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During the games, Hitler staged elaborate ceremonies, such as a parade of ethnic Germans from all over the world. During the games, the Nazis introduced Germany as a nation reborn and dealing with the Depression in much better ways than did Western democracies. In the same year, the Germans took after Hitler's role model, enito Mussolini of Italy, in sending troops to support Spanish General Francisco Franco. Hitler moved his focus to Austria for reunification or Anschluss. Although his tactic failed, he continued to secretly work to undermine the government. He demanded from Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schushnigg to release the Nazis in Austrian prisons and to appoint Nazi officials to key positions. Schuschnigg made the Austrians decide if they wanted to reunify with Germany. Hitler instead challenged the vote, demanded and obtained the resignation of the Austrian government (MFA Productions LLC).
Hitler's foreign policy violated the Versailles Treaty (Suffolk…
1. Clare, John D. How Did Nazi Rule Affect Germans?. Greenfield History Site, 2006. http://www.johndclare.net
2. Kniesmeyer, J and D. Brecher. "The Racial Theories of the Nazis." Nazism and the Holocaust, p 49, 1995. http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/english/49.html
3. -. "Anti-Jewish Policies 1933-1939." http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/english/50.html
4. -. "The Rise of Nazism in Germany." http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/english/47.html
Nazi Germany (MLA).
Nothing conjures up the image of evil more than the period in German history known as the "Third Reich." Adolph Hitler and the National Socialist Party, Nazi, embodied the very image of evil and have become he standard by which evil is currently measured. Television, literature, art, and movies have all-based evil characters on the Nazi's, for instance, in the "Star ars" movies, the evil empire is defended by the legions of "storm troopers." (Lucas) Of course, "storm trooper" was a German term developed in the First orld ar to defined the assault troops used in battle. Nazi Germany used the term "storm trooper" to define the troops used in the many invasions of European countries by the Germans. Therefore, Nazi Germany is by far the greatest current example of evil and intolerance in the modern world.
hile the Nazi regime was evil, it is…
Volume 7, Nazi Germany, 1933-1945. German Historical Documents and Images. Web. 5 June 2011. http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/Index.cfm?language=english
Hauner, Milan. "Did Hitler Want a World Dominion?" Journal of Contemporary History, 13 (1). 1978. Web. 5 June 2011. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/articles/hauner.pdf
Hitler, Adolph. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1943. Print
Lucas, George, dir. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977. Film.
In January 1942 the military became impatient with a lack of a single military application being developed appropriated, and was recategorized. Still, it was understood that the potential for energy was vast enough that funding continued under the kriegswichtig (vital for the war effort) designation.
On June 9, 1942, Adolf Hitler issued a decree for the reorganization of the F as a separate legal entity under the Ministry of Armament and Munitions under eich marshal Hermann Goering. It was hoped that Goering would manage the effort as aggressively and efficiently as he had the Air Force. This was also a key moment in the history of German science -- there was recognition that it had been a mistake to exclude Jewish scientists from the product, and Abraham Esau was back as Goering's assistant, later replaced by Walther Gerlach.
The administrative control over the project is one of the areas that…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alexander, Bevin. How Hitler Could Have Won World War II. Three Rivers Press, 2001.
Alperovitz, Gar & Bird, Kai, "The Centrality of the Bomb," Foreign Policy, 94 (Spring
Anderson, Danny J, "The Novels of Jorge Volpi and the Possibility of Knowledge,"
2 and Gender Relations in Germany
hat was the impact of orld ar Two on gender relations in Germany? To do so we must examine three substantial areas of importance: ideology, trauma, and egalitarianism. The question of ideology is, of course, most important when considering the Third Reich itself -- which had specific ideas about gender roles -- and ultimately the question of post-war de-Nazification. The subject of trauma is arguably unavoidable in considering gender relations at the war's immediate conclusion and afterward, when the subject of mass rape of the German female population must be considered in light of what it says about gender relations more generally. And the issue of egalitarianism may help to explain why, nearly seventy years after the conclusion of orld ar Two, the most powerful person in Germany (and arguably in Europe) is currently a woman, Angela Merkel. A focus on these three specific…
Lowe, Keith. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2012. Print.
Martel, Gordon. "Soldiers: Ideology, Race, and Gender." In Martel, Gordon (ed.) The World War Two Reader (Routledge Readers in History). 141-144. Print.
