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The Development of American Colonies
Words: 1256 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67106862
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History 105
American Colonial Diversity and Marginalization of Oppressed Groups
It is often said that history is written by the winners. In the case of early American history, this is also true. Although America’s founding settlers, much like the Founding Fathers of the new nation, are often portrayed as enthusiastic proponents of liberty, the truth is far more complicated. Although the New World did offer greater social mobility to some groups than did the original Mother Country from which so many settlers came, a new form of social immobility, partially based upon race was instituted in many ways, which disenfranchised African Americans and Native Americans.
Economics and Race
The New World colonies were founded for diverse reasons, and this is reflected in their evolution. Geography, the character of the settlers, and a number of other critical social and historical factors ensured that the colonies evolved in very diverse ways. For…

Works Cited
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 2016.

Native American Expressive Culture the
Words: 4153 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77872456
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Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.

To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.

In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…

Works Cited

Allison, Sherry R., and Christine Begay Vining. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review (1999): 193.

Bluestein, Gene. Poplore: Folk and Pop in American Culture. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104248317

Churchill, Ward. Acts of Rebellion: The Ward Churchill Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Native American Trickster Tales Coyote Skunk and
Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38986306
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Native American trickster tales "Coyote, Skunk and the Prairie Dogs," and "Owlwoman and Coyote" and "Walden," by Henry David Thoreau. Specifically it will look at the depiction of the interactions of humans and nature, their similarities and differences, and what relevance the depictions have for Americans today.

HOW HUMANS INTERACT WITH NATURE

Walden" is often called Thoreau's ode to his beliefs - he wrote in while he spent over two years in a cabin on Walden Pond, about a mile away from Concord, Massachusetts. He did see friends and go into town occasionally during his solitary life, but for the most part, he lived apart, wrote, and philosophized.

His time there was serene, and he said, "Both place and time were changed, and I dwelt nearer to those parts of the universe and to those eras in history which had most attracted me. Where I lived was as far off…

Native American Captivity
Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39118782
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Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, and Mary Jamison coped with captivity in their own way. The stories of their captivity revealed the great variety of customs among native American through the greatly different treatment afforded to the three women. Depending on the customs of the tribe that they encountered, or the specific political situation, each of the women was treated differently as either prisoners of war, slaves, or adopted as family members. Natives took captives in order to show their resistance to the settler's occupation of their land, as a custom to increase the members of their tribe, or even for monetary gain.

Mary hite Rowlandson, wife of Puritan minister Joseph Rowlandson, was captured by native Americans in February of 1676. During this time, King Philip, the leader of the ampanoag tribe of southern Massachusetts organized a rebellion against the incursion of white settlers on native land. In total 23 settlers…

Works Cited

About.com. Mary White Rowlandson, Women's History. 12 April 2004.  http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_mary_rowlandson.htm 

Cook, Tom. Mary Jemison. Glimpses of the Past, People, Places, and Things in Letchworth Park History.

12 April 2004.  http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/jem.html 

HannahDustin.com. The Story of Hanna Dustin/Duston of Haverhill, Massachusetts. 12 April 2004. http://www.hannahdustin.com/hannah_files.html

Native American Nations and European
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22735319
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The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"

Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.

Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.

Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…

References

Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.

Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.

Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (

Native American Boarding Schools of
Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99081033
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Visits home were frowned upon and discouraged, and most Indian families could not afford to pay for the long journey home from the schools, so children remained there year-round until their schooling was complete in many cases.

However, many families did see the worth of a formal education for their children. Author Child notes, "Still, many Ojibwe parents, persuaded of the importance of an education or learning a trade for their child's future, would have agreed with the North Dakota father whose son and daughter attended Flandreau when he expressed his desire for their success in school and wish to keep them there, 'as much as we can stand it'" (Child 54). These parents often hoped their children would receive an education, but also learn a trade, so they could make their way in the world as adults. In theory, children attended school for half the day, and then learned…

References

Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Coleman, Michael C. American Indian Children at School, 1850-1930. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.

