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As a result, to not totally lose out to Vietnam and China, other countries are competing by extending their operations 24/7 without further adjustments to the current government-mandated wages of their workers. Competition remains, as Vietnam and China can deliver like the other countries, but with significantly lower wages. Looking at the bottom line, only the workers suffer and are greatly exploited as a result of this competition among Asian countries, as investors pursue the country with the cheapest source of labor.
The individual's (worker's) market-class situation
It is inevitable, then, that with the widening and increased immobility of social space and maximized labor time inherent in neoliberalist economies, that the individual is given no choice but to assume an individualist stance and fiercely compete in order to survive the new socio-economic environment s/he lives in. ourdieu (1998) criticized neoliberalism because of these inherent forms of exploitation, resulting to the…
Bourdieu, P. (1998). "Utopia of endless exploitation: the essence of neoliberalism." Le monde diplomatique web site. Available at: http://mondediplo.com/1998/12/08bourdieu .
Harman, C. (2007). "Theorising neoliberalism." International Socialism Journal, Issue 117.
Martinez, E. And a. Garcia. (2000). "What is "neo-liberalism"? A brief definition." Global Exchange web site. Available at: http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/econ101/neoliberalDefined.html .
Schmitt, J. And B. Zipperer. (2006). "Is the U.S. A good model for reducing social exclusion in Europe?" Center for Economic and Policy Research.
"Trade union organizers, economic justice advocates, leftists and anyone else who objected to the reforms began to disappear." By the end of his regime, Pinochet may have been responsible for the deaths "of at least 3,000 people and the disappearance of many thousands more." (Bidstrup, 2005) the unionization movements, such a critical part of other Latin American nations, had effectively been rooted out.
One might state that need not condone the horrors of the Pinochet regime, to grant that some economic successes did result from his policy, and that the reforms may have been necessary. In concrete policy terms, this change enabled an opening of Chile's economies to the world through free trade. Tariffs were reduced and there was an elimination of state-sponsored subsidies of inefficient businesses, combined with an opening of capital markets, relaxation of restrictive labor laws, a reduction in public employees, privatization of state-owned enterprises and changes…
Bansal, Dee. (2005) "Efficient or Egregious Economics? A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Neoliberal Economic Reform in Argentina and Chile. http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/POSC/faculty/montero/Dee%20Bansal.pdf
Bidstrup, Scott. (2005) Free Market Fundamentalism: Friedman, Pinochet and the "Chilean Miracle." Economics. Retrieved on 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.bidstrup.com/economics.htm
O'Neil, Shannon. "The Role of Ideas in Neoliberal Economic Reform." Latin American Studies Conference: Papers. Retrieved 17 Apr 2005 http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~soneil/papers/sn_LASA2001confpaper.pdf
Neoliberalism and Globalization
Globalization may be an overused word, although the new version of international capitalism is still so recent that the actual system on the ground has outrun the scientific and theoretical vocabulary that describes it. As a system, international capitalism is rapidly eliminating geographical and political boundaries, as Marx predicted in the 19th Century. In the global, postmodern economy, branding also involves relentless synergy and tie-ins between various diverse lines of products. Films and cartoons market their images to toy companies, fast-food restaurants and cereal manufacturers, generating billions of dollars of revenue annually, as does the commerce in seeds, genetic materials and even human body parts. Western science and technology have been synonymous with modernization and development in India and other Asian nations, even though this paradigm ignores the historical and cultural that has existed in many civilizations over the centuries. Marx also maintained that capitalism would become…
Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2011). Sociological Theory in the Contemporary Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.
Klein, N. 1999, 2009. No Logo. Vintage Canada.
Ohmae, K. (2005). The Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in our Borderless World. Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Scheper-Hughes, N., 2005. The Last Commodity: Post-Human Ethics and the Global Traffic in 'Fresh' Organs" in A. Ong and S.J. Collier, eds. Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropological Problems. London: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 145-67.
These Latin American countries are now, more than ever, part of the world economy, which has made other nations more interested in bolstering democracy in the region -- they now have investments to protect. The United States, for example, exert significant pressure on these Latin American democracies. The U.S. has stepped in to prevent military coups, and if it can't prevent the overthrow of democracy, it immediately punishes the new regime with economic sanctions. Before neoliberalism, few international countries had any sort of leverage over Latin American rulers and their insular economies. One salient example happened in Peru in 1992 when President Fujimori tried to dismiss the congress of Peru and install himself as a dictator. Fujimori had instituted neoliberal reforms and felt the need to concentrate power, but the United States warned him that going through with his autocratic plan meant severe consequences. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and…
Keen, Benjamin. A History of Latin America (2003). Wadsworth Publishing: Lexington, KY
Weyland, Kurt. Neoliberalism and Democracy in Latin America: A Mixed Record. Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Spring 2004), pp. 135-157. Distributed by Blackwell publishing on behalf of the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. Retrieved from the web www.jstor.org/stable/3177084 on April 29, 2001.
Thus, crises of capitalism have so far avoided provoking the alternative solution of a transition out of capitalism" (olffe 2009). elfare state capitalism is merely one incarnation of capitalism, and neo-liberalism is not such a striking reformation of the capitalist system: it is merely one part of the cycle of managing capitalism without really changing the nature of neoliberal, state-protected capitalism.
hile the U.S. government's approach to the crisis may be 'more of the same' of the past twenty years, if not longer, one contrarian view suggests that from a grass-roots level there has been a fundamental shift in terms of the way Americans view prosperity and consumerism, which may have a more fundamental and long-standing effect on the way that corporations function. By reducing spending, Americans have slowed the astounding rate of growth and commercialism of the past twenty years, and by disdaining consumption for the sake of consumption…
Carreon, Juan. "World-economy: Not the end of neo-liberalism yet." Taken from Inter-Press
Service News Agency. April 3, 2009. May 29, 2009.
Martinez, Elizabeth Arnoldo Garcia. "What is Neo-Liberalism? A brief definition."
