680 results for “Netherlands”.
In 1602 The States General of the United Provinces, known as the Netherlands, engaged the United East Indies Company to explore for a passage to the Indies and claim any territories for the United Provinces. Seven years later, on September 3, 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson entered the area now known as New York in an attempt to find a northwest passage to the Indies. On September 12th Hudson took his ship, the Half Moon, up the river which now bears his name as far as Albany and claimed the land for his employer. Less than 75 years later the Dutch relinquished this territory to England. This paper will examine the factors that led to the Dutch failure to maintain control and establish a permanent presence in this new territory.
The First Settlers
hile the elusive Northwest Passage was not to be found, the new lands…
"Colonial America, The Dutch in New York." United States History. (NDI). 17 July 2011.
"Dutch Colonies." The National Parks Service. U.S. Departmeent of the Interior. (NDI). 17 July 2011.
Goodrich, Charles A. "Colony of New York A Brief History." A History of the United States. (1857). In CelebrateBoston.com. (2011). 17 July 2011.
Jorden, Louis. "A Brief outline of the History of New Netherland" Department of Special Collections, University of Notre Dame Libraries. (1997). 17 July 2011.
Drug Policies of the United States and the Netherlands
Virtually every country in the world has drug prohibition and criminalizes the production and sale of cannabis, cocaine, and opiates, except for medical uses, and most countries criminalize the production and sale of other psychoactive substances, and moreover, most countries criminalize simple possession of small amounts of the prohibited substances (Levine 2002). However, no estern country and few Third orld countries have or have ever had forms of drug prohibition as criminalized and punitive as the United States (Levine 2002). Beginning in the early 1990's, drug policies in Europe, Canada, Australia and elsewhere began to shift away from criminalization of drugs, and no where has the pendulum swayed more than in the Netherlands (Levine 2002).
The United States' drug policy is the best example of criminalized drug prohibition that uses criminal laws, police, and imprisonment to punish people who use specific…
Levine, Harry G. "The secret of worldwide drug prohibition: the varieties and uses of drug prohibition." Independent Review; 9/22/2002.
Basic Facts about Drug Laws
History of Legislative Control
Framework Analysis & Review
As is also noted in the methodology of this report, the overall basis and goal of this report is to assess the widespread and national-level Dutch construction fraud scandal that erupted and came into full bloom in 2001. As will become clear throughout this framework and paradigm analysis, the presence of fraud within the Dutch construction industry and environment is without question and this was especially true in 2001 and the immediately preceding years running up to the same. Even if the amount of fraud, graft and collusion has tapered off and been regulated out of the system since then, it is still a very real issue and one that authorities and industry executives must remain vigilant about. Indeed, the amount of results found in a swath of academic databases with the search string “Dutch construction fraud” numbers nearly ten thousand and that is just academic…
The promising areas of Dutch expertise are in modeling, risk management, water quality management and also institutional strengthening. The Dutch stakeholders across the board can also contribute through a cooperative and integrated approach to river basin management. All of this has to be taken into account as well as the spatial aspects of water for te new water management to be effective. It is a recognition of the need for wetlands as a water retention resource that has to be maintained in the balance. Then, there will not be a crisis. The water-shed will be most sustainable if it can be developed as a protective barrier ("aterland Information Network") .
The Biesbosch is also becoming as an economic as well as a water retention resource. The future of the area lies in the field of sustainable tourism. In the history of the place, man has worked both with and against…
Biswas, Asit K. Water Management in 2020 and Beyond. 1st. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. 190.
De Velliers, Marq. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. 1st. New york, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001. 3.
Hobbelen, P.H.F., J.E. Koolhaas, and C.A.M van Gestel. "Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account." Environmental Pollution . 129. (2004): 40919. Print.
Hopkins, Anna. "Communities and Waterpoint Management." The Chapter Buzz. / blogs.ewb.ca/annahopkin, 21 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct 2011.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands
There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…
Punitive, and correctional system in the United states of America in contrast with the German, Norwegian and Netherlands systems.
• Introduction to US criminal justice system
• A general outlook of the German, Norway, and Netherlands criminal justice system
• A thesis statement
Classification of prisons
• security levels
• Prisons differentiated based on age, and sex.
Operations within incarceration facilities
• Compulsory work duties and vacations
• Compensation for work
Access to amenities
• Leisure activities
• Education and skill improvement opportunities
Basic and foundational principle of the criminal justice system,
• Rates of imprisonment
• US is punitive/retribution and neutralization
• German, Norway, and Netherlands is rehabilitation and re-integration to society
• Routines and environmental settings of prisons
• Solitary confinement in the US
• Prison sizes are smaller and crowded in the US
• The use of imprisonment
• Netherlands, German,…
For the C-level executive team at Oasis the most critical strategic decision with regard to Web 2.0 technologies is processes, systems and functional areas can take the greatest advantage of their benefits. It is clear that the globally-based distributed order management process could be much more collaborative given its breadth of activity across so many manufacturing centers. The need for creating a collaborative distributed order management system globally is what differentiates best-in-class manufacturers from those that struggle to stay profitable (Alt, Gizanis, Legner, 2005). The use of Web 2.0-based applications for enabling greater levels of collaboration globally in the Oasis product development teams is also a high priority, as this specific process is essential for the new product development and introduction (NPDI) process to be effective. The rapid adoption of collaborative new product development processes has continued to revolutionize the development of new products and services, and has been particularly…
Adel M. Aladwani. 2001. Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, no. 3, (January 1): 266-275.