Editors. "Native Languages of the Americas: Chippewa." Native Languages.org. 2008. 5 Dec. 2008.  http://www.native-languages.org/chippewa.htm .

Meyer, Melissa L. Ethnicity and Dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe Reservation, 1889-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act NAGPRA Insights
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51498011
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NEGPAInsights on Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA)What it isOne of the crucial issues that Messenger and Bender (2019) highlight relate to the Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA). From the onset, it would be prudent to note that this happens to be an instrumental federal law in efforts to ensure that fairness, respect, and dignity is observed in the treatment of any ancestrys human remains and various cultural items. Indeed, as the National Park Service NPS (2019) points out, one instrumental/pivotal aspect of this particular statute happens to be the acknowledgement that human remains and other cultural items removed from Federal or tribal lands belong, in the first instance,tolineal descendants, Indian Tribes, and Native Hawaiian organizations.elevanceAccording to the NPS (2019), one of the greatest benefits of this particular federal law is that it facilitates respectful return. This, as the NP further points out, enhances understanding…

ReferencesMessenger, P.M. & Bender, S.J. (2019). History and Approaches to Heritage Studies. University Press of Florida. National Park Service NPS (2019). Facilitating Respectful Return.  https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nagpra/index.htm

native american art in'southwest
Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23459358
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......starting around noon, I visited the art gallery at the Woolaroc property. The property itself is a sprawling celebration of the landscape and wildlife unique to this part of North America: there are herds of buffalo on the property although we did not get to see any when we arrived. I headed straight to the gallery, which is locally renowned for its collection of paintings from the Taos group. Many of the artists on display I had heard of before, and was eager to encounter first hand and was not disappointed. Although I relished the paintings themselves for their objective aesthetic beauty, I came away from the experience with profound mixed feelings about the way Native Americans have been appropriated for use as subjects by white artists.

The objectification of Indians in European-American art parallels their subjugation as a people. Caldwell (n.d.) points out the "longstanding history and tradition of…

Native American Elder Discussed on Page 13
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33062451
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Native American elder discussed on page 13 in the text is a peculiar one. However, the employment of the five-axis diagnosis provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides a good deal of information about what sort of issues this elderly man is dealing with. One of the facets of this manual that I would readily utilize is the capacity to use a provisional diagnosis and defer full diagnosis until later, so that I could properly gather more information than that which is provided in the text regarding his ailments.

The first axis is for clinical disorders except those pertaining to personality disorders and mental retardation (APA, 2013, p. 28). Again, based on the information at hand, I would make a provisional diagnosis that the client is suffering from clinical depression, perhaps in some part due to the fact that he was previously an alcoholic. In John…

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Marszalek, J. (No date). DSM. Diagnosis and Assessment.

Native American Myths the Question
Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55325133
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Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…

Works Cited

Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock

Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.

Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock

Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.

American Literature Native American and Poetry
Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10850956
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Symbolism in "The Origin of Stories"

In "The Origin of All Stories" we can see an example of the importance that the Seneca -- a Native American tribe -- placed in their oral tradition, stories, as well as symbolism. Symbolism, especially, figures prominently in "The Origin of All Stories." It is the figurative device through which this story impresses upon readers the importance of storytelling to the Seneca people. Literally, storytelling formed the basis of the sense of history that the Seneca possessed. ithout it, vital cultural information could not have been passed down from generation to generation. The purpose of this essay is to examine some of the usage of symbolism in "The Origin of All Stories" and detail how those examples of symbolism demonstrate the centrality of the oral tradition to the Seneca people.

To begin, I should make it clear what it means that the Seneca had…

Works Cited

Lauter, Paul (Ed.). The Heath Anthology of American Literature Volume A: Colonial Period to 1800. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

The Face of Between the Native American Pueblo Tribe and Conquering Spaniards
Words: 4031 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81131792
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Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680

What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?

In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…

References

Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.

Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.

Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.

Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

Comanche Choose 1 Native American Tribe Residing
Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83542629
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COMANCHE

Choose (1) Native Ameican tibe esiding continental United States (Lowe 48 states) time Euopean contact. Reseach aspect chosen tibe's cultue histoy. Topics eseached include limited: Descibing tibe's pe-Columbian histoy, including settlement dates cultual details.

