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Natural Systems Model 'Mayo and
Words: 1972 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 26067549
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(1958: 191) (Scott, 2003, p.50) Simon states that a hierarchy of goals is established in which each level is "...considered as an end relative to the levels below it and as a means relative to the levels above it. Through the hierarchical structure of ends, behavior attains integration and consistency, for each member of a set of behavior alternatives is then weighted in terms of a comprehensive scale of values -- the "ultimate" ends. (Simon, 1997: 74) "In addition to simplifying decisions for participants in all these ways, organizations also support participants in the decisions they are expected to make.



Scott (2003) notes that it was observed by Collins (1986) that there is nothing "...known in the field of organizations, perhaps in all sociology, than Weber's model of bureaucracy. It also happens that there is no more complete misunderstanding of a major sociological…


Scott, W. Richard (2003) Organizations; Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Police Selection the Selection Process for Aspirant
Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26067583
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Police Selection

The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers

Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.

According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…

Works Cited:

Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers.

Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State.

Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process.

Seeley Robin Hadlock Intense Natural
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67077973
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Other evolutionary biologists suggest that environmental pressures can create a phenomenon whereby natural selection creates a rapid transformation within a species, not simply gradual change over time. It was believed that the rapid internal natural selection during 1982-1984 was due to the fact that the animal that fed upon the snail, the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) had entered into the area. nails with high- spierd shells were found to be far more vulnerable to this predator, as demonstrated in both field and research studies, which observed the crab's behavior with the two types of snails. nails with low-spierd shells, because of the increased overlap in their shells, are better defended from crab attacks. The crab had no presence within the area under study before 1900 but its numbers began to steadily increase after that date. The fact that the snail populations of high and low-spierd shells are not genetically isolated…

Specifically, the article deals with a snail native to Northern New England known as Littorina obtusata. Researchers observed that the snail's shell shape and shell thickness had apparently altered in a noticeable fashion between the years 1871-1984. Because of the information available from previous research, scientists were able to discern that the shells of the snails that were harvested before 1900 were almost exclusively characterized by high-spierd, thick walls, versus the shells collected of a far more recent duration from 1982-84. These more recently gathered shells were largely characterized by low-spierd, thick walls. In one instance, the snails shells collected in Nahant, Appledore Island, or Isle au Haut prior to 1900 were higher- spierd and thinner than those collected in 1982-1984, showing a deviation of .9 within at most 86 generations, which is highly unusual in terms of the rapidity of morphological change.

The specific controversy the study of the snail was attempting to address was the contention by some evolutionary biologists that the gaps in fossil records are not due to natural selection within a species but are instead due to the development of entirely new species. Other evolutionary biologists suggest that environmental pressures can create a phenomenon whereby natural selection creates a rapid transformation within a species, not simply gradual change over time. It was believed that the rapid internal natural selection during 1982-1984 was due to the fact that the animal that fed upon the snail, the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) had entered into the area. Snails with high- spierd shells were found to be far more vulnerable to this predator, as demonstrated in both field and research studies, which observed the crab's behavior with the two types of snails. Snails with low-spierd shells, because of the increased overlap in their shells, are better defended from crab attacks. The crab had no presence within the area under study before 1900 but its numbers began to steadily increase after that date. The fact that the snail populations of high and low-spierd shells are not genetically isolated further confirmed the notion that rapid evolution through natural selection had taken place within the snail population.

This article used a highly specific, concentrated example to understand the mechanisms of rapid natural selection within a population. However, the thoroughness of its methodology and its use of both field and experimental research makes the conclusions of the authors convincing enough to be applied to a variety of scenarios. Snails with low-spierd shells were protected against attacks by the predatory crab in a manner in which their higher-spierd, thinner-shelled brothers and sisters were not. This ensured that low-spierd snails were able to produce more offspring, passing on their genetic material to later generations. The demonstrable speed with which this variation occurred provides important evidence in fleshing out the mechanisms through which natural selection may have occurred earlier in time and gives evolutionary biologists firmer ground in making assumptions about the trajectory of evolution in general.

Sexual Selection Is a Form of Natural
Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38438104
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Sexual selection is a form of natural selection that deserves attention because of the complexities involved with that selection. Sexual selection focuses on the idea that certain traits give competitors an edge. Studies around the world attempt to clarify the elements involved with this type of selection.

Probably the most fundamental explanation of sexual selection is that of choosing a mate that is most likely to survive and a mate that is fertile. But sexual selection goes deeper than that, making an interesting case of study. This paper will focus on female selection and try to examine the reasoning behind it.

Darwin realized that something else was going on when it came to mate selection, as demonstrated though the example of the male and female peacocks. Other examples to back this theory up are female finches zebra finches choosing male zebra finches whose legs were decorated with black or red…

Works Cited

Burley, N. "Wild Zebra Finches Have Color-Band Preferences." Animal Behavior. Vol. 36. 1988.

Fisher, R.A. "The Evolution of Sexual Preference." Eugenics Review. Vol.7 1915.

Starr, Cecie. Biology, Concepts and Applications. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1991.

