Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
One of the most disturbing aspects of life as a Native American is the fact that this population suffers from historical trauma—the trauma of having lost their land, their way of life, and essentially their freedom to self-determination when the American colonies began to assert themselves and push the Natives off their land. The Cherokee were expelled from the East, for instance, by the Indian Removal Act in the 19th century, and countless more were slaughtered in brutal territorial wars of conquest as the US expanded westward. Historical trauma is a real struggle for this invisible minority (Brown-Rice). It has led to a deterioration of mental health among Native Americans, who in turn now suffer from alcoholism, substance abuse and a lack of access to adequate mental health care (Hartmann and Gone). Compared to other ethnicities and racial groups, Native Americans experience higher lifetime substance abuse rates. There are…
Alexie, Sherman. The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. NY: Little, Brown and Company, 2007.
Alexie, Sherman. Flight: A Novel. New York: Black Cat, 2007.
Brown-Rice, Kathleen. "Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans." Professional Counselor 3, no. 3 (2013).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “American Indian and Alaska Native death rates nearly 50 percent greater than those of non-Hispanic whites.” CDC, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0422-natamerican-deathrate.html
Garrett, Mario D., et al. "Mental health disorders among an invisible minority: Depression and dementia among American Indian and Alaska Native elders." The Gerontologist 55.2 (2015): 227-236.
Hartmann, William E., and Joseph P. Gone. "Psychological?mindedness and American Indian historical trauma: Interviews with service providers from a Great Plains reservation." American Journal of Community Psychology 57.1-2 (2016): 229-242.
Krogstad, J. “One-in-four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are living in poverty.” Pew Research, 2014. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
Mental Health America. “Native and Indigenous Communities and Mental Health.”
American Colonial Diversity and Marginalization of Oppressed Groups
It is often said that history is written by the winners. In the case of early American history, this is also true. Although America’s founding settlers, much like the Founding Fathers of the new nation, are often portrayed as enthusiastic proponents of liberty, the truth is far more complicated. Although the New World did offer greater social mobility to some groups than did the original Mother Country from which so many settlers came, a new form of social immobility, partially based upon race was instituted in many ways, which disenfranchised African Americans and Native Americans.
Economics and Race
The New World colonies were founded for diverse reasons, and this is reflected in their evolution. Geography, the character of the settlers, and a number of other critical social and historical factors ensured that the colonies evolved in very diverse ways. For…
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 2016.
Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.
To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.
In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…
Allison, Sherry R., and Christine Begay Vining. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review (1999): 193.
Bluestein, Gene. Poplore: Folk and Pop in American Culture. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
Churchill, Ward. Acts of Rebellion: The Ward Churchill Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.
While I understand the journalistic merit of your entry, I object to your having observed such atrocities while standing idly by and doing nothing. Therefore, I consider you complicit in these acts.
It seems as if those colonists that you observed took great pleasure in babies "hacked to pieces in the presence of the parents, and the pieces thrown into the fire and in the river." You, too, may have believed such practices crucial to the survival of the colonies. What hypocrisy, that the settlers would travel so far to flee tyranny only to dole it out to others -- let alone to babies. That you could bear to write down the events in your personal journal without a shred of remorse spilling onto the page is remarkable and suggests you and your fellow settlers may be truly…
Native American trickster tales "Coyote, Skunk and the Prairie Dogs," and "Owlwoman and Coyote" and "Walden," by Henry David Thoreau. Specifically it will look at the depiction of the interactions of humans and nature, their similarities and differences, and what relevance the depictions have for Americans today.
HOW HUMANS INTERACT WITH NATURE
Walden" is often called Thoreau's ode to his beliefs - he wrote in while he spent over two years in a cabin on Walden Pond, about a mile away from Concord, Massachusetts. He did see friends and go into town occasionally during his solitary life, but for the most part, he lived apart, wrote, and philosophized.
His time there was serene, and he said, "Both place and time were changed, and I dwelt nearer to those parts of the universe and to those eras in history which had most attracted me. Where I lived was as far off…
Mary Rowlandson, Hannah Dustin, and Mary Jamison coped with captivity in their own way. The stories of their captivity revealed the great variety of customs among native American through the greatly different treatment afforded to the three women. Depending on the customs of the tribe that they encountered, or the specific political situation, each of the women was treated differently as either prisoners of war, slaves, or adopted as family members. Natives took captives in order to show their resistance to the settler's occupation of their land, as a custom to increase the members of their tribe, or even for monetary gain.