Comanche Indians: Histoy and belief systems

The Plains Indian tibe of the Comanche, accoding to anthopological and linguistic evidence, began as a hunte-gathee mountain tibe "who oamed the Geat Basin egion of the westen United States" (Lipscomb 2012). They wee one of the ealiest Native Ameican tibes to acquie hoses, and became famed fo thei powess as ides. The Comanche acquied hoses faily ealy -- in the late 17th centuy -- and this gave the tibe both militay powe and mobility. "By moving south, they had geate access to the mustangs of the Southwest. The wam climate and abundant buffalo wee additional incentives fo the southen migation. The move also facilitated the acquisition of Fench…

references in Comanche narrative. Western Folklore, 53(4).

Lipscomb, Carol A. (2012). Comanche Indians. Handbook of Texas Online.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved:  http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmc72 

Moore, R.E. (2012). Horses and Plains Indians. Texas Indians. Retrieved:

http://www.texasindians.com/HORSE.htm

Exploitation of Native American Garbs in Fashion
Words: 1929 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73350279
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Fashion

The misappropriation of Native American imagery, iconography, cultural ideology, and fashion is nothing new. After all, a slew of professional sports teams continue to run with Indian names and logos in spite of the controversy in doing so. A few sports teams, like the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball franchise, boast insidious "tomahawk" chants during their games.

The latest trend in Native misappropriation is not much more tasteful than a Cleveland Indians jersey in the fashion world. Several manifestations of the disturbing trend have emerged in consumer culture. One is that commercial manufacturers Forever 21 and Urban Outfitters have been selling lines of clothing and jewelry that is culturally insensitive as well as illegal. A second trend, exposed by bloggers around the Internet, is the lewd use of Native-style feathered headdresses. These recent trends are highly disturbing in that consumers by now ought to know better. Especially hipsters, a…

Works Cited

"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/

Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined 

"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online:  http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/ 

Native Threads. Website:  http://www.nativethreads.com/

Keeping Native American Language Alive How to
Words: 1597 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89687021
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Keeping Native American Language Alive:

How to Save Them and hy This is a paper that deals with preserving the Native American Language. There are eight references used for this paper.

The Native American Language is rapidly disappearing and there are numerous people and groups, including the United States government, working to revive and preserve this important part of American culture. The language differs from tribe to tribe and it's interesting to look at how each one is preserving their history, as well as exploring why many Native American languages are in danger of extinction.

Vanishing Languages

At the time Columbus discovered America, 1.5 million Native Americans spoke in the 300 to 600 languages of their tribes. Today, only 211 of these languages still exist, with only 32 of them spoken by all ages. Of the Native American languages that are still spoken, "more that half are spoken by fewer…

Works Cited

Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence."

Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62.

Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University

Wire. (2000): 24 August.

Diversity of Native American Nations Prior to
Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64422285
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Diversity of Native American Nations

Prior to the European's discovery of Native Americans, there was a great deal of diversity among the different tribes. Many people today still have "Indian" ancestry, but yet there is no single definition of what makes a person an Indian. For the U.S. census, for example, anyone who claimed that they were Indian (Native American) were counted as such, whether they were actually Indian or not (Warren, n.d.). The membership criteria for different tribes is also unique, and no two tribes have the same specifics for membership. That makes determining whether a particular person is Native American very difficult, because he or she may meet the criteria set out by one tribe, but not meet the criteria for another tribe. However, Native Americans are also other people who are indigenous to the U.S., such as Alaskan Eskimos and Native Hawaiians (Warren, n.d.). These are different…

References

Ortiz, S. (1987). The language we know. I tell you now: Autobiographical essays by Native American writers. Ed. Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. Lincoln and London: U. Nebraska: 185-194.

Warren, B. (n.d.). Who is an Indian. Cherokees of California. Retrieved from http://www.powersource.com/cocinc/ancest/whois.htm

Ritual in Native American Traditions
Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37178366
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For example in her essay on "Pagans, Converts, and Backsliders" Mary Young argues that a dialogue did occur between white and native culture, not simply in terms of a trade of goods and land, but also of religious worldviews.