Factors Influencing Human Mate Selection
Words: 4285 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81713534
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Evolutionay Undestanding of Physical Attaction and Mate Selection

Item Page

Financial stability

Physical attactiveness

Fequency Statistics

Oveall Analysis of Pefeences Effect

Factos Influencing Mate Choices

Financial stability

Physical attactiveness

Evolutionay Undestanding of Physical Attaction and Mate Selection

What factos would usually dive a peson to pefe one peson as a mate, to anothe? Ae thee any obsevable diffeences between the mate selection stategies employed by men, and those employed by women? A numbe of theoies have been put fowad to povide answes to these questions. Buss and Banes (1986), while making specific efeence to the Evolutionay Theoy, posit that the qualities women look fo in a potential mate diffe consideably fom those that men look fo. These diffeences, they suggest, manly accue fom the biological systemic diffeences between men and women, as well as the common belief that women age faste than men.

Women's fetility has been obseved to decease…

references influence your mate choices. Your cooperation is well appreciated. Thank you.

1. What is your gender? (Please circle one) (GENDER)

a. Male = 1

b. Female = 2

c. Transgender = 3

Job Analysis Selection Interclean Merged Envirotech a
Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57680549
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Job Analysis Selection InterClean merged EnviroTech, a result, a strategic direction. The company longer sell cleaning products, provide full-service cleaning solutions organizations health care industry.

Job analysis and selection

As InterClean merged with EnviroTech, the resulting company is one with an increased operational complexity. Specifically, instead of simply selling cleaning products, the new firm would also be offering cleaning services to customers in the health care industry. This specifically means that the quality of the products and services delivered has to be of the utmost highest standards, in order to serve the extreme hygiene needs of the medical field.

In order for the company to succeed in its endeavors, it is necessary for it to adequately staff, train or otherwise manage the human resources. This necessity is pegged to the fact that the employees are the ones who create and sell the products, and also the ones who deliver the…


Gross, J., 2009, What is workforce planning system? PayScale,  last accessed on December 20, 2010

Heathfield, S.M., Hiring employees: a checklist for success in hiring employees, About,  last accessed on December 20, 2010

Employee selection process, Management Study Guide,  last accessed on December 20, 2010

Practical steps to employee selection, University of California,  last accessed on December 20, 2010

Hobbes & Natural Condition of
Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39285725
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Spielvogel, 2009).

Hobbes cites two ways to attain absolute monarchy; by institution and by acquisition. The first one is achieved by voluntary agreement among a multitude of people wherein the selection of the sovereign power is done through the casting of votes or similar. He states that the main reason why people want a commonwealth by institution is because of fear of one another; they want a greater power to dictate the direction where everyone should go to avoid the possibility of everyone going against everyone else due to their opposing points-of-view. On the other hand, the second one requires the use of force by the sovereign power wherein people subject themselves under him due to fear of death or any other punishment should they choose otherwise.

When a sovereign power is put into place whether by institution or by acquisition, Hobbes represents the commonwealth as The Leviathan which is…


Hobbes, Thomas. Oxford World's Classics -- Thomas Hobbes Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Spielvogel, Jackson. Western Civilization (7th ed.). California: Thomson Learning, Inc., 2009.

Homeland Security Natural Barrier to
Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89811778
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One of the biggest problems with interagency communication is the computer technologies between agencies. Essentially, they do not coordinate because each agency uses different computer technologies. Author anum continues, "That's how the federal government's computer systems became an incompatible mess: Each agency does its own product selection, and no effort is made to coordinate" (anum, 2004, p. 171). Even today, Homeland Security cannot coordinate the computers of all the agencies it oversees, and this is a huge barrier to sharing information and intelligence, and it puts the country and her people at risk.

Clearly, communication is a key element of keeping the country safe. Not only is it important between agencies, it is incredibly important for the first responders on the scene of a homeland security incident. For example, during the 9/11 attacks, firefighters, medical personnel, and police could not pick up each other's radio frequencies, so they could not…


Huang, M.P. (2007). After reorganization: A leadership journey. The Public Manager, 36(1), 67+.

Ranum, M.J. (2004). The myth of Homeland Security. Indianapolis: Wiley.

Effects of the Recruitment and Selection Process
Words: 3115 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 26394534
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H strategies differ at times from management strategies. One study conducted in the early 90's highlighted the dominant H strategies of one company. " ... a cost reduction strategy and an employee commitment strategy. These strategies were distinguished from one another on the basis of five realms of H policy and practice: work organization, employee relations, staffing, training, and compensation" (Bamberger, Biron and Meshoulam, 2014. P. 56). Cost reduction strategies aim to augment efficiency through enforcement of employee compliance with detailed procedures and rules as well as basing things like employee rewards on some assessable criteria.

Commitment strategy on the other hand is meant to develop a team of dedicated employees that can be trusted to use their discretion in order to perform job tasks in ways consistent with the goals and aims of the organization. The study established that the organization's commitment strategy is a collection of practices categorized…


Bamberger, P., Biron, M. and Meshoulam, I. (2014). Human Resource Strategy. New York: Routledge.

Bernard, H. (2013). Social research methods. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research. London: Sage Publications.

Edwards, W. (1992). Utility Theories: Measurements and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Civic Project Entry 1 Selection
Words: 3117 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14142245
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A try to help my Little Brother find positive voluntary associations. I encourage him to volunteer at his local church, and to seek afterschool enrichment programs and tutoring. But this is not always easy. He often says that he feels that people do not care -- his teachers, his parents, and even his friends who try to uphold a 'straight and narrow' path. He also says that he wants to feel as if he is accepted by other people, and sometimes his drive to feel accepted right now is more powerful than pursuing long-range goals and the promise getting into college, of 'making it' in a larger American social context. I try to provide a positive role model for him, but it can be difficult to describe to him that sometimes you need to get through the present to move into the future, when many of the images of the…

Nwp Marketing Natural Way Products Alternative Advertising
Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99202792
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NWP Marketing

Natural Way Products: Alternative Advertising and Diversification for Greater Market


Demographic Data

Natural Way Products is already a leader in the natural products market in New Zealand's North Island due to the quality and effectiveness of its products, which are hand-crafted in a way which is respectful of nature and better for the consumer, using the best ingredients. They want to expand their market share to include all of New Zealand, to go from their current share of 10% to 15% in the next five years, and expand to Australia. The way they should do this is by expanding and increasing their advertising, to raise awareness of their products, opening up new markets and increasing their visibility (Demers, 2010).


