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Philosophy and economy of new Deal
The government of the United States became greatly involved in economic issues after the stock market had crashed in 1929. This crash visited most serious economic dislocation on America's economy. It lasted 1929-1940. This prompted President Franklin D. oosevelt to launch the New Deal to alleviate the emergency. Very important legislations were and institutions were set up during the New Deal Era. These legislations extended federal authority in banking, agriculture, and public welfare (U.S. Dept. Of State, 2013). Minimum standards for wages and hours on the job were prescribed during this period. The legislations also served as a catalyst for expansion of labor unions in steel, automobiles, and rubber industries. Some of the very important agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Social Security System. The Securities and Exchange Commission regulates the stock market (U.S.…
Bortz, A. (2012). Social Security: The Roosevelt Administration.
Leuchtenburg, W. (1963). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940. New York:
Harper and Row.
Politically-motived objections to President oosevelt's "New Deal" would long outlive FD himself. In 2003, when Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman was looking for a term to describe the ideologically-driven motivations of President George W. Bush and his administration, the phrase he selected was "the great unraveling" -- Krugman's image saw oosevelt's New Deal programs (above all Social Security) as having become the very fabric of the society in which we live, and the simpleminded libertarianism of the GOP attitude toward the social programs of the New Deal was a mistaken . Yet I think it would be easiest to answer the question of whether epublicans' libertarian objections to the New Deal are genuinely based on the New Deal's curtailment of actual liberty. I hope an examination of campaign speeches by both FD and oosevelt from the 1932 Presidential election will elucidate the relationship between individual freedom and the…
Hoover, Herbert. "Campaign Speech, Madison Square Garden, October 31, 1932."
Krugman, Paul. The Great Unravelling. New York: Norton, 2003.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Campaign Speech to the Commonwealth Club."
The Great Crash of 1929 and the Depression that followed paved the way to the American Presidency for Franklin D. Roosevelt, who won the elections in 1932 pledging "...to a new deal for the American people" 1. The Deal's application began in March 1933 and consisted of a series of banking reforms, work relief programs, emergency relief programs and agricultural programs.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was drafted in 1933 and was designed to relieve the farmers of the financial difficulties they were encountering due to the short demand and the continuous fall in product prices. The Act paid farmers not to raise pigs and lambs, not to grow crops and to cut production by about 30%. Its hopes were that lower production thus generated would help raise prices for the respective programs. In 1936, it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, however, in 1938, another AAA…
A.A. Sommer Jr. 1965. Federal Securities Act of 1933. Matthew Bender
Peter Clements. 2001. Prosperity, Depression and the New Deal. Access to History
Michael E. Parish. Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression 1920-1941. Norton Twentieth Century America Series
Eli Ginzberg. New Deal Days (1933-1934). Transaction Publishers
New Deal Repercussions for merica's Public nd Private Sectors
Indisputably, the Great Depression, which began with October 29, 1929 stock market crash and created a need for the subsequent extensive New Deal legislation of the 1930's, changed merica's public and private sectors, and merican citizens' expectations of their government, for the rest of the 20th century and beyond. Thus New Deal legislation and programs greatly altered the existing relationship between merican citizens and their government, as well as between public and private sectors of merican life. Earlier, (and throughout U.S. history up to this point) the United States government had been far more limited, in its ability to shape economic and social policies, programs, and changes. However, the great Depression and the subsequent New Deal programs, policies, and social changes that sprang from it, helped create powerful labor unions; and ushered in farm subsidies; and government-sponsored projects like the WP…
Americans as a whole first began to lose faith in their government when, after the October 29, 1929 stock market crash, then-President Herbert Hoover blithely referred to the crash as "a passing incident in our national lives"("The Great Depression"). Hoover's individualistic bent and 'trickle down' economics were the wrong medicine at the wrong time for a country in acute economic (and psychological) agony, with so many of its people frightened, terrified in fact, about the future. Herbert Hoover encouraged American businessmen to wait out what he felt certain would be just a bad (and brief) economic patch, and patiently let 'trickle down' economics work, instead of laying-off workers.
Average men and women could no longer even feed their families or secure anymore the basic necessities of life. Such widespread national misery led to FDR's election, by a landslide, in 1932, and to Hoover's dramatic defeat. Almost immediately, Roosevelt, as the new President, began pushing federal government toward a new, far more interventionist role. Roosevelt urged Congress to quickly pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act that would re-stabilize tottering U.S. banks. On March 9, 1933, it did so. That, however, was a mere prelude to Roosevelt's extensive New Deal legislation that slowly pulled the country out of the depression in the years leading up to World War II.
For better or for worse, then, America's public and private sectors would never be quite as independent from one another again; and average Americans' relationship to their federal government would never again be the same. That is how the Great Depression, and Franklin D. Roosevelt's resulting New Deal, forever changed the relationship between the public and private sectors within America.
The American government has since steered clear of measures like price regulations and has instead promoted a model that trusts the elasticity of the market. However, New Deal measures like unemployment insurance and social security have remained in place.
orld ar Two, rather than any direct effects of the New Deal, helped stimulate the American economy. Since the Reagan administration, the American government has followed a trajectory nearly opposite to that of Roosevelt's. Laissez-faire government attitudes toward economic growth and a dismissal of welfare needs have been touted as bulwarks against future economic depression. The market dictates the business environment, which supposedly thrives with minimal governmental intervention or regulation.
However, the American government may be facing a new crisis soon. Its national debt is astounding. The dollar is no longer backed by gold as it was during the Roosevelt administration, making the entire global market economy dependent on the performance…
Gupta, Pranav and Lee, Jonathan. "The Great Depression and the New Deal." Mar 7, 1996. Retrieved April 10, 2007 at http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/depression/
Hermann, William. "Debate Over New Deal's Role in Great Depression Still Alive." Goldwater Institute. September 8, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2007 at http://www.goldwaterinstitute.org/AboutUs/ArticleView.aspx?id=338
Roosevelt and the New Deal." Spartacus. Retrieved April 10, 2007 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAnewdeal.htm
New Deal Assistance
President oosevelt's New Deal Program failed to do enough for those hit hardest by the Depression: Impoverished Afro-American and white citizens working in the rural areas of the U.S., the elderly, and the working class. There are several reasons why these constituents remained outside the reach of the New Deal program. First, there had been in general very little focus on the needs of these constituents. The New Deal created a state brokering the competing claims of numerous groups, hence named a "broker state" (see New Deal, p. 17). Competition in political and economic life increased tremendously. To an amount never seen before, workers, farmers, consumers, and others now able to press their demands on the federal government in the way that in the past had been available to the corporate world only, competed with each other (see New Deal, p. 17).
The New Deal set up…
American President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Domestic Affairs, derived 14 August 2011 from millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt.
