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Nervous Conditions' the author, Tsitsi Dangarembga, offers a unique perspective on the place of women in African society and the effect of colonization. The story is told through a female narrator looking back on her life and her coming of age. Through the narrator, the reader is engaged into the story, with the story having meaning and relevance to all people that can relate to coming of age. The interested reader, through the themes and the events presented then learns something about African culture and the struggle of African people coming to terms with their culture. It is the combination of these qualities that makes 'Nervous Conditions' an informative and entertaining story with an important message about the effect of culture, the link between identity and culture and the impact on a person when this identity is questioned.
The Importance of the Narrator
Tambudzia or Tambu is the narrator and…
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1989.
Nervous Conditions" Tsitsi Dangarembga): Each critical essay include a Precis critique, separate . All 3, underlying theme gender inequality post colonialism.
Gender Inequality in Post-Colonial Literature
Barker, Clare. "elf-starvation in the Context of Hunger: Health, Normalcy and the "Terror of the Possible" in Tsitsi Dangarembga's Nervous Conditions." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 44.2 (2008): 115-25.
Clare Barker's article examines the ways in which Tsitsi Dangarembga's Nervous Conditions explores the issue of hunger in terms of how it relates both to human starvation and eating disorders within the book. he rejects the common belief among critics of the book that Nyasha's eating disorder is an example of how she is "Western" or set in opposition to other African people. Instead she sees Nyasha's self-starvation as consistent with the normative nature of hunger in her environment (that being the war-torn Rhodesia of the 1960's and 1970's). Thus her disorder is, like all hunger,…
Sources of Interest
"Writing beyond the ending" (78)
-Uwakweh uses the words of Rachel DuPlessis to describe the elements of the narration that act as dissent rather than just storytelling.
Particularly Impressive Sentences
She demonstrates in her narrative strategy that for the fictional female, choice should be fluid, and that defining actions do not cease within the text.
The illnesses and eating disorders also indicate the struggle of Africans to live in two worlds, white and black, modern and traditional, and it shows that the young women of Africa are dominated by their culture, their men, and their desire to fit in and belong to something, even if it is a dysfunctional family.
Therefore, the book is much more than what the author describes in her first paragraph. It is much more complex, more thought-provoking, and more dynamic. Early on, it seems the story will mainly be about the narrator and her life, but it is really about Africa, and her struggle to break free from colonial rule, just like the narrator breaks free from her family and the bonds that tie her to poverty and ignorance. It is also about Tambu's own growing maturity and questioning of what is going on around her. Early in the novel,…
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1988.
This shows that the society is when where women are seen as weak and powerless.
Another impact of linking all conflicts to femaleness is that it means that the other qualities of women are ignored. It does not matter whether a woman is intelligent, capable, determined, or any other qualities. The fact that someone is a female makes her a lesser person and this is something that cannot be changed. This means that no matter how many good qualities or abilities a woman has, she cannot change her place in society. This creates a society where there is no point for a woman to even try and achieve anything, since her basic femaleness is the one thing that cannot be changed and the one thing that defines her.
Finally, the statement shows how women are considered inferior to males. This is shown be the way that Tambu refers to "femaleness…
Dangarembga, T. Nervous Conditions. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1989.
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
Shock is a condition of inadequate tissue perfusion, which results in decreased amount of oxygen in the vital tissues and organs (Metrng 2010, Klabunde 2010, Sarathy 2010, Spaniel et al. 2007). It reduces the rate of elimination of waste products of metabolism. Causes are heart attack, severe or sudden blood loss from injury or severe illness, blood poisoning from major infections, large decrease of body fluids, and exposure to extreme heat or cold for long duration. The American College of Surgeons classified shock into four, namely distributive, obstructive, cardiogenic, and hemorrhagic (Metrng, Klabunde, Sarathy & Spaniel et al.).
