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Neuroscience and Human Development
One of the most noticeable aspects of human beings involves the changes in shape, size, form, and function of the individual from a newly formed fetus to a fully grown adult. As the single most successful organism on Earth, human beings have developed, through millions of years of evolutionary adaptations, integrated yet malleable systems involving biological, physiological, emotional and intellectual components. This paper will review some of the most prominent theories of human development, discuss the nexus of human development and the neurological processes involved in the human body, and analyze the development and life progression processes human beings experience from birth through death.
Much of the success of human beings is attributable to the very design of the human body; including a large bi-pedal body, a brain that is disproportionately large relative to that of body size, as well as an extended period of childhood,…… [Read More]
Hormones and the Nervous System
Of the many highly interesting features of the brain and the nervous system that are detailed in this chapter of the text, the one that I found most interesting is the relationship between the nervous system and the endocrine system, which controls the hormones secreted throughout the body. The initial comparison between hormones and neurotransmitters that the text makes initially helps to provide an immediate basic understanding of how the chemical messengers that hormones are might operate, but as the text goes on to describe the actions and direct effects of hormones it becomes clear that it is only in the simplest of sense that hormones are similar to neurotransmitters. Still, the influence that the endocrine system and the hormones it produces have on the nervous system are a major part of the way the body works, and the nervous system's influence on the…… [Read More]
Neuroscience Supports Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated instruction is a fairly new concept in both the areas of neuroscience and education. The integration of research and findings in neuroscience into educational practices such as teaching methods is a fairly recent occurrence as well. The paper provides insight into differentiated instruction and the neuroscientific evidence that exists supporting it as a valid method of teaching in the classroom setting. The paper clarifies what is necessary for academic success for the students and professional success for educators using the model of differentiated instruction.
How Neuroscience Supports Differentiated Instruction
The 21st century has brought upon many innovations and alternative perspectives to learning and education. In recent years, the term "differentiated instruction" has been in circulation regarding teaching methods and to neuroscience. This paper will explain what differentiated instruction in education means and provide evidence that the discipline of neuroscience substantiates the validity of…… [Read More]
Neuroscience of Smell
Human beings are bombarded in their daily lives with a variety of sensory data coming from a number of sensory systems in the human body. Many times the input of sensory data can cause a sensorimotor response, or an automatic action on the part of the human body in response to sensory input. In other words, the sight, smell, or sound of something can cause the body to automatically begin an action. For instance, the sight of the police can, in some people, cause an increase in heart rate or perspiration. This in turn can cause a person to undergo a psychological process such as stress, or fear. Certain smells can also elicit a physical response on the part of a person. Aromachology is the study of how certain smells can cause sensor motor responses which in turn stimulate emotional responses on the part of an individual.…… [Read More]
Neuroscience is the study of brain mechanisms, how they function, how they are constructed, and how they relate to behavior (Kuhn & Koob, 2010). Neuroscience is a broad field that scrutinizes these brain mechanisms at all levels from the molecular and genetic levels all the way to the higher-order psychological processes and even to the understanding of clinical conditions. Because of its scope and its relevance to all aspects of behavior, neuroscience offers several unique contributions to understanding issues like addiction from multiple levels of analysis.
John is a 60-year-old male with no prior history of addictive behavior or mental illness and no family history of substance abuse who developed a substance use disorder to alcohol and the benzodiazepine Valium. The clinical case of "John" is not unique; however, the case offers an example of how little science can help understand, assess, and treat addictions. In the treatment of addiction…… [Read More]
Reductionism in Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field encompassing various aspects of the study of the mind, including perception, reasoning, language, emotion and consciousness. Departing from the strictures of behaviorism, cognitive science permitted experimental psychologists to theorize beyond the limitations of observable behavior and functional relations between stimulus and response, and to posit internal mental representations as legitimate objects for scientific inquiry. ith advances in neuroimaging technology, cognitive psychology became increasingly integrated with neuroscience. The analysis of subjective psychological experience in terms of physiological activity in the brain is understood as "reductionist," because it explains a "higher" order psychological phenomena (thinking, remembering, perceiving) in terms of a more basic physiological substrate (neurons firing).
