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Broms Et Al 2010 Found That Evening
Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10078279
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Broms et al. (2010) found that evening type people were more likely to become smokers, and less likely to cease their nicotine addiction.

The study was a cohort design that used random-effects model regressions over a longitudinal period of time in order to study the comparison of attraction to smoking and tendency to remain addicted between diurnal and non-diurnal participants.

A sample of 23289 same-sex adult twin individuals from Finland was used. Nicotine dependence was studied on a sub-sample of 676 individual twins. The subjects were split into four groups: morning type, somewhat morning type, somewhat evening type, and evening type. Past and present smoking patterns were assessed. The DSM-IV and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were both used to assess nicotine dependence.

esearchers found that of the four categories, it was diurnal types who were most likely to be past and current nicotine smokers and addicted to smoking,…

References

Broms, U. et al. (2010) Evening types are more often current smokers and nicotine dependent - a study of Finnish adult twins Addiction. 106(1): 170 -- 177.

Creative Research Systems Significance in Statistics & Surveys

 http://www.surveysystem.com/signif.htm 

Twisk JWR. (2003). Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology: A Practical Guide. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK; New York:

Friends From the Wrong Crowd One of
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 24675388
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Friends From the Wrong Crowd

One of the most challenging things among the young people on America is the idea of bad company. This problem is so pronounced and serious taking into account that the people who surround and individual largely dictates the direction of the life that the individual will take and hence shaping their future.

Ryan a 23 years old boy came from a humble Christian family where no one was allowed to smoke. When Ryan joined campus he met Pat and Torrey who were cigarette addicts. They became his close friends and went a head and invited him to hang out with them for a weekend. Pat and Torrey offered Ryan a whiff of cigarette for the first time in his life. Ryan was hesitant and said an emphatic "No" to the request but they kept on insisting on him to smoke. Ultimately he ended up smoking…

Ethics and Morality Case Clean
Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3967560
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Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.

Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…

Economics Marginal Rate of Substitution Mrs Is
Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9613329
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Economics

Marginal ate of Substitution (MS) is the rate that an individual is ready to give up from "good A" to obtain one or more unit of "good B" while keeping the overall utility constant. In other words, MS reveals how many units of good x that an individual is ready to give up to gain extra unit of good y while keeping the same level of utility constant. The MS involves the trade off of goods to change the allocation of the total bundles of goods while maintaining the level of satisfaction. Typically, MS is calculated between goods being placed on indifferent curve. The product of cheeseburger and hotdogs is used to illustrate the MS. If the marginal rate of substitution of cheeseburger for hot dogs is 2, thus, consumer will be willing to give 2 cheeseburger to obtain 1 extra hot dog.

However, marginal rate of substitution diminishes…

Reference

Jha, P. Chaloupka, F.J. Moore, J. et al. (2006). Chapter 46 Tobacco Addiction from the book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Second edition. World Bank.

Pioneers of Cinema 1900-1929 a
Words: 1610 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82450393
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Conclusions -- It becomes immediately clear that the art of the silent film depended on three major elements: smooth editing, appropriate use of subtitles, and actors who were able to use their eyes and movement to communicate or "play to the camera." It was surprising that only one of the films viewed seemed "primitive," and that was only the initial parts of Gertie. By the time we get to The ink, there has been an obvious improvement in camera techniques and the ability to film from different angles and heights, even if the camera is stable. In addition, the vaudevillian arm and comedy of The ink is classic. It is also interesting to note that the subject matter, while varied, seemed far less censored that what we would come to expect in later Hollywood years -- we see prostitution, abject poverty, criminal behavior, sexual innuendos with fairy creatures, and a…

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Bowser, E. (1990). The Transformation of Cinema, 1907-1915. Scribners.

Clegg, B. (2007). The Man Who Stopped Time. Joseph Henry Press.

Wexman, V. And J. Wllis. (2006). A History of Film. Allyn and Bacon.

Film Links:

Alcohol and Adh There Are
Words: 497 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31631243
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This lack of ADH makes the collecting duct impermeable to water (www.nmc.edu/~koverbaugh/bio106/su02/chapt15.htm)." ADH production decreases when alcohol is consumed, resulting in dehydration.