SWOT Analysis. Through breaking down Natural Way Products into these four essential elements, it is possible to gain more insight into the strength and stability of the…


Demers, J. (2010). Online marketing strategies for natural product retailers. Retrieved March 24,

2011 from http://jeffreydemers. com/marketing-strategies/?p=71

Nmisolutions. com. (2008). National marketing institute: Consumer insight and market opportunity report. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www. nmisolutions. com/r_consumer_insight. html

Hartman Group (1). (2008). The many faces of organic. Organic Magazine. Summer Issue.

Desiderius Erasmus Selection From the Praise of Folly
Words: 1022 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70376186
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Praise of Folly

Desiderius Erasmus' story "The Praise of Folly" is a pointed satirical work that serves many purposes that the art of literature uniquely presents. The purpose of this essay is to examine the written work to explore several themes. This argument will describe and explain the author's use of criticism and satire by highlighting certain passages of the text that best demonstrate these tools. This essay will also compare Erasmus' use of satire with its use by today's social critics. Finally this essay will remark about this work as it is presented in its parent text book.

The Praise of Folly is divided into three different parts or sections that help seperate the author's criticisms. The story is narrated by Folly herself as she presents herself in front of a crowd of wearing an outlandish costume. Folly proclaims her many admirable traits and begins to rant on her…

Works Cited

Erasmus, Desiderius. "The Praise of Folly." Readings in the Western Humanities. Roy T. Matthews and F. DeWitt Platt. 7 thMcGraw Hill, 2010. Print.

Matthews, Roy, DeWitt Platt, et al. The Western Humanities. 7th edition. McGraw Hill, 2011. Print.

Psychic Distance the Natural Occurrence
Words: 2744 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36719756
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Nevertheless, other psychic distance stimuli do still play a significant role.

Finally, Dow and Karunaratna (2006) also stressed Shenkar's (2001) 'the assumption of equivalence,' where it is inappropriate and unjustified to assume that all factors contribute equally to the overall psychic distance construct. Examples of this were Kogut and Singh's (1988) methodology for combining Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Barkema and Vermeulen's (1997) results. They showed that, for their sample population, the apparent relationship between a composite measure of Hofstede's cultural dimensions and international joint venture survival is driven entirely by only three of the five dimensions. The importance of various factors cannot be determined in isolation from appropriate dependent variables. The weighting of the various factors needs to be determined empirically, in concert with the dependent variable(s).

Conway and Swift (2000, p. 1391) looked at psychic distance from a different parameter based on this need for variables, specifically with relationship…


Barkema, H.G. And Vermeulen, F. 1997 'What differences in cultural backgrounds of partners are detrimental for International Joint ventures?' Journal of International Business Studies vol.28. no. 2. pp. 845-864.

Blois, K.J. 1996. Relationship marketing in organizationa markets. Journal of Strategic Marketing. vol.4. no. 3. pp. 181-191.

Boyacigiller, N. 1990 'The role of expatriates in the management of interdependence, complexity and risk in multinational corporations', Journal of International Business Studies vol. 21. no. 3. pp. 357-381

Brewer, Paul. 2007. 4 Psychic distance and Australian export market selection. Australian Journal of Management.

Origin of Species by Means
Words: 2535 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96814183
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For example, the species on a single continent are more likely to be similar to one another, even if they live in vastly different environmental conditions, than species from two different continents. Darwin drew heavily upon his experience on the Beagle to suggest that ability to engage in migration was an important component of natural selection. Darwin drew upon examples of islands to help explain his ideas, using examples from his time on the Beagle. For example, he theorized that animals develop to fit certain ecological niches, and that animals of different types might fill those niches in different areas.

After discussing how geography has impacted biology, Darwin moves on to a discussion of how species are classified. He acknowledges that the science behind these classifications is imperfect, as it is based on resemblance. He states his belief that animals with similar traits share a common ancestor. In this way,…

Works Cited

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London. Odhams Press Limited, 1872.

Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the
Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95822468
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Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the Sea

Today, one of the best known examples of macroevolution is that which can be speculated upon and observed in relation to marine mammals. ales, porpoises and dolphins, members of the Catacean order, share a number of distinctions in the marine ecosystem, not the least of which is their high intelligence. Additionally, that these species are mammals that must ascend to the surface for respiration has underscored long-standing zoological speculation as to their origins. As the question of macroevolution suggests, these origins may well denote that the species in question originated on land.

According to the research by Bajpai et al. (2009), the speculative nature of the macroevolutionary theory was given some of its strongest evidence to date by fossil finds in the Indian and Pakistan region. These have suggested that whales in particular can be shown to have evolved into aquatic creatures…

Works Cited:

Bajpai, S.; Thewissen, J.G. & Sahni, A. (2009). The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Bioscience, 34(5), 673-685.

Barton, N.H.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Eisen, J.A.; Goldstein, D.B. & Patel, N.H. (2007). Evolution. Cold Springs Harbor Press.