Hemorrhagic shock is a serious and life-threatening condition, which affects all body systems (Sarathy 2010). Cardiac output is reduced and depriving tissue of adequate oxygen. Hemorrhagic shock is further classified into four, according to the amount of blood lost. In Class I hemorrhage, there is a 15% or less blood…
Klabunde, R.E. 2010, 'Pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock,' University of Ohio
[Online] Available at http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/dbms-witmer/Downloads/Klabunde-08-10-00.pdf
Medtrng 2010, Treat for shock, Medtrng.com [Online] Available at http://www.medtrng.com/blackboard/treat_for_shock.htm
Sarathy, T.K. P, editor 2010, 'A clinical diagnosis to watch out for, MedIndia [Online]
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
One instance of this strategy is the self-therapy suggested by the Speech Foundation of America which is focused on the assumption that stuttering is not a symptom, rather a behavior which can be corrected. (Sadock; Kaplan; Sadock, 2007)
Stutterers have been advised that they can learn to control their problems in part by correcting their feelings regarding stuttering and mindset towards it and in part by correcting the abnormal behaviors linked with the blocks that come to the forefront during stuttering. The strategy covers desensitizing i.e. lowering the emotional reaction to and uncertainties revolving stuttering and substituting positive action to control the moment of stuttering. The latest mature strategies concentrate on the aspect of restructuring fluency. The complete speech production pattern is remolded with emphasis on a series of target behaviors, covering reduction of rate, simple or gentle starting of voicing, and even shift between sounds, syllables as also words.…
Bothe, Anne K; Shenkar, Rosalee C. (2004) "Evidence-based treatment of stuttering"
Conture, Edward G. (2001) "Stuttering"
Allyn and Bacon.
Postcolonial Ed Lit
Education, Death, and Postcolonial Literature
The peculiarities of the postcolonial struggle for identity and independence are entirely unique to the historical occupation and colonization that ended, at least ostensibly, in the middle of the twentieth century. Peoples that had full histories and rich cultures prior to the arrival of Europeans or European-descended individuals from the New World found themselves largely without the foundations of these cultures to support themselves once these Europeans had departed, yet also unable to achieve the promises of the Western cultures that had arrived on their shores. Former value systems and ways of life had been eradicated, and nothing substantial was put into place to subsidize what was lost. Instead, the indigenous peoples of the world had to find methods of combining the old and the new in attempts to carve out new identities and self-directed histories in a way that had never…
80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…
Dealler, Steve. BSE Statistics. The Pathology Laboratory: Burnley General Hospital, 1999. http://bse.airtime.co.uk/statb.htm
Department of Health. Monthly CJD Statistics. Jan 2004, http://www.doh.gov.uk/cjd/stats/jan04.htm
Freundenrich, Craig C. How Mad Cow Disease Works. HowStuffWorks, 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/mad~cow-disease.htm
Lohn, Martiga. Why Mad Cow Could Happen in America. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Oct-Nov 2001. http://www.findarticles.com
Often in the healing arts them most simple and obvious cures lie right in front of us, exposed and waiting to be utilized. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the specific ailment of anxiety and review the traditional sources of knowledge that can specifically apply to the treatment of this condition. The use of the individual's own psycho-spiritual faculties will be highlighted as the method in which these sources remedy the effects of anxiety and its sometimes debilitating symptoms.
The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon includes the many esoteric human tools such as mood, idea and spirit as important aspects of health and immunity from disease. This collection is the earliest and most important written work of traditional Chinese healing arts. The narrative of the story reveals the secrets of keeping a clear and sound mind and hence eliminating the anxious behavior that so often rises.…
Culpeper: The Complete Herbal. Viewed at Bibliomania.com, 15 Nov 2013. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=Culpeper%E2%80%99s+Herbal&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a&channel=rcs
The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine. Translated by Parago, P, (1995). Retrieved from http://www.five-element.com/graphics/neijing.pdf
The Holy Bible- King James Version. Viewed 16 Nov 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/108/
The Tao Te Ching. Translate Legge, J. (1891). Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/taote.htm
Post-Colonialism in Literature (Presentation Paragraph)
In the novel Nervous Conditions by Tsitsi Dangarembga, a young girl named Tambu wants to attend school. After her brothers' death she is allowed to take his place at the mission school. At the end of the school term she is able to pass an exam which will allow her to further her education even more. This is the basic plot of the novel, but it shows only a fraction of what the story is about. Tambu's story is symbolic of many colonial nations. She is taught by the western world to desire their education and also many other values of the western world including their culture, in clothing, films, and books. By the end of the story she has completely been immersed in the western culture while denying this is so. In many post-colonial societies, the native people try to reestablish their unique identities…
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions: And Related Readings. Evanston, IL: McDougal
Littell, 2009. Print.