Mary hite Rowlandson, wife of Puritan minister Joseph Rowlandson, was captured by native Americans in February of 1676. During this time, King Philip, the leader of the ampanoag tribe of southern Massachusetts organized a rebellion against the incursion of white settlers on native land. In total 23 settlers…
About.com. Mary White Rowlandson, Women's History. 12 April 2004. http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_mary_rowlandson.htm
Cook, Tom. Mary Jemison. Glimpses of the Past, People, Places, and Things in Letchworth Park History.
12 April 2004. http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/jem.html
HannahDustin.com. The Story of Hanna Dustin/Duston of Haverhill, Massachusetts. 12 April 2004. http://www.hannahdustin.com/hannah_files.html
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
Visits home were frowned upon and discouraged, and most Indian families could not afford to pay for the long journey home from the schools, so children remained there year-round until their schooling was complete in many cases.
However, many families did see the worth of a formal education for their children. Author Child notes, "Still, many Ojibwe parents, persuaded of the importance of an education or learning a trade for their child's future, would have agreed with the North Dakota father whose son and daughter attended Flandreau when he expressed his desire for their success in school and wish to keep them there, 'as much as we can stand it'" (Child 54). These parents often hoped their children would receive an education, but also learn a trade, so they could make their way in the world as adults. In theory, children attended school for half the day, and then learned…
Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Coleman, Michael C. American Indian Children at School, 1850-1930. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.
Editors. "Native Languages of the Americas: Chippewa." Native Languages.org. 2008. 5 Dec. 2008. http://www.native-languages.org/chippewa.htm .
Meyer, Melissa L. Ethnicity and Dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe Reservation, 1889-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
NEGPAInsights on Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA)What it isOne of the crucial issues that Messenger and Bender (2019) highlight relate to the Native American Graves Protection and epatriation Act (NAGPA). From the onset, it would be prudent to note that this happens to be an instrumental federal law in efforts to ensure that fairness, respect, and dignity is observed in the treatment of any ancestrys human remains and various cultural items. Indeed, as the National Park Service NPS (2019) points out, one instrumental/pivotal aspect of this particular statute happens to be the acknowledgement that human remains and other cultural items removed from Federal or tribal lands belong, in the first instance,tolineal descendants, Indian Tribes, and Native Hawaiian organizations.elevanceAccording to the NPS (2019), one of the greatest benefits of this particular federal law is that it facilitates respectful return. This, as the NP further points out, enhances understanding…
ReferencesMessenger, P.M. & Bender, S.J. (2019). History and Approaches to Heritage Studies. University Press of Florida. National Park Service NPS (2019). Facilitating Respectful Return. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nagpra/index.htm
......starting around noon, I visited the art gallery at the Woolaroc property. The property itself is a sprawling celebration of the landscape and wildlife unique to this part of North America: there are herds of buffalo on the property although we did not get to see any when we arrived. I headed straight to the gallery, which is locally renowned for its collection of paintings from the Taos group. Many of the artists on display I had heard of before, and was eager to encounter first hand and was not disappointed. Although I relished the paintings themselves for their objective aesthetic beauty, I came away from the experience with profound mixed feelings about the way Native Americans have been appropriated for use as subjects by white artists.
The objectification of Indians in European-American art parallels their subjugation as a people. Caldwell (n.d.) points out the "longstanding history and tradition of…
Native American elder discussed on page 13 in the text is a peculiar one. However, the employment of the five-axis diagnosis provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides a good deal of information about what sort of issues this elderly man is dealing with. One of the facets of this manual that I would readily utilize is the capacity to use a provisional diagnosis and defer full diagnosis until later, so that I could properly gather more information than that which is provided in the text regarding his ailments.
The first axis is for clinical disorders except those pertaining to personality disorders and mental retardation (APA, 2013, p. 28). Again, based on the information at hand, I would make a provisional diagnosis that the client is suffering from clinical depression, perhaps in some part due to the fact that he was previously an alcoholic. In John…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Marszalek, J. (No date). DSM. Diagnosis and Assessment.