Meek, P. (1996). Natural Selection. University of Michigan.

Moran, L. (1993). Random Genetic Drift. The Talk Origins Archive.

Origin of Species
Words: 2291 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12726516
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Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":

The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…

Works Cited

Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.

Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: 

Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at:

Evolution and Darwin
Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20341483
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Evolution: Darwin

The purpose of this work is to explore the "Theory of Evolution" as set forth by Darwin and to further explore what is termed as "natural selection" as well as that of "artificial selection." This paper will further examine Darwin's Theory as to the workings of evolution as well as exploring exactly how natural selection works to produce evolution.

Finally, the role of individual genetic variations in relation to evolution and natural selection will be researched. The evolving of traits in species will also be examined as well as the applicable use of those theories.

Having first traveled throughout the world, on a ship, exploring both land and water, in the role of a "Naturalist," and having observed the wonders of the Andes and witnessed the result of Chilean earthquakes, crossed hundreds of miles, trekking through unknown regions, Charles Darwin, returned to England.

Darwin continued to study and…


Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Executive Summary [Online] available at: 

Ballyntyne, Paul, Ph.D (nd) "Evolution and Psychology In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists" [Online] available at:

Williams James and Functionalism (nd) available [Online] at: 

Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda "

Moral Animal
Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75445073
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Darwin Comes of Age

o understand Robert Wright, it is first necessary to define evolutionary psychology, which is the foundation of Wright's theory. Evolutionary psychology contends that most, if not all, of human behavior can be understood by the interests of internal psychological mechanisms. hese internal mechanisms are adaptations, or products of natural selection that helped human ancestors survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychology looks at the challenges early humans faced in their hunter-gatherer environments and the problem-solving they went through to meet those challenges. Based on these problem-solving adaptations, it then establishes the common roots of ancestral behavior and, especially related to Wright's book, how these common behavioral roots are observed and acted upon today. Human behavior, just like physical traits, has passed on from generation to the next. In their brains humans have specific knowledge that helps them adapt to the environment. he brain is subject to natural selection…

Though women today can better afford to economically take care of themselves, there is a throwback to the past. Even in the poorest societies, a father's social status translated into more advantages for the children. Although a modern woman can reflect on her wealth and independence and thus gauge her decisions accordingly, she still has to come to grips with the ingrained impulses from her early ancestral environment. In fact, women, says Wright, are not able to override their internal impulses. The tendency remains for them to place greater emphasis on a mate's financial prospects regardless of their income. As long as a society remains economically stratified, the challenge of reconciling lifelong monogamy with human nature will be significant.

This is despite the fact that most men are better off in a monogamous system and women are less better off. Wright gives the example of 2,000 people living in a monogamous society with each woman engaged to marry the man who shares her ranking. She'd like to marry a higher-ranking man, but they were taken by competitors. The men would like to marry up, too, but cannot for the same reason. If polygyny was legalized, at least one woman somewhat more desirable than average, with a rating of 400 for example, leaves male #400 and becomes a wife of a more successful lawyer, #40. Women thus become better off and most men worse off. Women have greater options; men have less. Polygyny would more evenly distribute the assets of men. However, monogamy gives men access to a supply of women that would otherwise be unattainable, even if it is only one. Monogamy is not a big plus for either side; it's a compromise for both men and women.

Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Organic Evolution Please Discuss the
Words: 4338 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43722112
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Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).

esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…


Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.

Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.

Psychology - Reproductive Choice Human
Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2601880
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Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:

Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).

Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…


Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.

New York: Vintage

Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.

New York: Henry Holt.

Darwinists Must Be Crazy Imagine the Possibilities
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73692401
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Darwinists Must Be Crazy

Imagine the possibilities of learning about Charles Darwin, and studying many forms that exist, such as social, economic and political. However, does this apply to every situation based off his theory? Is survival of the fittest applicable in statistics? How about natural selection? One will investigate further the theory of evolution by discussing probability and many other factors involved.

Every person who believes in evolution thinks that the earth is four billion years old sometimes more or less depending on his or her viewpoint. In order for anything to appear true, species and the origin of everything has to go from simple to complex organisms. Charles Darwin mentions that all life came out of former existence (Darwin, 2003). Is this really true, though?

Instead of using five billion years, let us use 13 billion instead. One can assume that all of these days were good. Furthermore,…


Darwin, C. (2003). Origin of species: 150th anniversary. New York: Signet Classics.

Hoyle, S.F. (1997). The origin of the universe and the origin of religion. Kingston: Moyer Bell.

Nielsen, R. (2005). Statistica methods in molecular evolution. New York: Springer.

Heritable Variation in a Population Variation Within
Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58599778
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Heritable Variation in a Population

Variation within the realm of natural selection is the cornerstone of a healthy population with the ability to adapt to a given environment. Indeed, the reality is that natural selection and evolution are sciences of variation and inheritance.

Variations known as heritable variations are those which are passed on from one generation of a population to the next. It is important for these variations to remain intact between generations because certain elements within a given organism may have made a positive change which allows the creature to live more comfortably in its environment. As these positive changes are passed down through the generations they become more of a staple of the population and less of a mutation. This is the basis for evolution.

In human beings, research shows that populations which developed in warm climates tend to be taller while populations which developed in cool…


O'Neil, Dennis. "Natural Selection." E. Museum Genetics and Biology. 2002. 

King, Peter. "Human Biology." Genetic Variation and Natural Selection. 2002.