It is about freer movement of goods, resources and enterprises in a bid to always find cheaper resources, to maximize profits and efficiency" (Shah, 2007). Therefore, this means development for both the areas that sell these resources, as well as for the actors which buy them and use them in the manufacturing business. It is argued however, that the ones who benefit from raw materials at a lower price tend to exploit the sources of these materials. Indeed, there are more benefits for those countries or companies that buy from poorer regions of the world. However, they do help them develop. Moreover, the trend in the globalised world is to precisely move parts of the manufacturing businesses in areas that are in need of jobs. Thus, a certain benefic impact would exist on the host society. There are numerous examples that suggest this outcome, such as IBM and Microsoft in…
Burke, Edmund. "On Empire, liberty, and reform." Speeches and Letters. Ed. By David Bromwich. Yale University Press.
Shah, Anup. "A Primer on Neoliberalism." Free trade and globalization. 2007. 16 Feb 2008. http://www.globalissues.org /TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Neoliberalism.asp
Neoliberal Economic Models
The Future of Neoliberalism
Financialization is a term that describes an economic system or process that attempts to reduce all value that is exchanged (whether tangible, intangible, future or present promises, etc.) either into a financial instrument or a derivative of a financial instrument. The original intent of financialization is to be able to reduce any work-product or service to an exchangeable financial instrument, like currency, and thus make it easier for people to trade these financial instruments.
(Griffiths & Hickson, 2009, pp. 17-9).
This thesis argues that a neoliberal model, which offers a basic blueprint to financial health and stability, is far more likely to bring about good economic results in the entire range of economic conditions across the world. Neoliberalism -- with some emendations such as a moderate amount of government regulation -- will ensure that financial and market conditions are allowed to perform in…
Crouch, C. (2011). The Strange Non-death of Neo-liberalism. Washingto DC: Polity Press, 2011
Ferris, T. (2010). The Science of Liberty. New York: HarperCollins
Griffiths, S. & Hickson, K. (Eds.) (2009). British Party Politics and Ideology after New Labour. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Plant, R. (2009). The Neo-liberal State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kingstone's Neoliberalism In Latin America
Kingstone would argue that neoliberalism has not lived up to the expectations for spurring development in Latin America. ight from the outset, Kingstone acknowledges that the issue is complex, and that there are a number of contributing factors to this failure. The book attempts to delve into why neoliberalism has failed. Kingstone notes that in particular, solutions attempted during the past few decades have not paid enough attention to the role of the state in the development of the economy. The role of the state is critical, and the unique nature of Latin American states means that even if neoliberal strategies work well in other parts of the world, they may not work in Latin America. Neoliberalism, thus, needs to be adapted for the conditions of Latin America, rather than imposed upon the region with any consideration for its uniquenesses.
A supporter of neoliberalism would…
Kingstone, G. (2010). The Political Economy of Latin America: Reflections on Neoliberalism and Development. Taylor & Francis.
Neo-realists see that states continue struggling for survival as they form international institutions. On the other hand, Neo-liberalists view of international relations as something that shapes and influences the foreign policies of states, therefore further strengthening interconnections between them.
Another point is concerned with the power of the military. The point-of-view of Neo-realists on the coercive power of the military is that it is the most important factor in order for the state to survive. But Neo-liberalists claim that military power is not the sole tool for state survival, other foreign political tools can be more fundamental for the common interests of the states.
Globalization is one change in the society where difference between Neo-realism and Neo-liberalism can be observed. For Neo-realists, states play the most important role in the I theory. It is primarily dominated by relations between states, thus globalization does not really exist. Neo-realists are more concerned…
Mearsheimer, John J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York, NY: Norton.
Waltz, Kenneth Neal (1979). Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. http://natsecorma.net/terje/archives/53
http://fsinternationalrelations.wordpress.com/2007/09/25/924-neo-realism-vs.-neo-liberalism / http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9055278/Neorealism
Such a market should ideally be free from barriers and restrictions especially in regard to government regulation. Neo-liberalism in the words of Boulle (2009) "postulates the legitimacy of market economics, liberalized trade, privatization, deregulation and a limited state system." Therefore, as an economic approach, neo-liberalism seeks to facilitate economic development by encouraging the creation of a laissez-faire environment. It advocates for the opening up of markets to trade by amongst other things encouraging the privatization of state-run businesses. In my opinion, neo-liberalism would facilitate the creation of an economic climate that is more competitive thus allowing for the emergence of superior business practices. With little or no government interference and/or involvement, competition would force business entities to enhance the quality of the various goods they produce while at the same time reviewing the prices of such goods downwards. All this would be to the benefit of consumers. It has also…
Boulle, L. (2009). The Law of Globalization: An Introduction. Fredrick, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.
Carroll, a.B. & Buchholtz, a.K. (2011). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Rowley, C.K. & Schneider, F. (Eds.). (2003). The Encyclopedia of Public Choice. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
This is when politics will become a part of the practices that are utilized in achieving a variety of goals. (Dunne, 2012, pp. 116 -- 120)
As a result, neo-liberalism is agreeing with neo-realism through various practices and institutions that are developed on the international level. In many cases, their contrasting functions are to enforce and support different standards that have been agreed to. However, they will also support specific policies and ideas that are embraced by the largest nation states. They will then impose these ideas on others to ensure that they are in compliance with the different guidelines. (Dunne, 2012, pp. 116 -- 120)
Explain the nature and significance of its areas of disagreement.
Inside the international structure, are major differences between the tactics utilized by the various non-governmental entities and their overall role in addressing critical challenges (i.e. The UN and the IMF). Under this philosophy, these…
Dunne, T. (2007). International Relations Theories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In Social Problems, Coleman & Kerbo (2009) discuss ways globalization and neoliberalism have impacted global inequalities and disparities. Global inequalities are not caused by singular policies but are tremendously complex, requiring nuanced perspectives and points of view. Economists, sociologists, and scholars frequently debate whether neoliberalism and global capitalism are causing or exacerbating global inequalities, or whether the ideologies and practices of the free market may be used to promote global equality instead. Martin Hart-Landsberg (2006) and Norberg (2004) weigh in on the debate. In “Neoliberalism: Myths and Reality,” Hart-Landsberg (2006) claims that globalization and the neoliberal policies that support unbridled capitalism worldwide are harmful to the working classes—the majority of people worldwide. Essentially, Hart-Landsberg (2006) claims neoliberalism and globalization increase global inequalities. Norberg (2004), on the other hand, claims that globalization is leading to less inequality. In “Three Cheers for Global Capitalism,” Norberg (2004) claims free enterprise and deregulation lead…
Neoliberal ideology has contributed to the rise in development and reduction of poverty in much of the world since World War II. The main bodies responsible for neoliberalism, such as the United Nations and later the World Trade Organization have encouraged trade, economic openness and democracy. Where these things have not been accepted -- where neoliberalism has been rejected, living standards tend to be lower, and where neoliberalism has been embraced wholeheartedly the living standards are as high as have been enjoyed by any humans in history.