This paper explores reductionistic approaches to cognitive science. Reductionism in cognitive science has both proponents and detractors. On the one end of the spectrum, John Bickle makes a case for "ruthless reductionism" -- the project…… [Read More]
"The last 20 years have repeatedly brought to our attention the narrowing of the gap between the brain-sciences and the field of education" (Tommerdahl 2008). By understanding how human beings learn on a neurological level, it is hoped that instructors will be able to use this knowledge to facilitate the learning process. However, the degree to which neuroscience can be helpful to educators is controversial. Some researchers believe that neurological knowledge can "have only a very limited role in the broader field of education and learning' mainly "because learning-related intentional states are not internal to individuals in a way which can be examined by brain activity" (Tommerdahl 2008).
Others believe that brain research is valuable for educators. For example, neurological studies indicate that the idea that there are different types of learners (such as visual, kinesthetic, verbal, or aural learners) and that certain kinds of learners can only…… [Read More]
In doing some research on the city, I got the feeling that Ann Arbor is quite an active arts community. One of the most interesting aspects that I stumbled upon in my research was the public art spaces in Ann Arbor. While I find all areas of science exciting, I enjoy living in an environment that can nurture my creative side as well, and I definitely felt that Ann Arbor would be able to offer this -- especially through community programs such as the public art spaces. I feel that community art programs are great for individuals and even better for the greater good of communities. It can bring people together and help create a feeling of cohesion and respect for one another in urban environments. It can make a city feel more like a small town. I would want to become a part of this community and that is…… [Read More]
Marijuana in Depth
THE NEUOSCIENCE OF THE DUG
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a plant that contains a chemical compound called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is called THC for short. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010), smoking marijuana (which is the most common form of intake) causes the chemical THC to "rapidly pass from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body." The smoking process therefore delivers THC quickly to the brain, where it is "received" by cannabinoid receptors.
Cannabinoid receptors are physical sites in the brain. They are located throughout the brain, but mainly "in parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thinking, concentrating, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement," (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). When the THC is received by the cannabinoid receptors in these parts of the brain, it results in a "series…… [Read More]
This work clearly contributes to the field through a greater understanding of the impact of cognitive developmental level upon depression. This information could dramatically aid councilors and other clinicians in their ability to treat or even prevent childhood depression. This is especially important given the recent pull away from pharmacological solutions, for fear of even worse side effects, that were once, rather recently, thought of as a promising solution, for children in cases of depression.
The work clearly demonstrates to a large degree the pervasiveness of depression among children and reiterates the need to treat it and study it separately from the phenomena of adult depression. The work once again demonstrates the need for age specific solutions to a growing problem facing our society and any answers or even good questions are needed and should be heeded when the issue of depression can be helped, treated or even prevented before…… [Read More]
.....neuroscience is one of the most common scientific field of study that basically involves study of the nervous system. Most of the jobs in neuroscience involves dealing with some problems that do not necessarily involve working in the lab. An example of such jobs that interests me is neuropsychology, which is an area in neuroscience that focuses on the science of brain-behavior relationships. I find clinical neuropsychology as an interesting field of neuroscience since it combines concepts of psychology in the study of the nervous system, particularly brain-behavior relationships. Given the combination of neuroscience and psychology, clinical neuropsychology will enable me to feel empathy for my patients/clients when addressing their issues (Ogden, 2012). In light of my passion for this field, brain functions and neuroscience that I find interesting are neurobiological theories that explain dysfunctions in language, behavior networks, vision, memory, and emotion. These brain functions and neuroscience are interesting…… [Read More]
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…… [Read More]
Consciousness" in the Annual eview of Neuroscience, John Searle questions the philosophical and epistemological accuracy of the paradigm that has defined the language and study of consciousness for centuries. His contention is that the study of consciousness must be guided by the idea that consciousness is not the "airy-fairy and touch-feely" phenomenon that many assume it to be (558), but rather is a concrete result of certain biological processes in the brain known as neurological correlates of conscious state (NCCs). While his argument is soundly presented and consistent with itself, I believe that Searle avoids certain questions and considerations of consciousness in order to maintain the assumption at the center of his argument.