Although sometimes it goes unrecognized, ethnicity or other superficial prejudices can help to determine an individual's role in a group or community. For example, in a community that is predominately white, those who are among this majority will often receive the most opportunities. Although this does not necessarily guarantee their success, those individuals in the majority will often have the first chance to fulfill the desirable roles. By contrast, individuals within the minority might commonly receive a mediocre education as well as more obstacles to have the same opportunities as other groups; sometimes these obstacles are virtually insurmountable. The feeling of unfairness and inequality can led many students who are disadvantaged to give up or drop out and their futures do not have the same probability for success. In the short story "Indian Education" by Sherman Alexie, the author tells a story in which the stereotypes that people…
Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…
Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Symbolism in "The Origin of Stories"
In "The Origin of All Stories" we can see an example of the importance that the Seneca -- a Native American tribe -- placed in their oral tradition, stories, as well as symbolism. Symbolism, especially, figures prominently in "The Origin of All Stories." It is the figurative device through which this story impresses upon readers the importance of storytelling to the Seneca people. Literally, storytelling formed the basis of the sense of history that the Seneca possessed. ithout it, vital cultural information could not have been passed down from generation to generation. The purpose of this essay is to examine some of the usage of symbolism in "The Origin of All Stories" and detail how those examples of symbolism demonstrate the centrality of the oral tradition to the Seneca people.
To begin, I should make it clear what it means that the Seneca had…
Lauter, Paul (Ed.). The Heath Anthology of American Literature Volume A: Colonial Period to 1800. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…
Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.
Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.
Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth and lands in the eastern part of North America.
Native Americans in North America after 1763
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth…
James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. America: A Concise History (textbook) 2012. pgs. 100-104 and 116-125, 138-142
African and Native Americans
When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22
Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."
The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
Choose (1) Native Ameican tibe esiding continental United States (Lowe 48 states) time Euopean contact. Reseach aspect chosen tibe's cultue histoy. Topics eseached include limited: Descibing tibe's pe-Columbian histoy, including settlement dates cultual details.
Comanche Indians: Histoy and belief systems
The Plains Indian tibe of the Comanche, accoding to anthopological and linguistic evidence, began as a hunte-gathee mountain tibe "who oamed the Geat Basin egion of the westen United States" (Lipscomb 2012). They wee one of the ealiest Native Ameican tibes to acquie hoses, and became famed fo thei powess as ides. The Comanche acquied hoses faily ealy -- in the late 17th centuy -- and this gave the tibe both militay powe and mobility. "By moving south, they had geate access to the mustangs of the Southwest. The wam climate and abundant buffalo wee additional incentives fo the southen migation. The move also facilitated the acquisition of Fench…
references in Comanche narrative. Western Folklore, 53(4).
Lipscomb, Carol A. (2012). Comanche Indians. Handbook of Texas Online.
Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmc72
Moore, R.E. (2012). Horses and Plains Indians. Texas Indians. Retrieved:
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm .
Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,
2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
The misappropriation of Native American imagery, iconography, cultural ideology, and fashion is nothing new. After all, a slew of professional sports teams continue to run with Indian names and logos in spite of the controversy in doing so. A few sports teams, like the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball franchise, boast insidious "tomahawk" chants during their games.
The latest trend in Native misappropriation is not much more tasteful than a Cleveland Indians jersey in the fashion world. Several manifestations of the disturbing trend have emerged in consumer culture. One is that commercial manufacturers Forever 21 and Urban Outfitters have been selling lines of clothing and jewelry that is culturally insensitive as well as illegal. A second trend, exposed by bloggers around the Internet, is the lewd use of Native-style feathered headdresses. These recent trends are highly disturbing in that consumers by now ought to know better. Especially hipsters, a…
"Chief Pendant Necklace. WTForever21. Blog. Retrieved: http://wtforever21.com/2011/08/chief-pendant-necklace/
Kane, Rachel. "Forever 21 Sells Faux Native American Items in Their Columbus Day Sale." Huffington Post. October 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-kane/forever-21-columbus-day_b_1000788.html#undefined
"Native American culture shouldn't be appropriated for fashion." Turn the Page. Oct 29, 2011. Retrieved online: http://taholtorf.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/native-american-culture-shouldnt-be-appropriated-for-fashion/
Native Threads. Website: http://www.nativethreads.com/
Keeping Native American Language Alive:
How to Save Them and hy This is a paper that deals with preserving the Native American Language. There are eight references used for this paper.
The Native American Language is rapidly disappearing and there are numerous people and groups, including the United States government, working to revive and preserve this important part of American culture. The language differs from tribe to tribe and it's interesting to look at how each one is preserving their history, as well as exploring why many Native American languages are in danger of extinction.
At the time Columbus discovered America, 1.5 million Native Americans spoke in the 300 to 600 languages of their tribes. Today, only 211 of these languages still exist, with only 32 of them spoken by all ages. Of the Native American languages that are still spoken, "more that half are spoken by fewer…
Bartholet, Jeffrey, Tony Clifton, Elizabeth Bryant and Scott Johnson. "The Sounds of Silence."