When there is a low blood volume, the "juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes enin, leading to Angiotensinogen, Angiotensin I, and Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone, which increases the return of Na to blood. This increased salt in the blood causes water to diffuse into the blood from the urine (www.nmc.edu/~koverbaugh/bio106/su02/chapt15.htm)." The secretion of aldosterone is "also triggered when potassium levels are elevated (hyperkalemia), and through the sodium-potassium pump, it increases potassium excretion while increasing sodium reabsorption (http://www.dacc.edu/~lgarret/fluid.html)."

Conclusion

Alcohol consumption negatively affects the urinary system by decreasing the production of ADH. This reduction of ADH will cause the body to become dehydrated, and can lead to electrolyte imbalance.

eferences

Controlling the Internal Environment. (accessed 04 October, 2004). www.3redravens.net/apbio/Chap44notes.html).

Fluid, Electrolyte, and pH Balance. (accessed…

References

Controlling the Internal Environment. (accessed 04 October, 2004). www.3redravens.net/apbio/Chap44notes.html).

Fluid, Electrolyte, and pH Balance. (accessed 04 October, 2004).  http://www.dacc.edu/~lgarret/fluid.html ).

The Urinary System. (accessed 04 October, 2004). www.nmc.edu/~koverbaugh/bio106/su02/chapt15.htm).

Issue of Smoking
Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74445858
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moking and Lung Disease

moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.

Community and Health issue

The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…

Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.

American Lung Asociation. 2005.  http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& ; b=34706& ct=910873

Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm

Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf

Aversive Control
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 48297908
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Aversive Control

Punishment can be defined as a way to reduce a given behavior by attaching a consequence to behaving a certain way or doing a particular thing. Some of the consequences that denote positive punishment include loud noise, electric shock and a reprimand. The consequences that denote negative punishment include money, access to a given social environment and food. Several studies have discussed the effects and implications of aversive control. The main topics that have been covered include how they affect the use of nicotine, analysis of man's neuropsychiatric behavior and the use of aversive techniques such as punishment tools.

An aversive stimulus can maintain the behavior of an organism that rids another organism of the targeted aversive stimulus. This is definitely different from positive reinforcement where the reinforcing event is the production of the stimulus. One distinct characteristic of aversive control is an avoidance or escape behavior targeted.…

References

Aversive Control. (2017). Retrieved from Psychology and Human Behaviour:  http://psychology.jrank.org/human-behavior/pages/cmxyrs7fqv/aversive-control-stimulus-reinforcement.html 

DiGennaro, F., & Lovett, B. (2008). Views on the Efficacy and Ethics of Punishment: Results from a National Survey. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 61 - 67.

Geurts, D., Huys, Q., Ouden, H., & Cools, R. (2013). Serotonin and Aversive Pavlovian Control of Instrumental Behavior in Humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 932 - 939.

Thi Truong, Y. (2014). Aversive control of behavior: punishing effects of intravenous nicotine in rats. University of Michigan Dissertation Papers.

Physiological and Societal Effects of
Words: 2676 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70315961
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Toward an Effective olution

In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…

Sources Cited

Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers: Advertising

Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers"

Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health

Psychosocial Smoking Cessation Interventions for Coronary Heart
Words: 3420 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23044103
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psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?

The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…

References

Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.

Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.

Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679

Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation

Use of Drugs for Recreational Purposes
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30622121
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Drugs and Differences between Them

There are various types of drugs that have considerable effects on the brain and are used by individuals for various reasons. These types of drugs are classified into different categories i.e. stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. As the name suggests, stimulants are drugs that speed up an individual and can be dangerous while depressants are drugs that slow down an individual and can be dangerous by causing vomiting, unconsciousness, and even death. On the contrary, hallucinogens are drugs that make a person see and hear strange things or things that are not actually in existence. Similar to stimulants and depressants, hallucinogens can be dangerous because of their effect on a person's brain. Some examples of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens are oxycodone, nicotine, and mescaline. These drugs differ with regards to the composition, physical and psychological effects, manufacture or cultivation, how they are used, and individual's motivation…

References

Burrows et. al. (2003, May). A Fatal Drug Interaction Between Oxycodone and Clonazepam.