According to Young, to view 'the native mindset' as a monolith is an error. Natives took a multifaceted view of their own religion, often creating a synchronistic faith of Christianity and traditional native movements and there is no "single metaphysical outlook" that can be characterized as Indian (Young 79). This sense of cultural dialogue stands in profound contrast to Martin, who refers to what he calls "the scythe of Christianity" cutting out Native American religion entirely from the history books as well as history itself (Martin 218). Additionally, Vine Deloria's essay, also included in the collection, on "Revision and Reversion" cautions against Martin's view of Native American thinking as impenetrable, arguing…

Works Cited

Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Martin, Calvin, editor. The American Indian and the Problem of History. New York: Oxford

University Press, 1986.

Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups
Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50053993
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Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…

References

Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,

2011 from NPR website:  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865 

Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website:  http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html 

Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native

Creation Story Native American Version
Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2060263
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" In other words, there will be land and between "firmament" there will be water. Continents and oceans were created this way. It is interesting to note that the Christian God spoke but the Sioux Creating Power sang. The Native Peoples had creative ideas.

Sioux Creation Story / Christian Creation Story: At first, the animals and people drowned in the Sioux story. Then the Creating Power pulled four animals from his pipe bag: a loon, an otter, a beaver and turtle. Soon there also came "the shapes of men and women." In the Christian story, God created heaven and then He also created: grass, fruit trees, seasons, stars, "great whales" and "every living creature" that moves, including birds. On the sixth day "God created man in his own image…male and female created he them." Then He "breathed" the breath of life into the man and humanity was born.

The similarities…

Works Cited

BibleGateway.com. (2010). Genesis 1-3 (King James Version). Retrieved Feb. 1, 2011, from  http://www.biblegateway.com .

Native American Creation Stories. (1720's). Origins of Ottawa Society. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011,

from  http://chnm.gmu.edu .

Native American Creation Stories. (1650's) Sioux Creation Story. Retrieved Feb. 2,

European Influence on Native American
Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59306015
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Substances such as sugar and honey were not used in the aboriginal diets, and the use of abusive substances such as alcohol or other min-altering psychoactive agents with the exception of tobacco and the 'black drink' were not common or problematic (French, 2000).

Prior to the introduction of alcohol the natives were seen as fit, athletic and lean people, whereas the people of today are often seen as obese and sickly (French, 2000). Today the dietary practices and substance abuse habits of natives run rampant. Among Native Americans alcohol abuse is considered the norm rather than the exception to the rule (French, 2000). Many tribes are no longer recognized, and many natives live in a state of displacement as they are forced to live on inadequate spaces that don't come close to representing the vast land they used to occupy.

ecently tribes have become less concerned with their blood degree…

References

French, a. (2000). Addictions and Native Americans. Westport: Praeger

Parker, L. (1990). "The missing component in substance abuse prevention efforts: A Native American example." Contemporary Drug Problems, 17(2), 251-270

Thomason, T.C. (2000). "Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 28(4): 43

Native Americans

History of the Native American Indians Is
Words: 4219 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67047316
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history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.

As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…

Wicca Native American Druid Healing
Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22133839
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Health Care

Nurse practitioners need to work with all types of people, from many different faith backgrounds. Generally, they are not expected to know the intimate details of any particular religion, but they should have a generalized knowledge of how different spiritual beliefs can influence the healing process. While this can be a fairly easy process to acquire knowledge about major religious groups, there are many minority spirituality groups in the United States, being a very diverse society. Three that come to mind are Wicca, Druid and Native American religious traditions. This paper will analyze these different systems of spirituality in the context of how they affect healing in particular, as this is the area that will most affect the nurse practitioner's role.

