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Nelson Mandela -- as / Is He a Hero?
Definition of "Hero"
Is Nelson Mandela a true hero in the pure sense of the word? Is he justifiably considered a legitimate hero today? This paper points to several reasons why Nelson Mandela is indeed a bona fide hero, among the most revered and remarkably strong leaders and heroes in history. hat is a hero? The ebster's New orld College Dictionary explains that a hero is "…any person admired for courage, nobility, or exploits, esp. In war… any person admired for qualities or achievements and regarded as an ideal or model." The Oxford Universal Dictionary has a number of definitions, including: "One who does brave or noble deeds"; and "A man who exhibits extraordinary bravery, firmness, or greatness of soul, in connection with any pursuit, work or enterprise…" (Oxford Universal Dictionary, Little, et al., 1933, p. 895). Clearly from any of…
Cheers, Michael D. "Nelson Mandela Reveals Private Side Of His Life As A Prisoner For 27
Years. Jet, 77.22 (1990): 12-17.
Gill, M.S. Immortal Heroes Of The World. New Delhi, India: Sarup & Sons, 2005.
Lieberfeld, Daniel. "Peace Profile: Nelson Mandela." Peace Review 16.3, (2004): 387-392.
By this time, Mandela had earned his law degree and opened a practice in Johannesburg by 1952 with partner Oliver Tambo. The practice focused on apartheid-related cases, such as those that dealt with land-use laws that blatantly discriminated against indigenous Africans. Interestingly, the authorities forced Mandela and Tambo's practice out of the city based on the very laws they were trying to change. Being forced to move their practice highlighted the need for rapid and thorough changes to the law.
After a few years in practice, Mandela also worked on cases involving labor laws, university segregation, Bantustan segregation, and Pass laws, which restricted the free movement of black Africans. His work unearthed layer upon layer of unjust civil laws that systematically oppressed the native population of the region. For example, Bantustan laws referred to the setting aside of parcels of land expressly for the use of black Africans, but the…
Biography of Nelson Mandela." Retrieved Mar 2, 2008 at http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela.html
Nelson Mandela." Nobel Prize.org. Retrieved Mar 2, 2008 at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html
However, I realized that one's freedom is not defined by one's mobility and ability to do some things. Like Mandela, prison time has given me the chance to reflect and focus more on my purpose in life. Instead of letting the prison 'imprison,' I let it "free" me by improving myself socially and intellectually. hile Mandela successfully finished his autobiography in prison, I successfully finished college with honors (Salutatorian) and with a GPA of 3.95.
Being imprisoned allowed me to look at life in a different perspective. I have become more grateful of the life I was given, and I have shown and continuously show this gratefulness by improving myself as an individual (mentally and physically) and how I relate and constantly interact to other people. Mandela embodies this important realization that every reforming prisoner had at one point in their lives. Upon his release in prison, he became ANC's…
While incarcerated, he made further and considerable progress in promoting his cause. For me, it seemed that Mandela had more impact being compared to when he was still a free man. Inside the prison, Mandela managed to survive the harsh conditions of the prison, and also wrote (in secret) his autobiography, "Long Walk to Freedom." Outside, South African society is rapidly changing with the continued mobilization and protest against black oppression and mainly, apartheid.
A empathize with Mandela's experiences as a prisoner because I had also been incarcerated for a considerably long time. Having your freedom 'snatched' away from you unwillingly was perhaps the most threatening and inhumane act a man can do to another. However, I realized that one's freedom is not defined by one's mobility and ability to do some things. Like Mandela, prison time has given me the chance to reflect and focus more on my purpose in life. Instead of letting the prison 'imprison,' I let it "free" me by improving myself socially and intellectually. While Mandela successfully finished his autobiography in prison, I successfully finished college with honors (Salutatorian) and with a GPA of 3.95.
Being imprisoned allowed me to look at life in a different perspective. I have become more grateful of the life I was given, and I have shown and continuously show this gratefulness by improving myself as an individual (mentally and physically) and how I relate and constantly interact to other people. Mandela embodies this important realization that every reforming prisoner had at one point in their lives. Upon his release in prison, he became ANC's new leader, and as its new leader, he skillfully managed to reconcile the escalating conflict between the blacks and whites in the country, particularly on the transfer of power from the white South Africans to black South Africans. His skillful engagement of both parties, and resolving differences between the two groups, enabled him to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 (with then President F.W. de Klerk). In its first multiracial elections, Mandela became the president of South Africa, proving himself the bastion of
Nelson Mandela was born on 18th July 1918.he served as the president for South Africa from 1994-1999.he served 27 years in prison and there was an international campaign that was run lobbying for him to be released. This plea was granted in 1990 amid civil strife that was escalating. He led the negotiations with President F.W de Klerk for the abolishment of apartheid and the establishment of multiracial elections. He was the first black president in South Africa, who later on ruled for only one term and willingly relinquished leadership even with certainty of winning overwhelmingly the next term if he sought to go back to office, this is not typical of African leaders. He was also the first president to be elected in a fully representative and multiracial election. His government's main focus was dismantling the apartheid legacy through dealing with poverty, institutional racism and inequality and putting emphasis…
Nobelprize.org. (2013).Nelson Mandela -- Biographical. Nobel Media AB 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html
Nelson Mandela.com. (2012).Nelson Mandela Achievements. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.nelsonmandelas.com/nelson-mandela-achievements.php
Life of a historical leader: Nelson Mandela
Efficient leadership constitutes the main force resulting in ethical culture formation and bolstered ethicality in making decisions (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 2015). The term leadership denotes intrinsic capability of commanding and leading other people towards any specified goal. The process of leadership entails formulation of a vision and ideas, adopting and sticking to values which support the aforementioned visions, engaging in tricky decision-making whenever needed, and utilizing one's innate charisma for inspiring followers to also stick to those values. Sound leadership aids companies with vision creation that serves as the basis for corporate values. Ethical decisions form an important component of efficient leaders, in addition to their capability of driving others towards goal attainment.