Overy, Richard. "Mobilization for Total War in Germany 1939-1941." In Martel, Gordon (ed.) The World War Two Reader (Routledge Readers in History). 40-64. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.
Riefensthal, Leni. Leni Riefensthal: A Memoir. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. Print.
reign of Hitler and the actions of Nazi Germany are a dark page in human history. It has been well established that Hitler studied the tactics and policies of different dictators to create a regime that spread terror throughout Europe and the world. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how ismarckian and Prussian Conservative/Authoritarian polices provided a stepping stone to Nazi Germany. First, we will explore the parallels between Nazi Germany and the policies and tactics that were used by ismarck. In addition, our investigation will focus on the manner in which Prussian Conservative/Authoritarian policies influenced Nazi Germany.
Otto Von ismarck is the notorious leader for which ismarckian politics is named. The historic and controversial figure is essential to European history. ismarck is credited with national unification and creating policies that changed Germany and the rest of the world forever. Initially, ismarck's approach to foreign affairs…
Baranowski, Shelley. "Germany, 1870-1945: Politics, State Formation, and War." The Historian 61, no. 3 (1999): 717.
Bismarckian Foreign Policy (1871-1890). http://www.schools.co.uk/T1649.pdf http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77682405
Berger, Stefan. The Search for Normality: National Identity and Historical Consciousness in Germany since 1800. Providence: Berghahn Books, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001329960
1930's, Germany was plagued by unemployment and stagnant growth despite efforts by the administration to alleviate the country's economic difficulties. The economic liberalization of the banking system was one of few cautionary steps taken by administrations prior to Hitler to boost Germany's failing industries. This all changed following the Nazi rise to power; two notable banking acts passed in 1934 and 1936 effectively converted the banking system into Hitler's personal lender, allowing him to replace commercial borrowing with the various savings institutes that would allow him to re-build the German army. In this period, wages were frozen and the armaments business boomed, while individuals suffered as wages were frozen at their pre-Hitler-era rate. Meanwhile, the government was able to continue to borrow money from Germany's isavings banks to contribute to the building of the military.
A series of banking reforms had been started under Chancellor Papen that lead to a…
Bente, Hermann (1933), "Das Eindringen des Staates und der Kommunen in das Bankwesen'," in Untersuchung des Bankwesens, p. 1 (Berlin), i. 36.
Btzkes, W., and K. Krebs (1942), "Fragen der Industriefinanzierung'," in Deutsches Institut fur Bankwissenschaft und Bankwesen, ed., Probleme und Aufgaben des deutschen Geld- und Kreditwesens (Berlin).
Borchardt, Knut (1987), '"Das hat historische Grunde. Zu Determinanten der Struktur des deutschen Kreditwesens unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Rolle der Sparkassen', in Hansjoachim Henning et al. (eds.), Wirtschafts-und sozialgeschichtliche Forschungen und Probleme (St. Katharinen).
It was in the World War 2 that something so huge was tried by The Nazi Germany that it was just impossible to continue it. Genocide was attempted by Adolf Hitler and his comrades; they made systematic and deliberate attempts to kill all of the Jewish community. Jews were blamed by the Nazis for the misfortune that they faced in World War 1 because of which after the war Hitler made it his mission to kill all the Jews. This genocide started in 1939 and lased till 1945. Adolph Hitler was the one by whom this whole thing was introduced as he wanted to get rid of all the minority races from Germany (Bergen, 2009).
In the World War 2 there was a lot of suffering but what happened with the Jews can't be forgotten. The Jewish people had a set of laws for them which were known…
Bergen, Doris (2009). The Holocaust: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield.
Longerich, Peter. (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Following their dramatic loss in the First orld ar, the people of Germany were suffering greatly, both emotionally and physically during the period of the 1920s and into the 1930s. The harsh stipulations of the Treaty of Paris forced the German government into a fragile and fragmented institution which was ripe for the abuse of power-hungry would-be tyrants. The people, eager for a strong figure to look up to, would have accepted almost anyone with perhaps any political agenda so long as the person said the right things and gave the people hope. Enter onto the world stage one Adolph Hitler. Between 1932 and 1933, Adolph Hitler was able to rise from the position of relative insubordinate in the government, to fuehrer and leader of the entire country of Germany. The only way that one man could have achieved such political success in so quick a time has…
Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2007. Print.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Print.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. "To the German Nation." Modern History Sourcebook. 1806. Print.