Critical to his theory is the concept of subjectivity. Consciousness, Searles argues, only exists subjectively in that it relies on the existence of a subject as part of its definition. This is somewhat related to the famous…… [Read More]
Art is processed in the brain, and neuropsychological principles show how. One of the prime examples showing the way art influences the brain is with the Mona Lisa. Da Vinci's painting is notable for the peculiar and ambiguous smile on the subject's face. There is "dynamism" in the smile, artist understood this and deliberately make optical illusion of sorts (Chakravarty 69). The illusion is a product of "imaginative thinking which involves frontal cortical activation in the viewer's brain coupled with activation of the motion area (area V5/MT) of the viewer's visual cortex," (Chakravarty 69). Thus, some viewers may perceive La Gioconda as smiling, and others may not.
Cave art proves that creative expression has always been a part of human history. As Dutton points out, the ancient Greeks were the first to recognize that art had a distinct psychological component. Art has functioned differently in different cultures…… [Read More]
Neuroscience and Linguistics
LINK AND COMMONALITIES
The Language-Ready rain
Linguistics authorities oeckx and enitez-urraco (2014) Theorize that modern man possesses a language-ready brain structure, which earlier homo species did not. This, they believe, came as a result of developmental changes shown by a more globular braincase in modern man from the time of the split of species from the Neanderthal-Denisovans. The development changes were primarily in the cortical level, accompanied by anatomical changes in the sub-cortical level, which resulted in this globularity. Modern man's resulting capacity for language can be gleaned from and explained by the functional consequences of these changes. These experts point to the thalamus, which is mainly responsible for the uniquely evolved language and human cognition of modern homo sapiens (oeckx & enitez-urraco)/
oeckx & enitez-urraco (2014) isolated a probable gene, which could be strongly influential in the unique development and connectivity of the thalamus as well…… [Read More]
Oliver Sacks takes a profound look into the lives of individuals who have had their entire lives shift from one of normalcy, to one inflicted by the disability of blindness. However, despite how tragic their inability to see may be interpreted by those around them, for the most part, the individuals portrayed in the Mind's Eye have been able to surpass the obstacles presented to them. In this collection of essays, Sacks takes readers on a path of understanding both the limitations imposed upon those stricken with blindness, as well as the assumptions of those who surround them.
Sacks shares with his readers the immense learning that he was able to gain through the memoirs of the blind authors that he studied. In almost every opportunity granted to the individuals who are blind, they were able to take advantage not of what they were missing, but instead they…… [Read More]
There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…… [Read More]
It is also a population that often has limited resources and one that seeks to find others to help comfort and educate them. Modern technology has certainly improved both the diagnosis and treatment of the illness, but there are so many options that the patient is often left bewildered and frightened (Guadalupe).
A proactive and professional nursing approach to this illness takes Mishel's theory and uses it in four ways:
To combat ambiguity -- Patients are unaware of the progress and severity of their illness and often fill in with worst-case scenarios. Open and honest communication about that status of the illness will alleviate many concerns, or at least allow for uncoerced decision making.
To combat complexity -- Illness is complex and often based on statistical tables, not individual expressions. Using Michel, the nurse can simplify to the necessary degree both the illness and options.
To provide information -- More…… [Read More]
Multiple ealizations: eal or Not?
The concept of multiple realization is an issue that has been discussed among philosophers and psychologists alike for years. Even with the advent of modern technology, we still seem to understand so little about the human brain, and along with that, the human thought process. Multiple realization is an issue that, no doubt, falls into this category. Multiple realization is a real occurrence. From the description of realization, it is evident that in the process of relating things in both the brain and mind, some individuals find no difficulty in doing just the same. The brain has different levels of interpreting concepts and basically this is what happens when multiple realization swings into action. The level of interpretation, then, helps to demonstrate that the concept of multiple realization is, in fact, real, and this concept will be discussed within the confines of this analysis.