McMahon. "Notes on Tsitsi Dangarembga: Nervous Conditions: Post-Colonial Literature II,"
Her physician husband, John, and those like him do "not believe" that she is "sick" or even, in her view, capable of understanding her sickness, so "what," she asks, "can one do?" (Hume).
How can one view this passage without seeing a total lack of communication in a marriage? The narrator even goes so far as to say, "It is so hard to talk to John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so" (Perkins Gilman). From a purely logical standpoint, John's wisdom and the fact that he loves her so would seem to naturally suggest that he would be the most receptive person to listen to the narrator's discussions, but other things that the narrator says reveal John's patronizing attitude towards her. Instead of caring for her, John absolutely ignores the narrator's suggestions about what she thinks may help heal her. Dismissing her…
Golden, Catherine. "The Writing of 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Double Palimpsest." Studies in American Fiction. 17.2 (Autumn 1989): 193-201. Rpt. In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 201. Detroit: Gale, Literature Resource Center.
Deneau, Daniel P. "Chopin's The Story of an Hour." The Explicator. (Vol. 61). .4 (Summer 2003): p210. Literature Resource Center.
Managing madness in Gilman's "The yellow wall-paper"
Hume, Beverly A.
This is why wars are fought with bloodletting, why torture takes place, and why neither violence nor war is limited to the physical carnage of the battlefield.
The early death of Clifton's mother, as a result of having to powerlessly rely on a liar and a letch who could not provide for his family, is the ultimate example of self-inflicted violence, as is Gillman's character resorting to an expression of madness to resist her powerlessness. It was only slightly more "appropriate" for a women to realize madness as it was for her to throw herself from a three story window.
Clifton, Lucille "forgiving my father" in Schilb, John & Clifford, John. Making Literature Matter 3rd Edition. New York: Bedford, St. Martin's, 2005, 314.
Gelfant, Blanche H., and Lawrence Graver, eds. The Columbia Companion to the Twentieth-Century American Short Story. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Clifton, Lucille "forgiving my father" in Schilb, John & Clifford, John. Making Literature Matter 3rd Edition. New York: Bedford, St. Martin's, 2005, 314.
Gelfant, Blanche H., and Lawrence Graver, eds. The Columbia Companion to the Twentieth-Century American Short Story. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Gillman, Charlotte Perkins "The Yellow Wallpaper" in Schilb, John & Clifford, John. Making Literature Matter 3rd Edition. New York: Bedford, St. Martin's, 2005, 917-925.
Herndl, Diane Price. Invalid Women: Figuring Feminine Illness in American Fiction and Culture, 1840-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
Depression or Oppression: The Yellow Wallpaper
\\"The Yellow Wallpaper\\" is an amazing piece about Charlotte’s descent into mental impairment. Presented in diary form, the text recounts the experiences of Charlotte who is diagnosed with a nervous condition (i.e. hysteria) and is advised by her physician husband that she ought to be exposed to minimal mental stimulation in her path to recovery. Towards this end, she is essentially barricaded in her bedroom – a room wrapped in yellow wallpaper. While Charlotte is at first diagnosed with depression and supposedly put on treatment for the same, what informs her descent into further mental impairment is oppression, as opposed to depression.
It is important to note that human beings happen to be social creatures. What this means is that they thrive on constant interactions with each other. Charlotte is isolated and the only persons she has access to are the nurse and her…
" Does she have faith that a more clear understanding of those problems among the medical establishment will become evident? "I wonder," she wrote, cryptically.