Goebbels, Joseph. "Our Hitler: a Radio Speech to the German People in Honor of the Fuhrer's
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
Works Cited continued
Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
Pre-Nazi Germany exhibits the kind of delicate yet poignant tension that precipitates major calamity or revolution. Contemporary art, music, and literature capture the social and political atmosphere and all its nuances, especially as it impacts the lives of individuals from various social spheres. Heinriche Heine employs the medium of poetry to subversively satirize the seeds of political and social oppression that were being planted during this critical period in German history. In “Germany: A Winter’s Tale,” Heine draws on the age-old tradition of epic poetic narrative to frame parallels with Teutonic history, all the while capitalizing on the ability of poetic devices like metaphor and imagery to deliver effective and bitter political satire. Christopher Isherwood comes at pre=Nazi Germany from a whole other perspective and point of view. As an outsider looking in, Isherwood offers a mode of inquiry from a temporary looking glass in his collection of short stories…
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…
German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.
History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.
Welch, D. (2011). Nazi Propaganda. BBC History.
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…
Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:
Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
Nazis decided to commit genocide. Was this always Hitler's intention from the beginning? If not, why and when did it change? If so, why the various policy changes? Please illustrate your answer with specific historical examples.
While the process of killing a lot of people in a dedicated and concentrated fashion might seem easy enough, that was far from being the case. One method that was ruled out right away was the use of bullets due to the cost and time involved. There was also deemed to be a toll on the soldiers committing the killing. In terms of process, the Nazis went so far as to actually engage in tests. For example, they tested using carbon monoxide and cyanide gas. The early "guinea pigs" were Russian prisoners and mental patients. Expulsion was considered as well but the expansion of the country made this a hard sell because invading other…
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…
Laska, V. (1983). Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust.
Speigel Online. (2007). New exhibition documents forced prostitution in
concentration camps. Speigel.de.
Traditional Values Coalition (TVC). (2005). Hitler targeted the
The picture presents a monster tattooed with communist symbols. He is destroying a city that is equipped with electricity and other modern embellishments of civilizations. People are running for their life. On its face value, the picture can be taken as the criticism of communism. However, associating communism and Jewish origin with destructivity is not a naive gesture at all. It has an evil nature in itself showing hatred and intolerance for others in the society.
The descriptive text for the picture tells us that it is a propaganda poster depicting a stereotyped Jewish communist who is in the act of destroying Germany. Do we need to know more? This shows the hatred one cherishes against the Jew and the communists. This becomes crystal clear that the propaganda poster delineates the anti-Semitic as well as anti-communist mentality of the Nazis while this particular poster makes a caricature of…
The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).
hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…
Rothfels, Hans, the German Opposition to Hitler. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962.
Shirer, William L., the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
Friends of mine were killed for their beliefs. Of course, by that time I had distanced myself from them because our beliefs no longer matched, and talking with them about the great country that Hitler was going to create had become uncomfortable. So I put on the brown uniform of the SA and joined fellow Germans in doing everything we could to ensure that Hitler's dream of what Germany could be would become a reality in the near future.
One of the reasons that I and the rest of the SA admired Hitler so much was because of his childhood. He was frequently whipped by his father and mistreated, but he did not become defeated because of it; he instead grew stronger and more determined (Nardo, 2002). With that being the case, it was easy to see how the adversity that he would face as a leader would also help…
Dufner, a. (2003). Rise of Adolf Hitler. Greenhaven Press
Gogerly, L. (2003). Adolf Hitler. Heinemann/Raintree.
Nardo, D. (2002). Adolf Hitler. Lucent Books.
West Germany sustained what many call an "economic miracle" rebuilding after the war. Their social market economy allowed for individuals to be entrepeneurial and yet be socially responsible to the state. With so much rebuilding necessary, but an entire Western Europe and the United tates ripe for importing and exporting, the economic future of the West was in high gear (Erhard, 2000). In contrast, East Germany as a client state to the oviet Union, was part of the large buffer zone Moscow set up between themselves and the West. Because so much of the GDP either went back to Moscow or to run the tasi, economic growth was typically stagnant, and there was little motivation for increased production or free spirit workers (Leonhard, 2000).
This also bled over politically; West Germany had free elections, East Germany's a ruse and the ruling elite chosen by Moscow. ocially, West German standards of…
Sources of Twentieth Century Europe (pp. 338-41). New York: Macmillan.
Wise, M. (1998). Capital Dilemma: Germany's Search for a New Architecture of Democracy. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press.