Rainer Alt, Dimitrios Gizanis, and Christine Legner. 2005. Collaborative order management: toward standard solutions for interorganisational order management. International Journal of Technology Management 31, no. 1,2, (January 1): 78-97.
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3, (April 1): 36-42.
(Brown, He, 2007)
International Peace Conference
The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.
The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?bitusud=ABQ7578-0169-53
Mahan, Captain A.T. "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War. The North American Review 515 (Oct. 1899) 439-440. Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin?ntisid=ABQ7578-0169-38
Paterson, T. et.al. (2000) "American Foreign Relations" V.1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 239
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.educgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0169-53
Terrorism is a 21st century' problem to the entire world. It has led to many lives lost eventually. Global instability in of the world in terms of social, economic, and political spectra has also been witnessed because of terrorism. For this reason, the world's nations have come together to devise methods and means of countering the problem. However, on top of the global stand that courtiers adopt a similar and coordinated approach to fighting terrorism, there are still instances where specific countries adopt unique strategies to fight the menace (Sisk, 2011). Counterterrorism strategies among the most hit countries thus differ. In this paper, an analysis of the similarities and difference between the counterterrorism strategies among the three European nations is put forth. The countries under focus here are Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Each of these countries has been facing similar terror threats and has devised ways to…
Haberfeld M.R., King, J.F., & Lieberman C.A. (2009). Terrorism within Comparative International Context: The Counter-Terrorism Response and Preparedness. New York: Springer DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-88861-3
Hammond, P. (2014). Slavery, terrorism, & Islam: The historical roots and contemporary threat. Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books.
Sisk, T. (2011). Between terror and tolerance religious leaders, conflict, and peacemaking. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Its importance relies on the fact that the company must quickly adapt to changes determined by the external and internal environment.
Also, the company must quickly identify new opportunities that can be exploited with the help of research and development personnel that is in charge of creating new products designed to adapt to rapid modifications in the customers' needs.
Therefore, the research and development personnel require special attention from the company and a special reward system. It is recommended that employees in this field benefit from more days of leave on pay than other categories of employees. Also, they can be rewarded with trips to other countries, or experience exchanges with professionals from other companies or other countries.
The amount invested by the company in the reward for each category of employees must be proportional with the effort made by the employees in case and with the importance that each…
1. Heneman, H.G. et al. (1989). Personnel/Human Resource Management. Fourth Edition Irwin, Boston. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
2. Fisher, C.D. et al. (1996). Human Resource Management. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
3. Milkovich, G.T. & Boudreau, J.W. (1988). Personnel/Human Resource Management: A Diagnostic Approach. Business Publications, Inc., Plano, Texas. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
4. Hilgert, L.R. et al. (1988). Cases and Policies in Personnel/Human Resource Management. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.
The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…
Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Runhaar H., Driessen, PJ., Soer, P. (2009). Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36(3): 417 -- 431.
With the exception of Washington and Colorado, U.S. laws forbid the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, whereas Netherlands has been entertaining a liberal policy for two decades. In this light, Americans would be expected to have a small rate of marijuana usage, while the Dutch due to their expanded availability of cannabis, should have an increased rate of usage. The empirical evidence to support these conclusions, though, is scant.
Dutch drug policy may appear radical, but let there be no misunderstanding, their laws state clearly that marijuana is illegal. In 1976, it had been decided to take the course of de-penalization, a formal non-enforcement policy for offences involving possession of up to 30 grams, and this quantity limit was dropped to 5 grams in 1995. During the 1980s the de facto legalization started, with the inauguration of small retail outlets known as coffee shops that were allowed to…
Cohen, Peter J. Medical Marijuana, Compassionate Use, and Public Policy: Expert Opinion or Vox Populi? (2006, May-June). The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 36, No. 3
Metrik, J. et al. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect. (2011, April 1). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 25, No. 1
Mikos, R.A. On the Limits of Supremacy: Medical Marijuana and the States' overlooked Power to Legalize Federal Crime. (2009, October). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Pew Research Center. Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana. (2013, April)
Companies and Diversification
Akpinar, O, and Yigit, I. (2016). The Relationship Between Diversification Strategy and Firm Performance in Developed and Emerging Economy Contexts: Evidence from Turkey, Italy And the Netherlands. Journal of Economic and Social Development, 3(2), 78-86.
This research encompassed a close look at data from 166 firms in the Netherlands, 265 firms in Italy, and 128 firms in Turkey (using data from 2007-2011). The point of the research was to explore the difference between various types of diversification and production performance in those three nations. Akpinar (professor, Kocaseli University in Kocaseli Turkey), and Yigit (business faculty member at Marmara University in Turkey) explain that "Related Diversification" is market expansion into new areas, and "Unrelated Diversification" is expansion into a new market "having no relation with the existing one" (Akpinar, et al., 2016).
The hypothesis used by the authors: there would be a positive relationship between "performance and related…
It sheds light on why the financial results deviated from expectations and what remedies can be included in the next strategic plan in order to ensure that the company improves performance in the next period.
There are differences among budgeting techniques in different companies and it may well be that some generalizations can be made between the budgeting techniques in different countries. In the Netherlands, for example, budgets are often a compilation of departmental budgets set by lower-level managers (De ith & Dijkman, 2008). Yet within that country, there is considerable divergence among public companies. The same is true for companies in other major estern nations as well -- a wide range of techniques is used in any given sample of companies.
It should be noted that in the U.S., there is a move towards post-budgeting techniques, such as Beyond Budgeting, Activity-Based Costing or the Balanced Scorecard (Becker et al.,…
Becker, S., Messner, M. & Schaffer, U. (2010). The evolution of a management accounting idea: The case of beyond budgeting. WHU Otto Beisheim Graduate School of Management.