Lessons in Theory Building
Words: 1784 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26194039
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Darwin's Theory Of Evolution

The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,

"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…

Works Cited

Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from 

Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from 

Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from

Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from

Living Things Are Characterized by the Following
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living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…


1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from

Attitude Change and Persuasion
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Attitude Change and Pesuasion

What is evolutionay psychology? How does it explain mate selection?

Evolutionay psychology (EP) is an advance that looks at psychological taits such as memoy, peception and language fo a contempoay evolutionay pespective in egads to social and natual sciences. It attempts to categoize which human psychological taits ae alteations that have evolved (Confe, Easton, Fleischman, Goetz, Lewis, Peilloux & Buss, 2010). In othe wods, which functional poducts of natual selection o sexual selection ae evolved adaptations. Adaptationist thinking in egads to physiological mechanisms, such as the heat, lungs, and immune system, is fequent in evolutionay biology. Evolutionay psychology elates the same thinking to psychology, aguing that the mind has a modula makeup simila to that of the body, with dissimila modula adaptations seving diffeent functions (Confe et al., 2010).

Evolutionay psychologists dispute that a lot of human behavio is the output of psychological adaptations that…

references, Jealousy, and Aggression. Retrieved from 

Sommer, H. (n.d.). Evolution, Sexuality, Mate-Selection, and Begging Methodological

Questions. Retrieved from

Thiessen, D. (1999). Social influences on human assortative mating. In M.C. Corballis, S.G.

Lea, M.C. Corballis, S.G. Lea (Eds.), The descent of mind: Psychological

Schools of Evolutionary Computation Evolutionary
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Then, each program is measured in terms of how well it can perform in a given environment. Based on this test called the fitness measure, the fit programs are selected for the next generation of reproduction. This process is continued until the best solution is determined. (Koza, 1992).

The advantages of genetic programming is that it is an evolving process based on the tested process of natural selection and evolution. This also uses parallel processing and so it can produce more accurate results within a short period of time. Due to these advantages, it is used in many real-world applications.

It plays a profound role in data mining and virtual reality, in every field ranging from finance to gaming. Specialized computer programs can retrieve data from large databases with a lot of precision and speed. These programs can also be used to identify relationships among this data and express them…


Yao, Xin. (1999). Evolutionary Computation: Theory and Applications. Publisher: World Scientific.

Back, Thomas. Fogel, David.B, Michaelewicz, Zbigniew. (2000). Evolutionary Computation 1: Basic Algorithms and Operators. Publisher: CRC Press.

Mitchell, Melanie. (1998). An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Publisher: MIT Press.

Koza, John. R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by means of natural selection. Publisher: MIT Press.

Darwinian Finance the Evolution of
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Over time, these small changes add up to evolution.

In short, evolution can be seen as a measure of how suitable given traits of an individual are to the survival of their genetic material. Genes more suited to survival remain while those less do not. Chance events can cause changes in evolutionarily advantageous traits, and can also cause bottlenecks by severely limiting resources, meaning that only a small number of species with given genetic traits will survive to pass on their genes to the next generation. How this all applies to the current economic situation might not be immediately observable, but it is actually a relatively straightforward and even simple application.

There was not exactly a chance event that caused the financial crisis, but the failure of mortgage-backed securities was certainly unplanned, and its effects largely unpredictable. In essence, this failure caused a sever drop in the level of available…

Resources are always limited, meaning there will always be competition and evolution.

Genetic Load in Modern Humans
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By treating genetic disorders, natural selection is interrupted -- these individuals do not die as they naturally would have, and so their genetic disadvantage no longer selects against them. iT could be argued, however, that humans have stopped evolving as biological creatures anyway; technology has provided the "cure" to many issues of natural selection, both from the species end of things and from the supply side (i.e. In making more resources more available to more people). Therefore, it is not really detrimental to the species as a whole to save the individuals with lethal alleles. Since we are no longer really evolving, and the prevalence of most lethal alleles is incredibly low anyway, the species as a whole is not made less healthy by the presence of these individuals or their alleles, despite the increased chance they have at procreating.

This means that traditional medical ethics, which demand that an…

Kurt Vonnegut's Work Titled Galapagos The Writer
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Kurt Vonnegut's work titled, Galapagos. The writer of this paper explores Vonnegut's theory of evolution and where it is headed if we do not stop thinking thoughts. There was one source used to complete this paper.

The globalization process gives mankind a peek into a fast forward demonstration of what evolution is about. The change to accommodate need is what mankind adapts for the purpose of survival and evolvement. Because it is such a slow process it is difficult to see where mankind will be in the future, but author Kurt Vonnegut provides one possible scenario in his book; "Galapagos."


Vonnegut presents a theory of the future that at first glance is scary and dismal, however when one peels off the top layer and examines the underpinnings it becomes evident that the process will take so long to occur mankind will accept it as it happens. This is…

Structural Inequality & Diversity Root
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" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…


Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.

Science What Are the Steps of Scientific
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What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?

Steps of scientific method:

Ask a question

Do background research

Construct a hypothesis

Test your hypothesis

Analyze your data

f. Communicate your results

The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.

A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.

A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.

e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.

How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…

Student Who Makes the Statement
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Every human being and every type animal that exists on the face of the Earth today has evolved from some form of earlier species. Every thing has a parent. The first step in demonstrating the truth of evolution is to make the claim that all living creatures must have a living parent. This point has been overwhelmingly established in the past century and a half, ever since the French scientist Louis Pasteur demonstrated how fermentation took place and thus laid to rest centuries of stories about beetles arising spontaneously out of dung or gut worms being miraculously produced from non-living material. There is absolutely no evidence for this ancient belief. Living creatures must come from other living creatures. All living creatures have DNA and genes that are passed down. This is how evolution evolves. The combination and the spreading genes create living organisms that are capable of adapting to their…

Biology Qs Microbes Exist All
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Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).