Farmers and the New Deal, derived 14 August 2011 from www.historylearningsite.co.uk > ... > America 1918-1939
Higgs, R. (1997) Regime Uncertainty: Why the Great Depression Lasted So Long and Why Prosperity Resumed after the War. The Independent Review, Vol. I, No. 4, Spring 1997, pp. 561-590. Derived 14 August 2011 from www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_01_4_higgs.pdf
Higgs, R. The Mythology of Roosevelt and the New Deal. September 1, 1998, pp. 1 -- 6. Retrieved 14 August 2011 from www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=176
New Deal 1933-1941
Chapter 27, entitled he New Deal, chronicles Franklin Delano Roosevelt's plan for extricating the United States from the Great Depression through policies that came to be known as 'he New Deal.' he chapter focuses on Roosevelt's early and more controversial plans before the events of World War II propelled America into European and Asian affairs and stimulated the economy into a rapid state of mobilization after a time of initial, cautious clinging to isolationism.
he first hundred days of the Roosevelt Administration, given Roosevelt's desperation to stimulate the American economy, oversaw an alphabet soup of government created industry and administrative bodies, and eventually took the form of such noteworthy organizations as: he National Recovery Administration (NRA), he Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), and he ennessee Valley Authority (VA) the last of which brought electricity to areas of the United States that had never enjoyed such power. he VA…
The first hundred days of the Roosevelt Administration, given Roosevelt's desperation to stimulate the American economy, oversaw an alphabet soup of government created industry and administrative bodies, and eventually took the form of such noteworthy organizations as: The National Recovery Administration (NRA), The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), and The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) the last of which brought electricity to areas of the United States that had never enjoyed such power. The TVA proved to be one of the most popular and successful embodiments of the so-called New Deal Spirit and optimism that gripped the hearts of dispirited Americans of the time. Roosevelt even made outreaches to disenfranchised Native Americans during this tumultuous and formative period of 20th century American history.
One need look no further than works of literature as The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck to see how deeply the unemployment rate had impacted the American spirit of economic expansiveness and optimism of the 1920's. The New Deal infused Americans with much needed confidence and hope in the future. The chapter, however, also chronicles the rise of the so-called social extremists of the era, including the dominating, controlling Governor Huey Long of Louisiana and the conservative Catholic radio priest Father Coughlin, as well as the more radical socialists of the era. Many politicians and advocates tried to dominate either politics or the media to serve their own personal or extremist ends. The collective although different examples of extremity of such men as Long and Coughlin can seen as embodying the desperation of the times.
By the election of 1936, and the softening of the next wave of the New Deal, clearly the call for radical change had stemmed, something Roosevelt himself had to face when he attempted to 'pack' the Supreme Court with his own justices. Still, the New Deal's infusion of social and interventionist policies into the American bureaucratic fabric remains today, even as its spirit was replaced by wartime fervor after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
New Deal Program
The Great Depression hit America in ways that affected everyone, from the richest of the country's society, to the poorest of the urban and rural inhabitants. The stock market crashing left many rich society folk with no wealth, the farmers found themselves without any consumers to buy their overabundance of too-expensive products, and the urban families found themselves precariously scrounging for means of survival, oftentimes going hungry for days on end. This situation certainly set forth the cause for governmental involvement, and by 1933, the FD administration sought to remedy this catastrophe by constructing the New Deal.
The number of the unemployed before the stock market crashed in 1929 was as low as 4%; however, by 1933, this rate had skyrocketed to around 25%. One in four of the working class could not find work, and thus could not support the livelihoods of their families or themselves.…
Bertelli, A. (2010). Congressional Ideology and Administrative Oversight in the New Deal Era. Historical Methods, 43(3), 125-137.
Brinkley, Alan (1991). The Reader's Companion to American History. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Greider, W. (2011). The End of New Deal Liberalism. (Cover story). Nation, 292(4), 18-23.
Moran, R. (2011). Consuming Relief: Food Stamps and the New Welfare of the New Deal. Journal Of American History, 97(4), 1001-1022.
New Deal Regulation and Revolution in American Farms
Sally Clarke introduces her article, "New Deal Regulation and the Revolution in American Farm Productivity," with a brief description of the generally accepted views on government regulation and its role in the American economy from 1900 to 1940. The author points out that a generally negative view is taken of regulation, as it has had many disastrous consequences. However, in the second paragraph she explains how, while there are definite concerns relating to the burden to taxpayers and commodity markets resulting from farm regulation, this same regulation in the 1930s made possible the acquisition of labor-saving machinery.
The thesis of Clarke's article relates to the reasons for which farmers who did not invest in labor-saving machinery during the 1920s did eventually do so during the 1930s. She demonstrates that the Commodity Credit Corporation and the Farm Credit Administration facilitated these investments through…
Clarke, Sally. "New Deal Regulation and the Revolution in American Farm Productivity: A Case Study of the Diffusion of the Tractor in the Corn Belt, 1920-1940." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 51, No. 1 (March 1991), 101-123.
New Deal is often studied as a set of policies targeted towards welfare relief and economic development. However, the New Deal had a very important social justice component as well, particularly with regards to racial justice. Eleanor Roosevelt was leading crusader for human rights and racial equality, while President Roosevelt had an informal network of African-American appointees who were known as the "Black Cabinet." Part of the goals of the New Deal was thus to promote racial equality by creating federal agencies to help ease discrimination against African-Americans and creating economic opportunities for the advancement of black citizens.
This paper examines two scholarly articles examining the New Deal's effects on discrimination against black people. The first article, written by Robert C. eaver in 1935, reveals a cautious support and optimism regarding the New Deal's relief efforts for black factory workers and black farmers in the South. By 1992, however, Dona…
Hamilton, Dona Cooper and Hamilton, Charles. "The Dual Agenda of African-American Organizations Since the New Deal." Political Science Quarterly. Fall 1992. 107(3): 435-453.
Weaver, Robert C.. "New Deal and the Negro: A Look at the Facts." Opportunity, Journal of Negro Life July 1935. October 17, 2003 http://newdeal.feri.org/opp/opp35200.htm.
New Deal and the Great Society
The stock market crash of 1929 brought an economic crisis worldwide, and unemployment in the United States rose from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933 (New Deal pp). hen Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated as the Democratic nominee, in July 1932, he promised "a new deal for the American people" and thus this phrase came to label his administration and its many domestic achievements (New Deal pp).
The Great Society was a phrase used by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964, to announce his goal of social reforms to end poverty and racial injustice (Great pp). Johnson said, "e have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society ... The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all ... It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice" (Great1 pp). Much…
US Foreign Policy.
Muravchik, Joshua. "NATO's Impact on Democratic, Economic Institutions."
New Deal, Great Depression, and World War II's Impact
The New Deal, the Great Depression, and World War II had an immense impact on American history and African-Americans and women in particular. The New Deal was the largest, most concerted, most blatant spending venture by the federal government to date. It was unprecedented both in its scope and in its effect on working-class Americans.
Some of the revolutionary acts of the New Deal were the Emergency anking Act, which gave the president the power to regulate banking affairs, the Economy Act, which balanced the budget, the Federal Emergency Relief Act, which helped out the states, the National Employment System Act, which helped states place people in jobs, and the National Industrial Recovery Act, which regulated labor, eliminated child labor and instituted a minimum wage. (http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/Part3/NewDealSummary.htm)
The New Deal allowed America to pick itself up the bootstraps and recover from the…
Two books requested, and cites above.
oosevelt administration and the New Deal programs treated African-Americans. To what extent did they receive a better treatment? To what extent did the programs reinforce racial discrimination? Please provide two examples to answer each question.
oosevelt's New Deal programs were designed to alleviate poverty, not to specifically heal racial discrimination. However, because of the historical legacy of slavery and discrimination in America, African-Americans were often disproportionately affected by the Great Depression and thus could benefit from these social service programs to an equal degree as whites. In the era before extensive legal protections such as the Civil ights Acts, African-Americans were often the first employees let go by employers seeking to reduce their labor costs during economically trying times like the Great Depression ("FD and the New Deal, 2014). They also were less likely to be unionized and to receive the protections given by union membership.