De With, E. & Dijkman, A. (2008). Budgeting practices of listed companies in the Netherlands. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_1_10/ai_n31369438/?tag=r%20bxcra.2.a.33
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…
Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How
Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal
of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.
Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…
Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm . Accessed April,
Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
Typically, buyers have the ability to switch their tastes from one soft drink brand to the other.
Barrier to Entry: It is very difficult to enter the industry due to several factors:
First, a new firm will need to implement economic of scale to enjoy cost reduction and compete favourably within the industry. To establish economic of scale, a new firm will require huge capital investment ranging from several millions of dollar. Huge capital needed to enter the industry serves as a barrier for a new firm. More importantly, a new firm will need to overcome the tremendous marketing muscle to establish market presence within the industry, and entering into the industry requires substantial capital. Moreover, government regulation is another factor making entry into the industry very difficult. egulations such as Soft Drink Inter-brand Competition Act are making the new entry nearly impossible in the U.S. market.
Assessment of the…
Annual Report, (2010). Coca Cola Company. USA.
Frost and Sullivan Research (2011).Financial Assessment of Non-alcoholic Beverages Market. Frost and Sullivan Research Service.USA.
IMAP (2011). Food and Beverage Industry Global Report -2010. A IMAP Consumer Staple Report.
Lagos, T. & Smith, V. (2001). Analysis of the Coca-Cola Company. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The final determinant of the union's competence in any matter lies with the European Court of Justice. This makes the European Court of Justice the highest constitutional forum in Europe dealing with matters of dispute inter-se the national states and the Union itself. The end product is an elegant scheme which allows for maximum sovereignty and sense of participation to the individual citizen and which minimizes the impact of democratic deficit substantially. The central feature which brings balance is the review option available to national parliaments by 1/3rd vote. This is the main policing power of the national parliaments by which they enforce their prerogative and power to interpose, though interposition in Europe works both ways. (TEU; Protocol No. 2). Therefore the 1/3rd clause operates as a veto and because national parliaments each have equal say, it is the most important check the national parliaments have especially when it comes…
1. Bonde, J.P. From EU Constitution to Lisbon Treaty. Foundation for EU Democracy and the EU Democrats. ISBN 87-87692-71-6."
2. Council of the European Union "Lisbon Treaty: The making of" (PDF).
3. House of Lords; Select Committee on EU -- 10th Report 2007 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200708/ldselect/ldeucom/62/6205.htm
4. House of Commons, 33 rd Report of 2007-2008 Session, European Scrutiny Committee
Sontag actually experienced warfare from a first-hand perspective and even though she appreciates that many people try to condemn war by making use of pictures and stories, she believes that it is immature to adopt such attitudes. From her perspective, it would be impossible for a person to provide others with a chance to understand what warfare is as long as the respective individuals do not experience it themselves.
Being sad, horrified, and sharing other people's pain does not actually mean that a person knows what warfare really feels like. An individual cannot possibly be able to comprehend the horrible nature of war until he is actually present in one. The problem with only being familiar with warfare from pictures and books is that people find it difficult to see the general nature of warfare because they only focus on particular aspects of it.
Anne Frank's diary is impressive and…
Frank, Anne, "The Diary of a Young Girl," (Modern Library, 1952)
Sontag, Susan, "Regarding the Pain of Others," (Picador, 01.02.2004)
Path Diagrams of Research Models
This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.
Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.
Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.
OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT
OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT
The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…
Cohousing: A Model for Australia
The roots of cohousing can be traced in Denmark in the early 1960s, expanding independently and simultaneously in Holland and Sweden where it grew into an established housing model. This term is a direct translation of a Dutch word meaning living together. In the model of cohousing, residents of a community rent or own their own homes while at the same time, share the ownership of communal space and the common house that hosts community activities. The level at which members participate in activities is voluntary although the model encourages community participation. The different income resource enables household preservation and autonomy of privacy within the community (Cooper-Marcus, 2010).
In the cohousing model, common houses make the heart of the community and members share meals sometimes as a means of bringing the community together. The financial contribution of residents of at least fifteen percent of their…
Cooper-Marcus, C. (2010). Site Planning, Building Design and a Sense of Community: An Analysis of Six Cohousing Schemes in Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (Summer 2000)
Durrett, C, (2005). Senior Cohousing: A Community Approach to Independent Living. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.
McCamant, K. & Charles, D. (1994). Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves, rev. ed. Ten Speed Press:Berkeley, California.
Dutch Culture "Typical Dutch?"
The history of the Netherlands is demonstratie of a unique situation both socially and politically as the leel of Dutch tolerance has been duly noted on countless issues. The historical underpinnings of this are clearly defined in the brief document History in an Nutshell clearly details the liberal nature of the formation of the nation and its political system as well as the many times that this liberal/tolerant policy stance has been challenged, from abroad and now from within. Another interesting aspect of the history of the Netherlands is that up to the end of French occupation the region was actually a Republic and the only after the end of the French occupation did the nation become a monarchy. Yet despite its liberal and tolerant demeanor and een in the wake of many European reolutions that resulted in the end of monarchies the Dutch hae remained…
This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures.
e) State of education in the country
From the standpoint of education, this is best ranked in Belgium, with a score of 8.8 on a scale from 1 to ten, and it is closely followed by France, with a score of 8.5, on the same scale. The Germans ranked their educational system with an 8, and the Dutch ranked their educational system with a 7. Turkey reveals a similar perception of its educational system as the Dutch, but the Croatians and the Turks have less positive perceptions over their educational systems.