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
The movie also portrays how far humans will go to save their life, their reputation, or even salvage their ideals. Yet again, it humanizes some of the most detestable villains of, some would argue, all time, including the harshest and most hateful of Hitler's 'hitmen.'
3) Was there another possible outcome for Germany other than the creation/fall of the Nazi party and Adolf Hitler? Is it possible to have a similar outcome in the U.S. Or another country today or in the future or is the case of Nazi Germany limited to Adolf Hitler and the German nation?
Because of the fact that Germany had basically come out of a depression, defeated and without any confidence, the rise of the Nazi party was perhaps the most logical thing that could happen to the country. With the advent of the party came prosperity, or at least a segment of it in…
Subversion: The Role of Politics and Pressure in the Nazi Rise to Power
Following the end of World War I, the people of Germany felt the consequences of their loss coupled with the reverberations of the American stock market crash. The effects of the Great Depression only trickled down slowly to the small German town of "Thalburg," the fictitious name of a real town whose privacy William Sheridan Allen wishes to protect throughout his work, The Nazi Seizure of Power. Attempting a democratic state in early twentieth century Germany was difficult at best, futile at worst. Using Thalburg as a microcosmic example of German social and political realities, Allen describes the Nazi rise to power as a function and result of divisions among the general populace. "In the wake of defeat came a revolution led by the working class which overthrew the Kaiser and established a republic in Germany," (p.…
The picture shows a larger-than-life gigantic bearded and very hairy naked man wearing a kippah (Hebrew head-covering) with the Star of David on it. He has a large and crooked nose and a ferocious, rather frightening grin as he appears to be gleefully tearing up railroad tracks and wreaking destruction on a city. There is something round, perhaps a large city water-storage tank, which has railroad tracks wrapped around it. Many of the details of the poster are slightly obscured by the glare of the lights, so one cannot be quite sure of what one is looking at. The sketchy 'city' seems to be broken, obviously destroyed by the monster, and this is well-illustrated with broken lines intended to be railroad tracks bent and strewn at random all over the city. At the very bottom of the picture, people are shown running away as they look back fearfully.…
The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated into people's mind the idea that since they had chosen Hitler as their ruler, he must be the right man.
All in all, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was aimed at subjugating and controlling the people and it was done through the manipulation of people into achieving the Reich's goals. As such, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was that of eliminating all individual features and unifying the population's objectives in the direction desired by the Nazis.
3. The Gleichschaltung philosophy as applied by the Gestapo and the SS
In order to gain control over the people, the Nazi thinkers needed the support of military and police forces. The necessary aid came from the Geheimes Staatspolizei-Amt or Gestapo and from the Schutzstaffel, or the SS. The…
Feuchtwanger, E., Nazi Gleichschaltung, Volume 7, Number 2, History on the Web, http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/concepts/concept72_gleichschaltung.htm , last accessed on October 19, 2007
Orlow, D., the History of the Nazi Party: 1933-1945, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No.3, Sept 1974
Evans, J.R., the Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, New York, Penguin, 2005
Browder, G.C., Hitler's Enforces: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution, the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, June 1998
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Csepeli, Gyorgy, and David Simon. "Construction of Roma Identity in Eastern and Central Europe: Perception and Self-Identification." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30, no. 1 (2004): 129.
Csepeli, Gyrgy, and Antal rkeny. "The Changing Facets of Hungarian Nationalism." Social Research 63, no. 1 (1996): 247-286.
Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader of the SS. Specifically, it will discuss his direct involvement with the concentration camps and the extermination of the Jewish people. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
HIMMLE THE EXTEMINATO
Heinrich Himmler was born in 1900, and studied agriculture. He fought in the very end of World War I, and never seemed to make much of himself until he met Hitler. "Himmler was a passionate farmer. He had studied agriculture for several years, had a degree in agriculture, and was later the chairman of the board of the Organization of Agricultural Graduates"…
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Editors. "Who was Heinrich Himmler?" Holocaust History Project. 31 Dec. 1998. 17 Nov. 2002. http://www.holocaust-history.org/short-essays/heinrich-himmler.shtml
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Eisenhower, John. "Juxtaposed with History, Inquiry into why the Nazis Did What They Did." The Washington Times. 9 June 2002.
The question then becomes, not is there an Adolf Eichmann in each person, for undoubtedly there is. The question becomes, how well can people discern the difference between ideals with which they agree, and those things that are immoral; and perhaps most importantly, how effectively can people decide to do that which is morally correct even when faced with such unpopular consequences as standing out from the crowd and siding against a popular government (Alford)?