FD passed anti-lynching and…
New Deal Prolong the Great Depression?
The modern day economy is currently facing the biggest challenges it has faced since the Great Depression of the 1929 -- 1933. Much like then, the leaders of today are striving to develop and implement laws and reforms, with their main emphasis being on stability and prudence -- at least at a theoretical level.
The modern day economic crisis has emerged from within the American real estate sector and was deepened by the crush of the banking sector and the precarious morals of the Wall Street and soon spiraled to impact the entire global economy. But more than three years after the crisis broke out, the Wall Street power players do not seem to have learned their lessons. They continue to grant excessive bonuses to their executives and they disregard the prudential principles in the hope for easy gains.
It is often argued that…
Biles, R., 1991, A New Deal for the American people, Northern University Press
Folsom, B.W., 2008, New Deal or raw deal? How FDR's economic legacy has damaged America, Simon & Schuster
S. Hoover chose a conservative approach in fighting the depression. However, his tactic proved to be inefficient, as it only succeeded in making people furious that their president could not help them.
The Americans experienced rapid changes during the period, as the new president had been keen on accomplishing everything that he wanted. Indeed, the programs started by the new president seemed to be very effective, as many things had changed in the country. Roosevelt had managed to change the way that the whole nation had been thinking at the time, and he did it in a matter of days.
A legislative revolution occurred instead of a real one on the streets of the U.S. Roosevelt's program became known as the New Deal. Compared to Hoover's methods of dealing with the depression, Roosevelt's ones had been far more radical.
In the present, there are some people comparing Barack Obama to…
1. Sugrue, Thomas J. "The Hundred Days War: Histories of the New Deal." The Nation, 27 April, 2009.
2. "The New Deal or Radical Change." Retrieved May 19, 2009, from the Austin Community College District Web site: http://www.austincc.edu/lpatrick/his1302/deal.html
"The New Deal or Radical Change." Retrieved May 19, 2009, from the Austin Community College District Web site:
S. taxpayers or foreigners or alternatively the money will have to be created by the Fed.
While hundreds of billions will be sent out to non-wage-earning individuals who do not pay taxes the same astronomical amount will be spent out of state and municipal governments and the same amount yet again for 'infrastructure' projects which basically means the same thing as earmarks otherwise known as 'pork'. (uchanan, 2009, paraphrased)
Examination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 'New Deal' and what resulted and the examination of President arak Obama's 'Stimulus ailout Package' and the potentialities of that stimulus bailout can only lead this researcher to conclude that President Obama's bailout package will have much the same outcome as did the "New Deal' and had the 'New Deal' not been assisted by the start of World War II and defense spending by U.S. allies which boosted the economy the 'New Deal' would have…
Buchanan, Patrick J. (2009) Obama's Choice: FDR or Reagan. Human Events Online 9 Jan 2009. Available at: http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=30214
Raum, Tom (2009) Analysis: Obama Plans Eclipsing New Deal Spending. Brietbart 20 Feb 2009. Online available at: http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D96FI9CO0&show_article=1
Sullivan, Meg (2004) FDR's Policies Prolonged Depression by 7 years, UCLA Economists Calculate" 10 Aug 2004. UCLA Newsroom. Online available at: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/FDR-s-Policies-Prolonged-Depression-5409.aspx?RelNum=5409
Wolf, Richard (2009) Obama Calls for Bold New Economic Course. 11 Jan 2009. USA Today. Online available at: http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2009-01-08-obama-economy_N.htm
It is noteworthy to mention that this paper was produced within mere years of the attack upon the World rade Center in September of 2001, which many regard as one of the most atrocious terrorist attacks upon the United States, and certainly within its borders, of all time. o that end, the author proposes a number of methods and devices to be employed to detect present and future instances of terrorism in a highly stratified manner that allows for rational, efficacious countermeasures to greatly reduce such threats before they become manifest.
It is important to note the degree of emphasis with which the author advocates the sharing and dissmenation of information between law enforcement agencies at a variety of levels, which are primarily evinced at the municipal, state, and federal levels. he author posits that one of the weaknesses exploited during the afromenetioned terrorist attacks of 2001 was that there…
The Southern Tenants Farmer's Union organized the landless farmers recalled in "Lest We Forget."
The primary purpose of the piece of literature entitled Assessing and Managing the Terrorism Threat, which was published in Septemeber of 2005 by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, is to essentially provide a monograph that denotes the varying phases of risk assessment and how it plays an integral component of risk management. It is noteworthy to mention that this paper was produced within mere years of the attack upon the World Trade Center in September of 2001, which many regard as one of the most atrocious terrorist attacks upon the United States, and certainly within its borders, of all time. To that end, the author proposes a number of methods and devices to be employed to detect present and future instances of terrorism in a highly stratified manner that allows for rational, efficacious countermeasures to greatly reduce such threats before they become manifest.
It is important to note the degree of emphasis with which the author advocates the sharing and dissmenation of information between law enforcement agencies at a variety of levels, which are primarily evinced at the municipal, state, and federal levels. The author posits that one of the weaknesses exploited during the afromenetioned terrorist attacks of 2001 was that there was a lack of cooperation and implementation of intelligence gathered between disparate bureaus and agencies. As a result, one of the primary foundations upon which Assessing and Managing the Terrorist Threat is based upon is the national model of intelligence gathering and sharing which many local and state law enforcement officials have adhered to known as the United States Department of Homeland Security, which "has expanded its computer-based counter-terrorism system to all 50 states, 5 territories, the District of Columbia, and 50 major urban areas to improve the flow of threat information" (1). In many ways, the compiling of intelligence related to terrorist threats is one of the essential methods required to actively assess potential disaster-related scenarios, whether related to terrorist
Roosevelt remained a fiscal conservative at heart who saw deficits as a necessary evil and had faith in the capitalist system, although during the second phase of his New Deal, he did grow more emboldened to curtail the abuses of the 'giants' of industry and cut them 'down to size' with anti-trust laws (Norton 697). Still, he remained eager to balance the budget -- although his attempts to do so in 1937, accompanied with the Federal Reserve Bank's decision to raise interest rates and thus discourage borrowing and investment on the part of citizens and businesses caused the nation to spiral into recession once again (Norton 705).
Some of Roosevelt's programs did seem more like direct extensions of Progressive Era programs, such as Social Security. Just like the progressives had a particular interest in protecting the most defenseless of society, including children and disabled workers, Roosevelt supported the idea that…
Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation. 7th Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2008.
The fear of banking institutions has lasted throughout the generations, and with good reason. Thus, this piece of legislation has remained relevant in order to continue to protect consumers all across the country.
