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Roosevelt's strategy of occupation philosophically presupposed an import to democracy as noted by his 'New Nationalism' speech in 1910. Here, he pronounced that it ought rightly to be nothing less than the purpose of America's being in existence and honoring the claims of the Constitution to incite others to recognize the value of democracy. As Roosevelt argued, "Our country -- this great Republic -- means nothing unless it means the triumph of a real democracy, the triumph of popular government, and, in the long run, of an economic system under which each man shall be guaranteed the opportunity to show the Implicit to the assumptions of Roosevelt's New Nationalism would be such American assumptions as Caucasian racial superiority, Christian moral denomination and western patriarchy. Such is to say that assumptions of cultural superiority and ethnocentrism that would be inherent to Roosevelt's perspective would also have a heavy bearing on future…
Roosevelt, T. (1910). New Nationalism Speech. Teaching National History. Online at http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=501
Nationalism and Its Importance in the Development of Nations in the 1900s
Nationalism is considered as the proliferation of a homogenous political identity to a community that is bounded by a territory through various means of communication. In some cases, nationalism is described as the feeling of patriotic zeal for an individual's country. Nationalism was a common factor in the development of nations in the 1900s that also contributed to the First orld ar. This concept played a crucial role in the development of nations in the 1900s by developing a sentiment that bounded large groups of people on the idea that they have certain things in common such as religion, culture, and ethnicity. However, the modern concept of nationalism is based on a sense of common national identity. Given the patriotic fervor it generates, nationalism played a significant role in the development of nations in the 1900s.
Best, Antony. The International History of East Asia, 1900 -- 1968: Trade, Ideology and the Quest for Order. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.
Burke, Matthew. "Liberal Nationalism's Role in the Development of the German Nation-State." Historia. Eastern Illinois University, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. .
Lewis, Dakota. "Nationalism in Europe 1815-1900." Prezi. Prezi Inc., 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. .
O'LEARY, BRENDAN. "On the Nature of Nationalism: An Appraisal of Ernest Gellner's Writings on Nationalism." British Journal of Political Science 27 (1997): 191-222. Print.
Two distinct political movements influence the course of modern Taiwanese history: groups that are pro-independence and those that favor eventual unification with mainland China. In the year 2000, the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party came into power in Taiwan, taking over from the well-established Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party). The official websites of these two major Taiwanese political parties display different approaches to the independence issue as well as to Taiwanese history and culture. The tone of writing, content, and design layout of these websites also distinguish the attitudes of these opposing political parties.
The Kuomintang enjoys the honor of being the most well-established and historically popular political party on the island of Taiwan. Started by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the Kuomintang savored relatively unchallenged political dominance until the year 2000. The Kuomintang website at http://www.kmt.org.tw/e_index.html, which only offers one page of information in the English language, only briefly mentions the peaceful…
Democratic Progressive Party. http://www.dpp.org.tw/ .
Effectively, then, the insurgency is leftist, and in the cases of these films, the left wins, either by proxy or by morality and the world is once again a better place.
EFEENCES and WOKS CONSULTED
Braudy, L. And M. Cohen, eds., (2009). Film Theory and Criticism. Oxford University
Burgoyne, . (2010). Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. University of Minnesota Press.
Hayward, S. (2006). Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. outledge.
Santas, C. (2007). The Epic in Film: From Myth to Blockbuster. owman and Littlefield.
TAILES and PEVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
"Cossack Brotherhood." (1962). Taras Bulba. Cited in:
"Lion of the Desert." (1981). Film Clip. Cited in:
"Michael Collins," (1986). Cited in:
"Taras Bulba." (1962). Cited in:
"The Patriot." (1998). Cited in: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120786/
"The Patriot." (1998) Film Clips. Cited in:
"V for Vendetta." (2005). Film Clips.…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Braudy, L. And M. Cohen, eds., (2009). Film Theory and Criticism. Oxford University
Burgoyne, R. (2010). Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. University of Minnesota Press.
Hayward, S. (2006). Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge.
For Li & Brewer, the foremost different between nationalism and patriotism is that patriotism is "love of the country" and "attachment to national values based on critical understanding" (Adorno et al. As cited in Wei, oy, Wells, ethen and Huang, 2006). Meanwhile, McConnachie (2003) believes that the main difference between the two is that "a patriot is one who expressed emotion - love. A patriot loves his country whereas a nationalist is someone who expresses his love or concern for his nation in an active political way - someone who takes a hands-on political approach."
McConnachie, a. (2003). Understanding Patriotism and Nationalism. Sovereignty, October 2003. etrieved March 4, 2009 from www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/articles/edit1/html.
Nationalism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. etrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com.
Patriotism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. etrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com.
Wei, L., oy, S., Wells, J., ethen, M., & Huang, C.T., (2006). Patriotism or Nationalism?: The…
McConnachie, a. (2003). Understanding Patriotism and Nationalism. Sovereignty, October 2003. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/articles/edit1/html.
Nationalism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved March 4, 2009 at http://www.merriam-webster.com .
Patriotism (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved March 4, 2009 at
All three groups argued against monied interests and big business, all three represented marginalized groups in economic and political life, and all three sought to expand the power of government at the expense of commerce. The New Deal coalition invited many new people to join the political process, taking advantage of the efforts of the Populists and the Progressives to open up the voting process. hile the New Deal lacked the outwardly religious and evangelical flavor of the previous two movements, at its core, the message of all three groups was the same -- a more powerful and responsive government, regulation of capitalism to support the common welfare, and the creation of laws to protect the weakest members of society.