Journal of Forensic Science, 48(3), 683-686.

"Introduction to Psychology." (n.d.). Intranet. Retrieved from Ternopil State Medical University

website:  http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/theacher/fisiol/nf_volkova/English/Recommendations%20for%20preparing%20practical%20classes/Introduction%20to%20psychology.pdf

Understanding Psychology
Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98502726
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Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse

The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.

Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…

References

Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.

Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941

Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Smoking and Politics
Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18507536
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battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.

Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…

Bibliography

American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA

Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf 

Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health

Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/overview/chron96.htm

Statistical Methods
Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5225693
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power of statistical analysis is the power to define, interpret, and understanding numerical data which represents patterns in the real world. Without the ability to measure statistical data, the empirical, hypothetical world of educational models would not be able to be checked by actual performance in the absolute. While statistics has applications in many fields, statistical data is possibly the most powerful when used to identify patterns in personal behavior, and other fields of study which do not exhibit direct patterns across a sampling group. For example, mathematical equations govern how a specific metal will respond to different loads, and different conditions. However, there are no direct mathematical equations which govern the percentage of teenage drivers who will be involved in traffic accidents over a period of time. In order to interpret the influential factors over teen drivers, a statistical measurement of actual experience can be undertaken. Through statistical analysis,…

Regarding a linear regression analysis of this relationship, we find that the slope of the line is close to 0.5, and the relationship is a direct linear relationship between the amount of tar in a cigarette and the amount of nicotine.

Nonlinear trends in statistical data can be the most challenging to work with. When non-linear relationships exist, there may be a mathematical relationship which is based on a logarithm, or other multi-factor influence. However, true non-linear relationship, such as the height and weight of a specific person who shops in a given department store may leave the statistician without any relationship whatsoever. Non-linear data can also be the result of data which is being acted on by an artificial, outside force. In this case, the statistician is able to verify the existence of an outside force, and then approach the process of identifying the force.

An example of this situation is the expected relationship between supply and demand, and company profit based on the sales of a given product in the market place. In the early 1980's, the Coleco company produces a product called "Cabbage Patch dolls." The typical lifecycle of a new toy product is one to two years, but Coleco was able to extend the life of their product for four to five Christmas seasons by artificially affecting the relationship between supply and demand. The company had the production capacity to produce 4-5 times the amount of dolls which it shipped to the market during the first three years of the dolls life cycle. This would have produced a typical bell shaped curve, plotting a rising demand, and increasing profits which gave way to a declining demand and declining profits in a short period. However the company did not produce product equal to their capacity, nor equal to the demand. As a result, the company was able to continue a high level of demand, and an inflated retail based on the high demand for an extended period. The result was that the doll stayed popular for almost a decade, and the company was able to reap ongoing higher levels of profits. The longer bell curve, identified by an irregular and nonlinear relation between time and supply and demand was created by the unique marketing strategy for the company.

Study on Health Effects of E Cigarettes
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 46646170
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Long-Term Health Effects of E-Cigarettes

Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes have emerged as popular tobacco products, which are relatively different from conventional cigarettes. These new tobacco products include e-pipes, e-pens, and e-hookahs that are increasingly used as electronic systems for nicotine delivery. Electronic cigarettes are electronic devices that enable users to inhale vapor that contains nicotine and other substances. These devices are battery-operated and contain a heating component to heat electronic liquid from a cartridge that can be refilled and release aerosol or vapor that is filled with chemicals. Despite their increased popularity, the long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes remain largely unknown. The individual and public health effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unknown, which is the reason why these tobacco products are unregulated in the United States and across the globe. This research proposal is for a study that seeks to examine the long-term health of electronic cigarettes.