Moreover, the first one hundred days of Roosevelt's term also saw the passing of the Gold Reserve Act. This act severely restricted the amount of gold that was to be owned and sold by Americans. It was passed in January of 1934 ((United States House of Representatives 23). It limited the amount of gold that both private citizens and the Federal Reserve could sell on the private and commercial market. Although passed so long ago, it still stands as viable legislation today. In the modern context, the law limits the amount of gold available to public hands Reserve had to be handed over to the United States Department of the Treasury (Hoizer 1). The law also limited…
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. "History of the FDIC." FDIC.com. 2011. http://www.fdic.gov/about/history/
Hoizer, Henry Mark. "How Americans Lost Their Right to Own Gold and Became Criminals in the Process." Committee for Monetary Research. 1981. http://users.rcn.com/mgfree/Economics/goldHistory.html
McMahan, Brittany. "FDIC: Federal Insurance Company." New Deal 2.0. 2011. http://www.newdeal20.org/2011/07/05/fdic-federal-deposit-insurance-company-48417/
"New Deal." Dictionary of American History. Encyclopedia.com. 2003. 5 Dec 2011, http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/New_Deal.aspx
Second New Deal
Many of the New Deal early bills had been drafted fairly hastily, and thus were declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court (New pp). President Roosevelt now exploited developing class divisions, formed closer relations with organized labor, and increasingly castigated the big business groups that were opposed to his New Deal programs (New pp). Beginning in 1935, these reverses, together with the political opposition, resulted in a second flood of legislation, referred to as the Second New Deal, that included measures such as higher taxes for the rich, strict regulations for private utilities, subsidies for rural electrification, and a bill of rights for organized labor known as the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, which gave federal protection to the bargaining process for workers and established a set of fail employment standards (New pp). The National Labor Relations Act, sometimes referred to as the agner Act,…
The New Deal. Retrieved August 18, 2005 from:
The New1 Deal. Retrieved August 18, 2005 from:
Johnson’s Great Society vs. FDR’s New Deal
As Woods (2016) points out, Lyndon Johnson was a great supporter and admirer of Roosevelt’s New Deal program when it first rolled out during the Depression Era. When Johnson became president following Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, he set about building on the New Deal-era ideas with his Great Society approach to spreading liberalism and the concept that Americans were entitled to things like a good job, good health care, good education, and good homes. The New Deal sought ways to put people to work during an era of economic depression, a way to ease people’s burdens and give them a sense of security, and the Great Society agenda sought to make people feel good about their place in America—but neither really made the ideal a reality.
The Social Security Act of 1935 was signed into law during FDR’s New Deal as an attempt…
Johnson, L. (1964). Great society speech. Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=26262
Woods, R. (2016). How the Great Society reforms of the 1960s were different from the New Deal. Retrieved from http://time.com/4280457/new-deal-great-society-excerpt/
Slavery vs. The New Deal
Slavery vs. New Deal
Two influential events that occurred over the course of American history were slavery and the New Deal. In both situations, they were result of some kind of changes that were taking place and created tremendous amounts of debate about the legality / effectiveness of these ideas. To fully understand their impact on the nation requires comparing the two with one another. Together, these elements will offer specific insights which are highlighting how both shaped economics, politics and the basic freedoms everyone enjoys to this day. (Freidman) (Powel) (Zinn)
Slavery was considered to be a vital part of the Southern states economy. This is because a tradition had been established where large plantations were developed with this being used as a form of cheap labor. Politically, many people were divided about if this practice was considered to be legal, its morality and…
Freidman, Lawrence. American Law and Constitutional Order. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Powel, Jim. Greatest Emancipations. New York: McMillan, 2008. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.
This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors ick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government…
Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available: http://www.americablog.com/2009/02/summary-of-final-stimulus-package.html .
Calmes, Jackie. "House Passes Stimulus Plan with No G.O.P Votes." New York Times 2009.
Fox, Justin. "
New Deal and Programs to Cure the Great Depression
Back in the 1930s, the Americans experienced the worst financial crisis that has ever occurred in the United States' history. In attempts to get back from this particular disaster, the New Deal- a chain of laws and programs, meant to provide assistance to the Americans- was established by Franklin D. Roosevelt. However, an argument has always existed regarding the usefulness of the policies of the New Deal. Robert haples published his results to the prolonged Great Depression in his article "here Is the Consensus among American Economic Historians?" back in 1995. The findings of a research on Forty Propositions states: it is quite exciting to view where the division falls in this argument, given that the difference in reactions clearly exists amidst historians and economists.
In his article, "An Overview of the Great Depression," he offers an introduction to the circumstances…
Eggertsson, Gauti. "Great Expectations and the End of the Depression." American Economic Review. 98. (2008): 1476-1516.
Kirkwood, John. "The Great Depression: A Structural Analysis." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. 4. (1972): 811-837.
Parker, Randall, ed. Economic History Association. Tuscan: 2010. s.v. "An Overview of the Great Depression." http://www.eh.net/eha/contact-us (accessed February 10, 2013).
President Roosevelt took a proactive approach to the Great Depression, immediately proposing the New Deal programs as practical steps towards rebuilding the nation’s economy. When he was elected, Roosevelt also demonstrated understanding of the need for emotional messages to help the American people remain calm and confident. For example, one of FDR’s most famous quotes was delivered in his inaugural address: “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Roosevelt capitalized on the power of the radio to deliver his message of hope and inspiration to the American public. Starting in 1933, Roosevelt delivered the “Fireside Chats,” which informed the public but also provided the psychological solace that so many needed.
Who Benefitted from the New Deal
Ultimately all Americans benefitted from the New Deal, which comprised a number of different but related programs designed to stimulate the economy and mitigate harm. The New Deal programs…
Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal reflected the concept of positive government, meaning that the New Deal gave Americans an optimistic outlook.
that the New Deal helped the United States to balance its budget.
that government intervention helped people to attain a greater degree of individual freedom and security at a time when economic insecurity was widespread.
that the federal government take over policies from the states.
that President Roosevelt himself was optimistic, using his radio broadcasts to bolster Americans' spirits.
Government intervention and spending was one of the cornerstones of the New Deal
All of the following statements about Hispanic-Americans are true except they are the fastest-growing minority in the United States.
they have made major political gains in terms of electing local officials, particularly in the Southwestern states.
they are one of the nation's oldest ethnic groups despite the fact that many of today's Hispanic-Americans are relatively recent arrivals.
Great Depression and the New Deal
The Great Depression
The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash of 1929. The 1920s had been a roaring good time for Americans: credit was easy and investments were going up. In the 1920s, it was known as the Installment Plan -- and "enjoy while you pay" was a popular expression used to lure buyers into the market who could not otherwise afford to be consumers. Credit was used for everything -- including stock. However, when credit expands in the form of shoddy loans, a credit bubble is created. The bubble, in this case, popped in 1929 when the market realized no more credit was going to be pumped in as a result of too many loans to undeserving customers were being made (i.e., customers who could not pay them back). With the market correction came the margin calls and accounts had…
Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and The Great
Depression. NY: Vintage, 1983.