There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…


CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009.

Thoreau Was a Student of Nature for
Words: 1782 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 88098132
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Thoreau was a student of nature for virtually all of his adult life. During Thoreau's life, Cape Cod was a relatively unspoiled area rich with nature and people who worked closely in nature, such as farmers and fishermen. Those who lived on Cape Cod tended to be independent sorts, and Thoreau preferred their company to those of people engaged in commerce or other business-related occupations.

In his small book Cape Cod, Thoreau recounts his experiences on walking excursions around Cape Cod during the mid-1800's. In the process he described much about the unspoiled nature present throughout the Cape at that time.

In the opening chapter Thoreau talks about the ecology of living along the ocean: in the midst of a desperate sight - the wreck of a boat loaded with immigrants, most of whom drowned, he saw people gathering seaweed to use as fertilizer. The seaweed had been tossed up…

Vervet Monkey or Chlorocebus Is Part of
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Vervet Monkey, or Chlorocebus, is part of the Old-orld monkey classification of medium sized primates. There are typically six species that science recognizes, but there is disagreement as to whether this is one species of a species and subspecies. For the entire species of Chloroceus, the terms "vervet" and "green" monkey are used interchangeably even though there refer to some other species as common names (Groves).


Suborder: Haplorrhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes

Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea

Family: Cercopithecidae

Subfamily: Cercopithecinae

Genus: Chlorocebus

Species: Ch. aethiops, Ch. cynosuros, Ch. djamdjamensis, Ch. pygerythrus, Ch. sabaeus, Ch. tantalus

Subspecies: Ch. p. excubitor, Ch. p. hilgerti, Ch. p. nesiotes, Ch. p. pygerythrus, Ch. p. rufoviridis, Ch. t. budgetti, Ch. t. marrensis, Ch. t. tantalus

Other names: Ch. aethiops: Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus aethiops, or Chlorocebus aethiops; grivet or savanna monkey; singe vert (French); grunmeerkatze (German); mono verde (Spanish); gron markatta or vervett (Swedish); Ch. cynosuros: malbrouck; Ch. djamdjamensis:…


Cheney, D, and R. Seyfarth. How Monkeys See The World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Print.

Groves, C. "Genus Chlorocebus." Mammal Species of the World. Ed. D. Wilson and D. Reeder. 3rd. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 158-60. Print.

National Research Council. International Perspectives on the future on nonhuman primate resources. Washington, DC.: National Research Council, 2002. Print.

"Vervet Chlorocebus." 21 November 2011. Primate Info Net. Web. February 2012. .

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions
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In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…

Knowledge Views on the Nature of Knowledge
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Views on the Nature of Knowledge: Social Scientists vs. Natural Scientists

hat is knowledge? A simple question, or so most people would think. Knowledge is the accumulation of information on a given subject or subjects. It is a collection of facts, of things known to be true...or is it? The closer one looks, the more one comes to realize that there are many different approaches to obtaining knowledge, and many different definitions of precisely what constitutes knowledge. One's use of the term varies with one's own background and objectives. To some, knowledge is an absolute, to others; it is that which is gained through long hours of observation and long years of experience. The facts that make up what we call knowledge may be composed of absolutes, or they may be composed of many opinions, opinions that we believe to be most accurate or most correct. But what then…

Works Cited

Caldwell, Chris. The Prime Glossary: Perfect Number. 2002. URL: 

Gal Einai Institute of Israel. "Yud - The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters." The Inner Dimension. No Date. URL: .

Pederson, K.C. "Scotland Raising Shedding Sheep for Wool Production." Twisted Spinsters: Obsessive Fiber Disorder. November 2000. URL:

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian
Words: 3368 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86724624
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" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…


Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.

Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996

Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at 

Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at .

Joseph Tainter Sustainability What Does Moving Toward
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Joseph Tainter, Sustainability

What does moving toward sustainability really entail? Joseph Tainter's article on "Social Complexity and Sustainability" makes a crucial distinction at the outset, differentiating sustainability from resiliency. Sustainability entails a society's ability to continue along in current patterns or modes of existence, whereas resiliency is a society's ability to adjust and reorient itself during conditions of change. It is possible that unsustainable policies or activities may have put is in a position where drastic changes are to be expected, and where resiliency may be something we all require -- but as Tainter notes, "the goal of human groups is more often sustainability or continuity than resilience" (Tainter 92). Yet the concept of resiliency is important to understand Tainter's insight that "Given the role of complexity in both sustainability and collapse, 'success' consists substantially of staying in the game." I would like to consider Tainter's insight while ultimately pondering…

Laws of Nature
Words: 2041 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6431860
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One of these areas is religion, as Hobbes argues that religion must be something over which those who are operating society must have control in order to keep the people moving in the direction which society has determined is correct.

That, however, is difficult to enforce, since people are often not willing to change what they truly believe just because they may have been told that they should.

They may pretend to believe a certain way in order to get the societal protections that come along with that belief, but that does not change their true nature, and the natural law by which they are operating on a very base level. It is, in some ways, akin to committing a crime in that they know there would be societal consequences but they believe so strongly about something that they are not willing to change for society. Instead of changing, and…


Hobbes, T. (2010). Leviathan. Revised Edition. Martinich, A.P. & Battiste, B. (eds). Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

Hobbes, T. (2010). Leviathan. Revised Edition. Martinich, A.P. & Battiste, B. (eds). Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

Hobbes, 2010.