In…… [Read More]
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…… [Read More]
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]
Descartes argues that the mind and the body must be two different things since he knows the mind exists but knows no such thing about the body. Spell out this argument. What's wrong with it, if anything? Give a counterexample to the principle implied here.
Are other philosophers that we have read drawing conclusions about what the mind must be like based on what we know about the mind or how we know it? Is that always a mistake? Can reasoning like this be defended? Maybe even Descartes's reasoning?
Descartes on the dualism of mind and body
Descartes insists that mind and body are each distinct from the other although 'living together' in one 'package. His reasoning for this includes the following:
Mind and body are two different organisms. You see this clearly from the way they are fashioned. Each looks and behaves so different to the other, therefore how…… [Read More]
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…… [Read More]
At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.
Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…… [Read More]
, 2010). It is perfectly conceivable that this nurse leader would welcome more collaborative or shared leadership responsibilities, particularly since the setting for empirical clinical research on this very issue was, in fact, an ICU (osengren, Bondas, Nordholm, et al., 2010).
Finally, it appears from this interview subject's input into this project that she is a competent and effective nursing leader, largely by virtue of her description of her supervisory and administrative style and inclination. However, her input lacked any substantial data on the basis of which a reviewer could evaluate her effectiveness as a clinical leader more specifically. Those particular skill sets may occur in combination but they undoubtedly also occur individually within different leaders (Stanley & Sherratt, 2010). A review of historical literature (such as in connection with Florence Nightingale) clearly demonstrates that good nursing leaders may or may not necessarily also be equally good clinical leaders (Stanley…… [Read More]
Myth of the First Three Years
Major Points of the Arguments made by Broude and Zero to Three
Broude presents arguments against the myth of the first three years by exposing some of the fallacies propagated by popular neuroscience. The first argument that she makes is that the stage of brain development is not the same as the stage of child development. She argues that the fact that the brain is developing connections rapidly should not be taken to imply that the connections are being formed as a result of rapid learning. She argues instead that the forming of connections among neurons is simply the stage-setting for learning to take place in later years of the lifespan. Her second major argument is that a number of traits are experience-expectant and not age dependent. The fact that most of these experiences are available to children during the first three years of…… [Read More]
Learning something can be difficult. The human brain is a complex structure that science and research has just begun to understand. When students attempt to learn something new, they may have trouble understanding concepts and linking them together. They may also find it difficult to have meaning or motivation in what they do, regarding learning. That is why it is important to attempt to understand what the human brain is and ways to integrate information more effectively in the minds of students aiming to learn. From neuroscience, socio-cognition, literacy and language development, diversity and culture, and connectionism, there are a wide array of tools and information disposable to make learning easy and fun while also taking into consideration the new and emerging learning environment in the United States and throughout the world.
The Neurosciences: A Look at Our Brains
The human brain is a complex and intricate organ that allows…… [Read More]
, & Mitchell, D. (2001). omatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(6), 499.
Bourne, G.H. (Ed.). (1960). The tructure and Function of Muscle. New York: Academic Press.
Burgess-Limerick, R., Abernethy, B., Neal, R.J., & Kippers, V. (1995). elf-elected Manual Lifting Technique: Functional Consequences of the Interjoint Coordination. Human Factors, 37(2), 395.
Cooley, E.L., & Morris, R.D. (1990). Attention in Children: a Neuropsychologically-Based Model for Assessment. Developmental Neuropsychology, 6(3), 239-280.
Granata, K.P., lota, G.P., & Wilson, .E. (2004). Influence of Fatigue in Neuromuscular Control of pinal tability. Human Factors, 46(1), 81.
Grillon, C., inha, R., Ameli, R., & O'Malley, .. (2000). Effects of Alcohol on Baseline tartle and Prepulse Inhibition in Young Men at Risk for Alcoholism and/or Anxiety Disorders. Journal of tudies on Alcohol, 61(1), 46.