Wicca

There are a variety of sources that provide insight into the Wicca view of healing. The Wiccan belief system is considered to be a pagan belief…

References

American Cancer Society (2008). Native American healing. American Cancer Society. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from  http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/native-american-healing 

Dragonsong, E. (2014). What is an energy healer? Wicca Spirituality. Retrieved April 25, 2014  http://www.wicca-spirituality.com/energy-healer.html 

No author. (2014) Druidry and healing. Druid Healing Retreats. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.druidhealingretreats.co.uk/druidry-healing

Wattpad. (2014). Wiccan guide to healing. Wattpad. Retrieved April 25, 2014 fro  http://www.wattpad.com/7388209-wiccan-guide-to-healing

seinfeld episode native american
Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32527004
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The Seinfeld “Native American” scene from Season 5, Episode 10 illustrates several sociological concepts. Like most episodes of Seinfeld, this one highlights Erving Goffman’s (1956) concept of embarrassment and social organization, as well as Goffman’s (1959) analysis of self-presentation and dramaturgy. In this scene, Jerry buys Elaine a “Cigar Store Indian,” a “kitchy” and darkly humorous relic from the past, from a time in which sensitivity to diversity, cross-cultural awareness, and political correctness were not yet normative. A “Cigar Store Indian” is a stereotypical representation of a Native American, and is understandably offensive especially to people from Native American backgrounds. It also just so happens that Elaine’s friend Winona is Native American, and Jerry also has a crush on Winona. His excited purchase of the Cigar Store Indian represents a major social faux pas, something that is not normative, and an act that causes embarrassment to Winona, Elaine, and also…

Gender in the Native American
Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 228028
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However, although his identity is false, the goodness he has done for the Native population is true, and although he has lied about his past, his lies have not hurt his community, rather they have been a source of healing. The priest's goodness while a priest, however, is one reason why he finds the dissemblance of members of his community so frustrating. In contrast to the life-sustaining lies of Father Damien, that help others with the fullness of a community-sustained myth or holy legend, Sister Leopolda, a nun on the reservation, has made a claim to have Christ's stigmata simply to secure her own sainthood for selfish reasons, in a way that divides the community. She lies in a form that sustains gender stereotypes of women needing to physically suffer to serve as well.

This is one reason why Father Damien believes the woman's actions are evil as well as…

Works Cited

Erdrich, Louise. The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse: A Novel. New York: Perennial, 2004.

Native Americn Women in Many
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49997099
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For Indian women, it thus meant even more than losing their race rights, it also meant losing their traditional gender rights.

3. Dolphus, a Cheyenne River Lakota Native American, says that "I was supposed to attend a Halloween party. I decided to dress as a nun because nuns were the scariest things I ever saw." She has a very plastic way of remembering what the boarding school experience meant for Native American women. Going of to Christian schools from tender ages, often no older than four or five, meant that these individuals would be separated from their families for a whole year, with rare visits mainly due to boarding rules and affordability for the Native American family. On the other hand, many have witnessed abuses from boarding schools and have later told accounts of their mistreatment there. From all these point-of-views, boarding schools were definitely not a positive experience and…

4. We may assume that some women supported Americanization out of a desire to better and easier integrate in the conquering society and because they had realized that there was no real way in which the new society could be resisted. Others instead most likely chose to create their own enclave when it came to the new engulfing society and retain their core values and roles despite the surrounding new society.

The Women's Role. On the Internet at  http://www.bluecloud.org/role.html.Last  retrieved on November 1, 2007

Smith, Andrea. Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools. Amnesty Magazine. On the Internet at  http://www.amnestyusa.org/amnestynow/soulwound.html.Last  retrieved on November 1, 2007

American Indian Movement
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American Indian Movement

The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)

However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…

References

Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298

 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=75UVAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA298&dq=american+indian+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nj2IT92qCsWJrAeW-anrCg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwADge#v=onepage&q=american%20indian%20movement&f=false 

Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138

 

Native Media Stereotypes and the
Words: 1065 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5649562
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On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.

Northern Exposure

In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…

American West and Brazil the
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61778658
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The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.

The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.

The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…

Bibliography

An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.

This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.

Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.

Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.