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. eb. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth…
Edwards, Rebecca. "1896: The Populist Party." Vassar College. N.p., 2000. Web. 10 May 2010.
Horowitz, David and Peter Carroll. On the Edge: The United States in the Twentieth Century.
Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. Print.
Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion: An American History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
Anyone who has ever talked to a relative who lived through that era, or read personal accounts of orld ar II knows that while the German forces were referred to as 'Germans,' the Japanese were called 'Japs.' Anti-Japanese propaganda often portrayed the Asian enemy in quite explicitly racist terms, because of the Japanese's 'foreign' racial status, in the eyes of most Caucasian-Americans of European ancestry. Unlike the Germans, the American government even allowed the internment of Japanese-Americans, solely because of their race, even though many Japanese-Americans fought loyally on the United States' side during the conflict. hile Germans are always 'Nazis' in films, the Japanese are always 'villainous Japs' (Beidler 1998, 12).
Noting the racism that was often exhibited in American propaganda, however, hardly excuses the racism that was also present in Japanese propaganda. One interesting subgenre of this phenomenon is in Japanese films like China Nights, which portrays the…
Beidler, Philip D. The Good War's Greatest Hits: World War II and American Remembering.
Atlanta: Georgia Press, 1998.
Chambers, John Whiteclay & David Culbert. World War II, Film, and History. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1996.
Emotion, he notes, is never to be confused with the ego. The ego is not truly the unobserved mind as people tend to believe, but is instead the voice inside everyone's head that pretends to be you. Additionally, the ego represents the unobserved emotions that are the body's reaction to what the voice in the head is saying (Tolle 83).
Tolle explains the human capacity to dwell on the past with the following example: two ducks getting into a fight. The ducks fly at each other flapping and making a scene during the fight, which is always brief yet intense. In the end, a winner prevails, or the two part out of exhaustion or lack of interest. As the ducks separate from each other, they float off in separate directions, flying peacefully through the breeze and the fight itself is completely over. This doesn't happen with human beings. The same…
Tolle, Eckhart. A New Earth: Awakening to your Life's Purpose. New York: Penguin,
A New Earth: Chapter 5
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…
America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm
Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275
World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm
World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053630
Nationalism was a global trend by the time the Great War broke out. Each nation state developed its own national identity via the use of myths, symbols, and ideology that ranged from ethnic solidarity to political values. Nationalism in Germany became especially potent after the Franco-Prussian War, during which Bismarck wielded his political and military prowess in formidable ways. Crucial to winning the war campaign was a sense of national pride and identity, which Otto von Bismarck promoted through an idealized unity between disparate religious and cultural groups within the various German-speaking states. In addition to promoting a sense of regional identity, Bismarck also championed the vision of an epic, legendary, heroic German state grounded in a sense of power and prestige. Also characteristic to German nationalism was a sense of pride in the act of struggle itself, another point that Bismarck promoted through his speeches. German nationalism had been…
Bismarck, Otto von. The Imperial Proclamation, January 18, 1871
Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856
Otto von Bismark: Nationalist Speech. April 1, 1895. Retrieved online: https://kquazza.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/blood-and-iron-nationalist-speech.pdf
Johann Gustav Droysen: Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, 1848
Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled
Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description
The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).
Ceremonies of Possessions
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.
Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison of the ork of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson
The objective of this study is to compare the work of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson and to answer as to which argument is the most persuasive for why nations and nationalism exist.
Definition of 'Nation'
Anderson (1991) defines the concept of nation to be such that results in theorists of nationalism being perplexed by three specific paradoxes include: (1) the objective modernity of nations to the historians eye vs. their subjective antiquity in the eyes of nationalists; (2) the formal universality of nationality as a socio-cultural concept -- in the modern world everyone can, should, will 'have a nationality as he or she has a gender vs. The irremediable particularity of its concrete manifestations, such that, by definition, 'Greek' nationality is sui generis; (3) the political power of nationalism vs. their philosophical poverty and even…
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.
Geertz, C. (n.d.) The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States.
Hobsbawm (1980) Nations and Nationalism Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laitin, DD (n.d. Identity in Formation: The Russian -- Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Cornell University Press. Ithaca and London.
French Quebec Nationalism
A major turning point in the history of Canada was the fall of Quebec which resulted in the transformation of a French colony into a ritish colony. Had it not happened, English would never have become the first language of the country. The battle of Quebec was one of the numerous wars fought between the ritish and the French over fur and land during the 18th century. The fall of Quebec ensured the control and domination of ritish in major parts of North America. New ideas were brought forward by new generations who came in power and redefined the political scenario of the province. The Quebec Act was drafted by the ritish government which motivated the growth of nationalism in Quebec and since then, the nationalist movement has remained powerful and dominated the politics of the province.
Troubles in Manitoba
In 1870, the ritish government introduced the…
Belanger, D. (2004). Henri Bourassa (1868-1953). Informally published manuscript, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal, QC. Retrieved from http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/bios/henribourassabio.htm
Crunican, P.E. (2012). Manitoba schools question. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/manitoba-schools-question
Gall, G.L. (2012). Quebec referendum (1995). Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/quebec-referendum-1995
Rene Levesque. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/337886/Rene-Levesque
This is not a revelation to those alert, informed, intelligent citizens who pay attention to news broadcasts. Still, the ongoing media bias towards distinct racial groups is intolerable in democratic societies, whether the U.S., Australia, or Britain. An article in the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology (Voorhees, et al., 2007) states it very well in terms of the media portrayal of minorities in the U.S. Gulf Coast during and after Hurricane Katrina. Storm survivors (there were 1,500 deaths) indicated a "misrepresentation of minorities in media coverage" and this "systematic negative portrayal...contributes to...negative mental models, stereotypes, prejudices and ideologies about others, and hence," worst of all, "...indirectly [leads] to the enactment and reproduction of racism" (Voorhees, p. 418).