Newsweek International. (2000): 19 June. Pp. 62.
Harrison, Sheena. "Michigan State U. adopts American Indian Studies Program." University
Wire. (2000): 24 August.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.
The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…
Salisbury, N. (1996). The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans. William and Mary Quarterly, 435-458.
The Native American struggle for Civil ights is perhaps more tragic than that of African-Americans -- particularly when one considers how much land, people, and culture Native Americans lost in myriad wars and armed conflicts against people of European descent in the United States. It is because of these losses that the struggles and the oppressive measures faced by Native Americans were so considerable. Already marginalized from the mainstream of the country and continent that they once inhabited with autonomy, Native Americans had to contend with the latest in the long line of chicanery and deceit propagated against them by the American government after World War II -- the reneging of promises that gave them what few land and cultural resources they had on reservations.
Due to the popularity of the governmental practice of termination, which resulted in the re-appropriation of land and natural resources that previous legislation had…
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume II (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Diversity of Native American Nations
Prior to the European's discovery of Native Americans, there was a great deal of diversity among the different tribes. Many people today still have "Indian" ancestry, but yet there is no single definition of what makes a person an Indian. For the U.S. census, for example, anyone who claimed that they were Indian (Native American) were counted as such, whether they were actually Indian or not (Warren, n.d.). The membership criteria for different tribes is also unique, and no two tribes have the same specifics for membership. That makes determining whether a particular person is Native American very difficult, because he or she may meet the criteria set out by one tribe, but not meet the criteria for another tribe. However, Native Americans are also other people who are indigenous to the U.S., such as Alaskan Eskimos and Native Hawaiians (Warren, n.d.). These are different…
Ortiz, S. (1987). The language we know. I tell you now: Autobiographical essays by Native American writers. Ed. Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. Lincoln and London: U. Nebraska: 185-194.
Warren, B. (n.d.). Who is an Indian. Cherokees of California. Retrieved from http://www.powersource.com/cocinc/ancest/whois.htm
For example in her essay on "Pagans, Converts, and Backsliders" Mary Young argues that a dialogue did occur between white and native culture, not simply in terms of a trade of goods and land, but also of religious worldviews.
According to Young, to view 'the native mindset' as a monolith is an error. Natives took a multifaceted view of their own religion, often creating a synchronistic faith of Christianity and traditional native movements and there is no "single metaphysical outlook" that can be characterized as Indian (Young 79). This sense of cultural dialogue stands in profound contrast to Martin, who refers to what he calls "the scythe of Christianity" cutting out Native American religion entirely from the history books as well as history itself (Martin 218). Additionally, Vine Deloria's essay, also included in the collection, on "Revision and Reversion" cautions against Martin's view of Native American thinking as impenetrable, arguing…
Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Martin, Calvin, editor. The American Indian and the Problem of History. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1986.
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead…
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:
Cornell University Press, 2000.
-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.
-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield
Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…
Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,
2011 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865
Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html
Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native
In general, both sides fought using impromptu raids and very vicious and undercutting tactics. However, this was the traditional fighting method used by Native Americans during this particular era and could be understood in terms of their cultural perspective.
The fifth criteria of just warfare is that "war must be the only possible means of righting the wrong done." This particular standard is another very flexible standard for warfare. oth sides of any conflict must justify their actions as "last resort" even if other opportunities were open for negotiation. However, in this historical context it could be argued that war was inevitable. This is because population tension within the eastern border mandated that a push by the colonials west of the Ohio River was inevitable. As a result, land that was traditionally Native American would ultimately get taken away from their ownership by the colonists. This it is an unavoidable…
A. Britt, Great Indian Chiefs (1938, repr. 1969)
M.F. Schmitt and D.A. Brown, Fighting Indians of the West (1948, repr. 1966)
R.H. Lowie, Indians of the Plains (1954, repr. 1963)
A.M. Josephy, the Patriot Chiefs (1961)
Professional Communication: Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans
In nursing school, we are normally taught that we should respect the dignity and rights of all clients. As the "world becomes reduced" and societies and individuals become more mobile, we are progressively able to network with people that are from other cultures. Cultural respect and competence for others becomes particularly significant for us as nurses and patient supporters. Applying the principles and theories of communication is important for sufficient patient care. A lot of various communication methods are executed and have diverse focuses. Small groups use mechanisms such as objectives, standards, cohesiveness, behaviors, and therapeutic issues. Duty, process and midrange groups are separate categories. Orientation, tension, cohesion, working and dissolution are stages groups go through. Successful personal and professional communication profits the patients and other health professionals; however, the lack of applicable communication can lead to poor patient results and a hostile…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced practice nursing -- Essential knowledge for the profession. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Doane, G. (2004). Exploring the heart of nursing Ethical Pratices. Nursing Ethics, 11(3), 241-251.