Background of…

References

Callahan-Lyon, P. (2014, February 12). Electronic Cigarettes: Human Health Effects. Tobacco Control, 23(2), ii36-ii40. Retrieved from  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/23/suppl_2/ii36.full 

"E-cigarettes and Lung Health." (n.d.). Lung USA. Retrieved May 3, 2016, from  http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/smoking-facts/e-cigarettes-and-lung-health.html

Costa Rican Smoking Cessation
Words: 2663 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 45911379
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Evaluation Plan:

Outcomes to be Assessed:

The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.

Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…

Works Cited:

American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.

Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.

Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com

Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.

Decriminalization of Marijuana
Words: 2090 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98169451
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Decriminalization of Marijuana

Ever since marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. By the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances, there has been a realization among various groups of people that it was a mistake. However, almost 70 years on, and despite a watertight case in support of its decriminalization, marijuana -- a drug which is arguably less harmful than tobacco and alcohol -- continues to be illegal in the U.S. Of A. In this essay I shall argue why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay by demonstrating that it is a relatively harmless drug and explaining the benefits of legalizing the drug.

Before I proceed to present arguments in support of decriminalization of marijuana let us ponder over two important questions: a) whether marijuana is a sufficiently dangerous, harmful or addictive drug to justify its prohibition? b) Has the prohibition of…

Works Cited

"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. n.d. November 28, 2004.  http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm 

Bandow, Doug. "Forget the War on Drugs Already." Cato Institute. January 01, 2004. November 28, 2004.  http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-01-04.html 

'High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998. November 28, 2004.  http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/news.jsp  'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. 2004. November 28, 2004.  http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf 

Mathre, Mary Lynn. "The Medicinal Use of Marijuana." Nursing Vol. 4, No. 2 pages 8-9. June 1993. November 28, 2004.  http://www.ukcia.org/medical/medicinaluseofmarijuana.html

Philip Morris International Explain Strategic Plan Selected
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88257039
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Philip Morris International explain strategic plan selected company pursues regard business countries.

Company: Philip Morris International

Phillip Morris, one of the leading international tobacco companies, is split into two divisions: Phillip Morris International and Phillip Morris USA. The reason for this bifurcation is not administrative, but legal. Officially, Phillip Morris USA proclaims that there is no safe cigarette, and admits that quitting smoking is difficult. Its CEO recently proclaimed: "Because tobacco use is addictive and can be very difficult to quit, our tobacco companies help connect adult tobacco consumers who have decided to quit with cessation information from public health authorities" (Galuszka 2011). Phillip Morris USA must also comply with U.S. regulations banning televised cigarette advertisements and cigarette advertisements aimed at minors.

Internationally, however, smoking is far more acceptable socially than it is in the U.S. While consumption of cigarettes is going down in the U.S., it is actually escalating…

References

Galuszka, Peter. (2011). Philip Morris and Alice in Wonderland. Style Weekly.

Retrieved June 1, 2011 at  http://www.styleweekly.com/TheReportersNotebook/archives/2011/05/27/philip-morris-and-alice-in-wonderland

Refined Solution a Solution Refinement for Individual
Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16361589
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Refined Solution

A Solution Refinement for Individual Smoking Cessation

Original Issue:

Cigarette-smoking, tobacco addiction and nicotine dependency are widespread and permeating public health concerns. Indeed, the combination of the high rate of addiction to tobacco products and the clear empirical relationship between these products and a number of critical negative and even fatal health outcomes qualifies this is a substantial problem requiring a direct solution. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), "smoking is a leading cause of cancer and death from cancer. It causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix, as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm (a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chest), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma, hip fractures, and cataracts." (NCI, p.1)

This constitutes a very compelling motive for pursuing resolution of the problem…

Works Cited:

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2011). Smoking Cessation. CDC.gov.

CDC Online Newsroom. (2011). New study shows smokers underutilize proven treatment and services for quitting. CDC.gov.

Jaslow, R (2011). Great American Smokeout spotlights smoking cessation: What works best? CBS News.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). (2011). Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting. Cancer.gov.

Courage the Ability to Face Danger or
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33321810
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Courage, the ability to face danger or hardship without showing fear, may have subtly different meanings in various cultures, but it is universally viewed as a virtue.