From this standpoint then, it could be argued that all three non-EU member states would benefit from the accession to the EU as this would serve as grounds for improvement of their educational sectors.
f) State of health services in…
Ozturc, Y., 2007, Negotiating modernity: early childhood education policy in Turkey in the context of seeking European Union membership -- a case study of the General Directorate of Preschool Education,
Tunah, I., Bashevent, C., Female labor supply in Turkey, in The Turkish economy: the real economy, corporate governance and reform, Routledge
Round 4 of the European Social Survey, http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org / last accessed on January 12, 2012
Furthermore this would introduce not only one but two brand names into the market simultaneously in France but since the L'Oreal brand was already present in the Dutch market concern was expressed that the Dutch market would be burdened by introduction of yet two more brands into the market. concern exists in the overburdening of the market with the introduction of these two brands because it was believed that the Netherlands market potential being much lower than that of France. Another factor that must be considered is that of 'retailer acceptance' of two products being introduced simultaneously.
X. Recommended Solution
The solution recommended is that the Netherlands market, having precisely the amount of shelf-space required for introduction of elle Colour due to the recent reduction in hair color shelf-space requirements was to go ahead with the introduction of the elle Colour in all market locations. It was believed that due…
1. Appendix 'E' Case Analysis
2. L'Oreal Case Study (nd) Part 6 Comprehensive Cases
3. Case 6-14 L'Oreal Nederland B.V.
Marketing: L'Oreal Case Study
L'Oreal Nederland B.V.
Identification of Alternative Solutions
Recommendation and Implementation
Exhibit 1. Alternatives Analysis
The managers of the Dutch subsidiary of the L'Oreal Group wrestled with a decision about whether to introduce additional products into the Netherlands market. L'Oreal, headquartered in Paris, was the largest cosmetics manufacturer in the world. With a heavy corporate investment in research and development, Paris expected each of the 100 country subsidiaries to distribute the new products; but the country managers were required to take the decision on whether to introduce each product based on the particular situation in their country. The French labs made unilateral decisions about all new product developments and the country managers had no input into the R&D process. Any new product line introduction had to be financed by the current operations of each subsidiary.
Some years earlier, L'Oreal had acquired a rival French company called Laboratoires…
global in nature. Economies, businesses and even individuals are now becoming more interconnected. What once were isolated events in a foreign country now have a rippling effect throughout the world. The recent financial crisis of 2008, indicates how countries are now becoming more dependent on each. Holland is no different in this regard. As a burgeoning economy, Holland boasts strong catalysts for future economic growth.
A strong incentive for investment in the Netherlands is its market economy. As a member of the EU the Netherlands has an average tariff rate of 1%. This bodes well for Holland as goods and services can freely and easily matriculate through the region. With low tariffs industries with comparable advantages will be better able to import or export their goods. The top two main exports from Holland are very price sensitive as it relates to international competition. Table 1 below presents the top four…
1. Hart, Jonathan (2008). Empires and Colonies. Polity. pp. 201 -- . ISBN 978-0-7456-2614-7.
2. Lambert, Audrey M. The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands (1985); focus on the history of land reclamation
3. Meijer, Henk. Compact geography of the Netherlands (1985)
4. Riley, R. C., and G. J. Ashworth. Benelux: An Economic Geography of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1975)
Thus, despite the high per-capita incomes in Scandinavia, consumers are value-conscious. Unlike Germany, Scandinavians are willing to pay more for wine, and recognize quality differences.
Like Scandinavia, the Netherlands is open to wine imports. With historical connections to Spain and Portugal, and without alliances with Italy or France, Dutch wine drinkers are friendly to imports and to the Spanish character found in Chilean wines. Like Scandinavians, the Dutch have high per-capita incomes are willing to spend for super-premium wines. They are unwilling to 'overpay' for quality, however, and are likely to compare the quality of an 8 pound Chilean wine to similarly-priced products from Australia, the U.S. And other major wine exporting countries.
Chilean Wine Promotion in Europe
Chile is not alone in wanting to increase wine exports to Europe. Australia and the United States have developed significant market share and see growing exports to European markets. The Wine…
Alcyon. "China and Chile Sign Wine Agreement." Wine Marketing. 2007. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Tk-70Aey3zEJ:winemarketing.blogs.com/wine_marketing/veille/page/2/+chile+wine+marketing+europe&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us (Accessed November 24, 2007).
Anderson, K. The World's Wine Markets: Globalization at Work. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004.
Anderson, K. "Wine's New World." Foreign Policy, 2003: 47-59.
BeverageDaily. "World wine sales go from strength to strength." Beverage Daily, March 13, 2003: n.p.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
TNT is a multinational company specializing in the express service delivery. The company delivers parcel, document, and mail to its customers domestically and globally. Following the global recession, competitions, and recent development in the electronic message delivery, the company has recorded a decline in the profits delivered to the shareholders in the last few years. This document develops a marketing plan to improve the company sales and boost the revenue. The marketing plan will target Netherlands, the UK, and North America. The marketing plan will also target the emerging countries such as China, India and South America. The brand positioning will be used as promotion strategy where company will use its strong brand to differentiate itself from the competitors. Moreover, TNT will employ 7Ps (Product, Price, Promotion, People, Place, Process and Physical Evidence) as the marketing mix. TNT will use brand technique to differentiate its products in the market and…
Clarity Marketing Ltd., (2005). The marketing mix 7 Ps of the marketing mix…a framework for complete marketing. Clarity Communication.USA.