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black oman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview:…
Balibar, Etienne. (?) Fictive Ethnicity and Ideal Nation.
Cable News Network - CNN (2009). The Black Woman & Family. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/black.in.america/index.html .
Goldenberg, Suzanne. (2008). Interview: Christiane Amanpour: 'Somehow I don't feel it
In my gut.' The Guardian. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.guardian.com.uk.
For example, the conflict in former Yugoslavia is often studied as a case of ethnic conflict, and the Serbian atrocities against Bosnians is usually described as "ethnic cleansing." But Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians "are all South Slavs, sharing a common ethnic origin and speaking basically the same language: Serbocroatian" (Perlmutter). Serbs and Croatians share the same religion as well (with different denominations), while Bosnians, with the exception of their Muslim identity, have experienced a shared history with the other two. And all three are former Communists. Nevertheless, all three groups have identified themselves as different ethnicities during the conflict in the 1990s.
Dominique Moisi (2007) argues that, in addition to the problem of clash of civilizations, the world today faces a clash of emotions. There is a culture of fear, displayed by the est, of foreign nationals, of losing the identity in a complex world, of losing their economic power,…
Moisi, Dominique. "The Clash of Emotions." Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2007).
Psalidas-Perlmutter, Foulie. "The Interplay of Myths and Realities." Orbis 44.2 (2000): 237.
This makes it possible for the general public to comprehend that a community that seems to be strong can easily be divided by people's personal beliefs and by their backgrounds. It is very likely for individuals to express interest in detaching themselves from a group that they are associated with as a consequence of feeling that they do not actually belong to the respective community (Verdery, 232).
Jewish groups in Palestine considered that they were exposed to a series of threats as a result of the fact that they lived in mixed neighborhoods. They believe that they would be stronger if they had the opportunity to unite in a community that would no longer accept to be persecuted. Even with this, many Jews were hesitant about getting involved in a group that would act against Ottoman principles and feared that they would suffer if they adopted a nationalist attitude. The…
Baumgarten, Elias, "Zionism, Nationalism, and Morality," Retrieved December 19, 2011, from the Web Environment Website: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elias/zionism.htm
Campos, Michelle U. "BETW EEN "BELOVED OTTOMANIA" AND
"THE LAND OF ISRAEL": THE STRUGGLE
OVER OTTOMANISM AND ZIONISM AMONG
The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.
The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.
Muslim communities scattered about the…
Boose, Lynda E. 2002. Crossing the river drina: bosnian rape camps, turkish impalement, and serb cultural memory. Signs 28(1), 71-99.
Brinkman, Richard, L. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: dead or alive. Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 425-434.
Kuzio, Taras. (2008). Democratic breakthroughs and revolutions in five postcommunist countries: comparative perspectives on the fourth wave. Demokratizatsiya, 16(1), 97-109.
Molchanov, Mikhail, A. (2000). Post communist nationalism as a power resource: a russia-ukraine comparison. Nationalities Papers, 28(2), 263-288.
While it was possible for Dolores to understand the plight of the asque people, to desire that they receive the freedom to speak their own language, maintain their own culture and be a self-determining nation of people, at the same time, for Dolores, the means simply did not justify the ends. History relates that even a twelve-year period of time was not enough time to dissipate the extremist type of revenge that the ETA is known for perpetrating upon those who oppose them and specifically those which this group views as traitorous to their cause. For a group that is so vehemently in support of their own right to be a group that is self-determined this group certainly did remove that choice when the life of Dolores Gonzalez was so heinously ended in front of her innocent child.
Mart'nez-Herrera, Enric (2002) Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in…
Mart'nez-Herrera, Enric (2002) Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979-2001, International Journal on Multicultural Societies, Vol. 4, No. 1, http://www.unesco.org/most/vl4n1martinez.pdf
Hooper, John. 'The Basques.' In the New Spaniards. London: Penguin, 2006. 231-51.
Arregi, Joseba I. And Crull, Adnra (1996) Basque Nationalism and the Spanish State in 1995. Fourth World Bulletin, Spring/Summer 1996. Online available at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/public/fwc/Issue10/Europe/basque-1.html.
Nationalism (nd) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism/ .
Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Implications for Cross-Strait Affairs
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the United States of America.
This story of the evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and its interaction with the process of modernization and democratization is important to understand. In spite of the common "roots" mainlanders and Taiwanese share, the Japanese colonization of Taiwan for half a century, the ill-conceived policy of the garrison government that questioned the loyalty of the Taiwanese and culminated in the February 28, 1947 massacre, and the domination of the government by mainlanders who accounted for only about twenty percent of the population together have given rise to this "peculiar kind" of nationalism on Taiwan. Once formed and released, Taiwanese nationalism was the major catalyst precipitating Taiwan to make a transition to democracy, which, in turn, empowered the Taiwanese electorate to…
Chun, A. (1994). "From Nationalism to Nationalizing: Cultural Imagination and State Formation in Postwar Taiwan." The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31.