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction America 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
Fiorello LaGuardia was a New Deal Republican, a man who supported President Franklin Roosevelt and who used that support to help change New York City, to cut off patronage from the Tammany system, and to revitalize New York City, restore public faith, unify the transit system, built low-cost public housing, playgrounds and parks; put money into airports, reorganized the police force, and reestablished the idea of merit employment in place of patronage jobs. In short, in his domineering and authoritarian three terms, he literally turned the New York political machine on its head; used his connections with the hite House to revamp New York City in the midst of the Depression, and gave New York City a chance to become a modern, world-class city. hile criticized for being heavy-handed, his reforms were carefully orchestrated to focus on those areas that had been hardest hit by the economic woes of the…
Allen, O. The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1993.
Berg, B. New York City Politics: Governing Gotham. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007.
Brodsky, A. The Great Mayor: Fiorello La Gudardia and the Making of the City of New York. New York: St. Martin's, 2003.
Burrows. E / amd Wallace, M. Gotham: A History of New York City. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
spring of 2010 y Rasmussen Reports showed that 55% of New Yorkers lamed the state's udget crisis solely on the state's politicians. The telephone survey showed that the then $9 illion udget deficit was perceived as eing a result of the "ickering" amongst Democrats and Repulicans in Alany. The voters showed their concern y electing a new governor last fall, Andrew Cuomo, the son of a former governor, Mario Cuomo. Yet the situation is still serious. See, 55% of New Yorkers lame udget crisis on legislators, Rassmussen Reports, May 6, 2010.
But the Empire State is not alone in feeling the fiscal pain of the ongoing economic downturn facing the U.S.
As states across the U.S. this spring ponder their udget proposals for the coming fiscal year, they continue to face a monumental challenge. The worst economic depression since the 1930s has fostered the steepest decline in state tax receipts…
This will help to set off the startup costs.
The initial production costs are realistic because of the suggestion that outsourcing will be used. The company is relying on an outsourcing expert who has written several books on the subject. The software development will also expand to an offshore location which potentially can cut cost even further. USuggest plans to use search engine linked online portals as a marketing tool and they are seeking a merger or acquisition with a large, established Internet company to further increase profits for their brand. Mergers can lead to the company becoming more efficient by utilizing economies of scale. Cost saving can also be recognized by combined marketing, advertising and by cutting down on the overlap of &D (Shukla and Gekara, 2010).
Even though this venture is in the startup stages, it definitely has the potential to grow into something much larger. The target…
Shukla, a., & Gekara, M. (2010). Effects of Multinational Mergers and Acquisitions on Shareholders' Wealth and Corporate Performance. IUP Journal of Accounting Research & Audit Practices, 9(1/2), 44-62.
Van Rooij, a. (2008). How R&D helped transform DSM. Research Technology Management, 51(1), 43-48.
Wenzel, E. (2011). Moving to the Cloud Isn't for Everyone: What to Consider First. PC World, 29(7), 32.
Company Initiative Analysis
Analysis of New Initiative by Office Depot
Office Depot is a company that was incorporated in 1986, and that year opened its first store in Fort Lauderdale, FL that year (Office Depot, 2012). The company has continued to expand during the past 26 years and continues that tradition by initiating plans to move even farther with its international business. According to one portion of the company website "In addition to doing business in 47 countries, Office Depot has over 1,500 retail locations across the globe. In the U.S., Office Depot has stores in 49 states with 34 Distribution Centers or Crossdock facilities scattered across the country" (Office Depot, 2012). However, this global acquisition and expansion is currently only in the early stages. The company has plans to expand its reach in the United States and abroad by partnering with similar firms in other parts of…
Bamberger, K.A. (2006). Regulation as delegation: Private firms, decision making, and accountability in the administrative state. Duke Law Journal, 56(2), 377-401
Barney, J.L. (2009). Beyond economics: The U.S. recognition of international financial reporting standards as an international sub-delegation of the SEC's rulemaking authority. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42(2), 579-603.
Office Depot. (2012). About Office Depot. Retrieved from http://www.officedepot.com/specialLinks.do;jsessionid=0000zrmplRyf8g9zFPQls FpbrAe:13ddpq53l?file=/companyinfo/companyfacts/index.jsp&template=compan yInfo
Patukhov, O. (2009). Going where no taxman has gone before: Preliminary conclusions and recommendations drawn from a decade of debate on the international taxation of e-commerce. Rutgers Computer & Technology Law Journal, 36(1), 1- 24.
New Expatriate Orientation Program Design
Mission and Vision of the New Expatriate Program
Key Objectives of the Program
Number of Participants
ecommended Participants for the Program
Expatriate Orientation Program Content
Learning Methodology of the Program
Program Fee Structure
It is the part of human nature to progress and grow in every facet of life from the time they complete their education and enter into the world of commerce. The key driving aspect for an individual is to provide their families with all the comfort and lavish lifestyle so that they can enjoy the life to the fullest. In this search of growth and prosperity, one of the widespread actions that have been observed is relocation. People relocate and move to other places from their country of origin so that they can give a financially better and secure future to their families (Marquardt, 2013).
However, the fact…
Adekola, A. & Sergi, B. S. (2007). Global Business Management: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Adekola, A. & Sergi, B. S. (2012). Global Business Management: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Amit, V. (2011). Going First Class?: New Approaches to Privileged Travel and Movement. USA: Berghahn Books.
Corlett, D. (2008). Stormy Weather: The Challenge of Climate Change and Displacement. Australia: UNSW Press.
There are many theories of leadership which can help make a transition smoother. Contingency theory and situational theory are two such theories which states that no one leadership style can suit all situations but there is some difference between these two theories. Leaders need to understand that they will not be facing the same kind of situations each day and hence they must be willing to adopt a flexible style that can be altered according to the situation at hand. This is quite similar to situational theory of leadership with one major difference. Contingency theory maintains that some times a leader who appears very effective and successful in one situation may not find himself all that effective in a different situation simply because leadership is contingent upon some factors. Situational leadership on the other hand states that leaders can adopt certain behavior and traits for variety of situations and alter…
Ken Blanchard, Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Leadership (1999)
New Trade Theory
Since the end of the Cold War, the world has been undergoing a major transformation. This is because of globalization and advances in technology are making countries more interdependent upon one another. The basic idea is to reduce trade barriers and increase the total amounts of competition. Over the course of time, this will increase productivity and specialization (which will help to improve the standard of living in specific regions). However, the recent economic implosion from 2007 to 2009, are illustrating how all economic theories are filled with flaws. (Taylor, 2008, pp. 1 -- 11)
As a result, a host of new theories are being introduced to address these issues. In some cases, this involves taking old ideas and combining them with new techniques. While at other times, these views are building off of the mistakes of the past to create the best economic philosophy. To fully…
Gonzalez, M. (2011). Is Porter's Diamond Applicable. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (6), 17 -- 30.
Greenway, R. (2007). Firm Heterogeneity. The Economic Journal, 117, F134 -- F161.
Jones, R. (1994). America's High Tech Industries. Journal of the Economics of Business, 1 (1), 151 -- 157.
Rob, R. (2003). Foreign Direct Investment. Review of Economic Studies 70, 629 -- 648.