Those who held opinions that were opposed to Eichmann's trial in Israel did not wait to be heard. One notable contemporary in particular believed that the methods undertaken to achieve the trial were questionable at best. In 1961, Victor Gollancz published a pamphlet on the very trial in question. It was a plea to abstain from executing Eichmann, but it touched on issues related to the motives surrounding the trial. The Israeli Prime Minister wanted…
Alford, C. Fred. "The Organization of Evil." Political Psychology 11.1 (1990): 5 -- 27.
Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
"Argentina Uncovers Eichmann Pass." BBC News. 29 May 2007. Web. 12 April 2010.
Browning, Christopher. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
history of Germany, Japan, and Russia, comparing it with that of Mexico in the time-Period 1919-1945.
GERMANY, JAPAN, RUSSIA, AND MEXICO
One of the most interesting parallels between Mexico and the other countries in question is the way the people of Mexico reacted to what was happening in their country. Mexico, with its distinct peasant and upper-class populations, was ripe for changed during this time. "A veneer of Mexican culture scarcely overcomes the distance between the Mexican peasant and the Mexican citizen. The Mexican peasant, like peasants everywhere, lives in one world, the Mexican citizen in another" (Gran 160). However, while Russia, Japan, and Germany turned to socialism and dictatorship, Mexico turned to socialism for a time during the rule of Cardenas, but rejected it for a capitalistic democracy, much influenced by the United States. Cardenas' administration "expropriated U.S. And British oil companies. President Roosevelt and his ambassador to Mexico…
Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism: A New View of Modern World History. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
Jones, Errol D. "26 World War II and Latin America." World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Ed. Lee, Loyd E. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. 415-431.
Mayer, Dr. Eric. "1919-1945, Germany and Japan." Emayzine.com. 2001. 7 Nov. 2002. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/germany%20and%20Japan%.html
Spenser, Daniela, and Friedrich Katz. The Impossible Triangle: Mexico, Soviet Russia, and the United States in the 1920s. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."
The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"
On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…
Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652 .
Fox, Jo. Filming Women in the Third Reich / . Oxford: Berg, 2000. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309122 .
The noise alerts the neighbor woman who demands his identity papers and threatens to call the police. Her hatred for the man is based solely on the fact he is Jewish.
There is a famous experiment done by Jane Elliot (1970), an elementary school teacher, which demonstrates how quickly people will adopt a belief in their own superiority. In the experiment Elliot tells the children that blue eyed people are superior to brown eyed people. She makes the brown eyed children wear a collar so others can more readily recognize them. This is analogous to the Jewish people of Warsaw having to wear a Star of David on their sleeve. A video of the experiment shows how easily a herd mentality spread throughout the class. One group adopted the peer influenced behavior associated with the belief in their superior status, regardless of that statuses' tenuous basis in fact, while the…
Delwiche, a. (2011, February 28). Fear. Propaganda. Retrieved June 7, 2012, from http://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/ct.sa.fear.html
Elliott, J. (1970) Brown Eyes and Blues Eyes. [Video] YouTube. Retrieved June 7, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8bWlTZZN3DY
Polanski, R. (Director). (2002). The pianist. [Motion picture]. United States: Focus Features.
Trueman, C. (2000). Jews in Nazi Germany. History learning site. Retrieved June 7, 2012, from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Jews_Nazi_Germany.htm
The result was an inflation rate that brought the value of the German mark down to virtually zero and for nine long months the country languished in a state of economic starvation, hoping for leniency from the Allies. ith none forthcoming, the present regime resigned and the new "Reich" coalition party assumed control of the government under the helm of Gustav Stresemann (127).
Germany's Return to Prominence?
The rise of Stresemann was evidence of the failure of the 1918 German Revolution. The effort lacked popular support, economic acumen or diplomatic ability. Germany in 1923 was perhaps worse off than it was in 1918. In order to begin a true rebuilding process, the new coalition first set out to stabilize the German mark.
The period of the eimar from 1924 through 1930 is seen as the "golden years" (139). In 1924 the mark had stabilized and the communist and Nazi parties…
Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. Prentice Hall, 5th ed. (2001).
Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.
Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of orld ar II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…
Camus, Albert. The Plague. 1947. NY: McGraw Hill, 1965.
social psychology: Stanley Milgram's shock experiments and Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Both experiments were conducted, at least partially, to help explain why seemingly normal people became Nazi collaborators in the World War II era. The experiments help demonstrate how individual authority over another allows individuals to exercise their own proclivities for cruelty and how being under the direction of authority figures causes people to engage in behavior that they find distasteful or cruel. The paper also examines Jane Elliot's Brown Eye / Blue Eye experiment and what it says about the establishment of hierarchies.
Milgram and Zimbardo
After the end of World War II, as more and more information became available not just about the atrocities committed by the Nazis, but also about how seemingly normal individuals acted as collaborators to aid the Nazis in their pursuits, psychologists and sociologists became fascinated with how seemingly normal people could be…
Another Boring Week. (2013, January 4). Feature Film- The Stanford Prison Experiment.
Retrieved November 30, 2014 from YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L_LKzEqlPto
Big History NL. (2013, March 19). Milgram Experiment. Retrieved November 30, 2014 from YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOYLCy5PVgM
Ludwing Media. (2012, November 19). Brown Eyes and Blue Eyes Racism Experiment
Imagine being a time traveler, and returning to England during the Middle Ages; the swastika was called "fylfot" in England and it represented something positive. And then upon arriving at an ancient temple in China the time traveler again would see the swastika. In China the swastika was called "wan" and meant "good luck" -- so to use the symbol in China one would be hoping for health and happiness and prosperity. That culture in China respected the swastika and any visitor to that era would be expected to understand that. But if the time travelers would punch a button on the time machine, set the clock to June 1920, and "fly" to Germany, the traveler would learn that the swastika was the "official emblem of the German Gymnasts' League" (About.com). The swastika was also uses in "a multitude of places such as the emblem for the andervogel, a German…
British Broadcast Company. (2005). Origins of the Swastika. Retrieved July 14, 2009,
From http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk .
Rosenberg, Jennifer. (2008). The History of the Swastika. Retrieved July 14, 2009, from About.com, http://history1900s.about.com/cs/swastika/a/swastikahistory.htm .
Yronwode, Cat. The "Lucky W" Amulet Archive: The Swastika. Lucky Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from http://www.luckymojo.com/swastika.html .
Military Orders that May be Unethical
Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. hether the…
Bayles, M.D. (1968). Contemporary Utilitarianism. Anchor Books.
Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Popkin, R. (1950). A note on the 'proof' of utility in J.S. Mill. Ethics. 61(1).
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge.
..There is reason for concern, therefore, when aggressive acts are presented in a humorous context in the media" (622).
Although it is intended to refer to society and its misdemeanor, satire cannot be considered to be offensive, since there is a small probability that it will produce any resentment in people. A good example of the American society giving birth to something that is funny and enjoyable, despite its satirical character, is Charlie Chaplin. In times when movies were something new to the American public, the English actor succeeded in making it addicted to him and to his movies. His merit is also largely owed to the scriptwriters and to the movie directors that invested hard work in making the respective movies. Even with his obvious success among the American public, there still are a number of critics believing that the characters played by Charlie Chaplin had been too vulgar…
Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.
Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…
Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Germans, Post World War 2
Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity
The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.
Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…
Schwab, Gabriele. Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. ( Columbia University Press, 13 Aug 2013)
Dir. Michael Haneke, The White Ribbon. Filmladen (Austria) X Verleih AG (Germany), 2009.
The ban on Mein Kampf has become less effective because of the Internet. The Internet allows German citizens to access copies of Mein Kampf online. More importantly, the legal rights to Mein Kampf are controlled by the state of Bavaria. Those rights expire in 2015, at which point the book becomes public domain and may be republished at will. The German government currently faces a controversial decision: whether or not to republish Mein Kampf.
The strongest argument in favor of republishing Mein Kampf is that the book has historical and educational import. Scholars hope to publish annotated copies that clarify key facts and illustrate context. The online copies do not contain any scholastic notes that inform the reader of the false data contained in Hitler's autobiography. Just as Hitler inflated his hatred of the Jews, the autobiographical data is often "inaccurate," ("Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany"). Hitler painted a positive image…
"Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany." Spartacus International. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERmein.htm
Paterson, Tony. "German Jews want 'Mein Kampf' Reprinted.'" The Independent. 10 Aug 2009. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/german-jews-want-mein-kampf-reprinted-1769960.html
Sautter, Ursula. "Should Mein Kampf be Un-Banned?" Time. 13 Aug 2008. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1831786,00.html
Smith, David Gordon. "Should Germany Republish 'Mein Kampf'?" Spiegel Online. 17 Jul 2007. Retrieved Nov 13, 2009 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,494891,00.html
Also, Anna finds more lies as she analyses illiam's past, concluding that lies play a vital role in people's lives. The fact that even illiam's mother had to lie relating to her son's real father convinces Anna to think less about illiam's life. Ursula having similar beliefs to Anna contributes to them wanting to find out more about illiam's past, and, to try to understand it.