Cohen, M. (1988). Taiwanese at the crossroads; human rights, political development and social change on the beautiful island. Washington: Asia Resource Center.
Gold, T. (1994). "Civil Society and Taiwan's Quest Identity." Cultural Change in Postwar
In this light, globalization is expressed through regionalism.
Regionalism can also be seen as a response to globalization. As different regions around the world start to share similar views and become cooperative with one another, regional loyalties and models become more accepted and promoted.
In some ways, globalization seems to drive regionalization. For example, globalization is widely blamed for diminishing the American dollar, which means that imports are no longer as attractive. While this is no so good for America, a long-term decline on the dollar will drive local suppliers to develop new capacities. In addition, as the price of oil and fuel rise due to transportation, local, pricier suppliers suddenly do not seem so expensive, as companies are starting to accept the real price that is paid for a good or service.
Globalab (2007) argues that there is no direct causal relationship between globalization and nationalism, but that the…
Bhagwati, Jagdish (2004). In Defense of Globalization. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Breuilly, John. (1993). Nationalism and the state. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Brym, R.J., ed. (1986) Regionalism in Canada. Toronto: Irwin.
Kacowitz, Alex. (December, 1998). Regionalization, Globalization, and Nationalism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Courchene (2004) also discusses the changing nature of relations between federal Canada and Quebec and suggests that increasing cooperation has become a new vision that is now being explored. Brown (2003) takes particular note of the actions being taken in Quebec, and he notes that the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) issued a paper "calling for a new federalism 'de concertation et de cooperation,' consisting of a better effort to manage global interdependence, a respect for the federal spirit (i.e. respect for provincial jurisdiction), a better fiscal balance between the federal and provincial governments, and more concerted interprovincial cooperation" (Brown, 2003, p. 6). In terms of how the Copuncil of the Federation, Brown finds that this may be little more than a continuation of the Annual Premiers' Conference under a different name, or it could lead to a return to the earlier practice seen in the Mulroney era when annual…
Brown, D.M. (2003). Getting Things Done in the Federation: Do We Need New Rules for an Old Game? Institute for Research on Public Policy (1).
Burelle, a. (2003). The Council of the Federation: From a Defensive to a Partnership Approach. Institute for Research on Public Policy (3 English).
Cameron, D. & Simeon, R. (2002). Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism. Publius 32, 2, 49-70.
Chennells, D. (2001). The Politics of Nationalism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
The ge of Colonialism was drawing to a close, as the spirit of nationalism swept over the subcontinent. s similar political movements took place throughout Europe and other parts of sia, India found itself in a unique position. India had been a diverse, heterogeneous region for centuries; even millennia. The nationalist movement highlighted the differences between the various ethnic groups in the subcontinent, revealing their core differences in political and social philosophy. Initial nationalist movements were led by the Indian National Congress Party, as well as the Muslim League. The Indian National Congress Party did not start out as being a Hindu organization, and never officially declared itself as such. Yet over time, the Congress Party became associated with Hindu goals. The Congress Party was founded as early as 1885, when it was a umbrella group for a diverse constituency. Their only shared goal seemed to be the…
Although most Muslims did support the Indian National Congress Party, a large number sought more robust representation in the nationalist movement and supported instead the All-India Muslim League. Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim Indians started brewing during the early 20th century. In 1905, the state of Bengal was divided -- partitioned along religious lines. Indians did not approve of the British interference with their nationalist movement, seeking instead of more holistic political rubric under which to form a new nation. The populist revolt forced the British to reunify Bengal. After British conscripted Indian soldiers to fight in World War One, the anger against the colonialist government grew. The British passed ever-stricter acts in an attempt to quell the civic unrest. Protests that began peacefully ended in violence on the part of the British government.
Gandhi's model was appealing to Indians on many levels and from many backgrounds. Satyagraha hearkened to the roots of Indian philosophy, which transcended sectarian beliefs. Non-violence and peaceful coexistence with neighbors had been part of the Indian culture for centuries prior to the Raj. The Raj seemed to exacerbate ethnic and religious differences, as if a "divide and conquer" methodology was used by the Crown in order to rule over the complex colony. The Indian Nationalist movement therefore became linked inextricably with Gandhi's nonviolence movement. Gandhi became a model for India's future: one that was free of colonial rule but which would also be poised to be a world leader.
Unfortunately, continued clashes between Hindu and Muslim citizens led to an imperfect solution in the subcontinent: partition. As early as the 1930s, the foundation for Pakistan was laid. There were many stones left unturned in the northern subcontinent, though: as Bangladesh later separated itself and the Kashmir issue has yet to be solved peacefully.
Power & Nationalism
Koreans seems to have grown tired of the American presence in their country. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status? The American presence in the Korean Peninsula dates from the Korean War, which was the first major war after the Second World War. The war started in 1950 with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in 1949, however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…
Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)
http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)
While each country struggled to repay its debt, England was quicker to do so; this was logical, for not only did it have more manpower, its livelihood faced less demolition than did the physical face of France. Yet, England struggled with its success in paying off its debt; it looked, with great disdain, upon its ever-hated neighbor, still in debt to the nited States. "England thought only of herself," Smith wrote, "and her prestige when she undertook to begin payment of her debt to us - a financial gesture without parallel in history."