Hobbes, 2010.

Preservation and Conservation
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Ecological Study

Preservation and Conservation

Conservation, Preservation & Natural Regulation

Te purpose of tis paper is to define te difference between "conservation" and "preservation" and to researc "natural regulation" and define tat as well and to examine te results of "natural regulation" in terms of animal population, forest fires and any oter results wic may be discovered due to "natural regulation."

Te 'conservationist movement' was born in te decade of te 1960's and grew strong in te 1970's. Tere was a smaller movement of preservationists tat was bot ally and enemy to te conservationists in teir pursuits. Te survival is eac plant and animal in te ecosystem, or teir demise as a species if by te process of natural selection is only accomplised troug maintaining biodiversity in te ecological system of te eart. Biodiversity as been described as te "structural and functional variety of life forms at genetic, species, population,…

Covering of the Tree Tops

This paper to be used for reference purposes only

Why Evolution is True
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Evolution Is True

What Is Evolution?

This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…


Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin

Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from 

Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from

Psychology Dawkins' Selfish Gene and
Words: 1827 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34663368
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Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.

Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…


Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.

Why Evolution Is True
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Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True

I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…

Works Cited

Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.

Man Did Evolve Man Is
Words: 3818 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67588956
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He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)

Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…


Aristotle: (384-322 B.C.E) Retrieved at . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Aristotle's Taxonomy. 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Boeree, C. George. Darwin and Evolution. 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Chain of Being. Retrieved at . Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
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Evolution & Genetic Drift

Evolution and Genetic Drift

The variety of human attributes evident in society comes as a result of the variety of alleles that direct the expression of human genotypes. This expression results in very different phenotypic traits that form the basis of human individuality. Based upon these traits, a person may be more or less likely to adapt well to their environment. hen viewed over a long enough time period, the frequency of allele distribution results in more or less advantageous phenotypes. Those phenotypes that are less adaptive to the surroundings make it harder for that individual to survive. This is the basis of natural selection, where desirable traits are selected for based upon the advantages that the phenotype confers. This is also the reason for changing allele frequencies, as those gene variants that are less helpful to the organism become (over time) less common in the…

Works Cited

Lewis, Ricki. Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill,

Moran, Laurence. "Random Genetic Drift." Downloaded July 23, 2004 from The Talk.

Origins Archive, Web site:,1997.

Solomon, Eldra, Berg, Linda and Diana Martin. Biology. New York: Harcourt Brace

Sarah Blaffer Hrdy
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Sarah laffer Hrdy is an anthropologist who specialized in the field of primate sociobiology (Zika 2002). Her undergraduate thesis was a study of mental adaptations that shape how and why humans fabricate imaginary demons, and then graduated at Radcliffe College in 1969. In 1975, she earned a Ph.D. At Harvard University for her research on why a species of monkey engaged in infanticidal behavior. It became the first socio-biological study of wild primates' wild behavior in connection with their gender. In 1981, 1984 and 1996, Hrdy wrote best sellers on female primates as active strategists and the natural selection and common traits shared by higher primates with other living creatures on earth.

Hrdy's works reveal the motivations behind some of our most primal behavior patters, including gender roles, choice of mate, sex, reproduction and parenting, along with the ideas and the institutions that have been established around them. They have…


1. Hardy, Sarah Blaffer

2001. Mothers and Others. Natural History Magazine: American Museum of Natural


1999. Mother Nature: a History of Mothers, Infants and Natural Selection. Partheon Books

Culture and the Evolutionary Process of Human Beings
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Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…

references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.

Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.

Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.

Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.

Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203

book review on why evolution is true
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The book Why Evolution is True by Jerry Coyne presents a cogent case for evolution, a concept that can be controversial for some but accepted fact for others. This paper will work through the book -- the case that Coyne makes -- and offer reflections on my own journey of understanding the concept of evolution and its manifestation in the natural world.

Understanding Evolution

Evolution is not "fact," so much as a theory that is supported by a wealth of evidence. Just this alone lies at the heart of a lot of the misunderstanding about evolution. First proposed by Charles Darwin as a theory based on his observations of the natural world, evolution reflects the processes of adaptation that species go through, over time and successive generations. In adapting to their environments, species undergo changes that will, given enough time and dramatically different environments, result in the development of…


Coyne, J. (2010) Why Evolution is True. Penguin Books.

Evolution as Presented by Charles
Words: 474 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89021173
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The first and most serious is that any type of modification will produce a certain type of outcome. While it is true in the most general sense that helpful modifications are more likely to be retained, it is imperative to keep in mind that significant mutations to an organism are typically fatal, and that most genetic mutations that yield living organisms either cannot produce viable offspring or have an insignificant or slightly negative effect. Hence, pure quantity of variance within a species is meaningless, and the big decisions fall to fate: is species X capable of adapting to cataclysmic event Y? While the ability to adapt to diverse conditions is helpful, no significant change will occur in a species without significant pressure.

