow oman Leslie Marmon Silko does an excellent job of combining myth with reality, making the folktale more a reflection of everyday experiences within the context of Native American life. The work shares the story of a Native American woman who is literally swept up in the myth of her Native American people. The detail Silko provides helps or "blur" the distinction that exists between myth and reality by combining Native American everyday existence and experiences with the many myths that permeate and enrich this culture (Napierkowski, 1). They folktale helps the reader separate the…… [Read More]
American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?
Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.
In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…… [Read More]
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…… [Read More]
He would not be allowed to leave during his contracted bondage, and would be treated like an escaped slave who committed a crime if he tried to escape a cruel master. Although, unlike a slave if his master was honest, he would be set freed and given a new start in life at the end of the contracted period.
20-year-old Puritan bride in the Massachusetts Bay Colony: This bride likely would have been subjected to tremendous religious prejudice and persecution back in her native England. After suffering a long and grueling passage to the colony, she would have faced conditions she had never experienced in England -- a rough life, difficult farming conditions, and the threat of Native Americans whose culture she little understood. If she survived and she was lucky enough to have a good relationship with her husband, she would have seen the beginnings of a new society…… [Read More]
women in the American est during the estward movement. Specifically, it will discuss historic evidence to support the position that the westward movement did indeed transform the traditional roles of American women, just as it transformed the American est. omen traveling west during the estward movement created opportunities for themselves, became active in business and politics, and created new and exciting lives for themselves. These women transformed how America looked at women, and how women looked at themselves, which was probably the most important transformation of all.
The estward movement began in the early 1800s, after the explorers Lewis and Clark opened up the first trail from St. Louis Missouri to Oregon, and proved overland travel was possible, if not difficult. Migrants began heading for Oregon and other areas of the est as early as the 1830s - in fact, the first women to cross the Continental Divide were Eliza…… [Read More]
history seems only like a carefully curated set of facts, figures, and events that when taken together promote a specific ideology or worldview. Thus, Americans focus almost exclusively on people, places, and events that uphold the idea of American exceptionalism. ars and the conquests of men overshadow the lives of women, and Europeans are given precedence. The quote by .E.B. DuBois underscores the inherent falseness in approaching history, given that on some level there will always be editorializing. Howard Zinn also reassembles American history in a way that subverts the paradigm that had been taught related to the supremacy of capitalism and the white-washing of key turning points. A People's History of the United States gives voice to those who were systematically suppressed or oppressed. Likewise, Loewen's Lies My Teachers Told Me undoes the brainwashing that schoolchildren in the United States endure.
Loewen and Zinn take up .E.B DuBois on…… [Read More]
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]
witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon's Rebellion in New England. Consider the possible social, economic, and religious causes of both phenomena.
The colonies of New England were based on patriarchal religious social orders that were fundamentally misogynistic. The Protestant systems in New England fomented the fear of witchcraft, a parallel for a fear of feminist power. On the other hand, New England lacked the cash-crop ready system that had been emerging in the Chesapeake region. Bacon's rebellion was a labor issue related to economic power, whereas witch hunts were related to gender issues and social power.
What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?
Native American peoples did not have the same disease resistances that Europeans had developed over several generations. They did not develop the types of sophisticated weapons using gunpowder that he Europeans had, and also, Native Americans were used…… [Read More]
In his analysis of the American Revolution, Nash refers to the "enshrined, mythic form" the event has taken on in human consciousness (59). Like the creation myths of religion, the story of the founding of the United States of America has become what Nash calls a "sacralized story" that nearly deifies the founding fathers (59). Taught to children in schools and propagated beyond the borders of the Untied States, this version of the American Revolution in which a unified group of colonists rose up together against the mean British tyrants is little more than a "fable," (Nash 59). The real story behind the American Revolution is far more complex and nuanced, testimony to the already diverse and heterogeneous population dwelling throughout the colonies. Even when the emphasis remains squarely on the events taking place in Massachusetts that precipitated the Revolution, it is clear that there was no one…… [Read More]
The Civil War was one of the most defining events in the nation’s history, and at the time was the most important event since the American Revolution. Whereas the Revolution embodied the ideals, values, and principles of the new nation, setting it apart from the British Crown and forever altering the geopolitical landscape, the Civil War revealed the persistent hypocrisy that continues to plague American society. Unresolved conflicts left brewing in the American psyche led to built-up tensions, exposing fissures in the society along the lines of culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender, and socioeconomic class. The causes of the Civil War can be traced in fact to the inability of the original framers to take a firm stance on slavery, and to divest too much of the federal government’s power to the states. At the same time, protecting states’ rights was critical in the late eighteenth century when the nation…… [Read More]
Nelson's violent images call upon the reader to behold the corpse of Till, forcing the reader into a state of seismic cultural shock, as America has long been eager to forget its racist legacy (Harold, 2006, p.263). Trethewey's first lines of her book are gentler, but there is always the urge to remember: "Truth be told, I do not want to forget anything of my former life" (Trethewey, p.1)
The calls her poetic collection an act of memory "Erasure, those things that get left out of the landscape of the physical landscape, things that aren't monumented or memorialized, and how we remember and what it is that we forget. I wanted to kind of restore some of those narratives, so those things that are less remembered (Brown, 2007). Her use of the sonnet form over her cycle of poems is not as perfectly consistent as Nelson's, but repetition and remembrance…… [Read More]