The term ethics, or moral philosophy as it is otherwise referred to, entails systematization, defense and recommendation of the concepts of correct and incorrect conduct (Fisher & Lovell, 2006).…
Multicultural Leadership: Nelson Mandela
One of the primary effects of globalization has been a growing need to groom multicultural leaders who can function effectively across cross-cultural boundaries. In a multicultural world, a leader can only tend to the needs of his followers if he knows and understands these needs in the first place. There is need, therefore, for leaders and those aspiring to take up leadership positions to boost their understanding of different cultures and take leadership lessons from great multicultural leaders before them. Nelson Mandela is one such leader -- a multicultural figure who was able to understand and tend effectively to the needs of both the black and the white South African populations, managing to win the hearts of people both within and without the country. The subsequent sections of this text detail how Mandela was able to execute his multicultural leadership, and the specific traits that facilitated…
Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.). (2005). Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing
Daft, R. (2014). The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Hamilton, C. (2010). Communicating for Results: A Guide for Business and the Professions (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
One of the main ideas of Nelson Mandela was the ending of apartheid, which was a South African racial segregation that kept black residents from being able to have the same rights as white residents (Sampson, 2011). This was very similar to the slavery that was seen in the United States in the past, and Mandela wanted to see it stopped. His major idea was that people should be equal, and that the color of a person's skin should not have an effect on the rights that person had. This has, of course, been said by others in the past, and is not an idea that is unique to Mandela. However, Mandela took the idea very far in an effort to make sure apartheid ended. He was successful in making that happen. This is not the same thing as stopping racism, which can be in the hearts and…
Ellis, S. (2011). The genesis of the ANC's armed struggle in South Africa 1948 -- 1961. Journal of Southern African Studies, 37(4): 657 -- 676.
Louw, P.E. (2004). The rise, fall and legacy of apartheid. NY: Praeger.
Sampson, A. (2011). Mandela: The authorised biography. London: HarperCollins.
His strength provided an excellent example for first his fellow ANC members and then later for all South Africans. The nation was going to struggle in the early years post-Apartheid, but most South Africans were willing to work hard to see Mandela's vision through, because they knew that he would as well.
Nelson Mandela was one of the great leaders of the 20th century. His leadership style was transformational, and he inspired people to a very high level of commitment with his vision. That he was able to transition so seamlessly from being a revolutionary leader to the inspirational leader of a nation in turmoil -- and guide it through that turmoil effortless, shows what a great example of leadership Nelson Mandela was.
Adams, S. (2013). Nelson Mandela: A great leader dies. Forbes. etrieved April 1, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2013/12/05/nelson-mandela-a-great-leader-dies/
Mantkelow, J. (2014). Leadership styles. MindTools.com. etrieved April 1,…
Adams, S. (2013). Nelson Mandela: A great leader dies. Forbes. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2013/12/05/nelson-mandela-a-great-leader-dies/
Mantkelow, J. (2014). Leadership styles. MindTools.com. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Pearce, N. (2013). The leadership lessons of Nelson Mandela. Business Week. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-12-12/the-leadership-lessons-of-nelson-mandela
Tamburri, R. (2014). Nature or nurture: How is a leader produced? Globe & Mail. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/business-education/nature-or-nurture-how-is-a-leader-produced/article17721385/
Nelson Mandela of South Africa is known for many things. While many know him as the former president of South Africa and for his role in bringing down the oppressive Apartheid system in South Africa, there are also those who appreciate him as an icon of exceptional leadership. There are many qualities that Nelson Mandela possessed that made him an effective leader within the realm of emotional competence. To begin with, Mandela possessed the key quality of self-awareness. This is to say that he had developed superior understanding of himself and was fully aware of his uniqueness, weaknesses as well as strengths. This could be perceived from his opinion on change. He was at some point quoted saying that “one of the most difficult things is not to change society - but to change yourself” (Kahane, 2010, p. 117). For one to change him or herself, he or…
Cole, K. (2018). Leadership and Management: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). South Melbourne: Cengage AU.
Kahane, A. (2010). Power and Love: A Theory and Practice of Social Change. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Sadler, P. (2018). Leadership (2nd ed.). Sterling, VA: Kogan Page Publishers.
He set up three foundations bearing his name: The elson Mandela Foundation, the elson Mandela Children's Fund and the Mandela-Rhodes Foundation (Ibid). Since stepping down as president in 1999, elson Mandela has become South Africa's highest-profile ambassador, has campaigned against HIV / AIDS and secured his country's right to host the 2010 football World Cup (BBC Profile). He has also been involved in peace efforts in other regions of the world.