New King Fahad National Library in iyadh
The rise of the electronic medium of media amongst the masses has become the main motive of decrease in the progress of printed tools and materials along with the decrease in using the academic materials. Each one of these new developments combined with the data of students visiting the library has laid down numerous claims on the entire abolishment of the standard structure of a library. Nonetheless, some researchers have aggressively suggested incorporating the "social" spaces such as for example cafes, museums and theaters; creating a mutual group study and forming "information commons," while some have simply given up the idea of the subsistence of the traditional form of libraries. The assorted reactions to the down sides of the King Fahad National Library have embedded the concept that libraries facilitate a lot more than just being truly a storeroom or a storage facility…
Armitage, C.J. And C. Mark (2001). "Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta analytic review." The British Journal of Social Psychology 40: 471.
Bagozzi, R.P. And Lee, K-H. (2002). "Multiple routes for social influence: The role of compliance, internalization, and social identity." Social Psychology Quarterly 65(3): 226.
Barbara Fister, "Common Ground: Libraries and Learning," Library Issues, 25 (Sept. 2004): 2.
Beagle, D. (1999). "Conceptualizing an Information Commons," The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 25 (Mar. 1999): 85.
New Life: Scaling Up Social Enterprise Start-Ups
New Life Psychiatric ehabilitation Association (New Life) was a private organization located in Hong Kong that offered care and rehabilitation to people with psychiatric disabilities. While the organization was quite successful, the biggest challenge facing New Life was finding gainful employment for their clients after training. This was so intrinsic that despite their best efforts, many of their former clients came back to New Life because of the inability to find work. To solve this, New Life started a social enterprise initiative in 1994 that would directly create jobs and training opportunities. This had dual purposes; it would keep clients employed and establish self-sustaining businesses -- like produce stands, etc.
The basic value set for the organization was what struck me as most relevant. Here was a group of individuals committed to helping others overcome a disability and then to give back to…
Ip, S.; Wong, G. (2009). New Life: Scaling up Social Enterprise Start Ups. Asia Case
Research Centre. HKU 871. Retrieved from: http://www.greendotdot.com
Wood, D.; Price, M. (2003). ILinc -- Case Study of a Start Up. Boston: Harvard Business
School Publication # BAB111.
Dell Inc. Marketing and Manufacturing Process Integration
Based on analysis of Sources: (Kapuscinski, Zhang, Carbonneau, Moore, eeves, 2004) (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2009) (Bilek, 2010)
Discussion of Current Business Issues
Today Dell suffers from not having enough insight into the most critical customer relationships necessary to grow its emerging virtualization and Cloud computing businesses, as the company's approach to managing by technology instead of customers created a very myopic mindset. The transition from being purely technology- and product-centric to one that puts customer feedback and their insights into the center of a business model can only be achieved by measuring processes and improving them (Liu, Guo, Lee, 2011). Nowhere is this more evident than in the company's quoting process. Ironically for a company so well-known for its build-to-order process online, tis enterprise-wide quoting systems are seriously broken and often can take weeks to produce a highly specific quote for a…
Bilek, G.. (2010). The Value of Information Sharing in a Build-to-Order Supply Chain. The Business Review, Cambridge, 15(1), 131-136.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance -- the mediating role of new product performance. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 39(2), 290-306.
Finnegan, D., & Currie, W.. (2010). A multi-layered approach to CRM implementation: An integration perspective. European Management Journal, 28(2), 153.
Gunasekaran, a., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational Research, 195(2), 319.
New York eal Estate and Office Markets
NEW YOK CITY OFFICE MAKET
New York is one of the premiere metropolitan areas of the world, exerting a significant impact on global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York City is an important center for international affairs and is widely deemed the cultural capital of the world. With its unmatched scope of building types, diverse tenant base and extensive transportation system, the city has earned an iconic and prominent place in the global market.
The borough of Manhattan serves as its hub and is the nation's largest single office market with 450 million square feet of space (Brown, 2007). Its office inventory is greater than the next five largest U.S. markets combined and features some of the world's most iconic properties (Beauregard, 2005). This paper explores the current state of…
1. Beauregard, R.A. (2005). The textures of property markets: Downtown housing and office conversions in New York City. Urban Studies (Routledge), 42(13), 2431-2445. doi:10.1080/00420980500380345
2. Brown, J.L. (2007). Demolition in Manhattan Gains Momentum. Civil Engineering (08857024), 77(8), 34.
3. Gong, H., & Keenan, K. (2012). The Impact of 9/11 on the Geography of Financial Services in New York A Few Years Later. Professional Geographer, 64(3), 370-388. doi:10.1080/00330124.2011.603654
4. Gregor, A. (2011). Demand for Office Condos Grows in Manhattan. New York Times. p. 6.
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
NEW ENGLAND TRADITIONS grew up in a family who moved from Boston, Massachusetts to San Diego, California. Needless to say, Thanksgiving has always been an interesting blend of staid New England cooking, blended with some laid-back California traditions with a baby-boom mother mentality of frozen and canned foods as part of the tradition.
My mother learned traditional New England cooking from her mother, and so we still ate a lot of "pot roast" and "New England boiled dinners" complete with over-boiled cabbage and corned beef, for Sunday dinner. My mother still made real Boston baked beans and brown bread for occasional Saturday night suppers, too.
Thanksgiving was always a big deal in our house, even though the rest of the family was back East, and there was only us to celebrate the day. Sometimes we would invite friends who also did not have family in San Diego. Sometimes we would…
The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:
Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget
Fiscal Year 2006
Fiscal Year 2007
Total Appropriation for Category 01
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 01, GENEAL GOVENMENT
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01
FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180
OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779
GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224
TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183
Total Appropriation for Category 02
ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 02, ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN, as INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02
FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675
OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692
GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891
TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566
Total Appropriation for Category 03
ESOUCE POTECTION & DEVELOPMENT
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for…
Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at http://www.nhpolicy.org/nhbudget/19932003v1.pdf
Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at http://www.nhpolicy.org/budget_trends2007.pdf .
Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/LBA/Indexbudget.html.
President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/budget/2006/states/nh.html# .
New Face of War
According to Bruce Berkowitz, a senior RAND analyst and United States Defense Department and Intelligence consultant, the new paradigm of war involves a curious combination of stealth, secrecy, and above all, information technology. How the world's military powers choose to utilize and capitalize on existing and emerging technologies will be the key to determining the victors in future warfare. In Berkowitz's 2003 publication entitled, The New Face of War: How War will the Fought in the 21st Century, the author analyses past instances of both successful and unsuccessful uses of information technology by military powers including but not limited to the United States. Showing how the world of intelligence has evolved from, as the author puts it, "Sumerians ... preserving their beer recipes on clay cuneiform tablets," to the types of advanced digital technologies that permit covert communications between terrorist cell networks, Berkowitz presents a clear…
Time broken into hours, days, weeks, and months must also be mastered. This is the grade level where statistics are introduced. Students learn to "Collect data using observations, surveys, and experiments and record appropriately," and then turn those observations into appropriate visual representations of them which would allow them to make predictions (4.S.2).