Gunnar, M.R. & Nelson, C.A. (Eds.). (1992). Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience.…… [Read More]
perception and on the circumstance that selective perception may be more dominated by images than by any other factor. We are prone to making impressions, yet as the study in this essay shows it may be images that subconsciously form our impressions and direct judgment to be made about them accordingly.
All too often, selective perception gets us into difficulties as witnessed by the Northwest Airlines Flight 259 that crashed after forgetting to extend the flaps for takeoff. This was as minor aspect, yet the pilots completely overlooked it. Selective perception works in social areas of life too where people are regularly hired for certain characteristics that employers observe yet gloss over others. esearch shows that much of causal perceptions or interview selection is made of fleeting instinctive impressions where discrete components are aggregated into a holistic whole. This is called a stereotype and stereotypes are instinctive, unconscious, and often…… [Read More]
When we ask ourselves what is knowledge (as we do when we are engaged in the process of philosophy) we are effectively asking what is our relationship with the world. V.S. amachandran - as is the norm for philosophers - asks the question about our relationship to the world by using what at first might seem to be a relatively trivial issue, or at least one that very few of us shall ever actually have to worry about, which is the question of phantom limbs, the subject of both amachandran's interest and our own.
The desire to know and the desire to discover are essentially active, even aggressive actions taken on the part of consciousness to acquire pieces or aspects of the world. When we seek knowledge, we seek to take into our minds (and so to take into our bodies physically) something that exists in the world.…… [Read More]
hus, other explanation to blindsight had been studied.
Involvement of the subcortical pathway have been studied by de Gelder et. al. (2005). Patient GY suffered an occipital lesion at age 7, and subcortical pathway has been mostly documented in this patient, thinking that post-lesion and experience-dependent plasticity has taken place. here have also been animal studies in rats which showed the role of the midbrain structures. In this case, even without the contribution of the primary sensory cortices, there were still analysis of the affective value of auditory and also, visual stimuli among the tested rats. Also, in the subcortical pathway, visual information are said to be transmitted through the retinotectal pathway and then projected to the extrastriate visual cortex. his is sufficient enough to drive visually guided behavior even if the patient is unaware of the visual stimuli. A function involving oculomotor processes of the superior colliculus has been…… [Read More]
Fluctuations in expectation may be described by a model that actually calculates expectation using a weighted combination of new and old information. According to this model, when the probability of a target's appearance changes abruptly, a smooth change occurs that encodes prior probability. This model even predicts small changes in expectation even when there is a constant probability of appearance of the target (Anderson & Carpenter, 2006). The experience-based techniques employed that are used to predict probability of the appearance of a stimulus requires that certain pieces of information are held in storage over several trials, which requires an additional number of neurons for the process. Anderson & Carpenter (2006) explain how "the main virtue of (their) model is its simplicity and ease with which its exponential decay in the effect of stimulus history can be implemented by biologically plausible means."
Anderson, A., Carpenter, . (2006). Changes in expectation…… [Read More]
Diffentiation in Learning
It does seem to be elementary in the eleventh year of the 21st century that differentiating curriculum and instruction for different students needs to be justified by neurological research. However, this is the case. For reasons outside the boundaries of this short essay, the politicos of the time still feel that "one size fits all" in the classroom and we must bring out the neurological data to challenge the status quo. Indeed, one might laughingly rank it up with trying to teach evolutionary theory to a class of creationists. One just does not know where they went wrong when they are so very much in the right.
The authors of Differentiation and the Brain: How Neurosciene Supports the Learner-Friendly Classroom makes just this point that for these diverse learners, increased effort is required to differentiate the instructional approaches, to personalize our support for our students and increase…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]
Genes that are involved in the large families with a lot of individuals with ALS are sometimes called causative genes since they are usually sufficient to cause ALS devoid of any other genes or factors being involved. Genes involved in the smaller ALS families can either be susceptibility or causative genes (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).