Aside from newspaper and journal articles, as well as websites on the life of elson Mandela, I have watched a number of interesting documentaries. However, I believe the most striking was called "Frontline: The long walk of elson Mandela." This documentary allowed the viewer to get a more profound understanding of the hardships that Mandela was faced with all his life. Also, this documentary depicted his personal life and painted a more vivid picture of the man who would…
Nelson Mandela." BBC Profiles. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1454208.stm
Negotiating Peace." Nelson Mandela Organization. http://www.nelsonmandela.org/index.php/memory/views/biography/#negotiatingpeace
The Long Walk of Nelson Mandela." Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mandela/etc./tapes.html
After being detained in prison for 27 years, Nelson Mandela walked out of Prison to lead South Africans in their quest to break free from Apartheid rule. He became the first Black president of the Republic of South Africa and led a robust reconciliation effort that helped Blacks and Whites in South Africa forgive one another and find common ground to work on to help build South Africa. For these efforts, Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize. Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 in Transkei and went on to be a student of law at Fort Hare University. As the African National Congress (ANC) started gaining momentum in the early 1940s, he joined the movement to help resist the racist policies of the then ruling White government. The racist government policies would later be codified into Apartheid which proved to be a brutal and highly racist rule.…
Nelson Mandela: A man of courage, loyalty and patience
Nelson Mandela spent much of his adult life in prison yet he emerged from confinement not embittered and angry, but peaceful and determined to make a new, more equitable society. He was selflessly willing to forgive his captors if this was necessary to move forward and to bridge the divides between the warring factions present in his country. In the face of incredible odds, he negotiated peace and an end to white majority rule. Through his example of dignity and his forceful articulation of principles, even when behind bars in a society that was determined to oppress him, he was able to win the world to his side. South Africa became an international pariah thanks to Mandela's peaceful but constant advocacy, until it ended its oppressive system of apartheid.
I hope to similarly know when to act as a conciliator as…
Winnie Mandela. The writer focuses on the Truth and econciliation hearing that she went through. Her life is presented as well as her beliefs and causes with a focus on the hearing and what it meant her followers. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
She is a woman who excused confidence, and she led many people to the brink of freedom as well as political activism. While she was at one time married to the great political activist Nelson Mandela, her name has become well-known because of her own fight for the causes she believes in. Winnie Mandela has spent her adult life as an activist. She knows how to stir the hearts of those who follower her as well as push the buttons of those who do not. In contrast to her ex-husband who is known for his attitude of passive resistance Winnie is far more…
Winnie Mandela: Fallen political heir http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/202516.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2115569.stm
Brendan Boyle; Reuters, WINNIE MANDELA FACES ACCUSERS WITNESSES FROM SOWETO TELL TRUTH COMMISSION OF TORTURE AND MURDERS BY LEADER AND HER SQUAD., Denver Rocky Mountain News, 11-25-1997, pp 31A.
Tom Cohen / Associated Press, Madikizela-Mandela defends herself: But testimony angers some, raises questions about value of hearing., The Dallas Morning News, 12-05-1997, pp 1A.
Leadership is a complicated art that requires practice but can be ultimately learned by any aspiring student wishing to improve towards their potential . The five practices of exemplary leadership include many important ideas regarding this phenomenon. The purpose of this essay is to explain the specific leadership practice of "Modeling the Way" using the example of former South African president and human rights activist, Nelson Mandela . I'll use Mr. Mandela's example to demonstrate how his particular leadership approach can be accepted and improved upon by using this particular practice. This essay will include examples of Mandela's values and how they apply to his leadership style. Additionally, Mr. Mandela's example setting behaviors will be explained to further demonstrate this example and how it relates to improving one's leadership qualities.
Leaders must first demonstrate their guiding principles and have a beginning point to start building a voice. Morals and…
Lieberfeld, D. (2003). Nelson Mandela: partisan and peacemaker. Negotiation Journal July 2003, 239-261. Retrieved from http://www.duq.edu/policy-center/_pdf/lieberfeld-nj - mandela.pdf.
Rooke, D. & Torbert, W. (2005). Seven transformations of leadership. Harvard Business Review, April, 2005, 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.feal.asn.au/multiattachments/3279/DocumentName/SevenTransformationsof Leadership.pdf
Stengel, R. (2008). Mandela; his 8 lessons of leadership. Time July 19,200. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1821467,00.html
Power and Influence
Nelson Mandela stands before the world as a symbol not only of overcoming apartheid but also healing a nation. When coming to power, he was given the unenviable task of assuming leadership of a divided nation: many whites had committed horrific acts of discrimination against blacks under the whole regime. Yet he began his reign by symbolically splicing together the old anthem of white South Africa with a new one sung at black protest rallies. ather than attempting to exorcise all examples of white influence in South Africa, Mandela could be said to have observed the dictate to 'love your friends, but hug your enemies closer.' He was all too well aware of the potential for white right-wing terrorism in the newly-forged nation and attempted to set white anxieties at ease, rather than provoke them (Carlin 2014).
Mandela has been called South Africa's Lincoln and the comparison…
Carlin, J. (2014). "Nelson Mandela's Legacy." The Cairo Review of Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved from: http://www.aucegypt.edu/GAPP/CAIROREVIEW/Pages/articleDetails.aspx?aid=69
Ignatius, A. (2010). Howard Schultz on Starbucks' turnaround. HBS.
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…
Harrell, Willie J. (2009). "We Shall Crush Apartheid: Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, and the Rhetoric of the South African Anti-apartheid Jeremiad. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal, Vol 1 Issue 1, January 2009, found online at http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/journals/journal.asp?id=18 , retrieved March 20, 2010.
Downing, David (2003). Apartheid in South Africa,
Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from…
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
CEOs and Presidents
In delineation, influence processes are those employed by a leader to inspire, sway and encourage their followers and employees. This paper makes a comparison of the leadership styles of three particular leaders who include John F. Kennedy, Oprah Winfrey, and Nelson Mandela.