Douglas, S.P Craig, S.C. & Nijssen, E.J. (1999). International Brand Architecture Development, Drivers and Design. Stern School of Business New York University.
Linda, L.S.P. Wilson, C.C.S. Hee, Y.E.(2008). An in-depth Research on Macro and Micro Factors that may influence TNT Express Marketing Strategy Today.
Onkvisit, S. & Shaw, J.J (2004). International marketing: analysis and strategy.USA. Routledge.
Legalization of Marijuana
SHOULD MARIUANA BE LEGALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES?
For over 40 years the United States has struggled with how the use of marijuana should be governed. On one side, proponents argue that it should be legal in the same way alcohol and cigarettes are, or legal in small amounts. They do not feel that people who have small amounts for personal use should be prosecuted in any way. Recently, the prestigious medical journal The Lancet has suggested that keeping marijuana illegal may do more harm to society than its actual use does. They point out that the negative effects from use of alcohol are far greater than any negative effects from the use of marijuana (offee & Yancey, et. al., 2004).
However, those in favor of maintaining marijuana's status as an illegal substance argue that marijuana is not harmless and that in some ways it is very…
Joffee, Alain, MD, MPH, and Yancey, Samuel, MD., with the Committee on Substance Abuse and the Committe on Adolescence. 2004. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report." Pediatrics 113:6, June.
Portillo, Ely. 2005. "Web sites selling marijuana, paraphernalia proliferate." Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Serice, July 7.
Staff writers. 2005. "Safety - how alcohol affects the brain." New Straits Times (Science section), December 5.
Another major finding of this study is that socio-cultural differences were related to anorexia nervosa. The soundness of the resarch design allowed the authors to gather comprehensive case-findings regarding anorexia incidences. Among the mixed-race population, the anorexia rate was at 9.1 per 100,000. However, it is significant to note that there were no cases of anorexia found among the black population, who constituted the largest racial group in Curacao.
Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Hoek et al. (2005) found no evidence that socioeconomic transition caused the emergence of anorexia nervosa in Curacao. After all, if there was a positive correlation, then the fact that Curacao is a "high income" country would raise its anorexia rate to a level comparable to the United States and the Netherlands. The two latter countries have similar anorexia rates, while Curacao's is much lower.
The authors present three possible explanations for this lack of a…
Hoek, Hans et al. 2005. "The Incidence of Anorexia Nervosa on Curacao." The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162(4): 748-753.
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…
(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.
(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.
(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.
Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.
Primark: History, Growth, Products, Customers and Stakeholders
The world economy today has become more interrelated, consistent and unified nowadays than it was in any earlier phases of time gone by. This is because in present times there have been rapid variations and transformations in media, transport and communications technology. This rapid change cannot be found in any other area more than it is evident in the world of textile industry and clothing distribution. The consumer today yearns for chic, fashionable, smart, stylish and reasonably priced clothes ("Providing consumers with ethically sourced garments," p. 1, thetimes100.co.uk).
Various countries from every corner of the world are busy in fabricating high street fashion to a great extent. Industries and companies buy clothes from countries that provide the advantage of cheap labor costs and lower material. Bangladesh, China, India and Turkey are among such countries that offer the mentioned benefits to the businesses worldwide.…
"Associated British Foods plc - Our companies." Associated British Foods plc - Home. ABF plc., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. .
"Childrenswear." Primark. Primark Stores Limited, n.d. Web. 4 Oct 2011. .
"Company History." Primark. Primark Stores Limited, n.d. Web. 2 Oct 2011. .
Jackson, Kate. "What Is It about PRIMARK?." The Mirror. 07 April 2007. 28. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. .
Viewing work as a load or limitation assumed more marked in the U.S. within 1982 and 1989. We have observed that work can be felt as a compulsion or a prerogative. Disparities among nations on these values are vital issues to assist us in comprehending contractual relationships between employees and the enterprise. Whereas there is increased concord among the Western and Asian communities regarding what plays a role to the prerogative and what fits in to the commitment side of the equation, this prominent depiction becomes distorted in the erstwhile communist states and Israel. In case of the latter, respondents had a tough circumstance separating between what the rights and duties of work. (Heller; Antonio; Quintanilla, 1995)
This can be comprehended as a result of blend between an individualistic and increasingly joint approach in the prevailing ideology. Being capable of tell apart between the rights and duties presumes that people…
Ardichvili, Alexandre. (2005) "The Meaning of Working and Professional Development Needs of Employees in a Post-Communist Country" International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. Vol. 5; No. 1; pp: 105-119.