De Soto describes some of the development that has occurred in Peru, which is a moderately neoliberal state. He argues that individual effort can come before collective effort, a hallmark of neoliberalism and that this has resulted higher living standards for many of the country's citizens. De Soto also notes that these changes have also been at the social level. The people…
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.
Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…
Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: Random House.
Friedman, T. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Appiah, K. (2006). The case for contamination. New York Times Magazine. Jan 1, 2006.
He gives the examples of Great ritain, whose rise to supremacy was given in fact by the invention of the telegraph (Touraine, 13). This comes to point out the fact that in his opinion, it is not the system that changed the world, but rather certain technological inventions, thus the current state of affairs has been seen before. Indeed, the passing from one society to another has been marked by technological impressions. However, this idea cannot be applied to the current situation of the global world because information represents the driving force of the world, regardless of the level of analysis one addresses. The information has led the world towards a communication strategy, a market change that has yet to be seen before at this intensity.
Thirdly, he argues that transnational commerce and corporations have been seen before, in the middle of the 20th century, "when catastrophic talk of globalization…
Touraine, Alain. Beyond Neoliberalism. Trans. David Macey. Cambridge: Polity, 1998.
Neoliberal Social Theory
Neoliberalist Theory has been known and defined as a philosophy or thinking that promotes the continuous production and distribution of goods and services, and is adapted after the concept of Neoclassical economy that the economist Adam Smith had introduced in his book, "The Wealth of Nations." Through Adam Smith's famous economic and philosophical treatise, the idea that market economies can function and regulate itself without government intervention came into being. This is precisely one of the most important characteristics of neoliberalism: the market economy produces and distributes goods and services at an optimum and efficient rate without any intervention from the government.
Neoliberalist theory is characterized by a number of important aspects, which are the following: it promotes "a stable currency, free market capitalism, and free trade" (Wikipedia 2002). Further, neoliberalism advocates not only for deregulation, self-regulation, and free trade, but also to privatization of business enterprise…
Neoliberalism." Wikipedia Web site. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism .
Shah, Anup. "Primer on Neoliberalism." 3 September 2001. Global Issues Web page. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://www.globalissues.org /TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Neoliberalism.asp?Print=True.
Treanor, Paul. "Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition." InterNLnet Home page. Accessed 19 December 2002 http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…
Avizius, R. 2009. Financial Crisis Big Picture: What has the Government Response Been? [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article9229.html . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Centeno, M.A. & Cohen, J.N. 2012. The Arc of Neoliberalism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/transitionstomodernity/papers/CentenoCohen.pdf . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Crotty, J. 2009. Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture' . [ONLINE] Available at: http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/563.full . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Esteva, G. (n.d.). The Meaning of the Global Crisis and "Recovery" for Study Abroad: What are we Preparing Students for? [ONLINE] Available at: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1110&context=faculty_symposium . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
The authors believe that some citizens have become "...socialized into a particular ideological system that molds their values, attitudes, beliefs and/or symbolic predispositions on a wide range of issues, including political parties and the economy." And this article also found that most party interests and self-interests revolve around both ideological considerations and economic considerations; however, those voters who are on the lower rung of the economic ladder tend to be less ideological and more economically-motivated, which makes sense.
Labour...[which is] traditionally welfare state in ideology, was the party that initiated the conversion to neoliberalism" prior to the election of the Alliance in 1999, the article continues. Allen and Ng write that many members of the Labour party "felt confused and betrayed" when the Alliance moved away from the welfare state policies and into neoliberalism. Another result of the Labour Alliance's shift from welfare to neoliberalism was an "increase in poverty…
Allen, Michael W.; & Ng, Sik Hung. (2000). Self-Interest, Economic Beliefs, and Political Party Preference in New Zealand. Political Psychology, 21(2), 323-345.
Blair, Tony. (1998). Tony Blair, the Third Way. Goucher College History Department. Retrieved 9 July 2008, at http://faculty.goucher.edu/history231/blair.htm.
Blair, Tony, & Schroeder, Gerhard. (1999). Europe: The Third Way. Retrieved 9 July, 2008, at http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blairandschroeder6-8-99.html, also available from www.labour.org.uk;produced by Social Democrats.
Giddens, Anthony. (2000). Social Democracy and the Third Way. In the Third Way and Its Critics, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Neo-Liberalistic Legal Concepts on Nations ith Distinct Legal Tradition (Common, Civil, Socialist)
This review of the related literature focuses on broad definitions of the law as historically legislated and then as practiced in three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia and China. Common law, civil law and socialist law will be defined separately and then as they each apply to the country which has used that system as its focus for legal practice. The effect that neo-liberalism had after the Asian financial crisis on these three nations will be then be examined. Finally, this review will determine if there has been a change post-crisis in merger and acquisition or public finance law.
It is necessary to begin by defining terms that will occur throughout this review. The three systems of law to be initially discussed in the review are common law, civil law and socialist law. Of course, many dispute the fact…
Agami, Abdel M. "The Role that Foreign Acquisitions of Foreign Companies Played in the Recovery of the Asian Financial Crisis." Multinational Business Review 10, no. 1 (2002): 11-17.
Batra, Madan M. "The Dark Side of International Business." Competition Forum 5, no. 1 (2007): 306-313.
Berman, Alan. "The Anwar Saga: Sexuality and Politics in Contemporary Malaysia." Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review 4, no. 3 (2008): 188-193.
Chan, Anita, and Jonathan Unger. "A Chinese State Enterprise Under the Reforms: What Model of Capitalism?" The China Journal 62 (2009): 1-15.
Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism and Sustainability
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries…
Butler, Richard W. "Tourism, environment, and sustainable development." Environmental conservation 18.03 (1991): 201-209.
Elliott, Jennifer. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, 2012.
Howell, D., and Mamadou Diallo. "Charting U.S. economic performance with alternative labor market indicators: The importance of accounting for job quality." online]. SCEPA Working Paper 6 (2007): 202007-6.
Jackiewicz, E.L., Bosco, E.J. (2012). Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Roman and Littlefield Publishers.
Using web marketing strategies combined with educational initiatives -- such as downloadable podcasts and educational websites with a marketing and advertising component might be one way to capitalize upon this trend (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).
hat potential impact does the most important trade bloc have on the marketing and business strategies of Apple Computer and general website marketing?
Mercosur has taken a hostile attitude, in general, to large estern companies. It believes such companies are profiting off of less-developed nations and prevent such nations from fully entering the developed world as global players. This reflects, to some extent, the attitude of the citizens of the nations of Mercosur countries. Deemphasizing the 'Americanness' of Apple might be necessary in Brazil, in contrast to nations where the American quality of a product might have more cache.
Does this trade bloc represent primarily economic…
Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America. (2004, June 16). UCLA
Conference: Mercosur, NAFTA, and the Free Trade Area of the America.
Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=12060
Similar to what happened in Chile happened between the 1930s and the late 1970s in most countries in Latin America that used the import substitution industrialization model (ISI) to build their industry and therefore reduce their dependency upon imports from foreign countries. The result of the ISI in these countries has included the rapid urbanization of one or two major cities and a growing urban population of the working class and a membership in the world economic system via globalization through the vehicles of the IMF and the World Bank. Much of this was done in response to the economic crisis of 1997 when the leaders of these countries very quickly adopted and the implemented new neoliberal policies. In countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, the United States and Uruguay, capitalism and central private banking are now the norm with firms and economies being one intact whole (Taylor,…
Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition. (2005, December 2). Retrieved from http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .
Taylor, L. (1997). Editorial: the revival of the global creed. Wolrd Development, 25(2), 145-152.
The Canadian Centre for Policy Initiatives, on the other hand, is an Interventionalist think thank that advocates government intervention in some cases, but chides it in others.
On the other end of the spectrum, the Montreal Economic Institute can be described as a Neoliberal think tank. The organization, which was founded in 1999, seeks to "promote an economic approach to the study of public policy issues." By studying the organization's publications, however, one can quickly realize that most contributors call under the classification of Neoliberal economists. Shah calls Neoliberalism the "mechanism for global trade and investment." The movement is the one practiced by capitalists and free market economists. Neoliberal economists generally see the international markets as self-governing, motivated by Adam Smith's invisible hand and self-interest. Government intervention, therefore, is looked down upon in any case other then protection from invaders.
Though the think tank's information did not specify Neoliberal ideas…
Albo, Greg. "Neoliberalism and Canada's Ruling Class." 7 July 2007. Monthly Review.
June 2008. http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/albo070407.html .
Boothe, Paul and Richard Roy. "Business Sector Productivity in Canada: What Do We
Know?" International Productivity Monitor. 16 (2008): 3-13. http://www.iedm.org/main/show_editorials_en.php?editorials_id=649 .
Future of Global Neoliberalism
One of the harsh realities of life in the 21st century is that the vast majority of the world's population continues to struggle to survive in the face of dwindling arable land and governmental policies that serve to constrain rather than promote economic development. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to explain why some theorists have maintained that the state continues to be a central agent that facilitates the advancement of global neoliberalism. A discussion concerning the rationale in support of this position, including an analysis of the possibilities and barriers that neoliberalism creates for genuine long-term sustainable human development; the objectives, strategies, and achievements of social movements as well as the barriers they face; and state-led models of development that run counter to the neoliberal agenda. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…
Abahlal. (2009, August 7). Winning our land back -- the Landless People's
Movement wins a major court victory. Abahlali baseMjondolo. Retrieved from http://abahlali.org/node/5622/ .
Butt, S. (2013, June 26). Incredible India: Home to modern slavery. The Real
News. Retrieved from http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_
What were the ideological influences on Revolution in Latin America?
Latin America experienced several changes throughout the years in various countries. Cuba, for example, experienced a revolution brought on by influences from Marxism and Soviet-style communism. Seen as a turning point in revolutionary history and Latin American ideology, 1959 became the year of Cuba. The Cuban Revolution and the ideals that came with it, spurred countries like Chile and Uruguay to test the waters of political change. It is important to understand and explore how Marxist and communist ideologies became intrinsically connected to the Cuban Revolution and how these ideals changed Latin America as a whole.
The Cuban Revolution became one of the few instances in Latin America where change in ideology generated a new identity for a country and a people. As Alan Knight points out, the Cuban Revolution brought with it seeds of change towards socialism and later…
Korea and Taiwan in 1960 had a per capita income no higher than Kenya at the time (CIA, 2007). Now, South Korea's income has moved to the top 12 in the world. Taiwan and Japan experienced similar growth. All three countries benefited primarily from freeing their currency, reducing barriers to company formation, and focusing their government policies on increasing productive capacity.
The second, and more dramatic, application of neoliberalistic ideas was in China and India. China's revolutionary changes started with Deng Xiao Ping's reforms in 1977-1981, in which he freed the peasants from communal farms; this followed from the 1965 reforms which allowed peasants 1/3 acre for their own cultivation. The latter action increased Chinese agricultural production by 30%, while the former (freeing the peasants) resulted in an increase in real peasant income in China by 40% during the 1980's. Few recognize that this was the first and most dramatic…
Burkett, P. (2005). American Economic Development since 1945: Growth, Decline and Rejuvenation. Review of Social Economy, 135-144.
CIA. (2007). South Korea. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html
IMF. (2006). China and India: Expanding Roles in the World Economy. IMF Book Forum (p. n.p.). Washington: IMF.