Influence is a vital component of leadership and refers to the manner in which a leader affects followers and employees. This particular aspect of influence necessitates that a leader affects the lives of their followers and employees. In particular, influence processes encompasses the different manners in which leaders fashion variables such as personnel and resources. In definition, influence processes denotes and conveys the different approaches employed by leaders to provide the essential strategic leadership vital for the everyday management of their organization. Irrespective of the processes used by leaders, their decisions largely influence the direction taken of the organization in addition to affecting the motivation…
Allen, T. (2014). Oprah Winfrey: Authentic and Transformational Leadership Personified. Linkedin. Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140813145049-27554839-oprah-winfrey-authentic-and-transformational-leadership-personified
Arogundande, B. (2016). Oprah Winfrey's Amazing Biography: The Facts About Her Early Life, Ancestry & Accomplishments. Retrieved from: http://www.arogundade.com/when-and-where-was-oprah-winfrey-born-facts-accomplishments-short-biography-of-her-early-life-and-african-ancestry.html
Articles Base. (2011). The Concept of Influence Processes. Retrieved from: http://www.articlesbase.com/leadership-articles/the-concept-of-influence-processes-4872906.html
Bio. (2016). Nelson Mandela Biography. Retrieved from: http://www.biography.com/people/nelson-mandela-9397017
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…
CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm
Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action
Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
Inward Journey of Leadership
For a majority of individuals, becoming a successful leader constitutes a lifelong endeavor, requiring tremendous amounts of commitment and work. There are few who reach their complete potential as leaders, though this isn't on account of their lack of technical skills. Growing into a first-rate leader entails a lot more than management proficiency or improved strategic thinking. The process deals, most fundamentally, with personal transformation. Every great leader is on an ongoing internal journey of self-growth and self-discovery, with the intent to transform their organization as well as themselves (Souba, 2006).
Famous German poet, ainer ilke, once remarked that only one true journey exists in life, which is, to go inside oneself. However, an increasing proportion of individuals focus on the external; they are only concerned with standing out and looking good. However, concurrently, they face an internal restlessness, an intensifying feeling that they are missing…
Bennis W. (1994). On becoming a leader. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Gardner W, Avolio B. (1998). Charismatic leadership: The role of impression management. Acad Manage Rev; 23:32.
Goffee R, Jones G. (2005). Managing authenticity: The paradox of great leadership. Harvard Business Review. December 2005:86-94.
Harman W. (1998). Global mind change. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler Publishers.
Art of the Invisible: Listening Responses
Radio as Storytelling
Like all artistic media, there are subtle and unique elements to radio which distinguish it from other forms such as the written word, TV or film. Nowhere must the radio producer be more cognizant of the uniqueness of radio than in the radio documentary. The most intriguing of this week's listening was Rudolph Arnheim's piece "In Praise of Blindness." He disputes the idea that radio should help the mind to form visual images. Instead, the entire appeal of radio is that despite a common listening experience each listener creates an entirely independent experience in their mind's eye. This is a unique feature of radio that some forms such as writing have to a lesser extent and which contemporary forms such as TV and film entirely lack. Television instead compels all its consumers to experience both the same audio and visual experience…
"That government is best which governs least," (Thoreau). The opening line of Civil Disobedience testifies to the importance of individual enlightenment over blind conformity. Government should ideally be by the people and for the people. Laws are often arbitrary and reflect outmoded social norms. In Crito, Plato foresees centuries of government oppression of the people via unjust laws. Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela are both figureheads of civil disobedience because they followed the rational and sound examples set by Plato and Thoreau. Like Socrates in Crito, Martin Luther King understands that anarchy is not the solution to overturning unjust laws. No individual should obey an unjust law. The intelligent individual promotes democratic ideals and self-empowerment rather than acting as a martyr. In fact, obeying an unjust law is akin to perpetuating injustice. It is the duty of every conscious citizen, who is intent on promoting the good life,…
Plato. Crito. Retrieved online: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/crito.html
Thoreau, Henry David. Civil Disobedience. Retrieved online: http://thoreau.eserver.org/civil1.html
building of the nation. Education not only means the acquisition of new skills and knowledge through classrooms and lectures but also meant to be the experience gotten while working under a skilled and knowledgeable person.
Many scholars and leaders in the past and today's world have thrown light on this topic through thousand of words and enlightened quotes. It is basically a thing which can not only change a person. But in fact it helps in changing the whole society and further to much larger extent than just a society. As Nelson Mandela said,
"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world"
Nelson Mandela's words clearly illustrate the importance of education and its role in the development of society. In the modern era the power of education is accepted globally and it is crystal clear from the performance of literate people that only those…
Jennifer Schommer, Elizabeth Pierce, CMC Cherrie Woods, NTouch Communications
Dick Gregory, Robert Lipsyte (1986), Nigger: An Autobiography, New York: Washington Square Press.
Russell Jacoby (1992), "Whither Western Civilization, The Nation
Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (1988), "Privilege of Unknowing," Genders 1
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…
Anthony DePalma. The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.
Barron, F. And Harrington, D.M. "Creativity, intelligence, and personality," Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, 32: 439-476.
Che Guevara. "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City, 1964.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1996.
The newsreels are a successful thematic device as they are used to guide the viewer through the details of the events. It was the decision more so of the studio executives to leave some things out as they only used what would drive the story of the horse. Only upon further investigation of the history does one gain a fuller knowledge. Still the filmmaker's intention of getting the story to the forefront of the American consciousness was successful and met critical review.