HAT PARENTS HO HAVE PD SHOULD SAY to THEIR CHILDREN: The Parkinson's Disease Society (www.parkinsons.org.uk) offers pertinent advice and counsel to those parents who have both PD and children. "A key message seems to be open and honest" when talking to your kids, the PDS Information Sheet suggests. "Don't keep it a secret." As soon as you are diagnosed with PD, explain to them what it means to your health and to their lives as part of the family as a whole.
Don't be vague or apologetic, the PDS suggests. Be specific and clear, and fully explain that PD is not contagious. Because of the fatigue associated with PD - and the "on-off fluctuations" that are inevitable - parents with PD may not be able…
Ali, Rasheda. "Muhammad Ali's Daughter Writes Children's Book on Parkinson's. ABC
News. 2005. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/print?id=913265 .
Lees, Lesley. "Living with Parkinson's disease - a child's perspective." British Medical
Journal 324.1562 (2002): Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/short/324/7353/1562?eaf .
Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…
Davie, C.A. "A review of Parkinson's disease." British Medical Bulletin, 86(1): 109 -- 127. 2008. Print.
Shulman, J.M., De Jager, P.L., & Feany, M.B. "Parkinson's disease: Genetics and pathogenesis." Annual review of pathology, 6: 193 -- 222. 2011. Print.
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…
Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.
Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.
Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.
Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
This is significant because it shows how some critics of contrarian investing will often point to the various instances of speculation and assume that it is contrarian investing. In some cases the psychology of consumers can become so extreme, that the definition of what is speculative expands greatly. As a result, using contrarian investing in conjunction with other indicators / tools can help prudent investors and traders, be able to identify when the market condition are becoming more extreme.
Contrarian Indicators and Tools
When using the different contrarian indicators / tools in conjunction with one another, you can begin to see how this strategy can be used, to effectively determine if the market conditions are overbought or oversold. There are number of different tools that can be utilized to indentify major changes that are occurring in the trend of a stock or the market averages. These would include: headlines…
"3M Historical Prices," Yahoo Finance, http://finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=MMM&a=00&b=2&c=1970&d=04&e=25&f=2010&g=v&z=66&y=0
"3M Reports First Quarter Results," 3M, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MjA2NjEwOHxDaGlsZElEPTMzNDE0MXxUeXBlPTI=&t=1
"3M Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2008 Results," 3M, http://library.corporate-ir.net/library/80/805/80574/items/322063/054431D4-6347-45F1-AF4D-85CCA5F89C52_mmmQ4release.pdf
"American Depository Receipt." Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/adr.asp
Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)
Sometimes people feel…
Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003
Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995
Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
eshaping the Sensory Environment
Survival of all animals depends on the accuracy with which sensory information is processed by the nervous system. Integrating this information in an efficient and effective manner depends on dynamic strategies that the nervous system relies on to determine the reliability and accuracy of the sensory inputs (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). This essay examines contemporary theories that attempt to explain how these strategies function.
eliability-Based Cue Combination (BCC) Theory
The reliability of a sensory cue is believed to determine the weight an organism assigns to a given cue, such that a more reliable cue may have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). Empirical support for this theory has come from studies examining the integration of multisensory information. This theory has been called reliability-based cue combination (BCC).
eliability, as defined by BCC, is used interchangeably…
Bestmann, S., Oliviero, A., Voss, M., Dechent, P., Lopez-Dolado, E., Driver, J. et al. (2006). Cortical correlates of TMS-induced phantom hand movements revealed with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2959-2971.
Burge, Johannes, Girshick, Ahna R., and Banks, Martin S. (2010). Visual-haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 7714-7721.
Scarfe, Peter and Hibbard, Paul B. (2011). Statistically optimal integration of biased sensory estimates. Journal of Vision, 11, 1-17. Retrieved 13 Apr. 2012 from www.journalofvision.org/content/11/7/12.
Winter, J.A., Allen, T.J., and Proske, U. (2005). Muscle spindle signals combine with the sense of effort to indicate limb position. Journal of Physiology, 568, 1035-1046.
Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts
The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.
Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.
Modulation of Physiology
The modulation of physiology is similar to…
Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html
Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice
Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from: http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.199
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).
Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…
Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.
Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.
Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.