While it was clear that Smith was grateful for England's eagerness to repay America, and the American taxpayers by turn, it was also evident that he understood this gesture to be what it was - a political declaration of strength and sovereignty by England, pointed directly at France. Smith perceived a less than subtle snubbing of France…
Until this last war we have never had an opportunity to requite the good turn France did us in our War of Independence. No Englishman can claim that England rendered us help at that time. And France helped us in a peculiarly generous manner which ahs never been fully realized by our people and which we have far not imitated." In that light, the American patriots felt a disarming lack of association with the British; this contrasted starkly with the popular sentiment for the French government, who had come to the aid of America in its time of need.
The letter to the editor that appeared on this day received special status for its intellectual adaptation of civil truths - indebtedness to France, historical barriers with England, and the aftermath of the war as it imprinted not only social and political changes but also new international dimensions. While all of this was important to the editor then, whose dominion placed it directly under the masthead for mass attention, its significance to history is found beneath the meaning and inside the words. Addressing the efforts of France that made American liberty possible, Smith wrote, "She did not so much lend us money as spend it in our behalf." These pronouns, simple as they seemed then, provide understanding now to future generations, shedding light on a time gone by when nations were not just people and states were not just land. They were one and the same, a motherland and fatherland, powerful enough to launch war and fight. In those days, we had a nation, and she was the reason for battle; the right to war was not so cut and dry on economic issues and political theology. The editor of the Times understood that Smith's Letter to the Editor was significant, yielding it not just front-page status on January 24th, but a lasting historical relevance.
Basis for Favoring France." Letter to the Editor. New York Times. December 24, 1924. Page 1. (From PROQUEST Historical Newspapers)
rise of the nationalist faction of Taiwan and enumerates on its implication on the Taiwan-U.S. political relations. It has 9 sources in APA format.
The evolution of the Taiwanese has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the U.S.
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and the process of modernization and democratization
Ever since the Chinese Nationalist Party declared Taiwan as a free province after the victory of the Chinese revolution, Taiwan has remained as a political flashpoint between countries like China and the U.S. The fact that the superbly growing economic status of the country has been a factor that elicits international support does not come as a surprise because in the new world order, economic or political hegemony over such 'profitable' countries is a factor that can be quite advantageous to the super powers like the U.S. Off late, the tensions between countries like the…
Taifa Y, (2004). Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Ramifications for Cross-strait Relations, retrieved at http://www.cnponline.org/Press%20Releases/Events/AbstractYu.htm. On March 5, 2004
Zeitlin A (2000). China-Taiwan conflict endangers Hong Kong free media, journalists charge, The Freedom Forum Online, retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=2964on March 6, 2004
Baker, WB (2003). Cross-Strait Paradox: The China - Taiwan Tensions," retrieved at http://students.washington.edu/wwbaker3/Documents/School/ChinaTaiwan.htm. On March 6, 2004
Leach, PT., (2003) "Bridge Across the Taiwan Strait"; ProQuest-Journal of Commerce
By nationalism they meant not only the cultivation of love for their land and nation but also the development of an identity -- A sense of who Africans were and what they stood for which would be based on nothing that white people had been teaching but on something that would be exclusive to Africa and African consciousness.
The new sense of self would then reflect in all the actions of African people including their writings. It was believed that oppressors so dominate the minds and souls of the conquered people, that the latter start believing in their inferiority and try to please their oppressor by producing work that would be more universal in its subject. However that had to change if Africans wanted to believe in themselves. They would need to address their own people, their own problems and their own cultures and write for their own audiences which…
Israel has a long standing history of conflicts of a religious nature with the Palestinians, but also with Lebanon and other Middle Eastern states; despite the numerous attempts at peace, armed conflicts still occur; this brings instability and fear not only in the political and civilian life, but also to business operations
Similar to any other global region, Israel is characterized by both opportunities, as well as threats. The decision of whether or not to expand one's business operations into this land is a complex one and depends on a series of forces. For this situation however, the advice is that of launching operations within Israel. The rationale behind this recommendation is a dual one and refers primarily to the multitude of benefits revealed by the western Asian country. The second reason is pegged to the historically proved ability of Israel to succeed in adverse circumstances.
Israel, County Studies U.S., 2009, http://countrystudies.us/israel/77.htm last accessed on October 15, 2009
Israel Culture, Israel Public Relations, http://www.israelpr.com/doingbusiness.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
Israel -- Infrastructure, Power and Communications, Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2008, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Israel-INFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-and-COMMUNICATIONS.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
The World Factbook -- Israel, Central Intelligence Agency, 2009, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/is.html last accessed on October 15, 2009
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…
But the author strikes an alarming note to the reader's ear when offering his most controversial predictions, such as the United States' possible annexation of nearby nations fifty years hence. Perhaps the most controversial assertion of the text is that the "terrorist attacks of 9/11 simply revealed the yawning gap between the military we built to win the Cold ar and the different" military system, strategy, and strategic alliance, "we need to built" to "secure globalization's ultimate goal," which is the end of war as we know it. (2) Although we would like "connectivity" to trump all, this is not an easy thing to achieve -- is the end to war really a valid long-term military objective, and will not the active pursuit of dysfunctional states create more war, rather than less conflict in the short-term?
Barnett's book is interesting to read in view of recent, frequent criticisms of the…
Barnett, Thomas. (2003). The Pentagon's New Map. New York: Putnam.
Not only does this benefit them as a port destination, but the influx of trade goes through Taiwan with the majority of manufactured goods of the Pacific region flowing through their ports. Since Taiwan has a favorable relationship with the Western states, it has been able to absorb the growth of the East Asian region and serve as an effective broker for traffic of goods. Thus it plays a central role within the region as a broker between lesser developed nations and the developed super powers.