hen finally deciding to brake up from Piotr, Anna does not attempt to bring any reasons for her decision, as she simply claims that she fell in love with someone else. This proves to be too much for Piotr that cannot conceive how something like this can simply happen. Anna's mother also finds it hard to accept that her daughter would brake up with her husband. Even with that, she had not actually been against Anna's decision because of her being determined to quit…
1. Duffy, Christopher. (1991). "Red storm on the Reich: the Soviet march on Germany, 1945." Routledge.
2. Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press
3. Stachniak, Eva. (2000). "Necessary lies." Dundurn Press Ltd.
Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press.
Using what the Germans did is not intended to be a typical example of how mentally handicapped people are treated as part of the healthcare industry's approach, or the strategies taken by schools and other institutions under whose care emotionally troubled people have been placed. But it serves as an example in the sense that any mistreatment of mentally troubled citizens is a crime, not just the murderous bloodletting that the Nazis engaged in.
LESSON # 5:
Hatefulness, prejudice, bias and discrimination based on religion, culture, gender or skin color is wrong and this message must be forcefully presented to the world's populations. One of the most dramatic lessons that emerged from the wreckage and rubble and lost lives in the European theatre of I is that without strong moral leadership, unbelievably evil things are allowed to take place. Indeed, the necessity for strong political and social leadership worldwide has…
Spitz, Vivien. Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans.
Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, LLC, 2005.
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
ies by Eva Stachniak
Eva Stachniak's book Necessary ies is a book whose main character is mostly based on the author's own biography. He book is about life in Poland in communist times, the cultural shock encountered by an immigrant to Canada from a communist country, a destroyed marriage as a consequence of the estrangement of the spouses, love and betrayal. Up to a point, the book is dealing with the difficulties every immigrant encounters when moving form Europe to North America, or even from a country to a different country from the same continent. The protagonist here is just carrying the burden of twenty-eight years of living in communist Poland, until she immigrated to Canada in 1981.
The main character in Necessary ies left Poland the year following the workers strike that led to the formation of the Independent Self-Governing Union Solidarnosc, under ech Walesa's leadership.
From the moment…
Lukowski, Jerzy. Zawadzki, Hubert. .A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press, 2001
Poland Maps. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.staypoland.com/history-map.htm
Stachniak, Eva. Harper Collins Canada. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.harpercollins.ca/authors/60052774/Stachniak_Eva/index.aspx
Mauthausen by Robert H. Abzug
Robert H. Abzug is a PhD Professor of History and American Studies in the University of California. In his famous publication "Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps," he described what had happened with the humanity and humans in the concentration camps which were set up by Nazis during the Second World War. The book covered several narrations by the eyewitnesses who were amongst the allied forces that participate in the liberation of such camps. All what they saw made the world shock and which were previously rumors now become a belief about the inhumane behavior of Germans with the prisoners of war. The Nazi-German government had set up several concentration camps of category I, II and III for their prisoners in different parts of the allied countries. Most class III camps were built in upper Austria, as it shares…
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
Identity and racial politics in Europa (1990)
Europa Europa (1990) is the tale of a young German-Jewish boy named Solek who undergoes a series of identity transformations in his efforts to escape the Holocaust. At the beginning of the film, Solek and his family live in Nazi Germany. They decide to flee, first to Poland, and then as it becomes increasingly clear that not even Poland is a safe place, the boys' parents send their sons to the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. is ironically a 'safe' place for their children because at least they will not be persecuted as Jews. Solek is separated from his brother and when found by the Nazis in a Soviet orphanage he pretends that he is a German Latvian named Josef Peters. The Nazis adopt him and find him useful, thanks to his fluent German and Russian. Thus, during the period of identity definition of…
Europa Europa. Directed by Agnieska Holland, 1990
Obedience, Morality and the Scientific Process in Milgram
During the period between 1963 and 1974, social psychologist, professor and theorist Stanley Milgram published a landmark series of findings regarding the nature of morality, authority and obedience. Compelled by the recently revealed atrocities of the Holocaust, Milgram was driven to better understand the kinds of institutional forces that could make ostensibly ordinary men and women commit acts of such heinous proportions as did the Nazis. This would lead to a series of experiments that were as controversial as they were revelatory. In spite of the many criticisms that have been applied to Milgram's experiment, both in terms of its empirical control and its ethicality, the discussion here makes the case that the Milgram Shock experiments would illustrate the connection between obedience and the surrender of personal moral responsibility.