There appears to be no clear cause in the majority of ALS cases and there is just one medication, riluzole, has been shown to modestly prolong survival. esearch has recognized some of the cellular processes that take place after disease onset, including mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, generation of free radicals, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis, but for most people the underlying cause is unknown. While ALS is measured to be a multifaceted genetic disorder in which multiple genes in amalgamation with environmental exposures merge to render a person susceptible, few genetic or environmental risks have…… [Read More]
GLAXOSMITHKLINE (GSK) - SUCCESSFUL INTENAL INNOVATION ead case study answer 4 questions . Do write a report. 1. Based GSK's past performance, critical implementation issues GSK internal innovation? Justify answer.
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) -- Successful Internal Innovation
Critical implementation issues for GSK with regards to internal innovation
Implementation processes are complex endeavors which need to be thoroughly assessed and carefully decided upon. This is true in any situation and in the case of virtually all economic agents, but while this necessity is valid, it is to be differently approached and resolved across companies. In other words, the dimensions of a strategy to be implemented are sensitive to a wide array of organizational and situational particularities, including, among other things:
The size of the economic agent
The availability of resources (capitals, labor force, commodities and technologies)
The intellectual capitals possessed and the ability to gain, transfer and capitalize on knowledge
The access…… [Read More]
Betrayed by the American compatriots whom he helped, he languished in England in his climactic years, poor and lodged by a prostitute aided by a former student, until he died on a sea voyage back home. His death was mysterious in that shortly before his death he demonstrated signs of both depression and optimism.
Reasons for his depression were unclear. His optimism may have been due to the fact that he had prospects on the horizon.
Why then did he commit suicide, as details seemed to indicate? Or was he killed by his friend who was a double spy? There are numerous details of his life that will forever be unknown since they remain beyond our lens of experience.
Another story that is riddled with mystery is that of Mary Rogers.
In 1841, Mary Cecilia Rogers, a 21-year-old beautiful Connecticut-born girl disappeared from her mother's new York City boarding house.…… [Read More]
The topic of the proposal is related to media psychology and reality television. Media psychology is an interdisciplinary field that works in collaboration with fields such as neuroscience, computer science, international relations, and philosophy. Media psychology seeks to understand the perceptions, interpretations, uses, responses, and relationships among media and media consumers. Media psychology identifies both the benefits and the drawbacks of media consumption. Media psychology reads media as a text and as an entity with behaviors, relationships, and cultures. Media psychology receives increasing attention in the 21st century as the media landscape of the times is much more rich, diverse, and abundant than other periods in human history. Media is a much larger fixture in more people's lives around the world in the 21st century. The growing consensus among media critics, researchers, theorists, producers, consumers, and distributors is that media affects human behavior and attitudes. Therefore, the…… [Read More]
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]
The field of music therapy is an emerging one in medical practice. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of research to support the use of music therapy in a wide range of instances, one of which includes patients who are suffering from brain injury. This paper will review some of the literature on the subject in an attempt to understand how music affects the brain and is therefore useful in therapy.
The idea of music therapy is ancient, and was extolled by the likes of Plato. The Roman god Apollo was god of music and medicine, further cementing the link between the two in estern civilization. Non-estern cultures were also known to use music to attempt to heal people. Certain forms of music could drive out evil spirits or demons, according to the lore of many cultures. It is from these myriad traditions that the modern use…… [Read More]
The control of motor movement progresses from mastery of gross movement to fine motor control as humans develop (Wilson, 2013). This progression depends on the maturation of the extrapyramidal motor system, followed by the maturation of the pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system incorporates multiple areas of the brain that are involved in controlling gross motor movements, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia. The cerebellum functions to coordinate muscle movement in response to sensory stimuli generated by muscles, tendons, the reticular formation, and the vestibular system. By comparison, the role of the basal ganglia in regulating muscle movement is still being investigated. In general terms, the basal ganglia serve as an information relay center for various centers within the cerebral cortex; however, researchers seem to agree that one of the functions of the basal ganglia is to inhibit muscle movements before they can begin.
esearchers have also…… [Read More]
Stressed Memories (APA Citation)
In the article titled "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects Memory Formation in Humans" researchers studied the hypothesis that acute stress can improve the formation of memory in the human brain. According to the authors, "Information encoded into memory during stressful experiences is generally well remembered." (Henckens, 2009, p.10111) In other words, what people experience during stressful or traumatic events is better remembered than experiences that occur under normal, or non-stressful conditions. The researchers in this article wanted to study the affects of stress on memory formation and determine the physiological processes that occur in the brain.