Not only does Taiwan hold an enviable position within global trade, but it also has developed its internal capacity to become a manufacturing force. Taiwan has focused its industries on two key developments, high end technology products including semi-conductors and high end technology product development. The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company is the world's largest independent semiconductor foundry. As a joint venture through subsidized state…
Lee, Pei-shan, "Regime Transition and Economic Governance: The End of Development. Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Political Science Association, National
Sun Yat-sen University. 9-10 December 2000.
Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question (London: Polity Press, 1999), p.241.
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
Public Administration Review, 47, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 17-25.
All three of the works described by Bertelli and Lynn focus on the separation of responsibility among the branches of government. John Mabry Matthews asserted that "the work of government can be divided into the formulation and execution of public policy" (p. 35). He was a strong advocate of transparent government and believed that public administration should not be treated as an afterthought.
The key elements of illoughby's Principles of Public Administration, were based on the notion that the government should be run like a corporation, with the President acting as, essentially, the general manager. He complained of a "failure to apply scientific principals" (p. 40) such as those outlined by Taylor, as well as the abundant administrative responsibilities of legislative branch, which he believed should belong to the executive branch.
Leonard hite's key points centered on the mechanical nature…
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.
Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…
Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. Cambridge, MASS: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Following the onset of the Great Depression, America’s leaders tried to find ways to get the country going again, to stimulate the economy, put Americans back to work, and recreate the prosperous good times of the 1920s. Franklin Roosevelt called for action.1 Hoover before him called for the government to resist intervention.2 Two decades earlier Teddy Roosevelt called for intervention in the regulation of labor.3 Henry Ford called for self-help—not intervention—but independence.4 Based on these four perspectives, this paper argues that government intervention leads to a culture of dependency, which does not facilitate growth or positive and innovative solutions to real problems; therefore, government should not seek to intervene in the economy but rather allow the bad blood to work its way out, as painful as that may be.
Teddy Roosevelt felt that in order for America to have equitability, the government should get involved. He argued that “the right…
Martin Luther: Biographical Sketch
In this essay, I have presented a biographical sketch of one of the major "players" in the eformation i.e. Martin Luther. I have discussed his life starting from his birth till his death. In the conclusion, I have mentioned how important he was for the revolution in Europe and how Christians today can follow his footsteps and exemplary character.
At the same time as the Catholic Church made efforts for setting its base and went ahead as the most important and chief institute of religious conviction in the history of world, a lot of compromise were made so that the institution can build and advance further. Sorry to say, one of the sufferers of this Catholic flow was the true-connection-oriented Christianity. With the development and progress of the Catholic Church, the world witnessed the removal of the common man and the domination and unquestioned superiority of…
Atchley, J. (2010, October 27). Historical/Biographical Sketch Of Martin Luther. Martinsburg Church. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://martinsburgchurch.org/images/uploads/media/LUTHER_BIOGRAPHICAL_STUDY.pdf
Luther, Martin from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Luther-M/luther-martin
Mullet, M. (2003). Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses: Michael Mullett Defines the Role of the 95 Theses in the Lutheran Reformation. History Review, 46, 46+. Retrieved March 15, 2014, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-111646883/martin-luther-s-ninety-five-theses-michael-mullett
Tischer, J.F. (n.d.). The Life of Martin Luther. Church Ages. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://churchages.com/pdf/life-of-martin-luther.pdf
Virginia Department of ocial ervice
This is a paper discussing policy in Virginia Department of ocial ervice, deals with diversity, ethics and privacy issues in the work place. It has 10 sources in Turabian style.
Creativity, diversity and innovation define the health and wealth of a nation, a nation is of course not a single unit. It comprises of people of different races, the ideologies, the industries, companies and organizations which are run by intelligent people. In today's globalized world, the word nation has been deconstructed and internationalism is now a new nationalism. The mixing of races, ethnic groups, and nationalities at home and abroad is at a record level. In a world where technology has brought the people of far cultures to a global village, where individuals, organizations and entire countries draw strength and personality from places as near as their local neighborhood and as far away as a…
VDSS "Virginia Department of Social Service" Official website, 2002 at http://www.dss.state.va.us/geninfo/privacy.html
Warner, Mark, 2002, Governor "Executive Order 2 COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR, Equal Opportunity" available at http://www.governor.state.va.us/Press_Policy/Executive_Orders/html/EO_01.html
Cherrington, David J.; Middleton, Laura Zaugg, 06-01-1995, An introduction to global business issues. . Vol. 40, HR Magazine.
Fox, Jon Michael and Fox, Ronni Lea., 2000. Exploring the Nature of Creativity Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. 192pp
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
Nationalism and Anthony Smith's anti-primordialism in his view of modern Asiatic history and the construction of what is 'Asia'
Nationalism and what makes a nation a cohesive and functioning unit has been one of the essential questions of modern political philosophy, particularly in Asia today, where in India, China, Tibet, Japan, Vietnam, and Korea, a plurality of different regional and religious identities fight to dominate particular national territories. Anthony D. Smith is one of most important contemporary scholars of nationalism and is the author of many books on the subject including such classics as his 1986 The Ethnic Origins of Nations, a book of supreme relevance in particular for the region, given the frequent rhetorical role of ethnic identity in a people's claim to territory and nationhood.
According to Smith, the idea of essential ethnic origins of nations has caused some scholars to assume nationalism and nations as preexisting entities,…
Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India: a case study of Punjab. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Smith, Anthony D. "Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations." Nations and Nationalism 1. Bo. 1 (1994): 3-23.
Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1986.
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…
Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for ews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.
Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many ews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between ews and Arabs.
At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of ewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that ews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…
Judea Pearl. "Early Zionists and Arabs," in Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008, p. 75.
Martin Gilbert. Israel: A History. London: Black Swan, 1998, p. 16.
Colin Shindler. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 12.
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
It deals with many of the same themes that Modernist writers like James Joyce dealt with, nationalism, religion, and class. Thus, contemporary Irish literature is highly reflective of the values of Modernist literature.
Contemporary Irish literature, however is distinct from modern Irish literature because of this focus on non-mainstream themes. Contemporary Irish literature demonstrates many characteristics of what is termed in academic circles as "Post-Modernism."
Self-Reflexivity and Self-Parody
Contemporary Irish literature also demonstrates the Postmodernist feature of parody and general irreverence. This features is illustrated in "The Cripple of Inishman," where a cripple in Ireland moves to an island off of Inishmore, a town known for its "Irishness," in order to audition for a Hollywood movie. The play is undoubtedly a comedy, yet it deals with the notion of Nationalism and the notion of national character. pokes fun at the mythicization and presentation of Ireland and the Irish by depciting…
McDonagh, Martin. The Cripple of Inishmaan. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. Print.
Barry, Sebastian. The Steward of Christendom. London: Methuen Drama in association with the Royal Court Theatre, 1995. Print.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
This may not have been the lesson of the drama, but it certainly reminded me of this fact.
In another way, I find the story unsettling in that it indicates how oftentimes the minority person is punished solely by virtue of his being a different color, or looking different in some way (Editors of Salem Press). It is not only the different color that causes punishment and social penalization. Other external, such as age, handicap, and looks can penalize one too. These are externals as Clay points out to Lula: "You really don't know anything about me." Meaning: You don't know anything about the real me. You are judging me according to facts or myths that you mentally construct upon. The real 'me' slips by you unexamined and ignored. This may be a lesson to those who engage in stereotypes. Doing so is harmful not only to victim but also…
2006. Salem Press. Web. 21 Jan. 2012.
Fiske, S.T. (2002). What we know now about bias and intergroup conflict, the problem of the century. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.
Rebhorn, Matthew. "Flaying Dutchman: Masochism, Minstrelsy, and the Gender Politics of Amiri Baraka's Dutchman," Callaloo 26.3, Gale Group, Summer 2003,
One contextual tool that has been widely manipulated in international events by both sides is language translations and mistranslations. Due to the language barrier between the Chinese and American people, the audience on each side can only hear the other party's voice through media's translations, which by no means, may be immune to contextual framing.
Given the sensitive time, sensitive location and sensitive nature of this collision, both parties would have adopted all kinds of contextual framing techniques to occupy the moral high ground, and accuse the other side of wrongdoing. Since the foreign policy report in China is strictly controlled by the Communist Party, the news event portrayed by the Chinese media would be more homogenous and one-sided.
H2a: By adopting similar contextual framing techniques, both mainstream newspapers tend to depict their own side as morally superior, whereas the other party as the wrongdoer. As to the degree of…
China-Us Relations. (2001). International Journal on World Peace, 18(1), 99.
Eckholm, E. (April 27, 2001). Beijing Journal; A Pilot Is Lost, and a Communist Titan Is Found. New York Times, A2.
Harland, B. (2001), The Hainan Incident. New Zealand International Review, 26(4), 27.
Paez, D., Pennebaker, J.W. & Rime, B. (eds.). (1997). Collective memory of political events: Social psychological perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
264) the result was chaos and no idea of how peace would realistically be achieved. Sharp writes that the statements of President Wilson in the 1918 speeches were the bases of the peace settlement, which was eventually made. (Sharp, 2006, paraphrased)
The primary decision making body of the gathering in Paris is reported by Sharp to have been the 'Council of Ten' which was comprised by the French, Italian and Great Britain prime ministers and the U.S. president including the respective ministers of foreign affairs and two delegates from Japan. Sharp reports that the 'Council of Four' including Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson and Vittorio Orlando formed the critical decision making body. It is reported that it took the promises of Lloyd George and Wilson to assure the full support of the British and U.S. forces were Germany to attack France again to convince Clemenceau to demonstrate more flexibility. A decision…
Alan Sharp,(2006) Peacemaking after World War I, in G. Martel (ed.), Companion to Europe 1900-1945, Blackwell, Oxford, 2006, pp. 261-75.
David a. Andelman, a Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Price We Pay Today, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, 2008, pp. 1-3, 4, 6, 9, 10-11, 13-14.
Margaret Macmillan, (2005) Making War, Making Peace: Versailles, 1919 Queen's Quarterly, vol. 112, No. 1, 2005, pp. 8-18.
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…
Datta, S. (2006). K.S. Kulkarni: Life of Form in Art. Kumargallery. Retrieved from: http://www.kumargallery.com/forthcomingexhibitions/kskulkarni/kskulkarnireview.htm
Krishna Shamrao Kulkarni -- Profile. (2012). Saffronart. Retrieved from: http://www.saffronart.com/artist/artistprofile.aspx?artistid=260&a=Krishna%20Shamrao%20Kulkarni
Buy American equirement is an implementation of rules and/or laws by the Buy American Act, which outlines that no foreign steel, iron, or any other manufactured goods should be permitted into the United States of America. This is irrespective of the source of funding to such items in public works or public building, which receives AA (American ecovery and einvestment Act). The Buy American clause states that none of the appropriated funds or otherwise made available through this act may be useful for a project for the alteration, construction, repair, or maintenance of public works and public buildings unless all of the steel, iron, and manufactured products used within the project are produced from within the United States (Frank, 2000).