Courageous people, e.g., those who show bravery in wars and battles are honored by their nations, communities and even enemies through medals, rewards and praise. Most heroes in history built their reputation due to the extra-ordinary courage shown by them in the face of adversity. Cowardice, on the other hand, is almost unanimously considered to be a vice and cowardly people are commonly derided as chicken-hearted, gutless, and "yellow."

Some people distinguish between "physical courage" and "moral courage" although both types of courage are usually present side by side. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. may be categorized as possessing "moral" courage as he took an unflinching moral stand against racial discrimination. However, King could not have been morally courageous if he was…

Doctors use microscopic television cameras to probe the interior of a human body without surgery.

Nicotine behaves as a sedative when it is absorbed slowly in the blood; and as a stimulant when absorbed rapidly

For example, cigarette smoking in the U.S.A. has fallen more than 40% since 1965 (Quoted in "Smoking," Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2005; available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579162/Smoking.html)

Counseling for the Client Various
Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 70947669
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The fact that the patient uses a full pack each day suggests signs of tolerance. The patient encounters withdrawal signs such as mood changes and anxiety. The patient does not show efforts of regulating or reducing the use of cigarette. Despite knowledge on the effects of the drug, the patient continues to use the drugs (Dziegielewski, 2010).

Treatment ecommendations

1. The councilor should involve the patient's parents in treatment sections in order to motivate or influence the patient's perception of the treatment

2 the best method for treatment in this case is behavior modification approach; in this case, the patient should be educated on the consequences of drug use. The patient should receive rewards if she managed to modify her drug use behavior for a specific period.

3. To help the patient avoid drugs, she should avoid areas in which there is easy access of drugs and alcohol. Mostly, the…

References

Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Sadock, B.J., Sadock, V.A., & Sadock, B.J. (2008). Kaplan & Sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

ECIG and a Business Analysis How it Can Improve
Words: 5583 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67358499
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Electronic Cigarettes International Group (ECIG) is an international producer, distributer and retailer of e-cigarettes, e-liquids, and vaporizers with outlets and kiosks in several countries around the world as well as online stores. The company has steadily been growing over the past two years with sales approaching $20 million per quarter in 2016 (SA Transcripts, 2015).

Dan O'Neill replaced Brent Willis as CEO and President of ECIG on January 9, 2015. Dan O'Neill's record of experience as CEO of Molson's and top leadership positions at Heinz and Star-Kist suggests that ECIG is positioned under uniquely qualified leadership for the first time since its creation (it was under Willis that company's share price plummeted to its current record lows). With the reduction of debt and the one-time write-off of losses taken by O'Neill in his first year as President, the company has pivoted for better years (Hoogervorst, 2012).

The electronic cigarette and…

References

Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building

Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.

Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.

Projections for a Start Up Vaping Business
Words: 7591 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 54365204
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Vape Nation Business Plan

Company Identification

Mission of the Company

Business Goals

Keys to Success

Company Summary

Industry History

Legal Form of Ownership

Location and Facilities

Management Structure

Products and Services

Market Analysis

Target Market

Industry Analysis

Market Strategy

Price List

Promotional Strategy

Sales Forecast

Implementation Strategy

Overall Strategy

Monitoring Plan

F. Financial Statements and Projections

F1. Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement

F2. Forecasted Balance Sheet

G. Financial eport

G1. Financial Projections

G2. Financial Position

G3. Estimated Capital/Investment Needs

Executive Summary

Suggested length of 1-2 pages

Company Identification:

Vape Nation, based in the U.S. in California is national start-up that expects to compete in the emerging vapor industry, utilizing vaping technology, e-liquids, and e-cigarettes to market itself to local, national, and online customers.

A2. Mission of the Company:

The mission of Vape Nation is to create brand awareness, brand loyalty, and capture market share in the emerging vaporizer market.

A3.…

References

Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.

Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.

Boseley, S. (2015). Hon Lik invented the e-cigarette to quit smoking. The Guardian. Retrieved from  https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/09/hon-lik-e-cigarette-inventor-quit-smoking-dual-user 

Chaudhui, S. (2015). Study finds e-cigarettes contain chemical tied to 'popcorn lung'.

Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation Plan
Words: 2766 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4187897
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Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.

Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.

During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…

10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.

Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General

Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.

Employee Health Programs an Employee
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27648689
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Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.

"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…

References

Capretta, Peter; Karen Davenport; Kevin Pho; Arthur Caplan; Gary Charness; & Uri Gneezy. (2010,

June 14l). Should people be paid to stay healthy? The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at  http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/14/should-people-be-paid-to-stay-healthy/ 

The Google Culture. (2010). Google. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at  http://www.google.com/corporate/culture.html 

Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Louise M. Aston, & Susan a. Jebb. (2010, February 10). Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review. BMC Public

Altria Group Overview Level of
Words: 1283 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 26916507
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S. operations. "The joint venture, now known as MillerCoors is designed to create cost savings in the U.S., where SAB is the second biggest brewer and Molson the third behind Anheuser Busch" (Herman 2007). Thus, the SABMiller arm of Altria is also falling into line with the general acknowledgement for the need to cut costs in terms of business operations in the U.S. This is good news for Altria as well because it ensures that the product lines in which it still possesses an interest extend beyond the realm of tobacco are likely to cut costs and may improve their market showing in upcoming months. Given that beer is less expensive than many other alcoholic beverages, even during a recession it is more likely that people will consume beer than more expensive wine or spirits, and alcohol is more socially acceptable from a health standpoint than cigarette smoking in the…

Works Cited

About Altria overview."(2008). Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at  http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_0_AboutAltriaOver.asp 

Corporate restructuring." Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at  http://www.altria.com/investors/2_2_corprestructuring.asp 

Herman, Robin. (18 Jan 2007). "Reanalysis of cigarette content confirms tobacco companies have increased addictive nicotine 11% over recent seven-year period." Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at  http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2007-releases/press01182007.html 

Our companies and their brands." (2008). Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at  http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp

Nursing it Is Generally Agreed
Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27966345
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, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195

Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.

Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.

leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…

Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.

Incontrovertible Evidence Surfaced in the
Words: 2955 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27024187
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Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…

Works Cited

Canada Tries Tough Smoking Labels,  http://www.discount-cigars-store.com/news/canada_tries_tough_smoking_labels.htm 

Dichter, Earnest, Why Do We Smoke Cigarettes?, the Psychology of Everyday Living,1947

Facts & Figures: Cigarette Smoking in Canada, Individual and Population Health, Canadian University,2000.

Kaiserman, Murray J, the Cost of Smoking in Canada, 1991, Chronics Diseases in Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Volume 18, No.1 -1997

Drug Profile
Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26459243
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Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from:  http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf 

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.

Parenting Program for Women and
Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12171638
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There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…

Bibliography

Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana
Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27822679
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" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.

Public Health Threats in the 21st Century
Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69466037
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Conclusion

This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…

References

CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014

from  http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .

Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.

Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons

Colony Collapse
Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63893615
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Bee Colony Collapse

John Smith, Environmental Defense Fund

Dear Mr. Smith, thank you for your thoughtful letter concerning the issues surrounding the "colony collapse" of honeybees. e are critically aware of this problem and we are searching for answers along with scientists, environmental experts, and others who recognize the vital role that honeybees play in the production of food in the United States and in the world.

However, at this time, we are not prepared to take a stand and announce that we will only purchase fruit from companies / farms that eschew the use of neonicotinoids. If it turns out that empirically proven research concludes that this pesticide indeed is the cause of the dramatic reduction in honeybee colonies, we will of course take the path that is most responsible in terms of our need to provide our jelly and jam consumers with the highest quality product at a…

Works Cited

Maynard, J. (2015). Bees Could Be Getting Hooked On Nicotine In Pesticides -- Is This

The Cause of Colony Collapse Disorder? Tech Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015, from  http://www.techtimes.com .

Nazzi, F., Brown, S.P., Annoscia, D., Del Piccolo, F., Di Prisco, G., Varricchio, P., Vedova,

G.D., Cattonaro, F., Caprio, E., and Pennacchio, F. (2012). Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen

Combating Alcoholism and Addiction
Words: 2074 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 46383990
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vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.

Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.

Session one

Much is to be taken into…

References

(n.d.).CASAColumbia - Addiction Science, Prevention & Treatment Research. Designing an Addiction Treatment Plan | CASAColumbia. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from  http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-treatment/treatment-plan 

(n.d.). Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror).Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n637/mode/2up

(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4 Integrated Models for Treating Family Members - Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy - NCBI Bookshelf.Retrieved May 19, 2015, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64266/ 

(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4: Screening and Assessment - Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women - NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83253/

The Implementation of the Mipcd Project
Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73135772
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responsibilities as it relates to implementation of the MIPCD project. All four study arms should be described.

Disease Area

Implementation Steps

Barriers and Solutions

Diabetes Management

Diabetes is linked to cardiovascular mortality, neuropathy, stroke, amputation, periodontal disease, kidney failure, and blindness.

Attending a session with an endocrinologist or primary care appointment or filling medications for diabetes is required.

The number of deaths from chronic illnesses in the State of New York is slightly more than the U.S. average, principally on account of a greater number of deaths from heart disease. The characteristics of chronic illness include complex causality, long latency, various risk factors, functional disability/impairment, prolonged illness, and improbability of cure, in some instances.

They deeply impact the affected person's physical, mental and emotional well-being, and are linked to substantial economic costs.

Timely chronic illness detection and cure, in addition to a focus on self-management on the part of the…

How to Quit Smoking
Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33975880
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Introduction

My friend has been a smoker for five years. She is a pack-a-day smoker. Not only is this habit expensive (she may spend upwards of $50 a week on this habit), but it is also not very good for health, as numerous studies have shown (Agaku, King, Dube et al., 2014). I would like to help her quit smoking so that she can save her health, save money, and just be an altogether more enjoyable person to be around. (It is not that much fun being around a person who smokes all the time). To solve this problem, I have applied the six-step problem solving process. This paper will review the steps and explain what I did step-by-step to help my friend quit smoking.

Step One: Define the Problem

The problem my friend was having was that she was smoking a pack a day and did not know how…

Intervention & Addiction Therapy Theory
Words: 3133 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96162245
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.

The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…

References

1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.

2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.

3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.

4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.

Learning Targets Case Food and
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Part 3) What does the Court conclude in the case and why? The Court concluded that the FDA did not, under the current set of legal standards, have the power to enact and enforce the regulations and could not "regulate" tobacco. The Court had the legal responsibility, under a previous precedent Chevron USA v Natural esources Defense Council (467 U.S. 837), whether Congress had already spoken to the issue at hand., and if so, must give deference to Congress' decision. In this case, Congress had, under several occasions, spoken to the rule of law, and therefore, the Court could not expand or contract said authority.

Part 4) if regulation of tobacco is to occur, what has to happen first? Two things, which have actually happened. 1) Congress must rule that tobacco products are drugs and that the FDA may regulate drugs, and 2) Congress must expressly grant the DFA the…

Rogers, D. (June 8, 2009). Senate Vote a Sea Change for Tobacco. Politico. Cited in:

 http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0609/23509.html 

See, "Tobacco Products," (2011). U.S. Food and drug Administration. Cited in:  http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/default.htm

Unions in the Healthcare Industry
Words: 856 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88416314
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The union thus acts as an advocate for worker's legal rights, including their right not to be subject to drug tests as well (although this issue is far more contentious, given that Xanitos also argues that testing is required from the point-of-view of patient safety.

A more controversial drug testing issue is prohibiting all workers from using tobacco, a controversial practice that has become increasingly common amongst healthcare establishments. "More hospitals and medical businesses in many states are adopting strict policies that make smoking a reason to turn away job applicants, saying they want to increase worker productivity, reduce health care costs and encourage healthier living" (Sulzberger 2011: 1). However, the union argues "such policies are a slippery slope -- that if they prove successful in driving down health care costs, employers might be emboldened to crack down on other behavior by their workers, like drinking alcohol, eating fast food…

References

Green, Laura. (2010, November 5). Housekeepers union files lawsuit against St. Mary's Medical

Center. The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at  http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2010-11-05/news/fl-nurses-lawsuit-20101105_1_hospital-workers-housekeepers-union-contract 

Runkel, Ross. (2006, January). Disparate impact. Law Memo. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://www.lawmemo.com/101/2006/01/disparate_impac_1.html

Service Employees International Union. (2011). Official website. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at  http://www.seiu.org/splash/

Juvenile Delinquency Wrong Turn Predisposing
Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 19484770
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, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).