The reason is that only mild, phenotypic variation can take place in a large, breeding population. Significant alterations, as previously noted, are typically fatal or incidental. Even if…

Understanding the Social Psychology and Criminal Behavior
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75131030
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Sociobiology Theory and Criminology

Criminology field has varying psychological and biological theories that explain the criminality and factors that predispose individuals to engaging in criminal behaviors. Biological theories consider criminal behavior as a product of biological abnormality or defect. The criminal cannot change their behaviors because of the variation of their biological traits, thereby, forcing them to act in a specific manner. However, biological theory is considered odd with the presence of psychological theories that try to explain the factors and reasons behind criminality. Unlike the earlier, psychological theories, consider criminality as a product of offenders due to defects of the mental functioning, adjustment to the environmental forces, and individual development (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007). Therefore, this essay analyzes the sociobiological theory that tries to explain the relationship between personality and criminality. The essay also analyzes the key elements that underpin the sociobiological theory and its philosophical basis.

Sociobiology refers…


Baumeister, R.F., & Vohs, K.D. (2007). Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Turner, J.H. (2001). Handbook of sociological theory. New York: Springer.

Wainwright, M. (2012). Toward a sociobiological hermeneutic: Darwinian essays on literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Why Evolution and Extinction Is Essential to Humanity
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Extinction Events or Environmental Catastrophes

Many uncertainties exist over the acts and roles of extinction in the world today. Nonetheless, with all these uncertainties, it is possible to formulate reasonable statements that depict the probable role of extinction. The role of extinction can be thought to have some elements, most of which are instrumental in striking the relationship and power seen in evolution and extinction in the earth's history up to the appearance of hominids (8 million years ago) . For any widespread species or any group of a widespread species, extinction needs some bit of environmental shock that comes in the form of physical or biological aspects that normally occur. Such occurrences take place during the geological lifespans of the given species or groups of species. In this case, the shock that is resulting has to be applied with a rapidness that is enough to take place over a…

Reference list

Abe, Takuya, Simon A. Levin, and M. Higashi. 1997. Biodiversity and Ecological Perspective. New York, NY: Springer New York. .

Courtillot, Vincent. 2002. Evolutionary Catastrophes: The Science of Mass Extinction. Cambridge [U.A.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Fry, Iris. 2000. The Emergence of Life on Earth: A Historical and Scientific Overview. New Brunswick, NJ [U.A.]: Rutgers University Press.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2014. The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. New York, Routledge.

Paradoxes of Evolutionary Biology in
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The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.


There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…

Simon, HA. "A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism." Science. 1990.

Trivers, RL. "The evolution of reciprocal altruism." The Quarterly Review of Biology. 1971. 46:35-55.

Wilkinson, GS. "Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat." Nature. 1984. 308:181-184.

Evolutionary Psychology as the Bridge
Words: 2679 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78587018
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" (Wikopedia, n.d.)

The social scientists moved from Freud to the idea of Pramatism. "Theodore Porter argued in "The ise of Statistical Thinking" that the effort to provide a synthetic social science is a matter of both administration and discovery combined, and that the rise of social science was, therefore, marked by both pragmatic needs as much as by theoretical purity." (Wikopedia n.d.)

An example of how the social science movement continues to gather new methodologies can be demonstrated by the various theories during different periods of time. In the early twentieth century, the main idea of the movement was focused on the ability of society to utilize statistical analysis. The movement came up with the notion of the Intelligence Quotient of the typical IQ test. This type of test was a measure of some unknown statistic but still a pragmatic prediction of potential success at certain tests or tasks.…


Browning, Don S., Couture, Pamela D., Franklin, Robert M., & Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J. (1997). From Culture Wars to Common Ground: Religion and the American Family Debate. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.

Maasen, Sabine, Mitchell, Sandra D., Richerson, Peter J., & Weingart, Peter (1997). Human by Nature: Between Biology and the Social Sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rose, Michael R. (1998). Darwin's Specter: Evolutionary Biology in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wikopedia. (n.d.). Social Sciences. Retrieved on May 3, 2005, at

Psychology Human Adaptation Although Charles
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One of the most difficult challenges in applying evolutionary theory to the study of human behavior is determining the time frame in which to study human behavior as a form of adaptation. Evolution is a process that takes place over hundreds of thousands of years, and as such, evolutionary adaptations are often lagging far behind cultural and environmental changes. For example, the political climate of the United States might change every four years after an election, but babies born during a democratic presidency will not have adapted in an evolutionary sense such that their future offspring will be "more democratic" than republican. This time lag in evolution can create confusion when searching for evolutionary and adaptive explanations for human behavior and this problem arises mostly from the fact that our behavior we show today is likely a form of adaptation to an environment that existed hundreds or even thousands of…

Punctuated Equilibrium v Phyletic Gradualism
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Evidence, because it is the only way scientists can look into the distant biological past and so come up with ling-term explanations for macroevolution, and consternation because its incompleteness leaves it open to a diversity of equally plausible explanations. Gould and other punctuated equilibrium proponents see the lack of intermediary species as a flaw in the theory of phyletic gradualism; they see this as convincing evidence that species make bigger evolutionary leaps in shorter time frames than gradualism allows for. Gradualists actually take this lack of fossil evidence as possible proof that their theory is correct -- the incompleteness of the fossil record makes it far less likely to contain record of transitional species (KVIE, pars. 2-3).

The theory of punctuated equilibrium, with its reliance on the facts present rather than an insistence on facts absent, makes more sense to my mind than the theory of phyletic gradualism. Gould's explanations…

Works Cited

Gould, Stephen Jay. Punctuated Equilibrium. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2007.

KVIE. "Punctuated Equilibrium." PBS Evolution Library. 2001. WGBH Educational Services. Accessed on 10/30/2008. 

Ridley, Mark. Evolution. 3rd Ed. New York: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.