Makaroff, K.S. (210). Do We speak of Ethics. Nursing Ethics and, 17(5), 566-576.
Ryan, M. (2000). Learning to Care for Clients In Their World not Mine. Journal of Nursing Education, 3(9), 25-79.
" In other words, there will be land and between "firmament" there will be water. Continents and oceans were created this way. It is interesting to note that the Christian God spoke but the Sioux Creating Power sang. The Native Peoples had creative ideas.
Sioux Creation Story / Christian Creation Story: At first, the animals and people drowned in the Sioux story. Then the Creating Power pulled four animals from his pipe bag: a loon, an otter, a beaver and turtle. Soon there also came "the shapes of men and women." In the Christian story, God created heaven and then He also created: grass, fruit trees, seasons, stars, "great whales" and "every living creature" that moves, including birds. On the sixth day "God created man in his own image…male and female created he them." Then He "breathed" the breath of life into the man and humanity was born.
BibleGateway.com. (2010). Genesis 1-3 (King James Version). Retrieved Feb. 1, 2011, from http://www.biblegateway.com .
Native American Creation Stories. (1720's). Origins of Ottawa Society. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011,
from http://chnm.gmu.edu .
Native American Creation Stories. (1650's) Sioux Creation Story. Retrieved Feb. 2,
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…
(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)
Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981
Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.
Their neutrality across time has granted them with a long-lasting and strong community.
hat is intriguing about the Zuni people is that their language does not resemble any other language of the neighboring Pueblos. Moreover, they are the only people in the world to speak the Zuni language. (Minnesota State University Mankato)
The Pueblo society has usually been ruled in a theocratic manner, with the head of the tribe also being the priest of the tribe. The Zuni community has also been extremely religious and has kept most of its religious traditions to this day. In the Zuni religion, everything in the world is united under one spirit and gods are still present in the lakes of Arizona and New Mexico. (Minnesota State University Mankato)
During a Zuni religious festival the tribe chiefs and the shamans pray together to the gods. Their prayer is intended to praise the gods, which…
Levine, Frances. 1999. Our Prayers Are in This Place. University of New Mexico Press.
2008. The Aztec. American Indian History, Spirituality, & Culture. http://www.spirittalknews.com/Aztec.htm.(accesed January 23, 2009)
Hopi. Minnesota State University Mankato. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/hopi.html.(accesed January 23, 2009)
Zuni. Minnesota State University Mankato. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/zuni.html.(accesed January 23, 2009)
interactions of the Europeans and the Native Americans during the days of the colonists. In addition the author looks at Natice American lifestyles and traditions that have survived the building of America and still exist today. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Then and Now
Students throughout the nation, study the beginning effects of the Europeans arriving on American soil and the reactions both to and of the Native Americans who had already been here for many years (Cronon, 1984). However, after the land dividing was over, and the native Americans and the Europeans began to live as peacefully as could be expected considering the circumstances, that is where most studies stop. Following the initial period however, there was a transitional period that occurred between the Native Americans and the European colonists that is a vital part of our land's history. William Cronon detailed this transition in…
"The shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes (Cronon, 1986)." Because of the way the Europeans settled in the animal and plant population were negatively affected. Before the colonists arrived the Native Americans would hunt and work one area, then move on to another area. This gave areas they left a chance to re-grow and repopulate for future use. The colonists moved here and stayed in one place. In time they depleted much of the animal and plant life that had been a natural part of the eco system. This caused them to have to change the way things were done and to grow new food and raise new animals. Instead of letting the natural system take its course as the Native Americans had always done, the colonists took over the course and force fed it. This set the pattern that we still live with today.
The Native Americans took part in the destruction of the eco system as well. They were intrigued with metal and the utensils that were made with metal so they killed more animals than they would normally have killed for the ability to trade. All in all both sides contributed to the change in the system and the changes that caused to the land.
Few Native American traditions pertaining to the land have survived the years. However, the idea of planting in one area, then moving to another and letting the first area regain its health has been adopted by farmers all over the nation. The changes that were forced upon our lands set in motion a system that we are bound by today. But along the way we did adopt some of the Native American elements of respecting the land and the Native Americans adopted some of the European ways of settling in one place.