Anger and Its Effects
Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…
Hendricks, L., Bore, S., Aslinia, D., & Morriss, G. (2013). The effects of anger on the brain and body. National Forum Journal of Counseling and Addiction, 2(1): 2-11.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…
Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's
Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,
Multiple sclerosis or MS refers to an autoimmune, chronic condition which impacts physical movement, function and sensation. The problem sets in following neuron insulation destruction (i.e., myelin sheath destruction) within an individual’s central nervous system (CNS) (Cengage Learning, 2013). Symptoms of the disorder start showing up at early adulthood, greatly impacting patients’ domestic, social, and professional lives. As the absence of myelin retards action potential conduct, the disorder is manifested as performance impairment, having a potential destructive influence on patient behavior. MS often entails a relatively progressive onset of behavioral deficiencies and neurological symptoms (Hoang & Shepherd, 2010).
Multiple Sclerosis and Nervous System
Chronic, advancing cognitive deterioration within multiple sclerosis has been ascribed to a neuro-pathological, neurodegenerative disease process (in other words, diffused brain atrophy and axonal destruction). Additionally, atrophy and white matter lesions are known to play a significant part in cognitive dysfunction among individuals diagnosed with…
Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment
Medical research has advanced to such an extent as to allow diseases that would have in the past been considered without a medical cure to be nowadays a limited challenge in the face of new technologies, techniques, and methods of treatment. Unfortunately some of the most difficult to cure diseases are those related to the nervous system and of physiological nature. One such case is psychopathy, a complex of states of mind and attitudes that transform the individual in particular degrees of sanity or insanity.
There have been numerous articles and research project conducted on this subject both to try to determine the nature of psychopathy as well as to provide different types of solutions for curing its manifestations and finding out the root causes of psychopathy. One such study is the one concluded by Mairead Dolan and Michael Doyle from the University of…
Dolan, M. And Michael Doyle. (2007) "Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment" in Psychiatry, volume 6, Issue 10, Oct.
Pressure on Performance
The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.
Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…
Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.
Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…
CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical
Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf
Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107
# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).
Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…
Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company
GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html
Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.
Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…
A Teenagers Brain
The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)
Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…
Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm
Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from: http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf
Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp
Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from: http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
The cranial nerve implicated is of course the optic nerve. The neighbor’s symptoms include progressively worse double vision, and a drooping right eyelid that is abducted and depressed—a condition known as ptosis. The right eye also has greater dilation than the left. A cranial nerve injury is suspected, possibly a result of the neighbor’s recent fall. As the optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) leaves the eye, it passes through the optic chiasm and the optic tract to the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve 3) (Coleman, 2017; “Cranial Nerves,” n.d.). Because of the primary symptom of ptosis, the cranial nerve 3, the oculomotor nerve, has likely been damaged. If the patient also suffered damage to additional cranial nerves like cranial nerve 5, then it is also possible she would be experiencing dry eyes, as this is the nerve that enables the release of tears from the lacrimal gland (Coleman, 2017). If the…
Combining these two methods is one effective strategy in mitigating pain in children (Cohen).
Additional strategies that involve both the patient and family are evident, particularly when dealing with chronic pain. Children sometimes internalize pain, believing that they must restrict their activity, particularly when parents worry and hesitate to allow them to be active. Parents see play as worsening of the situation or a relapse, contributing to an overprotectivness. This, in turn, reflects on the self-image of the child. In any case, experts recommend that parents not react in a negative way -- either by thinking the child is faking pain or becoming so overprotective that the child is a virtual prisoner. Instead, the psychological strategy should be to set realistic and evolving strategies so that there is not a continue pessimism regarding future health outcomes. This, for adolescents, is critical since there is also a self-esteem issue that goes…
The Handbook of Chronic Pain. (2007). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Handbook of Pediatric Chronic Pain. (2011). New York: Springer.
Carter, B., & Threlkeld, M. (2012). Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain. Pediatric Rheumatology, 10(15), 1-11. Retrieved January 2013, from Pediatric Rheumatology: http://www.ped-rheum.com/content/pdf/1546-0096-10-15.pdf
Christie, D., & Wilson, C. (2005). CBT in Pediatric and Adolescent Health. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 8(4), 241-47.