The provision of this act engrosses the public work and public building projects, meaning public work and public building of governmental entities, including both local and the regional government entities.…
Elliot, J. & Peter J. (1990).The Political Economy of the U.S. Socialism: The Formative
Years, 1918 -- 1928. Boston: Kluwer.
Frank, D. (2000). Buy American Requirements: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism.
New York, NY: Beacon Press.
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
Postcolonial Literature and Feminist Identities:
Children of the New orld
Children of the New orld by Assia Djebar, chronicles a day in the life of the Algerian rebellion of 1956, one of the years in which Algerians were attempting to wrest control of their nation back from the colonizing French. Algeria was a Muslim country; France was mainly Christian. omen played a decisive role in the struggle for liberation in many instances while others found their gender to complicate their relationship with their Algerian and Muslim nature. But advocating for rebellion from colonialism did not mean they were necessarily granted equality, as Djebar shows. All of the women in the novel have a complex relationship to nationalism, gender, and colonialism. Djebar simultaneously validates the women's right to speak and to have a very personal reaction to the war even while she shows the dangers of imperialism.
A good example of…
Djebar, Assia. Children of the New World. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2005
Mishra, Raj Kumar. "Postcolonial feminism: Looking into within-beyond-to difference."
International Journal of English and Literature, 4(4): 129-134.
Spivak, G.C. "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Reprinted by McGill. Web. 9 Dec 2004.
Mitchelstein, E. nd Boczkowski, P.J. (2009). Between tradition and change: review of recent research on online news production. Journalism, Vol. 10. Retrieved from: http://irtvu.com/files/rticle/attach-bulletin-24-105.pdf
The article considers four aspects of change in basic journalistic practices to explain the current phenomenon of newsgathering practices across the Internet. These include modifications in editorial workflow, alterations in news-gathering practices, acceleration of temporal patterns of content production, and the convergence of print, broadcast, and online operations. This has dramatically changed the face of journalism and created the phenomenon of the "user as content producer." The finding is that this is a growing and dynamic phenomenon. The fluid nature of the new media should be subject to further study to come to an ultimate conclusion regarding its true contribution to the media.
Johnson, T.J., Kaye, B.K., Bichard, S.L. nd Wong, W.J. (2007). Every Blog has its day" Politically0interested Internet Users' perceptions of blog credibility. Retrieved…
And interesting dimension enters the blog using public when politics becomes the central phenomenon of interest. In addition to the increase prevalence of the online phenomenon, the authors find that those with political interests tend to be more trusting of other like-minded individuals who make use of the online platform to espouse their views. An online survey is used to determine the level of perceived credibility for blogs in the political arena. One possible reason for this perception of credibility is the single-minded stature of political blog use; where one view is generally favored over another.
Deuze, M. (2005, Dec). Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture. Indiana University. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/3200/Deuze%20Digital%20Culture%202006.pdf.txt?sequence=3
In the essay, the author considers components of digital culture as expressed in online journalism, weblogging, and Independent Media Centers. The analysis is based upon two key assumptions: that all aspects of daily life in industrialized societies are influenced by computerizations; and that contemporary social changes are highly influenced by globalization, post-nationalism, and individualization. As such, it is found that the evolution of the digital media is highly influenced by a new value system among a culture that has increasingly become defined by its use of and presence in the online media.
narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.
Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race
The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…
8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)
9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)
10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Alberto Williams and Nationalism
Introduction & Brief History Lesson
Generally speaking, the term nationalism is used to describe a sense of identification which individuals within a society or culture share regarding their state of residence. Most countries are characterized by this identification to some degree or other and Argentina is no exception. However, if one considers the fact that Argentina has been an independent country since 1810, what is striking is how long a true sense of nationalism took to fully blossom (Douglas). Specific to the topic of this paper, Alberto Williams was not born until 1862. Furthermore, his music would not have been able to affect the listeners in his country until he reached adulthood and was able to actually compose it. Then one must consider that the music would have had to have been accepted by Argentine society and then disseminated across a wide enough area of the…
19th Century." Argentour.com Web Site. 11 Apr. 2003. http://www.argentour.com/historia/19th.htm
Alberto Ginastera." Fundacion Ostinato. 11 Apr. 2003. http://members.tripod.com/~ostinato/ginas.html
Alberto Williams (1862-1852): Music for Piano, Vol 1 - Primera Sonata Argentina, Op. 74."
11 Apr. 2003. http://www.recordsinternational.com/RICatalogFeb00.html
But Bush administration as always failed to see that nationalism was the actual force and by using flawed policy to counter terrorism, it aroused intense nationalism even among people in which it was formally absent. Fundamentalists have thus stood to benefit from the flawed U.S. policy because it enraged the general public in Muslim nations that had previously been speaking against Fundamentalist. They now have a keener and clearer sense of a nation and they are as much against U.S. policies and fundamentalists have always been. "In invading Iraq, the Bush administration made a gift of Iraqi nationalism to the Islamic fundamentalists. Without nationalism, the fundamentalist cause is weak." This consistent pattern can be observed in previous cases of terrorism too. United States needs to learn from its repeated failed attempts to curb terrorism and this will help in the creation of a more effective U.S. policy.