The study participants consisted of eighteen right-handed male volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 31 years with a median age of 22 years. There were a number of criteria which excluded participants including "history of head injury, treatment with psychotropic medications, narcotics, B-blockers, steroids, or any…… [Read More]
Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.
A major focus of research in the area of learning…… [Read More]
Increasing of skills and knowledge and even knowledge of the society cannot be possible without social interactions. That is the basis of the social cognitive theory as it brings together attitudinal and cognitive effects. The major forms of continuous learning are via the environment, the web, media houses and social communications. The intensity of the effect this new knowledge would have on people is dependent on their individual mindsets. Social communication (as earlier stated) is a major way of increasing knowledge and deriving meaning from these. In this handbook, we have given a thorough breakdown of social cognition and the workings of social communication in its various forms. This topic is very useful for schools, service establishments, research institutes, the government, professional training schools, industries and firms among others. Even the military could benefit from this as it has employees who daily apply their cognitive abilities for various uses such…… [Read More]
More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.
Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate…… [Read More]
What is Neuroeconomics? Provide two examples that standard economics failed to explain but the Neuroeconomics can.
The term is a combination of two sciences that, until recently, were thought to not connected. Neuroscience looks at what areas of the brain are stimulated by different activities, and tries to determine connections and see differences where anecdotal evidence would imagine similarities. Economics looks at the behavior of people where money is concerned and tries to understand why people behave the way they do looking at the action and the result. Of course both sciences are much more complicated than this, but when looking at where they intersect these functions matter the most. Neuroeconomics tries to determine the reasons people act in a certain way, based on a stimulus, by using imaging tools such as fMI, Pet scans, and other imaging software to show which areas of the brain activate during the…… [Read More]
brain is the final frontier, even more so than outer space. Studying the brain is as difficult as studying outer space due to the limitations of technology. However, there are also ethical limitations to neuroscience research, as well as research design, methodological, and statistical limitations. The basic structure of the brain has been fairly well documented, but brain chemistry remains elusive, as do general process modeling and other abstract and location-independent functions such as memory.
Technological limitations will remain a challenge for brain researchers. Current technologies in brain imaging continue to offer fruitful results in research, but fail to offer significant breakthroughs that can aid in the study of consciousness. Through current technologies, localized functions and processes can be witnessed, but more complex ones such as imagination and dreams cannot be tested for using technologies. Language and linguistics are also difficult to research using technology, and tend to rely on…… [Read More]
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…… [Read More]
Criminal Law and Psychopathy
Various studies have in the past indicated that there is a high correlation between violence/criminal behavior and psychopathy. This would largely be expected given that psychological studies into the character and disposition of psychopaths has demonstrated that the need for control (or power) as well as egocentrism, which also happen to be the dominant character traits of psychopaths, are predictors for deviant or antisocial behavior. The debate on whether or not psychopaths should be held criminally responsible for their acts, and thus be subjected to criminal punishment, has been raging for a long time. On one side of the debate are legal scholars, lawmakers, and judges who are of the opinion that psychopaths have an existing predisposition to commit crimes as a result of their lack of concern or compassion of any kind for those they hurt. Psychopathy is on this front regarded as…… [Read More]
By adding our understanding of the human complexity to these experimental models, the explanatory power may increase. Collaborating and identifying human subjects that are suitable candidates based on environmental factors will allow for hypotheses to become testable.
The study of pair bonding has gone from rodents to primates. The next question is when will it move from primates to humans?
Aragona, Brandon J., Jacqueline M. Detwiler, and Zuoxin Wang. (2007). Amphetamine reward in the monogamous prairie vole. Neuroscience Letters, 418, 190-194.