Prbyla, J. (1982). Economic Problems of Communism: A Case Study of China. Asian Survey, 1206-1237.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
The analysis cited above continues to describe the ways in which corporate "life" (in the sense of how many different individuals and entities are vital to the running of a corporation in the current climate):
Businesses today must be consumer, profit, and publicly oriented. Only a few years ago, the first two would have sufficed. But, in support of our dualistic argument regarding the marketing concept, that is -- creating exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives more effectively and efficiently than the competition -- Philip Kotler (2000) has labelled marketing as inappropriate in a world of environmental deterioration, population expansion, world hunger and poverty, and neglected, under-funded, and business-like social services. Thus, marketing as exchange has been augmented by the need to preserve or enhance consumer and societal well being, too. Increasingly, this extends beyond 'seeming' to the needed 'substance' of corporate social responsibility.
The above touches on…
Aaker, D.A., Brand Portfolio Strategy, New York: Free Press, 2004.
Balmer, John and Alan Wilson, "Corporate Identity: There Is More to It Than Meets the Eye," International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol. 28, 1998.
Bridson, K., and Evans, J., 'The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation', International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(8): 403-11, 2004.
D'Alessandro, David, Brand Warfare, New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as dangerous, a breeding ground for illegal activities, and areas of social decay or social ill," (Candan & Kolluoglu 2008 p 38). Those lower ranking social classes and ethnic subgroups are often excluded from the daily existence of mainstream Turkish culture and forced to life a marginalized life in a segregated area that isolates lower socioeconomic classes from the rest of society. The urban poor that reside in the neighborhood are excluded from an external source, and thus left to fend for themselves. In this marginalized space, the residents of this neighborhood have actually created a culture that is all their own outside of the boundaries of typical Turkish life. Like as shown in Yilmaz (2008), this neighborhood is seen as having to…
Candan, Ayfur Bartu & Kolluoglu, Biray. (2008). Emerging spaces of neoliberalism: A gated town and a public housing project in Istanbul. New Perspectives on Turkey, 39(2008), 4-46.
Yilmaz, Bediz. (2008). Entrapped in multidimensional exclusion: The perpetuation of poverty among conflict-induced migrants in an Istanbul neighborhood. New Perspectives on Turkey, 38(2008), 205-234.
individuals might volunteer to help others by comparing experimental results with the self-reported motivations of Teach for America volunteers. Ultimately, the study demonstrates that volunteerism is rooted in self-interest, and this is evidenced by not only the experimental data, but by the actions of Teach for America as an organization as well as the self-reports of individual members. Although this does not help explain why volunteerism is held in such high regard, it does serve to demonstrate that volunteering and ostensibly altruistic actions are not as difficult to explain as one might think.
The question of why people volunteer to help others is difficult to answer succinctly, because answering it demands that one consider a number of relatively disparate fields of study and investigation, including everything from evolutionary psychology to management theory. However, one can at least begin to formulate a general explanation of volunteerism that seems to hold regardless…
Fogarty, M. 2011, "Teach for America fails the test," Education, pp. 7.
Katz, S.J. 2007, "Teach for America, Hope for the Future," Bioscience, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 735.
Kent, K.J. 1997, "So why should anyone get involved with volunteer organizations?," Chemical
Engineering Progress, pp. 12.
The essence of Zapatista philosophy and action is the discovery of a new order of revolution. In the wake of failures of other socialist movements from Lenin to in Russia to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, the small group of Mayan farmers in southwestern Mexico contend not only with reconstructing revolutionary tactics but also with the massive opposition from dominant governments, including those in Mexico and the United States. Governments that continually uphold the principles of capitalism will find in the Zapatistas an idealistic, hopeless cause of swimming against the tide of globalization. Even before the ratification of the North American Free trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexicans struggled with political and economic oppression. The indigenous peoples of Mexico, like the Mayan nations of Chiapas, fared worst. Lowest on the scale of economical, social, and political power, these individuals hearkened to the voice of their martyred namesake Zapata, who was murdered on…
De Angelis, Massimo. "Globalization, New Internationalism and the Zapatistas." Capital and Class 70 (2000): 9-35.
Mills, C. Wright. "The Sociological Imagination." The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Harvey, Neil. "Globalisation and resistance in post-cold war Mexico: difference, citizenship and biodiversity conflicts in Chiapas." Third World Quarterly 22 (2001): 1045-1061.
Capitalism vs. Democracy
Curing Neoliberalism with Democracy
Pope Francis, never one to shy away from controversy, attacked contemporary forms of capitalism as not only exclusionary, but also deadly (Downie). To support his claim, Francis notes that the news media regularly report a meaningless one or two percent change in the Dow Industrials, but the death of a homeless person goes unnoticed; or that daily tons of food is thrown into the trash while millions starve. Although some liberty was taking in the paraphrasing of Francis' words, the point is the same; i.e., capitalism today, as it is being practiced, rewards the ruthless and powerful and marginalizes the rest. According to the author of the ashington Post article about Pope Francis' stinging criticism of neoliberalism, James Downie, what separates Pope Francis from earlier papal proclamations of capitalist evils is that Francis talks specifics, such as the destructiveness of trickle-down economics and…
Downie, James. "Pope Francis's Stinging Critique of Capitalism." Washington Post 26 November 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
Muller-Doohm, Stefan. "Nation State, Capitalism, Democracy: Philosophical and Political Motives in the Thought of Jurgen Habermas." Trans. Stefan Bird-Pollan. European Journal of Social Theory 13.4 (2010): 443-57. Print.
Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014. Print.
Critically assess the extent to which deliberative democracy, neo-conservatism and/or neo-liberalism promote and/or restrict democratization for groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates presented in the attached readings to make your points and cite your sources.
Civil society may make up a place for democratization, owing to its ability to enable individuals to decide on living their public life and resolving common issues. Individuals who consider deliberation to be the soul of democracy ought to be drawn to a broad form of public domain. Postmodernists, who hold rather divergent views, conceptualizing democracy with regard to agonistic regard formed via identity and difference negotiations, ought to similarly be drawn to pluralism. Democrats ought to support, in general, a state complete in key elements, as appropriately organized exclusion may prove beneficial to democratization and democracy, even from excluded parties' standpoint. All historical decisions taken by governments to ensure…
Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization.