In the film Malcolm X, Spike Lee misleads the viewer about the full nature of racism held by the Nation of Islam. The Nation of Islam characters in the movie say that whites are "blue-eyed devils," but never revealed to viewers is the doctrine about whites being eliminated in racial Armageddon. Furthermore, Lee did not limit the film's context to historical accounts; instead he chose to…
Malcolm X Dir. Spike Lee. Perf. Denzel Washington and Angela Bassett. 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, 1992.
Seabiscuit. Dir. Gary Ross. Perf. Tobey Maguire, Jeff Bridges and Chris Cooper.
DreamWorks Pictures, 2003.
The Best Years of Our Lives. Dir. William Wyler. Perf. Myrna Loy and Fredric March.
This play, the first by a black playwright to show on Broadway, was a moving reflection of black family life that had great popular appeal (Sidney pp). Poitier's performance was such a critical success that he was asked to star in the movie adaptation in 1961 (Sidney pp). In 1963, his performance in "Lilies of the Field" won him the Academy Award for Best Actor, the first black man to ever win the Oscar (Sidney pp). This success was followed by an electrifying performance in Norman Jewison's "In the Heat of the Night" (Sidney pp). Then, Poitier took on one of the greatest taboos of the time, interracial romantic relationships, in "Patch of Blue," and "Guess ho's Coming to Dinner," thus, by the end of the 1960's. Poitier was one of Hollywood's most popular stars (Sidney pp).
Poitier went on to direct "Buck and the Preacher," "Uptown Saturday Night," "Let's…
Frick, Jason. "Sidney Poitier paved the way for other black actors."
The Digital Collegian. http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/1996_jan-dec/02/02-09-96tdc/02-09-96d05-004.htm
Roberts, Kimberly C. "Sidney Poitier's brilliance revealed."
The Philadelphia Tribune; 2/1/2000; pp.
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers
The term leader and manager is often used in an interchangeable manner and it is likely that at some point most leaders have undertaken a management role. However, when looking at leaders and managers there are some distinct differences. These can be considered in terms of their characteristics and the way these characteristics manifest. A common theme in much literature is the way in which leaders may be identified as they have followers and inspire others
This refers to the concept of leaders having charisma. In this context there are many examples of leaders both good and bad. Leaders which fit in with this context include, John F. Kennedy former U.S. President, Nelson Mandela the South African leader, Richard Branson founder of the Virgin empire and Howard Schultz the CEO and inspiration behind Starbucks. These are all examples of charismatic leaders
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…
A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.
One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.
There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
Since 1996, military abuses have forced one million villagers to flee their homes.
The presence and conduct of the military are central to the plight of these civilians. Military operations have placed a particularly heavy burden on rural populations affecting their ability to sustain livelihoods.
Cases of rape and sexual violence committed by military personnel, many of them against young girls and adolescents, have been reported by human rights organizations.
It should also be noted that after the crushing of the pro-democracy movement in 1988, the regime"…took a number of steps to increase their military strength."
Instead of considering the extent of popular dissent the government in fact increased their supply of arms and military strength in order to act even more effectively against any protests. "… the regime had begun planning an ambitious ten-year program to expand the armed forces and significantly upgrade their operational capabilities. The SLORC also…
Aspden, Rachel. "Forgotten Burma: As the Country Prepares to Vote in a Discredited Referendum, Rachel Aspden Visits the Forgotten Burmese Resistance -- the Eastern Ethnic Groups Promised Independence 60 Years Ago." New Statesman 5 May 2008: 31+.
Blaustein, Susan. "Burma's Surreal Police State." The Nation 30 Apr. 1990: 599+.
Burmese army's violence against civilians. 2010, March 26, 2010,
Before the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th century, Africa was hierarchical, authoritarian, and paternalistic, just like the European countries invading them. Insubordination and disobedience to the deference pyramids were punished by violence. Some tribes carried this violence out against their neighbors, from whom they stole cattle and other property. The strength of white settlers in Africa came from their technology. Before the nineteenth century, some African prophets and seers foretold of great human suffering at the hands of white invaders. There were many in tribes who resisted white settlement from the beginning, while other tribes studied the ways of the white man and tried to form alliances with the Europeans against their enemies. Many tribes were neutral, although their chiefs might accept gifts in return for cooperation. The presence of white man changed the dynamics of power in Africa in many ways.
New forms of power brought by…
With oligarchies in place, European countries still controlled considerable the resources of Africa. Large transnational institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, furthermore, funded by the western governments, have set up lending schemes for Africa under the guise of assistance, although these loans are permitted only if countries in Africa follow special IMF and World Bank restructuring programs that oftentimes result in austerity measures for the people. These restructuring programs have been criticized by many as forms of neocolonialism. They typically entail the cutting of public services and devaluation of the currency. The turmoil after these measures tends to thrust a country's society into chaos, ending in dictatorship. (Burns)
1. Ranger, Terrence. (1995) the Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa. New York: Wiley Publishing
2. Burns, Marshall. Disillusion and Hope on the Dark Continent. Kenya Report
Van der Vyer is repulsed by the idea of living in close proximity to blacks, as is reflected in Gordimer's physical description of his home. He is angered by the calls for freedom of blacks such as Nelson Mandela, protesting in the townships. He is also angry at himself that his accident has given anti-apartheid activists more 'ammunition' in the fight to end state-imposed segregation. He feels sad for Lucas, but it does not occur to him that Lucas may have wanted more in life than merely serving Van der Vyer. Lucas' life is a tragedy, not simply because it has ended but because it never really began, due to the fact he was denied an appropriate education and opportunities.