New Lands? Old Ideas
The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries were the great age of European exploration in the New World. Spain concerned itself with South America and the Caribbean, while countries such as France and England turned northward to the great, unknown vastness of the North American continent. Men such as Verrazzano, Hariot, and Champlain arrived to explore and to record their experiences of this mysterious land. Strange new plants and animals, curious native customs, and assessments of natural resources all appear in the pages of their respective accounts. Yet their visions of this New World were colored by the expectations of the old. European dreams of hidden riches, and Spanish discoveries of gold and silver enliven their observations. These earliest of descriptions of North America are as much commentaries on contemporary European society and its aspirations, as they are catalogs of new things and new places.
Doughty, Arthur G. "Samuel de Champlain." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1999.
Hariot, Thomas. "A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia." 1588. From The Heritage Education Program - National Park Service - Cape Hatteras. (No date) http://www.nps.gov/fora/hariotpart1.htm
Wroth, I., Ed. S. Tarrow, Trans. The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano. 1970.
Substances such as sugar and honey were not used in the aboriginal diets, and the use of abusive substances such as alcohol or other min-altering psychoactive agents with the exception of tobacco and the 'black drink' were not common or problematic (French, 2000).
Prior to the introduction of alcohol the natives were seen as fit, athletic and lean people, whereas the people of today are often seen as obese and sickly (French, 2000). Today the dietary practices and substance abuse habits of natives run rampant. Among Native Americans alcohol abuse is considered the norm rather than the exception to the rule (French, 2000). Many tribes are no longer recognized, and many natives live in a state of displacement as they are forced to live on inadequate spaces that don't come close to representing the vast land they used to occupy.
ecently tribes have become less concerned with their blood degree…
French, a. (2000). Addictions and Native Americans. Westport: Praeger
Parker, L. (1990). "The missing component in substance abuse prevention efforts: A Native American example." Contemporary Drug Problems, 17(2), 251-270
Thomason, T.C. (2000). "Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 28(4): 43
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
This represented a sharp turn in public beliefs, and it represented a new type of America that no longer welcomed immigrants with open arms, and that has continued unchecked to the present day.
This shift in public thought and government legislation resulted in the first immigration law to exclude immigrants because of their race and class, and laws continued to tighten until after World War II ended in 1945. Potential immigrants were screened for health problems, but they were also interviewed, tracked, and monitored, something new to immigrants in the country. They began being treated as if they were second-class citizens, and they started settling in specific areas of a city or town, and keeping to themselves, attempting to hold on to their culture and way of life for as long as possible (Lee). This regulation resulted in many more laws governing who could immigrate and why, and led to…
Katzenstein, Krissy A. "Reinventing American Immigration Policy for the 21st Century." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 41.1 (2008): 269+.
Lee, Erika. "Echoes of the Chinese Exclusion Era in Post-9/11 America." Chinese America: History and Perspectives (2005): 1+..
One of the most underserved populations in America with respect to health care is Native Americans. This community has a higher burden of illness, injury and premature death, and the health care needs of this population are seldom part of policy discussions because of its relatively small population (Katz, 2004). More are uninsured than most other groups as well, which creates problems with respect to access to care. Katz (2004) notes that almost half of low-income Native Americans are uninsured (prior to the ACA), and that over half of this group has incomes more than 200% below the poverty line, the impact of lack of access is widespread.
From a structure level, the US government has responsibility for providing health care to members of federally recognized tribes, and this is carried out by the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS is known to be chronically underfunded – in…
Nurse practitioners need to work with all types of people, from many different faith backgrounds. Generally, they are not expected to know the intimate details of any particular religion, but they should have a generalized knowledge of how different spiritual beliefs can influence the healing process. While this can be a fairly easy process to acquire knowledge about major religious groups, there are many minority spirituality groups in the United States, being a very diverse society. Three that come to mind are Wicca, Druid and Native American religious traditions. This paper will analyze these different systems of spirituality in the context of how they affect healing in particular, as this is the area that will most affect the nurse practitioner's role.