Basini, Serge; Buckley, Finian. (1996-1997) "Employee Needs and Expectations in the Irish Voluntary Sector" DCUBS Research Papers. No. 24. Retrieved at http://www.dcu.ie/dcubs/research_papers/no24.html . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Epps, John. (Spring, 2003) "The Journey of meaning at work" Group Facilitation. Vol: 10; No: 2; pp: 21-22
Folan, Jill Langendorff; Gaelyn, Mitcell, (Feb-March, 2003) "All work and no meaning: will an HR portal keep your employees from jumping ship?" Communication World. Vol: 12; No: 1; pp: 27-30
Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
Health effects can include,…
Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119
Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National
Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports
Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov /publications/factsht/druguse/
Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm
Intercultural Differences and Similarities Between University ife in the Countries of France and Holland: Twente University vs. Novancia University
The objective of the research in this work in writing is to compare leadership styles in Holland and France and specifically, to compare leadership styles at Twente University in Holland and Novancia University in Paris. This will be achieved through a review of literature in this area of study. There are diverse concepts among various cultures of leadership and as noted in the work of Richard D. ewis (1999) eaders "can be born, elected, or trained and groomed. Others seize power or have leadership thrust upon them. eadership can be autocratic or democratic, collective or individual, meritocratic or unearned, desired or imposed." (p.59)
It is not possible to easily transfer a leader from one culture to another culture. ewis states for example that Japanese Prime Ministers "would be largely ineffective in…
Leadership in the Netherlands are "based on merit, competence, and achievement. Managers are vigorous and decisive but consensus is mandatory, as there are many key players in the decision-making process. Long 'Dutch debates' lead to action, taken at the top, but with constant reference to the 'ranks'. Ideas from low levels are allowed to filter freely upwards in the hierarchy." (Lewis, 1999, p. 72) Hofstede (1983) conducted a research study across 50 countries and examined these dimensions, as well as employee's attitudes and values through use of standardized questionnaires. Findings reported by Hofstede includes that the Netherlands is characterized by individualism meaning that very loose ties exist between Dutch employees with every individual watching after his or her self-interest and the interest of their immediate family. Dutch individuals have a large amount of freedom and employees in individualist countries are not as loyal to their employer and have less feeling as being part of a group. Leadership styles in the individualistic society is such that is based on the presumed individual needs in a society of individuals who seek after their self-interest primarily. Centralization of organizations and inequalities in power and wealth are downplayed in the Dutch society as much as possible.
IV. Comparison of Leadership: France vs. Netherlands
France and the Netherlands have two things in common historically and that being that each of these European powers that were the runners-up in the global seizure of land…" (Clancy-Smith and Gouda, 1998) Historically, imperial administrators are reported to have carefully studied each other's strengths and weaknesses." (Clancy-Smith and Gouda, 1998) In this endeavor the European collective knowledge of as well as power over Asians and Africans developed and there was a great concern for diversity of the people forming these regions of the world. Writings during the period of the settler societies wrote extensively in French, Dutch, English, Spanish, Portuguese, German or Italian and whenever the Europeans discussed the rights and responsibilities of
Euthanasia is an emotionally charged topic of debate, and it is easy to lose sight of the facts when people talk about wanting to kill themselves for whatever reason. Most of the people that seek physician-assisted suicide are suffering from terminal illnesses that cause them a great deal of pain that cannot be properly controlled with medications. For these individuals, the relief of death is preferred to their continuing suffering. The ethical debate over euthanasia, though, is colored by millennia of human thinking concerning the value of life and biblical proscriptions against suicide in any form. This paper examines the arguments in support of euthanasia as well as arguments against the practice to determine the facts and to provide rationale in support of legalizing euthanasia.
Humans can be said to really own one thing outright: their lives. There are laws in most countries, though, that prevent people from…
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, ethics, and public policy: An argument against legalization.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Marcoux, I. & Mishara, B.L. (2007, May/June). Confusion between euthanasia and other end-
of-life decisions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 235.
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
Antarctica, Enjoy Chile, http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php last accessed on December 10, 2009
Australia Tourist Guides, Sino, 2009, http://www.sino.net/australia-tourist-guides/attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
India Tourist Attractions, Info India, http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century." (151) Elwell goes on to describe the works as, "written in an almost conversational style, these volumes deal with topics of theological concern, such as divine election, faith and sanctification, Holy Scripture, and the church, rather than presenting a tightly argued system of thought." (151) Finally according to Elwell and despite Berkouwer's shift in theology regarding human dealings, i.e. regret for spreading lack of tolerance for human differences of opinion Berkouwer, "never wavered from his commitment to the principles of Scripture, faith and grace alone." (151)
Berkouwer also wrote works of criticism against other theologian, most notably Karl Barth and Catholicism which are well read and famous in their theological arguments and as representative of his mid life shift in thought.…
Berkouwer, G.C. "Human Freedom" from "Studies in Dogmatics," Man: The Image of God GrandRapids MI: Eerdmans 1962.
Cameron, George a. "The Theology of G.C. Berkouwer: An introduction to my work on Berkouwer's theology, 'The Problem of Polarization: An Approach based on the writings of GC Berkouwer'" Retrieved October 7, 2008 http://www.theologyofgcberkouwer.blogspot.com/
Christianity and Judaism: The Deepening Dialogue. Ed. Richard W. Rousseau. Scranton, PA: Ridge Row Press, 1983.
Cobb, John B. A Survey of Methods. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1962.
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…
Gerdes, L. (2007). Policies favoring legalization encourage prostitution and sex trafficking. At Issue: What are the causes of Prostitution? Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Opposing Viewpoints Resource.
Raymond, J. (2003). Ten Reasons for not Legalizing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. Haworth Press, Inc.
Roleff, T.L. (2006). Legalization and decriminalization of prostitution would not help prostitutes. Contemporary Issues Companion: Prostitution. Greenhaven Press. From Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
My attention was first drawn to Mrs. Goldstein when I overheard her telling her grandchildren that had she not been sheltered by a Christian family in the Netherlands, she would have suffered the exact same fate as all of the corpses in the display about the Anne Frank and the extermination of the rest of Jews in the Netherlands during the war. Mrs. Goldstein must have recognized the surprised look on my face because it almost seemed as though she had read my mind. She looked right at me and said, "Yes, it's true…I was there." She asked me whether I was surprised to learn that anybody who actually experienced the Holocaust was still alive and I admitted that I was surprised. She said that she was 80 years old and that she was only 14 when the Nazis began transporting all of the remaining Jews in the Netherlands to…
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…
Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
Duncan, D.G. (2004). The Federal Marriage Amendment and Rule by Judges. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 27(2), 543+.