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…
Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.
Overview and Brief History of the Condition:
Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.
The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…
Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.
Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:
pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.
Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.
Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.
How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?
A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…
Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota. http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm
Education Queensland. Queensland Government. http://education.qld.gov.au
Learning: Exploring Pavlov's Notion Of Conditioning
There are enormous differences between unconditioned and conditioned responses. Unconditioned responses are those natural reactions that occur without thought or planning. These reactions are not a product of training, but rather a natural response of the body and mind when exposed to certain stimuli. In unconditioned responses, there is no training that would alter an individual's behavior. One of the most infamous examples of an unconditioned response is Pavlov's dog. The dog, as any dog would, naturally salivates at the idea of food. The dog was hungry, and thus naturally reacted to the stimulus of food. We all have had similar reactions to food that perked our interest in any given state of hunger. Another example of this would be the strange, but familiar leg jerk when one is forced to endure a tap on the knee. It is a natural response of the…
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…
Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.
Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.
Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male
The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.
True Hyponatremia Diagnosis
There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…
Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://aace.metapress.com/content/u645qx2217t34124/fulltext.pdf
Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse
Anglin, Rebecca E., Rosebush, Patricia I., and Mazurek, Michael F., 2006. The neuropsychiatric profile of Addison's disease: Revisiting a forgotten phenomenon. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, 450-459.
Betterle, Corrado, Pra, Chiara Dal., Mantero, Franco, and Zanchetta, Renato, 2002. Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: Autoantibodies, autoantigens, and the applicability in diagnosis and disease prediction. Endocrinology Reviews, 23, 327-364.
Introduction person might wake up one morning and discover that one side of his or her face shows signs of paralysis. The symmetrical nature of the face might have a mismatched appearance. The afflicted side may have varying levels of deformity and droopiness.
The person might discover the inability to close the eye. The paralysis of one side of the face means that speech is often distorted. Feeding is difficult. Drooling is frequent. The person finds it impossible to pucker the lips into a shape that is often used for whistling. The direct diagnosis is that this person is suffering from ell's Palsy. This condition is relatively temporary. Only few people who suffer from this condition have permanent effects. ell's Palsy can develop over a few hours or a few days. It is not uncommon for a person to find that the condition has developed overnight.
AAO-HNS. Doctor, What Is Bell's Palsy? 2004. American Academy of Otolaryngology. Available:
http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/topics/bells.cfm.August 2, 2004.
Allen, D., and L. Dunn. "Aciclovir or Valaciclovir for Bell's Palsy (Idiopathic Facial Paralysis)." Cochrane Database Syst Rev.3 (2004): CD001869.
Finn, J.C. "Botulinum Toxin Type A: Fine-Tuning Treatment of Facial Nerve Injury." J. Drugs Dermatol 3.2 (2004): 133-7.
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Hostile ork Environment: According to the 1993 decision of the United States Supreme Court in "Harris v. Forklift Systems Inc.," hostile environment harassment occurs when "the workplace is permeated with discriminatory intimidation, ridicule, and insult that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of the victim's employment and create an abusive working environment" (Cross and LeRoy Miller 497). Facts of the Case: In 1986, Teresa Harris, who was employed as a rental manager with Forklift Systems, Inc., complained about comments and behaviors directed to her by Forklift's president, Charles Hardy. She claimed that Hardy's sexually harassing conduct caused her to suffer PTSD-like symptoms and that she was ready to resign when Hardy apologized and claimed he was only kidding. Later, after concluding that the harassment would not stop, she left Forklift and filed her complaint with the EEOC. The case was eventually heard by a U.S. magistrate judge…
Works Cited List
American Psychological Association "Harris v. Forklift Inc." 2011.
Accessed 3 December 2011.