There are a variety of sources that provide insight into the Wicca view of healing. The Wiccan belief system is considered to be a pagan belief…
American Cancer Society (2008). Native American healing. American Cancer Society. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/native-american-healing
Dragonsong, E. (2014). What is an energy healer? Wicca Spirituality. Retrieved April 25, 2014 http://www.wicca-spirituality.com/energy-healer.html
No author. (2014) Druidry and healing. Druid Healing Retreats. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.druidhealingretreats.co.uk/druidry-healing
Wattpad. (2014). Wiccan guide to healing. Wattpad. Retrieved April 25, 2014 fro http://www.wattpad.com/7388209-wiccan-guide-to-healing
The Seinfeld “Native American” scene from Season 5, Episode 10 illustrates several sociological concepts. Like most episodes of Seinfeld, this one highlights Erving Goffman’s (1956) concept of embarrassment and social organization, as well as Goffman’s (1959) analysis of self-presentation and dramaturgy. In this scene, Jerry buys Elaine a “Cigar Store Indian,” a “kitchy” and darkly humorous relic from the past, from a time in which sensitivity to diversity, cross-cultural awareness, and political correctness were not yet normative. A “Cigar Store Indian” is a stereotypical representation of a Native American, and is understandably offensive especially to people from Native American backgrounds. It also just so happens that Elaine’s friend Winona is Native American, and Jerry also has a crush on Winona. His excited purchase of the Cigar Store Indian represents a major social faux pas, something that is not normative, and an act that causes embarrassment to Winona, Elaine, and also…
However, although his identity is false, the goodness he has done for the Native population is true, and although he has lied about his past, his lies have not hurt his community, rather they have been a source of healing. The priest's goodness while a priest, however, is one reason why he finds the dissemblance of members of his community so frustrating. In contrast to the life-sustaining lies of Father Damien, that help others with the fullness of a community-sustained myth or holy legend, Sister Leopolda, a nun on the reservation, has made a claim to have Christ's stigmata simply to secure her own sainthood for selfish reasons, in a way that divides the community. She lies in a form that sustains gender stereotypes of women needing to physically suffer to serve as well.
This is one reason why Father Damien believes the woman's actions are evil as well as…
Erdrich, Louise. The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse: A Novel. New York: Perennial, 2004.
Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver. Specifically it will discuss how Kingsolver portrays Native American and Hispanic people in the novel. Codi, the main character in "Animal Dreams," returns to her small hometown of Grace, Arizona, after a long absence. She learns to love her past and her family during her return, and she encounters her high school sweetheart, a Native American who wants to settle down with her. Throughout the novel, Kingsolver portrays Hispanic and Native Americans favorably, and even idealistically, but her writing style and devotion to her subjects make these idealistic portrayals succeed in the novel.
Codi and her family are Hispanics, although Kingsolver never really states this in the novel. It becomes clear as the novel progresses and the culture of Grace becomes known. Their real names are Hispanic, many of the townspeople are Hispanic, and their celebrations are all based on Hispanic celebrations, such as the…
Kingsolver, Barbara. Animal Dreams. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.
Native Americans and those non-Indian-American settlers have very different traditions for recording history. The Native Americans live in an oral culture that records history and important information in language. This is common in societies that lack the written language. For many with the written language, it is difficult to relate to the accuracy of cultures that use an oral tradition to record knowledge. The record of written language dates back many of thousands of years and have been embedded in a cultural conscience. If you have grown up in a culture in which writes down its important information, it can be hard for you to fully appreciate other traditions.
I think the primary thesis can this argument can be related to some of the same kind of trends that are occurring today as communication mediums evolve. As email has replaced written letters in mainstream culture, the appreciation for…
Fisher, A. (1999). 'This I Know from the Old People': Yakama Indian Treaty Rights as Oral Tradition. The Magazine of Western History, 2-17.
Cultural Binary Opposition Demystified
Although it was initially created for popular consumption, there are a number of varying points of academic interest found in Karl May's novel Winnetou, The Chief of the Apache Part 1 Enters Old Shatterhand. This work is actually a study in post-colonialism and indicates many of the different mores that were popularized to propagate colonial notions. Perhaps the most important of these pertains to the conceptions of culture that are evinced in this novel, and which are typified in colonial endeavors almost anywhere throughout the course of history. Specifically, the notion of binary opposition emerges as one of the chief justifications for the colonization found in May's novel. Binary opposition is the diametric polarization of a pair of cultures -- in the case of May's novel, these include that of the Eurocentric westerner and that of the Native American. In May's work, the Eurocentric westerner perceives…
May, K. (2014). Winnetou, The Chief of the Apache Part 1 Enters Old Shatterhand. Liverpool, England: CTPDC Limited Publishing.
For Indian women, it thus meant even more than losing their race rights, it also meant losing their traditional gender rights.