Coolidge, D.O. Wardle, L.D., Strasser, M., Duncan, W.C., (Eds.). (2003). Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate / . Westport, CT: Praeger.
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Streetwalkers are generally the lowest-paid of all prostitutes. They are also in the most danger. As a result, those who work as streetwalkers are likely to be more desperate than other prostitutes, suggesting that, regardless of chosen profession, they would experience greater levels of mental distress than the normal population.
hat is fascinating is that when research does not look at streetwalkers, but at higher status prostitutes, prostitutes do not seem to suffer from a greater rate of mental health issues than women in other professions. Ine Vanwesenbeeck examined burnout levels of indoor sex workers in the Netherlands and compared them to nurses and to mental health patients. Her results suggested that prostitution did not necessarily lead to psychological issues. "Female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands do not exhibit a higher level of work-related emotional exhaustion or a lower level of work-related personal competence than a comparison group of…
Cundiff, Kirby. Prostitution and Sex Crimes. The Independent Institute. N.p. 8 Apr. 2004.
Web. 13 Nov. 2012.
Farley, Melissa. "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart: Prostitution Harms Women Even if
Legalized or Decriminalized." Violence Against Women 10.10 (2004), 1087-1125.
Azure Sky Tea needs to determine the best choice of a home base.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration including the cultural dimensions of the different potential host nations.
There are a number of countries that Azure Sky Tea can consider. The company can take into consideration when making this decision. Hofstede identified a number of different cultural dimensions that can be examined for each potential host country. These are individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity/femininity (Hofstede, 2013). Individualism reflects the importance of the individual in the culture, compared with collectivism which emphasizes a collective group. Uncertainty avoidance reflects "the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty." Power distance reflects power roles in a society, manifested mainly in the interactions between people in different positions within the company. Masculinity emphasizes competition, assertiveness and achievement, while femininity is seen…
Hofstede (2013). Dimensions. Hofstede Centre. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7FIvfx5J10
MindTools.com (2013). Hofstede's cultural dimensions. MindTools. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm
Van den Anker, B. (2013). Cross-cultural training: A waste of time, money and effort? Expatica.com. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from http://www.expatica.com/hr/story/Crosscultural-training-a-waste-of-time-money-and-effort.html
In North America most people die that can be called a bad death. A study found that "More often than not, patients died in pain, their desires concerning treatment neglected, after spending 10 days or more in an intensive care unit" (Horgan, 1996).
The term Euthanasia has originated from the Greek language: eu meaning "good" and thanatos meaning "death." However, according to the Netherlands State Commission, another meaning given to the word is "the intentional termination of life by another at the explicit request of the person who dies" (Netherlands State Commission).
Thus, the word euthanasia generally means that the person who wishes to commit suicide must commence the action. However, according to some people definition, euthanasia comprises both voluntary as well as involuntary execution of life. According to the moral, religious, ethical terms, the word "euthanasia" has many meanings, resulting in mass confusion. Therefore, it is vital…
Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.
Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.
DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html
Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)
Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…
Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html
McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004. http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html
Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html
Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html
Clash of Identities
Is a private identity a curse or a blessing? Is it necessary or valid to hide who you really are? According to "Aria: Memoir of a bilingual childhood" by Richard Rodriguez and "How it feels to be colored me" by Zora Hurston, creating a private identity and leaving your public identity behind, may be necessary, especially living, growing or entering an environment where it is not that accepting to cultural differences, there is probably not other culture during these times such as the exchange students from the Islam culture from the Azerbaijan State that can relate. "You need to study abroad! In the United States!" are two sentences many high school seniors, that do not live in the United States, hear from their mothers, fathers and counselors. There is a current obsession for children to get educated in the United States. The Azerbaijan State has gone as…
Author's last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Publication Date Published: Pages.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Online Article." Title of Online Publication Version (Year Published): Pages. Date Accessed .
"Title of Article." Title of Media. CD-ROM. City: Publisher, Year.
Command and Control Structure and Organization: Operation Toenails
Operation Toenails, also called Operation A and the New Georgia Campaign, was part of Operation Cartwheel, in turn a series of offensives by the Allied forces against the Japanese in the South Pacific during World War II (Miller 1970). This campaign was undertaken in the New Georgia group of islands at the central Solomon Islands from June 20 to August 25, 1943. Its purpose was to isolate Rabaul, a critical Japanese base, to protect Australia and to pave the way for succeeding initiatives (Miller).
The Question of Command
The Army and the Navy were in heated disagreement over a unified leadership in the entire Pacific (Miller 1970). The initial sentiment was for a joint leadership and mutual cooperation between General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral William Halsey. This idea was, however, rejected . The Joint Chiefs came out with a directive on July…
Miller, John Jr. Cartwheel: the Reduction of Rabaul. Paperback. Office of the Chief of Military History: Department of the Army, 1970.
PPACA and its implications on existing health care in the United States.
The PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) overviews the following factors:
Creates an Individual Mandate: it requires the citizens of the United States to have their health insurance covered or either pay punishment for it
Establishes American Health enefit Exchange: PPACA has made new sections in order to spread the coverage and make it more affordable and accessible. It has created American Health enefit Exchanges which helps the citizens who cannot afford coverage.