It is interesting that the story is entitled "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off:" surely the story is about what occurs afterwards, the reader might initially suspect. However, Gordimer's…
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
Soon thereafter, she started working with CNN channel in handling their Washington bureau. For the forthcoming seven years, Couric was engaged with CNN bureaus across the nation as a producer and also as an on-air reporter. She returned to Washington in 1987 taking up job as a reporter at an NBC affiliate station. She rose from her ranks to hold the number two position as a reporter at the Pentagon for the Washington bureau of the NBC news. ("Katie Couric Biography," n. d.)
For the next three years she was in charge of covering the U.S. invasion of the Panama as also Persian Gulf War in her Pentagon position as also as a new post at the NBC's morning newspaper, Today. In the early part of 1991, she discharged her role as a co-anchor of Today. Her immense popularity with the viewers was because of her pleasant and charming demeanor…
Banting, Erninn. (2007) "Katie Couric"
Weigl Publishers Inc.
Clarke, Kristin. (2002) "First Among Equals: Barbara Walters on Leadership" Executive
Update, Retrieved 21 March, 2009 at http://www.asaecenter.org/PublicationsResources/articledetail.cfm?ItemNumber=13267
The aging brochure states, "Older workers, however, are more dependable, have lower turnover rates, have fewer absences and accidents, show better judgment, and are as productive as younger workers" (Schmall and Pratt, 1996, p. 8). His most productive time in promoting his cause came in his 60s and 70s, and he is still doing it at nearly 81 years of age, illustrating that older workers and older people in general, still have plenty of capabilities to work hard for what they believe in.
This exercise helps the student become more aware of the great gift of growing old and learning from your experiences. Dr. Kevorkian did not begin his work with PAS until well into his career, another indication of older adults being able to change, and his dedication to his cause is inspiring and educational at the same time. At age 80, he still travels the country…
Atwood Gailey, E. (2003). Write to death: News framing of the right to die conflict, from Quinlan's coma to Kevorkian's conviction. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dr. Kevorkian and His Victims. (1996, August 24). The Washington Times, p. 12.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2000). The right to assisted suicide and euthanasia. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 23(3), 599.
Schmall, V., and Pratt, C. (1996). What do you know about aging? Pacific Northwest Extension.
Maureen tries to purge herself of the old South Africa, going so far as to stand naked in the rain at night, in kind of a baptismal ritual. However, this fantasy of purity is untenable in a reality where both black and white viewpoints are tainted with old notions about sexuality and race. Maureen constantly sees July in sexual and sexualized terms. This becomes most stark when the two of them fight over who will hold the keys to the 'bakkie,' the car they drove to the village, and to wrest control over the keys Maureen brings up July's mistress. She seems partially motivated by jealousy, as well as a desire to win a power struggle in this exchange, and although July eventually hands over the keys, the victory feels hollow.
Maureen's use of a sexual threat shows that she has still evidently internalized the exotic image of black sexuality…
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.
Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
In terms of outcomes and successes, it can be said that the small voter turnout, especially in the recent elections of 2004 when only 54% of the population with the right to vote actually exercised it (Pimbo, 2004) it is of little importance the actual result. The rule of Thabo Mbeki has been certified twice in the Presidential office in 1999 and 2004. Nonetheless, in both occasions, the fact that the ruling party, the African National Congress, has held an undisputed majority was obvious in the electoral results. u comparison, "the opposition share of the vote has declined since 1994" (Pimbo, 2004). Therefore, there is little evidence of an important opposition force, an aspect which limits the democratic process.
There are other issues which are relevant for the electoral system in South Africa. Given the historical background, representation of the minorities is a crucial matter. According to statistics, it may…
Klemann, Jurgen. A Critical Look at South Africa Politics and Economics. 2004. 23 April 2008 http://www.escapeartist.com/efam/56/South_Africa_Politics.html
Pearce, Justin. "How South Africa has changed." BBC News Online. 2004. 23 April 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3608149.stm
Piombo, Jessica. "Politics in a Stabilizing Democracy: South Africa's 2004 Elections." Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004). Center for Contemporary Conflict. 23 April 2008. http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2004/may/piomboMay04.asp#references
Saaiman, Hurchele. "The Promotion of Women's rights in South Africa." ITCG Alberto Ceccherelli School, Italy. 18 February 2008.
South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government
South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).
In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…
Government in South Africa." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/gov.htm
South Africa's Political Parties." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/constitution/polparties.htm
Increasingly, the majority of black outh Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of outh African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.
In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, outh African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…
BBC News (2007, July 25). South African Hip Hop. http://www.theworld.org/?q=node/11662
Clark, Msia Kibona (2007, July 11). South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution. Global Envision
Wright, Steve (1999, June 9). Kwaito: South Africa's Hip-Hop? CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/09/kwaito.wb
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.
The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…
Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.
Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.
Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.
Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
Way before Enron, and again in present-day society, how many companies polluted the water with PCBs and other chemicals despite the fact that they knew it would be harmful to the people living in the area? The Love Canal was the first case of many on hazardous waste and its health impact. and, how many years after Ibsen's play was this? Too many! The more people change, the more they stay the same.
In order for a democratic society to remain democratic and not be controlled by an individual or group of individuals, the Dr. Stockmanns are needed to notice and speak out against the corruption that exists. How else can the world be made into a better place for future generations, without people who want to see it improved? Look at what happened in Nazi Germany, because people saw what was happening but looked the other way.
Ibsen, Henrik (1999). Enemy of the people. New York: Dover Publications.