Native Peoples of the Aleutian Island Chain Specifically the Aleute Alutiiq
Words: 2861 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78213401
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Native Americans

The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: eather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…

Works Cited

Aleut International Association Web site. Retrieved May 10, 2004 at  http://www.arctic-council.org/aia.html 

Aleutian Islands." Retrieved May 9, 2004 at http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/a_b/aleutian.html

Crowell, L. Aron. "Maritime cultures of the Gulf of Alaska." Revista de Arqueologia Americana, July 1, 1999. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.

Diamond, Jared. "Speaking with a single tongue." Discover, February 1, 1993. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.

American Studies Environment and Native
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79499063
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With the advent of Colombo on the American soil, things began to change as Philip J. Deloria asserts in her book Playing Indian (1999): "[T]he self-defining pairing of American truth with American freedom rests on the ability to wield power against Indians... while simultaneously drawing power from them." This is also the basic idea of Shari M. Huhndorf's Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. "As white Americans became disenchanted with how American society was developing, they began to reference Indian people and culture as an answer to such problems of a modernizing America as capitalistic greed; alienating, sedentary life-style of the office worker; imperialistic aggressiveness; and racial and gender challenges to white male hegemony" (Barak, 2005).

The Indians progress was challenged by the so-called American School of ethnology. Therein Christianity became a tool in the American colonial project. The development of an ideology based in religion was made…

American West United States Became One of
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American est

United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.

Railroads in America est

Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…

Work Cited

Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.

Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.

Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.

Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.

American History Although the Early
Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75111246
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British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.

Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…

References

An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html

Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at  http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html 

From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm

American Myths the Flag Is
Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23422875
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As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.

When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."

The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…

References

Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at  http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm 

Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at  http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm 

Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at  http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html

American Independence and National Unity
Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26209846
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American Independence, National Unity

rief thematic history of the U.S. from 1760 to 1815

In describing U.S. history from 1760 to 1815, I would have to title it as "The United States: The Formative Years." From the ritish indifference to her New World colonies, and the War for Independence; to the events before the Civil War, the United States formative years were ones of triumph, struggle and unity.

During 1763, up until 1775, the United States and ritain feuded over 'taxation without representation'. Like a child, the colonies had to break free from the mother country and find themselves and their independence, which they did in 1776 (U.S. History Timeline).

Thomas Payne said in his political pamphlet 'Common Sense' that "There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest…

Bibliography

Payne, Thomas. Common Sense. Online. www.earlyamerica.com.8 December 2002.

US History Timeline.

Online. www.csuchico.edu/AmericanHistory.8 December 2002.

American Literature it Can Be
Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39787914
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One of his major works was a long poem written in three cantos about the horrors he experienced while being held prisoner on a ritish prison. ship. There we see a much edgier, angry Freneau who is willing to write about real life in real terms:

Here, generous ritain, generous, as you say,

To my parch'd tongue one cooling drop convey;

Hell has no mischief like a thirsty throat,

Nor one tormentor like your David Sproat."

All of these influences eventually came together, resulting later in the 19th century in Transcendentalism. This time when American writers reached to the past, they combined the best higher ideals of both the Puritans and the Enlightenment, and the love of nature from neoclassicism, and produced bodies of work that transcended all its previous influences. The roots for the literary movement that would bring us "Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry…

Bibliography

Boynton, Percy H., ed.:"On a Honey Bee," by Philip Freneau, in American Poetry. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1918. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://www.mith2.umd.edu:8080/eada/html/display.jsp?docs=freneau_honeybee.xml&action=show.Site copyright 2002.

Cesarini, J. Patrick. 2003. "The ambivalent uses of Roger Williams's: A Key Into the Language of America." Early American Literature, Sept. 22.

Lossing, Benson J. 1877. "Jersey, the British Prison Ship," in Our Country. A Household History for All Readers, Vol. 2. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04.  http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_vol_2/jerseybri_jc.html 

VanSpanckeren, Karen. 1998. "Outline of American Literature." U.S. Department of State, November. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/oaltoc.htm

American Ethnic Literature Analyzing the Nature of
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American Ethnic Literature

Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature

America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.

As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…

Reference List

African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.

Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.

Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.

Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.

American History Slave Revolts Although
Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54831518
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Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.