In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor…
The Central Question
How important is it that IR (International Relations) scholars reflect on the relationship between power and knowledge? From a feminist theory perspective, it is critical for IR scholars to highlight the relationship between power and knowledge in order to uncover the gender dynamics of power and knowledge in an IR setting. Feminism is more than simply a theory about women—it also provides a framework for understanding gender and gender constructs and how these constructs impact international relations.[footnoteRef:2] In order for IR scholars to excel in their work and more fully understand the parameters of IR, they have to be attentive to the socio-political implications of the political structures within which they work. [2: Christine Sylvester, “The Contributions of Feminist Theory to International Relations,” International Theory: positivism and beyond (1996), 254.]
Feminist IR theory proceeds from Critical theory, which is based on past fundamentally disruptive theories…
F. Impact of Structural Adjustment Policy Preconditions
According to Shah the preconditions impact poorer countries in a devastating manner and it is reported that the following factors result in "further misery for the developing nations" and ultimately keep these countries dependent on nations that are developed: (1) Poor countries must export more in order to raise enough money to pay off their debts in a timely manner; (2) ecause there are so many nations being asked or forced into the global market place -- before they are economically and socially stable and ready -- and told to concentrate on similar cash crops and commodities as others, the situation resembles a large-scale price war; (3) Then, the resources from the poorer regions become even cheaper, which favors consumers in the West; (4) Governments then need to increase exports just to keep their currencies stable (which may not be sustainable,…
Poulizouh, Thierry (2007) Chief of Staff Ministry of Economy, Planning and International Cooperation Central African Republic: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper -- Preparation Status Report. International Monetary Fund, Feb 2007, IMF Country Report No. 07-58. Central African Republic Ministry Of Economy, Planning And International Cooperation Office Of The Minister Steering Committee On The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Permanent Technical Secretariat Of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper No. 3325/2006/MEPCI/DIRCAB/CP-CSLP/STP-CSLP Bangui, November 17, 2006.
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (1999) The World Bank, Projects and Operations. Online available at: http://web.worldbank.org /WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20120705~menuPK:51557~pagePK:41367~piPK:51533~theSitePK:40941,00.html
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers -- Operational Issues (1999) Staffs of IMF and the World Bank. 10 Dec 1000. International Monetary Fund. Online available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/prsp/poverty1.htm#II
Shah, Anup (2010) Structural Adjustment -- a Major Cause of Poverty. Global Issues. Online available at:
Neo-liberal and neo-conservative thinkers in Alberta were so focused in the end results of educational policies that they proposed two other programs that differed little from results-based curriculum: program continuity and continuous progress. Many teachers could not really understand what these programs were about. The Department of Education, for example, placed program continuity together with "results-based, levels-organized curriculum." Program continuity envisioned that students knew what they needed to learn and what they could accomplish, and the curriculum accordingly was supposed to gear towards achieving those goals. Teachers pointed out that imposing such expectations on students was at odds with the philosophy of letting students find their own comfort zones and levels of learning. Teachers also pointed out that these additional requirements forced them to work more, effectively turning them into working machines. What teachers resented most, however, was the "erosion of professionalism": "What I resent is that some are trying…
ATA (1993) Trying to Teach. Retrieved on March 4, 2011, from http://www.teachers.ab.ca/Publications/Other%20Publications/Pages/TryingtoTeach.aspx
Bascia, N. (2001) Learning Through Struggle: How the Alberta Teachers' Association Maintains an Even Keel. NALL Working Paper #44. Retrieved on March 2, 2011, from http://www.nall.ca/res/44learningstruggle.html
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved on March 3, 2011, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/charter/1.html
Flower, D.J., & Booi, H.L. (1999) Challenging Restructuring: The Alberta Teachers' Association in Harrison, T.W., & Kachur, J.L. Contested Classrooms: Education, Globalization, and Democracy in Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press and Parkland Institute.
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…
Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
People can feel more comfortable if their sense of safety results from a strong national security. Political leadership in cohesive-capitalist countries typically has a firm grip on the labor force, albeit sometimes the leadership becomes "repressive and authoritarian" and leaders are known to use nationalism (extreme patriotism) as a driver to keep people believing in the state.
A states that Kohli identifies as having pursued a cohesive-capitalist approach to economy and governing is South Korea under Park Chung Hee. Another country that has historically exhibited a cohesive-capitalist approach is Brazil. Both of those countries have experienced some success, Kohli goes on.
The fragmented-multiclass states have policies that lie somewhere between the two extremes previously mentioned. The leaders in fragmented-multiclass states are held accountable for more dynamics in their societies than others in the previous two state descriptions. For example, on page 215 Kohli states that India and Brazil during several…
Chu, Yun-han. "State Structure and Economic Adjustment of the East Asian Newly
Industrializing Countries." International Organization 43.4 (1989): 647-672.
Kohli, Atul. "States and Economic Development." Brazilian Journal of Political
Economy 29.2 (2009): 212-227.
According to this source, this development has been conditioned by the incorporation of the region into the capitalist mode of production for the exploitation of Latin America's resources and the negative implications linger today. To many, globalization and neoliberalism are the contemporary disguises for continued colonialism in Latin America.
The negative impacts of colonization alongside the narrow Western and U.S. understanding of the unique situations it has caused in developing countries play a very large part in limiting political and economic development. it's difficult to move forward when the developing countries do not see meaningful change in store for them.
Chiriyankandath, J. Colonialism and post-colonial development. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:xcZP_4GcDIYJ:www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199296088/burnell_ch02.pdf+Latin+America+post-colonial+development&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Comparative politics. http://www.scribd.com/doc/5062437/Political-Diversity-Within-Developing-World
Dependency Theory & Latin America. http://www.*****/viewpaper/1702654.html
Chiriyankandath, J. Colonialism and post-colonial development. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:xcZP_4GcDIYJ:www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199296088/burnell_ch02.pdf+Latin+America+post-colonial+development&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Comparative politics. http://www.scribd.com/doc/5062437/Political-Diversity-Within-Developing-World
Dependency Theory & Latin America. http://www.*****/viewpaper/1702654.html
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
2005). A study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research reported that "77% of countries [that had received loans from the B-IMF) for which data is available saw their per capital rate of growth fall significantly during the period 1980-2000." And by the late 1990s, the article continued, the IMF could no longer "pretend that structural adjustment had not been a massive disaster in Africa, Latin America and South Asia." And so in 1999, the B-IMF met and renamed SAPs the "Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility."