The fifth grade set standards also aim to utilize previous points in order to get into more complex mathematical understandings of the world. Students must "Understand the basic language of logic in mathematical situations (and, or, not)," (5.PS.9). Within that language, fifth graders should be able to pick the best strategies and "Decode and comprehend mathematical visuals and symbols to construct meaning" (5.CM.11). This is the grade level where students must able to find the missing value which makes a particular equation true (_+3=5). Also understanding the nature of ratios and their different forms is an important…
Resentment toward Hispanics grew constantly from their arrival in New Mexico. Amerindians in the present day are also reluctant to accept Hispanic customs and their traditions have not changed much in the last centuries (Silverberg, 1970, p. 70).
Politics is a domain rarely dealt with by Native Americans in New Mexico, mostly because of the discrimination they risk facing as a result of joining politics in an Anglo-dominant government and because they are aware they have limited chances to occupy a high position in the state administration. The Civil Rights Division has approached this condition and emphasized that the state Administration should not act inequitable toward Native Americans who want to engage in performing politics (CASES RAISING CLAIMS UNDER SECTION 2 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT). Mexican-Americans have a larger contribution to the New Mexico political scene, even with the fact that their authority is often oppressed by the government…
1. Blake, K. "Sacred and Secular Landscape Symbolism at Mount Taylor, New Mexico," Journal of the Southwest 41.4 (1999): 487.
2. Blanton, C.K. "George I. Sanchez, Ideology and Whiteness in the Making of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, 1930-1960," Journal of Southern History 72.3 (2006).
3. Gomez, L.E. "Race, Colonialism, and Criminal Law: Mexicans and the American Criminal Justice System in Territorial New Mexico," Law & Society Review 34.4 (2000).
4. Griesbach, D."Resilience as Resistance: Representing Hispanic New Mexico to the Federal Writers' Project in Lou Sage Batchen's Placitas Stories," MELUS 32.1 (2007)
New product development is pivotal and vital for the success of any business and organization. By developing and unveiling new products, a company is able to generate new prospects and reach markets. One particular important aspect that is deemed important in achieving successful product development is attaining innovative feedback and participation from consumers and markets, as they provide a concrete basis (Zemlickiene and Maditinos, 2012). Despite the fact that new product development encompasses a great deal of risk, it is deemed to be one of the most imperative strategies in any market or industry that is filled with competition. Numerous companies have been able to generate competitiveness and attained considerable profits and returns through the process of new product development. The influence that new product development has on consumer espousal and innovative behavior cannot be stressed or underlined enough. The unveiling of new products and services in the marketplace signifies…
ADIELE, K. C. (2012). New product development and consumer innovative behavior: an empirical validation study. European journal of business and social sciences, 1(6), 97-109.
Agrawal, A., & Bhuiyan, N. (2014). Achieving Success in NPD Projects. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 8(2), 476-481.
Bhuiyan, N. (2011). A framework for successful new product development.Journal of Industrial Engineering and management, 4(4), 746-770.
Zemlickiene, V., & Maditinos, D. I. (2012). Marketing strategy formulation for innovative product development process. Business: Theory and Practice/Verslas: Teorijairpraktika, 13(4), 365-374.
This makes retention essential, as new nurses must stay with the hospital and become nurse specialists for CMC to continue to maintain its reputation. Nursing education is also essential.
Unfortunately, a stressed and pressured environment that is understaffed can create tension rather than foster cooperation between nurses, particularly old and young nurses. Older nurses may believe that their younger colleagues must 'pay their dues' before they are fully accepted as part of the staff. Younger nurses may find themselves given more onerous tasks and denied learning opportunities, as they assume the 'grunt work' of the nursing staff.
Sadly, no one benefits from such an adversarial culture. Younger nurses leave in greater numbers, out of frustration, further compounding the nursing shortage at CMC. Little hands-on instruction and education means that new graduates lack confidence and autonomy in their decision-making and are more prone to error and relying upon more skilled…
AACN Fact sheet. (2009, September). AACN website. Retrieved April 10, 2010 at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Media/FactSheets/NursingShortage.htm
Addressing the nursing shortage: Background brief. (2010). Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved April
10, 2010 at http://www.kaiseredu.org/topics_im.asp?imID=1&parentID=61&id=138
Buerhaus, Peter I. (2010). Trends in the experiences of hospital-employed registered nurses:
All three groups argued against monied interests and big business, all three represented marginalized groups in economic and political life, and all three sought to expand the power of government at the expense of commerce. The New Deal coalition invited many new people to join the political process, taking advantage of the efforts of the Populists and the Progressives to open up the voting process. hile the New Deal lacked the outwardly religious and evangelical flavor of the previous two movements, at its core, the message of all three groups was the same -- a more powerful and responsive government, regulation of capitalism to support the common welfare, and the creation of laws to protect the weakest members of society.
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. eb. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth…
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. Web. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth Century.
Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. Print.
Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion: An American History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
changed "Old South" ( Civil ar) "New South" ( Civil ar Second orld ar) modern South today? hat gained? hat lost? hat impact Civil ar Emancipation Southern Economy? The economy North? How Southern agriculture reorganized Civil ar? hat planters ? Black Freedmen? Consider tenancy sharecropping -- controversial? How Post war Southern agriculture Civil ar? hat trends southern agriculture 1865-1920? How compare mid-west? ere black tenants locked debt peonage tied land unable move opportunities, claimed? hat competing view? hat evidence cited? hat factors aided retarded growth manufacturing Civil ar? Consider specific industries problems.
The "New South" experienced change as African-Americans came to be normal workers and as the process of industrialization pervaded the territory. The Second orld ar and the Civil Rights movement provided individuals in the area with the hope they needed consequent to the Great Depression, considering how the economic crisis deeply affected them.
The Civil ar had a…
Fabre, Genevieve, "History and Memory in African-American Culture," (Oxford University Press, 1994)
Rothenberg, Daniel, "With These Hands: The Hidden World of Migrant Farmworkers Today," (University of California Press)
Turner-Sadler, Joanne, "African-American History: An Introduction," (Peter Lang, 2009)
This new generation of activists on college campuses nationwide has inspirited students to talk about their concerns about workers rights. This effort was also conducted largely through e-mail campaigns over the Internet. Some graduate students have already formed their own unions.
Appealing to Right-To-Work States
Arizona, famously known as a right-to-work state, is emerging as a new stomping ground for labor unions. Organized labor is making one of its largest efforts in state history to recruit new members and increase its political clout (Graham and Pitzl).
The effort cuts across a broad swath of industries that includes iron workers, painters, grocery-store workers, and state government employees.
Two unions kicked off their combined effort to organize state government workers, citing low pay and the need to have a voice on working conditions.
Union groups are leading the drive to establish a minimum wage in Arizona. "Arizona's labor unions have never been…
Asher, Herbert, Eric Heberlig and Randall Ripley. American labor unions in the electoral arena. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
Boone, Louis and David Kurtz. Contemporary Business. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1999.
Edwards, Richard. Rights at Work: Employment Relations in the Post-Union Era. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1994.
Graham, Chad and Mary Jo Pitzl. "Ariz.'s growth attracts unions." 20 Aug 2006. azcentral.com. 6 May 2009 .
In this way, customers will be infused with the same enthusiasm, which will encourage sales.
Workforce Planning System
The goals for the team need to be concomitant with the company's new purpose as a seller of both cleaning products and services. Hence the sales team need to be selected and trained in such a way to optimize the sales force for both purposes. Specifically, the company is focused upon hiring a diverse and talented sales team. The team should be both customer- and sales-driven.