Changes Private Health Insurance Coverage: This act also helps the people to gain access to coverage that are affordable so that the citizens do not lose their coverage
Expands Medicaid: Medicaid is expanded through PPACA by covering certain groups that were not previously covered by Medicare like adults without children, or low-income people.
Establishes New High -- Risk Insurance Pool: a health risk insurance…
Baribault, M., & Cloyd, C. (1999, July 26). Health Care Systems: Three International Comparisons. Retrieved from web.stanford.edu: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/soc_sec/health.htm
Heal, L. (2012, December 13). Why States Should Run From PPACA. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.freedomworks.org/content/why-states-should-run-ppaca
Healthcare Reform. (2014). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.gsanational.com/ppaca-overview
LAO. (2010, May 13). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Overview of Its Potential Impact on State Health Programs. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.lao.ca.gov/reports/2010/hlth/fed_healthcare/fed_healthcare_051310.aspx
Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place
Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664)
New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson iver. The first European power to visit New York was the Dutch in 1624. The land caught the attention of the administration in Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company hoped to explore the region's fur trade. Peter Minuit purchased a major real estate. Peter traded trinkets with natives for the island of Manhattan in 1626. A new town was set up there and was called New Amsterdam. The colony sought to enrich the stockholders from the Netherlands. The first governor of New Amsterdam (Peter Stuyvesant) ruled it with decree and dictatorship. The Dutch West India Company thrived in slave trade.
The English focused their eyes on the Dutch holding after Charles II assumed the throne. Charles gave the land to his brother…
Caswell, J. E. (2015, May 19). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Henry Hudson: English Navigator and Explorer: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Hudson
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Hudson River school; American Art Movement. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/art/Hudson-River-school
Lankevich, G. (2016, August 12). New York City. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/place/New-York-City/
Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. (2016). George Washington (1732-1799). Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Miller Center of Public Affairs: http://millercenter.org/president/washington
Six weeks later the Czech Republic became the 27th and final nation to sign the Treaty. On December 2, 2009 the Lisbon Treaty went into full effect one month prior to the date originally projected.
The driving force behind the drafting and ratification of the Lisbon Treaty was German Chancellor Merkel. When she assumed her six-month presidency of the European Union in January of 2007 she was determined to effect a change in how the Union was operated. At the European Council meeting in June of 2007 she was able to convince other EU leaders to join her in amending the treaties under which the Union operated. A prior attempt at organizing the Union under a constitution had failed and so it was believed that proceeding under the treaty procedure would be more acceptable to the other member states. The constitution concept had been rejected several other times…
Bale, T., the End of the nation-state?. In European Politics: A Comparative Introduction, 2nd edit., Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan (2008).
Cini, M. & Borragan, N.P, European Union Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press (2010)
Dedman, M., the Origins & Development of the European Union 1945-2008: A History of European Integration, London, Routledge Publishing (2009)
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
New Netherlands In 1602 The States General of the United Provinces, known as the Netherlands, engaged the United East Indies Company to explore for a passage to the Indies…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
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Business - Management
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It sheds light on why the financial results deviated from expectations and what remedies can be included in the next strategic plan in order to ensure that the company…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and…Read Full Paper ❯
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Typically, buyers have the ability to switch their tastes from one soft drink brand to the other. Barrier to Entry: It is very difficult to enter the industry due…Read Full Paper ❯
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Path Diagrams of Research Models Business This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of…Read Full Paper ❯
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Dutch Culture "Typical Dutch?" The history of the Netherlands is demonstratie of a unique situation both socially and politically as the leel of Dutch tolerance has been duly noted…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures. e) State of education in the country From the standpoint…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Furthermore this would introduce not only one but two brand names into the market simultaneously in France but since the L'Oreal brand was already present in the Dutch market…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
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global in nature. Economies, businesses and even individuals are now becoming more interconnected. What once were isolated events in a foreign country now have a rippling effect throughout the…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, despite the high per-capita incomes in Scandinavia, consumers are value-conscious. Unlike Germany, Scandinavians are willing to pay more for wine, and recognize quality differences. Netherlands Like Scandinavia, the…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
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Business - Advertising
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Sports - Drugs
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Another major finding of this study is that socio-cultural differences were related to anorexia nervosa. The soundness of the resarch design allowed the authors to gather comprehensive case-findings regarding…Read Full Paper ❯
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
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Family and Marriage
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Sports - Drugs
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Sports - Drugs
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Death and Dying (general)
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Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
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Literature - Latin-American
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century."…Read Full Paper ❯
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
My attention was first drawn to Mrs. Goldstein when I overheard her telling her grandchildren that had she not been sheltered by a Christian family in the Netherlands, she…Read Full Paper ❯
Significance of the Study This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Gay Marriage Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Streetwalkers are generally the lowest-paid of all prostitutes. They are also in the most danger. As a result, those who work as streetwalkers are likely to be more desperate…Read Full Paper ❯
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Death and Dying (general)
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Sports - Drugs
Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Clash of Identities Is a private identity a curse or a blessing? Is it necessary or valid to hide who you really are? According to "Aria: Memoir of a…Read Full Paper ❯
Command and Control Structure and Organization: Operation Toenails Operation Toenails, also called Operation A and the New Georgia Campaign, was part of Operation Cartwheel, in turn a series of…Read Full Paper ❯
PPACA and its implications on existing health care in the United States. The PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) overviews the following factors: Creates an Individual Mandate: it…Read Full Paper ❯
Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664) New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson iver.…Read Full Paper ❯
Six weeks later the Czech Republic became the 27th and final nation to sign the Treaty. On December 2, 2009 the Lisbon Treaty went into full effect one month…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from…Read Full Paper ❯