PROS/CONS: The first five pages of this paper was a review of many of the "cons" of SAPs. hat are the positives? riting in the orld Bank Research Observer, John illiamson, who created the phrase "ashington Consensus," complains that the term "has been invested with a meaning...significantly different from that which I had intended..." Moreover, illiamson spends the majority of his article not…
Ankomah, Kofi. "IMF and World Bank Sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs in Africa: Ghana's Experience." University of Chicago Press (2001): 499-501.
Bello, Walden, & Guttal, Shalmali. "Crisis of Credibility: The Declining Power of the International Monetary Fund." Multinational Monitor, July/August 2005, 19-22.
Brym, Robert J.; Chung, Stephanie; Dulmage, Sarah; Farahat, Christian; Greenberg,
Mark; Ho, Manki; Housein, Khadra; Kulik, Dina; Lau, Matthew; Maginley, Olivia;
Such practices led to the growth of foreign loans and investment to Chile, which were stopped during Allende's office, but at the same time it led to the domination of foreign capital in economy sector and weaking positions of national production. Mining industry was privatized by big American corporations, which restored their traditional influence in this sector:
Pinochet's neoliberal economic policies' benefits have been sharply contested. In 1973, unemployment was only 4.3%. Following ten years of junta rule in 1983, unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. eal wages declined by more than 40%. In 1970, 20% of Chile's population lived in poverty. In 1990, in the last year of Pinochet's dictatorship, poverty doubled to 40%. Between 1982 and 1983, the GDP dropped 19%. In 1970, the daily diet of the poorest 40% of the population contained 2,019 calories. By 1980 this had fallen to 1,751, and by 1990 it was down to…
Petras, James Leiva, Fernando Ignacio Democracy and Poverty in Chile: The Limits to Electoral Politics Westview Press, 1994
Pinera, Jose Latin America: a way out. An article from: The Cato Journal January 1, 2003 p.409
Constable, Pamela Valenzuela, Arturo A Nation of Enemies: Chile under Pinochet Norton, 1991
Hewitt, Kenneth Between Pinochet and Kropotkin: State Terror, Human Rights and the Geographers
Metal Detectors in Schools
When confronted with a frightening phenomena, people often tend only to look at the symptom, rather than the underlying cause, and in turn they end up making the problem worse, as in the case of installing metal detectors in schools in an attempt to stop violence. Although at first glance installing a metal detector might seem like an obvious choice towards making schools safer, this kind of thinking only makes the problem worse by wasting time and energy on a "solution" that ignores the larger problem, is not actually effective, and harms the very people it is meant to protect. Examining these three faults in greater detail will reveal how the use of metal detectors is born out an ignorant, careless approach to safety that harms the public while making money for a few self-interested parties.
The first problem with using metal detectors in schools is…
DeAngelis, K, Brent, B & Ianni, D. (2011). The hidden cost of school security. Journal of Education Finance, 36(3), 312-337.
Hartnett, S. (2008). The annihilating public policies of the prison-industrial complex; or, crime, violence, and punishment in an age of neoliberalism. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11(3),
Mawson, A, Lapsley, P, Hoffman, A & Guignard, J. (2002). Preventing lethal violence in schools:
Growing Gap between the ich and the Poor: Is Capitalism the Culprit?
Since Karl Marx powerfully challenged Capitalism and criticized it for being exploitative, Capitalism as a system has always come under attack. Although by the end of the twentieth century, Capitalism seems to have triumphed over Communism and the socialist system of command economy, many people renew their criticism of Capitalism in times of economic crisis. ecent protests in Wall Street, which has been expanded to the other parts of the United States and many places around the world, symbolize growing frustration with Capitalism. But is Capitalism to blame for the economic crisis and other problems such as class inequality, the erosion of many social benefits and the attacks on the remaining ones, and the domination of world economy by corporate powers? This paper argues that the problem is not with Capitalism per se, but the way it…
Batra, R. (2011) The Occupy Wall Street Movement and the Coming Demise of Crony Capitalism. TruthOut. Retrieved on 16 October 2011, from http://www.truth-out.org/occupy-wall-street-movement-and-coming-demise-crony-capitalism/1318341474
FOSTER, J, & MAGDOFF, F 2010, 'The Great Financial Crisis -- Three Years On', Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine, 62, 5, pp. 52-55, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 October 2011.
Harvey, D. (2007) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Einstein, Zillah. Global Obscenities: Patriarchy, Capitalism, and the Lure of Cyberfantasy. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Healing, Raven. "White Stockings and Black Widows: Women in Chechnya -- Myths and Realities." Off Our Backs 35.3/4 (2005): 44-47. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. JSTOR.
Kristoff, D. Nicholas, and Sheryl Wudunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Knopf, 2009. Print.
137). Across the board, then, technological innovations will not only be a key driver of business in the coming decade, they will also facilitate the effects of the other key drivers of business discussed herein. For instance, the editors of World Economic Outlook (2002) point out that, "More trade integration is usually associated with more international financial integration, as they respond to many of the same technological and policy factors" (Trade and financial integration, p. 108). As the current fourth generation technologies are replaced by fifth and sixth generation technologies, these trends will likely become even more accelerated over the next 10 years. As Wiedmann and his associates point out, "Up-and-coming technologies like radio frequency identification and future trends like ubiquitous computing, ambient intelligence, and the connected (smart) home scenario have gained special attention in both research and business practice" (p. 137).
This paper provided a review of the…
Beder, S. (2009). 'Neoliberalism and the Global Financial Crisis.' Social Alternatives, vol. 28,
no. 1, pp. 17-19.
Boer-Ashworth, E.D. (2000). The Global Political Economy and post-1989 Change: The Place
of the Central European Transition. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Healthcare Economics Evaluation
This report is about a proposed healthcare economics investigation. Some early research has been done and will be described based on what was found and how it was found. The report will conclude with a proposed plan for further economic evaluation on that same topic with a great deal the expected and proper form and function of that research to be described in that section. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
The author of this report has chosen how to make health care affordable and have the most amount of people possible covered in the United States as this is one of the more omnipresent issues and matters in American society in the modern time. Health care being at the forefront of the American news cycle is nothing new as it is has been a huge part of the…
Berkowitz, E. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue. Health Care Financing Review, 29(3), 80-93.