3. Dolphus, a Cheyenne River Lakota Native American, says that "I was supposed to attend a Halloween party. I decided to dress as a nun because nuns were the scariest things I ever saw." She has a very plastic way of remembering what the boarding school experience meant for Native American women. Going of to Christian schools from tender ages, often no older than four or five, meant that these individuals would be separated from their families for a whole year, with rare visits mainly due to boarding rules and affordability for the Native American family. On the other hand, many have witnessed abuses from boarding schools and have later told accounts of their mistreatment there. From all these point-of-views, boarding schools were definitely not a positive experience and…
4. We may assume that some women supported Americanization out of a desire to better and easier integrate in the conquering society and because they had realized that there was no real way in which the new society could be resisted. Others instead most likely chose to create their own enclave when it came to the new engulfing society and retain their core values and roles despite the surrounding new society.
The Women's Role. On the Internet at http://www.bluecloud.org/role.html.Last retrieved on November 1, 2007
Smith, Andrea. Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools. Amnesty Magazine. On the Internet at http://www.amnestyusa.org/amnestynow/soulwound.html.Last retrieved on November 1, 2007
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.
In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: eather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…
Aleut International Association Web site. Retrieved May 10, 2004 at http://www.arctic-council.org/aia.html
Aleutian Islands." Retrieved May 9, 2004 at http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/a_b/aleutian.html
Crowell, L. Aron. "Maritime cultures of the Gulf of Alaska." Revista de Arqueologia Americana, July 1, 1999. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Diamond, Jared. "Speaking with a single tongue." Discover, February 1, 1993. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
With the advent of Colombo on the American soil, things began to change as Philip J. Deloria asserts in her book Playing Indian (1999): "[T]he self-defining pairing of American truth with American freedom rests on the ability to wield power against Indians... while simultaneously drawing power from them." This is also the basic idea of Shari M. Huhndorf's Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. "As white Americans became disenchanted with how American society was developing, they began to reference Indian people and culture as an answer to such problems of a modernizing America as capitalistic greed; alienating, sedentary life-style of the office worker; imperialistic aggressiveness; and racial and gender challenges to white male hegemony" (Barak, 2005).
The Indians progress was challenged by the so-called American School of ethnology. Therein Christianity became a tool in the American colonial project. The development of an ideology based in religion was made…
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…
An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html
From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…
Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm
Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm
Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html
American Independence, National Unity
rief thematic history of the U.S. from 1760 to 1815
In describing U.S. history from 1760 to 1815, I would have to title it as "The United States: The Formative Years." From the ritish indifference to her New World colonies, and the War for Independence; to the events before the Civil War, the United States formative years were ones of triumph, struggle and unity.
During 1763, up until 1775, the United States and ritain feuded over 'taxation without representation'. Like a child, the colonies had to break free from the mother country and find themselves and their independence, which they did in 1776 (U.S. History Timeline).
Thomas Payne said in his political pamphlet 'Common Sense' that "There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest…
Payne, Thomas. Common Sense. Online. www.earlyamerica.com.8 December 2002.
US History Timeline.
Online. www.csuchico.edu/AmericanHistory.8 December 2002.
One of his major works was a long poem written in three cantos about the horrors he experienced while being held prisoner on a ritish prison. ship. There we see a much edgier, angry Freneau who is willing to write about real life in real terms:
Here, generous ritain, generous, as you say,
To my parch'd tongue one cooling drop convey;
Hell has no mischief like a thirsty throat,
Nor one tormentor like your David Sproat."
All of these influences eventually came together, resulting later in the 19th century in Transcendentalism. This time when American writers reached to the past, they combined the best higher ideals of both the Puritans and the Enlightenment, and the love of nature from neoclassicism, and produced bodies of work that transcended all its previous influences. The roots for the literary movement that would bring us "Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry…
Boynton, Percy H., ed.:"On a Honey Bee," by Philip Freneau, in American Poetry. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1918. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://www.mith2.umd.edu:8080/eada/html/display.jsp?docs=freneau_honeybee.xml&action=show.Site copyright 2002.
Cesarini, J. Patrick. 2003. "The ambivalent uses of Roger Williams's: A Key Into the Language of America." Early American Literature, Sept. 22.
Lossing, Benson J. 1877. "Jersey, the British Prison Ship," in Our Country. A Household History for All Readers, Vol. 2. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_vol_2/jerseybri_jc.html
VanSpanckeren, Karen. 1998. "Outline of American Literature." U.S. Department of State, November. Accessed via the Internet 12/23/04. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/oaltoc.htm
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.