Bales, Karen L., William A. Mason, Ciprian Catana, Simon . Cherry, and Sally P. Mendoza. (2007). Brain
esearch, 1184, 245-253.
Curtis, J. Thomas, Yan Liu, Brandon J. Aragona, Zuoxin Wang. (2006). Dopamine and monogamy. Brain esearch, 1126, 76-90.
Gobrogge, Kyle L., Yan Liu, and Zuoxin Wang.(2008). Dopamine egulation of Pair Bonding in Monogamous Prairie Voles. Neurobiology of the Parental Brain, Elsevier: 347-360
Lederhendler, Israel, and Jay Schulkin.(2000). Behavioral…… [Read More]
The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of…… [Read More]
This really does appear to be true. If you look around you see more and more children being put on Ritalin when their behavior does not seem to be anything more children being children. It seems that parents are more and more taking the easy road out in order to control their children and not have to deal with them. Instead of parents stepping up to the plate and dealing with their kids and their problems they all choose to take the easy way out.
In the article One Pill makes you Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin Mills discusses how advances in technology now allow scientists to monitor and manipulate brain functions with precision and control. These advances have lead to the development of drugs such as Prozac that help many people every day. There are many people that need this kind of help and the…… [Read More]
For example, the individual has developed a serviceable way to tie his or her shoes they therefore do not need to learn alternative ways to do so. Yet, when the individual is faced with a broken finger he or she must learn a new way to do the task, and in doing so they change a pathway that was previously set. Now because recovery is imminent they are likely to retain the old way of doing the task but if the finger is permanently injured then the new task process must be set. There is also some evidence that lacking major neurological damage, many of the old pathways still exist in adults as they adapt to new ways of doing things where in children they often disappear, or get used for another learning task as new pathways are formed. Yet, this is challenged in the research as well and often…… [Read More]
omen's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.
Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).
Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room…… [Read More]
Controversies in Neuroscience: Autism
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014a) and numerous medical organizations universally debunk the notion that vaccines contribute to the prevalence of autism, some sectors of the public refuse to let go of this belief and have even employed tactics designed to shut down opposing views ("Silencing debate," 2007). The emotionally-laced rhetoric infesting the debate over autism etiology, however, is a sign of the level of concern parents are increasingly expressing. This anxiety seems to be justified in part by recent data showing that 1 in 68 children, 8-years of age, suffer from autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (CDC, 2014b, p. 6). This means that close to 60,000 of the nearly 4 million children born each year within the United States (CDC, 2014c) will be diagnosed with…… [Read More]
" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)
Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)
IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…… [Read More]
Furthermore, philosophy and science can also offer religion insight in terms of the difference between 'brain' and 'mind.' Entwistle is a passionate advocate of the power of the 'mind' of consciousness that extends beyond the existence of mere brain, or physiology, although he does not deny the impact brain and body can have upon human cognitive life.
But for Entwistle, as a believing Christian, reason is something more than mere chemistry. Entwistle quotes C.S. Lewis that the seemingly innate, hard-wired desire in the human consciousness for the structures of faith and morality demonstrates the existence of something beyond the tangible, measurable world of nature. At its best, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, and religion when reflected upon in tandem can overcome the increasingly vast divide between the gulf of the sciences and the humanities. The Christian mind must be able to take on the various challenges and debates regarding religion and use…… [Read More]
Prior to the nineteenth century, the role of the brain in cognitive function was sorely misunderstood. As Shreeve (n.d) points out, the ancient Egyptians believed the seat of consciousness to be the organ of the heart and views of gray matter changed little in the ensuing millennia. It was not until the nineteenth century that evidence surfaced related to the preeminence of the brain in human cognitive affairs.
The first movement acknowledging the importance of the brain was ironically un-scientific. Phrenology did posit that the brain was a powerful organ capable of controlling human thought, emotion, and behavior. However, the rigid mapping of the brain that defines phrenology proved utterly ridiculous over time. It would take a series of remarkable patients for emerging brain scientists to uncover the mysteries of cognition -- and the interface between brain, mind, and body.
While Phineas Gage is one of the most…… [Read More]