Bovbjerg, R.R., & Schoenbaum, S.C. (2004). Malpractice Reform Must Include Steps To Prevent Medical Injury. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 140(1), 51-54.
Budget problems, Medicaid expansion main topics at SAMHSA meeting. (2012). Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 24(32), 1-3.
CDC. (2013, March 19). CDC Online Newsroom - Press Release: October 17, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…
Dunne, Tim, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve. International relations theories: discipline and diversity. Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
Ikenberry, G. John. After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Keohane, Robert O. Neorealism and its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Legro, Jeffrey. Rethinking the world: great power strategies and international order. Cornell University Press, 2005.
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.
In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on acial Equality (COE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or epublican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…
Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.
"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online: http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/02/09/free-speech-fight-shaped-new-left
Heilbrun, J., 1997. "The New Democrats. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/93596/democratic-leadership-council-al-from#
Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change. New York: Henry Holt.
Multilateral Environmnetal Agreements
Multilateral Environmental Agreements & Global Economy
This document addresses an important issue of inconsistency between World Trade Organization's measures and multilateral environmental agreements. The document presents an argument on how the inconsistency between the MEAs and WTO can be mitigated and how clear trade facilitating policies which give equal consideration to environmental protection measures can be promulgated and maintained globally.
The document mainly presents an argument regarding a strong need of development of an organization which can have a strong control over environmental issues and which can actually act as a unilateral platform for hundreds of MEAs can mitigate the harsh impacts of WTO's measures. For this purpose, a foundation of World Environmental Organization will be exactly what is needed (and North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) can actually act as its prototype). Furthermore, an elaboration of organizational structure and its functions is also…
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…
BBC. Hu rejects China political reform. 15 September, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3657906.stm
Bijian, Zheng. China's "Peaceful Rise" to Great-Power Status. "Foreign Affairs," September/October, 2005.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
Daniels, Robert V., ed. A Documentary History of Communism. New York: Random House, 1960.
Crime and Violence in Mexico
Introduction recent study by the orld Bank reveals that Mexico has become one of the most violent and crime-ridden regions in the world (Hart). After a slight decrease in the 1960's, the report shows that the murder rate has increased again in the 1990's to more than 16,000 murders per year (p. 111-113). The country's homicide rate was double that of the United States, with 18 killings for every 100,000 people.
Over the past few decades, Mexico's population has increased and urban poverty levels have risen. As a result of these two factors, Mexico has seen a significant increase in crime and violence. Residents have resorted to illegal means of making money, including drug rings and street crime, as the country struggled to incorporate a capitalist system.
A recent study from the Citizen's Institute for the Study of Insecurity reveals that 4.2 million Mexicans were…
Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.
Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.
Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.
University of California Press, 2002.
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
HARMONIZING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL BALANCE: STUDY OF EMPLOYERS' FAMILY FRIENDLY POLICIES IN THE U.K.
This study seeks to show that there are several different family friendly policies being utilized by employers in the U.K. And that these have been necessary for some time. The three main policies are: part-time work, flex-time (flexible start and finish times) and teleworking. All three of these policies are important for working mums and others that would like to have time with their families or for other pursuits. However, not all employers are interested in offering these kinds of arrangements, and many prefer to stick with the traditional work schedule where individuals all come in at a certain time and all leave at a certain time. There is increasing evidence, though, that this does not work well for many people in the U.K. And this is the reason for studying this issue and determining what…
Clay, Joan M. 2001. Employer liability for telecommuting employees: Despite the many potential benefits of telecommuting, employees based in remote offices may cause unanticipated legal liability for employers. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly.
Joshi, Heather. 2002. Production, reproduction, and education: women, children, and work in a British perspective. Population and Development Review.
Tilly, Joan M. 1998. Part-time and temporary work: flexibility for whom? Dollars & Sense.
Future of Capitalism
Current Economic Crisis according to Schumpeter and Keynes
A justification of the economic crisis can be precisely explained by shedding light on the perspectives of famous economists. The information gained through this method will not only be informative but will also motivate further research. The two economic theorists chosen are Joseph Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes (Blankenburg & Palma, 2009). Their thoughts appear to be most pertinent to this crisis. Keynes presents a very keen insight into the crisis through his rationalization of market psychology and concentration on cumulative demand. On the other hand, Schumpeter's thought on improvement and business cycle offers a different informative justification.
The existing economic crisis has its origin rooted in the assumption about the real estate sector. The review of the incidents that have happened, began with the permission of quite low interest rates to financial institutions for borrowing. By a small…
Audretsch, D.B., & Link, A.N. (2012). Entrepreneurship and innovation: public policy frameworks. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 1-17.
Bezemer, D.J. (2009). "No One Saw This Coming": Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models. Routledge.
Bibow, J. (2009). Keynes on monetary policy, finance and uncertainty: Liquidity preference theory and the global financial crisis. Routledge.
Bichler, S., & Nitzan, J. (2010). Systemic fear, modern finance and the future of capitalism.
open-ended question. I don't know about organizational thinking -- individuals think; an organization has no brain. I do know, however, that strategy is set within organizations on the basis of all manner of internal and external variables. Several frameworks have been developed to help understand how this process works, and if there are any differences between long-term and short-term approaches to strategy and environmental analysis. A dichotomous time-frame might be an oversimplification, since everything has a unique time-frame, but it works in a generic sense.
Environmental scanning is a critical element of strategic thinking at all levels of the organization. Porter (2008) devise the five forces that shape competitive strategy. These focus on competitive factors in the external environment, and competitive factors often reflect economic and social factors in particular. Intensity of rivalry, for example, derives largely from the competitive structure of the industry -- basic microeconomics. Social factors determine…
Berger, M. (1989). Giving women credit: The strengths and limitations of credit as a tool for alleviating poverty. World Development. Vol. 17 (7) 1017-1032.
Bhagwati, J. (2010). Why international assistance does not alleviate poverty: Review essay. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 89 (1) 120-125.
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 14, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Grossman, G. & Kruger, A. (1995). Economic growth and the environment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol. 110 (2) 353-377.