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…
Buzuvist, Erin E. 2001. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. Cornell Law Review. Cornell University
Crofton, Ian. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia. Guiness Publication.
Education Quotes. (2006). Retrieved January 17, 2007, at http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_education.html
Gylfason, Thorvaldur. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development.
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…
Chokshi, M. Carter, C. Gupta, D. Martin, T. & Allen, R. (1995) "Computers and Apartheid"
Computer Science: 201 Final Project: Stanford University Computer Science Department at: http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.html .
Hlatshwayo, S.A. (2000). Education and Independence: Education in South Africa, 1658-1988. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Seidman, G. (1999). IS SOUTH AFRICA DIFFERENT? Sociological Comparisons and Theoretical Contributions from the Land of Apartheid. 419.
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
Sociology Discussion Responses
Response to Post #1
I agree with you completely about the moral travesty of the continuing social and political inequality in many African nations as well as the continuing detrimental effects, even today, of European colonialism on the African continent. Likewise, it is inexcusable that racial inequality still persists today. However, the inability of many African societies to overcome the challenges that still bar significant social reform and progress today are, unfortunately, also largely attributable to the degree to which the government authorities in some African nations have ignored the needs of the population and even diverted international supplies sent by Western nations intended as relief for the impoverished masses.
As you point out in your post, South Africa serves as a model of how much progress can be made under the leadership of individuals like Nelson Mandela, although local culture, practices, and customs also present significant…
Your post seems to suggest that the disabled are still subject to widespread discrimination in contemporary American society. I would be curious to know whether you believe the various aspects of equal opportunity legislation enacted in the U.S. since the 1960s (and particularly in 1990) have made a substantial difference in that problem. I was under the impression that employment discrimination (especially) against the disabled has been sharply reduced since the Americans with Disability (ADA) Act of 1990. I would also be curious to know whether you believe that individuals suffering from certain types of disabilities are better protected against discrimination that individuals suffering from other types of disabilities and what factors you believe may be responsible for that difference. For example, I would imagine that mental disabilities might be much more subject to discrimination by virtue of stigmatization as well as because individuals suffering from mental disabilities might be more reluctant to assert their status to benefit from protections available under appropriate legislation.
Response to Post #6
I would disagree with one point in your post: namely, that women do not represent a large population. I believe that women represent more than half of the population which would actually make them the largest identifiable group potentially subject to discrimination and prejudice to the extent that it exists. While I completely agree that women should have the same employment rights and opportunities as men, I would be curious to know whether you think that there are any aspects of gender that might make certain occupations more challenging for women based strictly on undeniable anatomical differences, for example. Specifically, I would ask whether you believe that hiring standards and qualification tests (such as for firefighting and law enforcement positions, since you mentioned them) should use the same standards for all candidates or whether you believe that female applicants should have to meet lower standards, such as in connection with physical fitness and strength tests.
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…
Cherry, Kendra.(2012)About.com guide. Kohlbergs Therory of Moral
Development.Retrieved from website:
The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).
The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…
Kwintesential, (2012). USA - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/usa.html
Peter Abrahams, (1989). Mine Boy. Heinemann.
Prima Birungi, (2010). Mine Boy (by Peter Abrahams). Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.africabookclub.com/?p=853
South Africa Tours and Travel, (2012). Brief history of Apartheid in South Africa. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/apartheid.html
Bush's Invasion Of Iraq
At the first whisper of invading Iraq, there have been expressions of concern and outrage the world over. In September 2002, Nelson Mandela said of the Bush administration, "They think they're the only power in the world ... they're following a dangerous policy, One country wants to bully the world ... e must not allow that" (Bleier Pp). The next day on September 23rd, Al Gore, sharply criticized Bush's plan to invade and complained that he "is proclaiming a new, uniquely American right to preemptively attack whosoever he may deem represents future threat" (Bleier Pp). In December 2002, Ronald Bleier wrote in "Middle East Policy" that Bush's determination to attack Iraq "absent a legitimate casus belli" and his administration's signals of embarking on a course of "perpetual war suggest that world civilization is facing a threat similar in significant ways to the one it faced 60…
Bleier, Ronald. "Invading Iraq: the road to perpetual war. Middle East Policy;
"What U.S. Newspapers are Saying." United Press International; 8/3/2002; Pp.
"Question of credibility." The Register-Guard; 6/18/2004; Pp.
Nina Simone developed a distinctive style of music and presentation that has proved to be popular across age and trend barriers. Her singing and compositions were a mixture and a subtle amalgam of elements of Jazz, soul, pop and blues. The range of her songs traversed almost every genre; including works by ob Dylan and Jacques rel, as well as many other artists. Some critics claim that the secret of her unique style and appeal lay in her background of gospel music.
The secret of her delivery has always seemed to me to lie in that background in the gospel church. She can muster the vocal majesty and electrifying force of a Southern preacher, or a singer such as Mahalia Jackson.
(Gayford, M. )
Others describe her voice and presentation of the songs as "haunting" and this can be ascribed to particular way in which she uses jazz phrasing and…
Gayford, M. Difficult? She just hates Showbiz. The Nina Simone Web. 1998. Accessed November 24, 2004. http://www.boscarol.com/nina/html/articles/telegraph.html
Biography. The Nina Simone Web. November 23, 2004.
Dr Nina Simone: Biography. November 23, 2004.