The hard skills of such persons therefore need to be good communication skills, the ability to obtain new customers, and a good knowledge of the cleaning products and services being sold. Soft skills will include good interpersonal relationships, an ability to remain calm in conflict situations, and enthusiasm for performing the work.
As such, the types of positions needed on the team will be those that…
New World" & "Black Robe"
Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.
In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…
new product requires several marketing considerations. There are many negative factors to product development that must be dealt with. There are also several factors that promote successful product development. Finally, product positioning and pricing are two important considerations.
One of the negative factors is uncertainty. This is especially true if the product is not only a new product for the organization but also a new product for the industry. One example that shows this is the computer software industry. The uncertainty is present because of its nature as a new and pioneering industry. The industry is rapidly changing and companies in the industry must be continually innovative and make decisions based on limited information. There is no certainty in this industry that a successful company will remain successful. To give an example, we can consider Apple-Macintosh. Apple-Macintosh had first-mover advantages as the first to develop a graphical user…
Ball, D.A., McCulloch, W.H., International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1999.
Bradmore, D., Joy, S., & Kimberley, C. Marketing Visions. New York: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Burke, R., Condron, I., Conroy, G., Knol, W., & Nolan, P., Strategy in emerging industries: Microsoft Corporation. http://www.bess.tcd.ie/foresight
Daft, R.L. Management. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press, 1998.
new techniques used to store and download music from the web? Explain
There are a number of industry changes that are occurring. One such change deals with the online radio features that lets users access a variety of music for free with ads or an ad-free paid subscription. Some of these services such as Spotify let you save and playback tracks as you wish thus making iTunes virtually irrelevant so long as there is an internet connection.
hat are the incentives for composers to "post" their creations on the web? Give examples
The entire business model for the industry is changing. Technology has made it increasingly easy to pirate anything digital. Yet some people still prefer to pay for their own personal integrity. By giving music away and selling through various distribution channels, the music itself can be its own marketing campaign and several users will still choose to support…
Owsinski, B. (2014, May 4). 50 Cent The Latest To Exploit The Music Industry's Newest Business Model. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/bobbyowsinski/2014/03/04/50-cent-the-latest-to-exploit-the-music-industrys-newest-business-model/
com and their continual stream of new updates on key applications. This will be handled by the it teams and the users of the system do not need to have visibility into the details of this. When major new features are being introduced by Salesforce.com then formal application training will be completed to introduce features to the users quickly. Support internally will be handled by the it help Desk which will send two of their team members to San Francisco to be certified on Salesforce.com and its Force.com integration structure. The users only need to know the escalation path for their questions; none of these other factors are relevant to their needs.
The successful launch of any new CM system relies heavily on how well project management gains support from users and most importantly, a champion in senior management (King, Burgess, 2008). Overcoming resistance to change needs to be…
Foss, B., Stone, M., & Ekinci, Y.. (2008). What makes for CRM system success -- or failure? Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15(2), 68-78.
King, S., & Burgess, T.. (2008). Understanding success and failure in customer relationship management. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(4), 421.
Regan, E, & O'Connor, Bridget. (2002). End-user information systems: implementing individual and work group technologies,. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shanks, G., Jagielska, I., & Jayaganesh, M.. (2009). A Framework for Understanding Customer Relationship Management Systems Benefits. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 25(1), 1.
New Face of Development," onald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World." Essentially, each of these articles takes varying approaches in chronicling the history of development and the impact that it will have on the future. The overarching goal that is found in synthesizing each of these works is that the ultimate repercussion for development will involve a shifting of power from conventional Westernization to the emergence of developing nations leading the way in a host of vital areas such as population, workforce, and aspects of production including food and health care.
Lancaster's article alludes to this fact by examining the history of development since the close of World War II. One of the most vital factors during this nearly 70-year process is the Cold War,…
Goldstone, J. (2010). "The new population bomb: the four megatrends that will change the world." Foreign Affairs.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C. (2009). "How development leads to democracy:what we know about modernization." Foreign Affairs.
Lancaster, C. (No date). "The new face of development."
Trani, E.P. (No date). "Dollar Diplomacy." Encyclopedia of the New Nation. http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/Dollar-Diplomacy.html#b
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…
Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.
Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. http://hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/cwpoetry.html
Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit2.htm
Off-duty time does not extend the 14-hour period.
15-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after having been on duty for 15 hours, following 8 consecutive hours off duty. Off-duty time is not included in the 15-hour period.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days. A driver may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off duty.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using the sleeper berth provision must take at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, plus a separate 2 consecutive hours either in the sleeper berth, off duty, or any combination of the two.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using a sleeper berth must take at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth, and may split the sleeper-berth time into two…
About DOT. (2012). U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.dot.gov/ .
Ashmore, R.B. & Staff, W.C. (1994). Teaching ethics: An interdisciplinary approach.
Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Belz, S.M., Robinson, G.S. & Casali, J.G. (2004). Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators. Human Factors, 46(1), 154-156.
(Eison, 1990, p. 24)
One of the fundamental issues that has been documented with regard to problems experience by new and inexperienced teachers is teaching ' vision' and the self - concept that the teacher has of him or herself. This facet has a direct influence on the quality of the teaching as well as on relationship between the teacher and the students.
Many of the fundamental problems that the new teacher may experience are related to the personal vision that the teacher has about what teaching means and what is expected of them. "One of the most powerful predictors of teachers' commitment to teaching is a "sense of efficacy --the teachers' sense that he or she is making a positive difference in the lives of students." (Hammerness, 2003) This sense of efficacy is related to the teacher's 'vision' or view of the nature of the profession and its expectations.…
Austin, L. (2004). A Constructivist Approach to Facilitating Intrapersonal Change in Pre-Service Teachers. College Student Journal, 38(2), 309+. Retrieved July 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Betof, E. (2004, March). Leaders as Teachers. T&D, 58, 55+. Retrieved July 28, 2005, from Questia database,
sales representative's bane is oftentimes the paperwork that has to be completed before he or she can be paid. This is true whether the forms are product related or, in many cases, reimbursement forms to be compensated for funds spent by the sales rep. Many companies still request that the sales rep keep receipts until the end of the month, fill out an accompanying form and turn the forms in, stapled with the receipts of course, and then be reimbursed within a couple of weeks. Such a scenario is very tedious, time-consuming and aninefficient method for the sales reps as well as the company.
There are a number of rules that must be followed when determining whether a business expense is truly reimbursable or not. One requirement deals with the allotted time that an expense can be submitted. As one article states "the substantiation of expenses and the return of…
Accountable expense reimbursement guidelines; (2005) Clergy Journal, Vol. 82, Issue 1, p. 23
Cassey, M.Z.; (2007) Keeping up with existing and emerging technologies: An introduction to PDA's, Nursing Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 121-135
Huffstutler, S.; Wyatt, T.; Wright, C.P.; (2002) The use of handheld technology in nursing education, Nurse Educator, Vol. 27, Issue 6, pp. 271-275
Zurmehly, J.; (2010) Personal digital assistants (PDA's): Review and evaluation, Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 179-182