This is to argue that in spite of the flaws in…
Gibson, S. (2011). Milgram's Obedience Experiments: A Rhetorical Analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(2), 290-309.
Navarick, D.J. (2012). Historical psychology and the Milgram paradigm: Test of an experimentally derived model of defiance using accounts of massacres by Nazi Reserve Police Battalion 101. The Psychological Record, 62, 133-154.
Nicholson, I. (2011). Torture at Yale: Experimental Subjects, Laboratory Torment and the 'rehabilitation' of Milgram's 'Obedience to Authority'. Theory & Psychology, 21(737).
Russell, N.J.C. (2010). Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiments: Origins and Early Evolution. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 140-162.
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
loodlines and Racism.
Discuss Spriro, Defending the Master Race
The book Defending the Master Race by Madison Grant viewed history through an entirely racial lens. Rather than conceptualizing history as a series of clashes between different civilizations or class struggles, Grant characterized history as a series of divisive exchanges between persons of different 'racial' status. What is so interesting from a modern perspective is that many of the 'races' perceived by the author, such as the Macedonian race or the Gothic race, do not exist within our current conception of what defines 'race.' This highlights how, rather than being a static construction that exists outside history, race is a culturally-constructed notion.
Grant even speaks of the 'American race,' which he sees as fundamentally Nordic. This notion is particularly odd, given that America is such a diverse country. America is a nation of immigrants, with the exception of the indigenous tribes…
Crossland, David. "Lebensborn children break silence." Der Spiegel. 7 Nov 2006.
Jackson, John P. & Nadine Weidman. Race, racism and science. New Brunswick: Rutgers
University Press, 2005.
Spiro, Jonathan Peter. Defending the master race. University of Vermont Press, 2008.
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…
D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.
Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.
Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.
It started in the fall of 1932, Evans explains; Jewish businesses were bombed, Jewish synagogues and other Jewish places were destroyed. In the weeks after Hitler's appointment as Reich Chancellor "…stormtroopers broke into synagogues and desecrated the religious furniture, smashed the windows of Jewish shops, and subjected Jews to random acts of humiliation," like forcing them to drink castor oil and shaving their beards forcibly in public, Evans goes on.
The Jewish judges and lawyers were not spared from this violence. All over Germany, the Nazi stormtroopers "burst into courthouses… dragged Jewish judges and lawyers out of the proceedings and beat them up…" (Evans). It is hard to imagine the horror that participants must have experience during court proceedings, to have armed storm troopers burst in and grab the judge, drag him into the street and beat him. Of all the outrageously violent and terrifying events in Nazi Germany --…
Barsam, Richard Meran. 1975. Filmguide to Triumph of the Will. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
Evans, Richard J. 2005. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Books.
Hegi, Ursula. 2000. Stones from the River. Madison, WI: Demco Media.
Hitler, Adolph. 1926. Mein Kampf. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.hitler.org /writings/Mein_Kampf.
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
He is simply overlooked by the other Hitler fanatics who are so caught up in the mob mentality that was so representative of Nazi Germany. ather than come to his senses, Hitler would rather scorch the earth, or enact the Demolitions of eich Territory Decree, which was the mass suicide of the German people who remained during the last few weeks of the war.
In this madness, there was a continual belief that the Germans will still win the war, despite the clear fact that the Soviet Army was already well on its way to taking Berlin.
There was not really another possible outcome, because of the social conditions and the practices of the upcoming Nazi regime within Germany at the time. The mob mentality has swept over Germany, because there were no easy solutions to the problems facing the German people. Economic hardships after World War I had caused…
Arbury, J., 2011, "Impact of Nazism on German Society," Essays, Web, http://portal.jarbury.net/essay/nazigermany.html
Hickman, Kennedy, 2012, "Effects of the Treaty of Versailles," World War II Europe: The Road to War, Web, http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm .
Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.
Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.