< www.apa.org > About APA > Directorates and Programs>
Cross, Frank. B, and LeRoy Miller, R. "Employment Discrimination." The Legal Environment of Business. Mason: South- West Cengage Learning, 2011
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…
Music Valence and Gender Influence Word ecall Task
A person's state of arousal can determine how well their memory functions. This phenomenon is readily apparent when persons experiencing a traumatic event find it difficult to ever escape these memories, memories that can recur unbidden in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. ecent research examining the influence of relaxing music found a similar effect, such that relaxing music impairs memory coding and consolidation. Towards the goal expanding on these results, an experiment was conducted that tested the influence of classical (relaxing), rock (stimulating), and no music on word recall performance, but stratified by gender. The results indicated that overall, classical music significantly impaired recall performance when compared to subjects listening to rock music or no music, but rock music provided no benefit. What is novel about these findings is that significant differences in memory performance were found between genders.…
Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf .
Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf .
Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and Peart, Neil. (2007). The Main Monkey Business. On Snakes & Arrows [CD]. New York: Atlantic Records.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1788). Symphony No. 40 in G minor (KV. 550) [Recorded by Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with Leonard Bernstein on 19 Sep. 1995]. On Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41 [CD]. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.
The key information in the January 14, 2004 Federal eserve summary ranged from mildly encouraging to 'no change' as far as the economy was concerned. Virtually all areas were experiencing small amounts of employment growth, although there were pockets of decline as well. ("Beige Book," January 14, 2004)
In fact, retail sales were up a small amount, mainly because upscale retail stores were having a good season, although the lower end of the market was faring less well. ("Beige Book," January 14, 2004)
Layoffs and flat wages were a big part of the employment picture. The "Beige Book" reported:
Louis reported layoffs in the biotechnology, food, and tobacco industries. Petrochemical producers suffered from overcapacity in the Dallas district and continued to lay off workers in the Atlanta district. In addition, producers of paper goods in the Boston and Philadelphia districts reported some weakness. (January 14, 2004)
Dinsmore, Christopher. (January 30, 2004) "Expert says expect job growth, higher interest rates this year; profits, exports to rise. (Business) The Virginian Pilot. Retrieved February 5, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:112745792&num=16
Richards, Meg. (January 30, 2004) "Wall Street's mood swings over Fed statement puts interest rates in focus." AP Worldstream. Retrieved February 5, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:90244398&num=8
Summary." ("Beige Book.") (January 14, 2004) Federal Reserve Bank. Retrieved February 5, 2004 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/fomc/beigebook/2003/20030115/FullReport.htm
Thieberger, Victoria. (January 15, 2004) "Fed sees steady rates, gradual pickup in jobs." Reuters. Retrieved February 5, 2004 at http://biz.yahoo.com/rf/040115/economy_fed_5.html
The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).
Treatment and prognosis for recovery
Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…
"A pinch of salt." Horse and Rider. 2001. February 5, 2010.
"Don't forget the salt." CFC farm and home center. January-February 2006.
February 5, 2010. http://www.cfcfarmhome.net/images/E0228001/horsenewsjanfeb.pdf
It should not be taken with aspirin or other aspirin-like compounds. It should not be taken with, "benzodiazepines, flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), methenamine (Hiprex, Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline (Sumycin), or vitamins" (4). It can exacerbate certain conditions such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney disease, or ulcers (4). It should be consumed while pregnant or breastfeeding, only under the direction of a physician (4). Sodium is used to increase the effectiveness of sulfanomides (5).
Sodium bicarbonate increases the sodium level in the body (4). A physician might prescribe a low or reduced sodium diet while on Sodium bicarbonate. The individual needs of each patient must be addressed by their own personal physician. Sodium carbonate can produce certain side effects in some people. These side effects include increased thirst, stomach cramps, and extra gas (4). Several symptoms may indicate serious conditions for which…
1. JTBaker. "Sodium Bicarbonate: Material Safety Data Sheet." http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/s2954.htm (accessed 25Mar07).
2. Solvay Chemicals. "Sodium Bicarbonate: Material Safety Data Sheet." http://www.solvaychemicals.us/static/wma/pdf/6/7/5/9/SODBICARB.pdf (accessed 25Mar07).
3. Holleman, a. And Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001.
4. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., "Sodium Bicarbonate" http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682001.html (accessed 25Mar07).