Business Ethics magazine recently awarded the Chroma Technology Corporation, a Vermont-based manufacturer of high-tech optical lens products, the "Living Economy Award" as part of the 16th Annual Business Ethics Awards. The Living Economy Award is offered to the company that best exemplifies "the living economy with practices of employee ownership, fair wages, and environmental stewardship," (Business Ethics). One of the key reasons why Chroma earned the accolade was due to its unique official salary structure: no employee earns less than $37,500 and none more than $75,000; therefore, no upper-level management official makes more than twice as much as anyone on the shop floor. Chroma's unique salary structure in part reflects my vision of corporate business ethics and the values I would like to embody as a professional. There are other reasons why I admire Chroma's policies. They employ an egalitarian meeting format modeled after the Quakers; they ensure environmental sustainability…
Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics. http://www.business-ethics.com/ .
Non-Violence." BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/war/nonviolence.shtml.
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& ; hl=en
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
lair argued in his speech that the difficulties the world faces with the specter of terrorism is unprecedented, and that removing the Taliban and Saddam Hussein were not imperialistic acts but acts of liberation for the people of Afghanistan and Iraq (Windschuttle, 2003). While those people were liberated in that they are no longer ruled by the Taliban or Saddam Hussein, such forced liberation does remind some writers of the imperialistic actions of major powers in the 19th century (Windschuttle, 2003). ut in addition, some of the imperialistic wars might tell us something about the nature of the terrorist foes we face. In 1898, 20,000 ritish troops faced 52,000 Sudanese Muslims. While the ritish were outmanned, they had superior firepower and gun ships on the river ready to face the Sudanese attack. The results of this battle tell us something about the soldiers who attacked the ritish army that day.…
Blair, 2003. Tony. "Speech to Congress." CNN.com.U.S., July 17. Accessed via the Internet 8/7/05. http://www.cnn.com/2003/U.S./07/17/blair.transcript
Windschuttle, Keith. 2003. "The Burdens of Empire." New Criterion, 22:1 (September), pp. 4+.
Wither, James K. 2003. "British Bulldog or Bush's Poodle? Anglo-American Relations and the Iraq War. Parameters 33:4, pp. 67+.
It is not right, but it is the truth. That is the hardest part of learning about black history, I think.
Final Journal think that taking this class has given me a much broader idea of African-American history and what the black people have had to do to get along in America. Their ancestors did not ask to come here, and they did not ask to become enslaved. Blacks did not wake up one day and choose the color of their skin. It should not matter what color a person's skin is, but it does. This class has helped me understand that blacks have had to struggle for an eternity, and that their struggle is not over yet.
Probably the biggest thing I got out of this class was the black heritage, and how proud blacks should be of their history. They have risen up from despair and they have…
One of the most pervasive archetypes in literature is the hero. The Greeks presented a complex and very human type of hero, often referred to as the tragic hero. eaders can relate especially to tragic heroes because tragic heroes have flaws. Their flaws make tragic heroes more human, and are effective protagonists even when their plans fail. The hero who is semi-divine or divine is a less compelling story, given that few if any human beings can relate to a figure who is flawless, immortal, and possessing of unlimited strength. Graphic novels present complex characters including some that fit the definition of tragic hero. Modern literature teems with examples of heroes who are just like us: they have good intentions, they are far from perfect, and they sometimes fail. Yet embedded in the definition of hero is the imperative that the individual must be able to put aside egotism,…
Franklin, J.H. (n.d.). The train from hate. Retrieved online: http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/scraig/Franklin.htm
Knight, E. (n.d.). Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane. Retrieved online: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15411
Quinonez, E. (2000). Bodega Dreams. Vintage.
"Robert Frost the famous poet received four Pulitzer prizes for poetry." "There is small difference between a dramatist and a poet." "Shake spear is known more for his work as a dramatist, not as a poet"
Intention and Intensional definitions
Absurd is used to describe something irrational or illogical. Absurd is something which does not make sense, something which borders insanity.
Buffoon is a stupid person or a fool. A person who does things in an amusing way, e.g a clown.
Cemetery is a place where dead people are buried. A cemetery is a modern graveyard.
Dictator is a ruler who has complete power over a nation, mostly acquired through force. A person who behaves in an autocratic way in regards to other people.
Egotism is being obsessed with one's sense of importance making someone to think and act only in regards to one's importance. Egotism is to be utterly…
Personal to Politics
Impacts of Racial Discrimination on American Society
The difference between white and black is centuries old. There were times when Nigers were considered as slaves, then there were times when they were declared free but I still believe that deep down the white culture lies the black foundation. Being a racist on the basis of skin color is nothing new in American culture. I was once a strong believer of discriminating on the basis of skin color but time proved me wrong and showed me how wrong I was and how humanity is above everything, every culture, every color, every race.
I had a friend with the name Dean, black guy from Nigeria. His parents shifted in New york long time but used to visit their home town very often. We spent almost our whole childhood together. Those were the good days when we were completely innocent…
Paolo Freire has been noted to be one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century and responsible for a tremendous amount of philosophical thought and meditations on consciousness and the human condition. eading Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" means that one receives a truly innovative perspective on the educational experience for the student and introduces one to a truly novel approach to education -- the banking approach. Studying Friere's musings on education can be a truly illuminating experience even today and much of what he writes regarding pedagogy can spark empowerment and change.
Friere's innovation is obvious in the sense that he describes the culture of silence, but still sees the potential for development and transcendence within that culture. "Every person, however ignorant or submerged in the 'culture of silence' can look critically at his or her world, through a process of dialogue with others, and gradually come…
Freire, P. (1974). Paolo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed Summary. Retrieved from Sonoma.edu: http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/Freire_summary.html