Trauma

Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bartlett, R., et al. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents. 33 (1): 13-18 Pediatric

Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/555209 

Braun, J.M., et al. (2008). Association of environmental toxicants and conduct disorder in U.S. children. 116 (7): 956-962 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute

of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on February 15, 2009 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/577047

Image-Making One of the Characteristics
Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49437155
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The use of the cowboy as the main symbol of the brand responded to the needs that people had at those times. It was a figure who stood for authenticity.

In addition, its complexity derived from the fact that being nonetheless a "real" person, older, wrinkled, it had style and class. In addition, it was a character who took complete control of the things in his life and this was appealing for everyone. People wanted to be like the cowboy. Strong and free. It was a long way from the may feel that the Marlboro cigarettes started out with.

The example that has been analyzed in this paper demonstrates how powerful image can be. The Marlboro cigarettes themselves have surely underwent a process of technological development regarding filters, the quantity of nicotine they include, their chemical composition, etc. ut these changes were insignificant compared to the changes that the brand…

Bibliography:

Gobe, Marc. Emotional branding, the new paradigm for connecting brands to people. Allworth press. 2001

Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Pricken, Mario. Creative advertising. Thames & Hudson. 2008.

Ogilvy, David. Ogilvy on advertising. Vintage, 1985

Advice - Smoking Cessation Advice
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584562
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Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.

The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…

References

Brody, Jane. In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy. The New York Times. (February 2, 2008).

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes. The New York Daily News (March 30, 2008).

Quit Smoking Over the Next
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7080165
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More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.

The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).

I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years.…

Quitting smoking is much more difficult than most might imagine. Of the thousands of people who try to quit each year, only a few remain successful in their fight against nicotine. Most smokers quit for a period of time, only to regain their habit after a brief separation. In fact, it is the first few months which prove the most critical, "Most patients relapse within the first six to 12 months of a smoking cessation attempt," (Mallin, 2002). Through other people's failures, physicians have also discovered that quitting without any plan of action leads to an even higher percentage rate of ex-smokers succumbing to their old habits. An overwhelming 95% of smokers who quit without implementing any sort of program to assist in their endeavors, actually stay smoke free, (Reynolds, 2002). These drastic figures attest to the importance of formulating a plan unique to one's position as the most efficient way to quit smoking. More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.

The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).

I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years. As I have continued to smoke over the years, I have added to my risk of being forced to endure the harmful affects related to cigarettes. Rather than continuing such a harmful habit, I have decided to change my behavior and lifestyle and so erase nicotine and tobacco from my life. I now realizing through assessing my need for change, (DiClemente, 1991) that I don't have much of a choice if I want to prevent myself becoming one of those terrifying statistics. I have found myself in the passing through the contemplation stage and now in the preparation phase of my desired change, (Mallin 2003). I no longer believe that the affects of smoking are overrated or that they will never extend to disrupt my life,

Overcriminalization Some Modern Scholars Make
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Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.

However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…

References

Luna, E. (2005). The overcriminalization phenomenon. American University Law Review, 54,

Richards, D. (1986). Sex, drugs, death, and the law: an essay on human rights and overcriminalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.

Flanders-Stepans M Wilhelm S L & Dolence K
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Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.

Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…

references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.

Reference

Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.

Persuasive Against Smoking
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If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die[1] from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…

Works Cited.

The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.

The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."

California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.

Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.

Official Legal Definition of Contradiction
Words: 4563 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55696657
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This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.

Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…

Reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000].  http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.

National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.

Children of Parents Who Smoke
Words: 2263 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26403857
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At any rate, the identity of the subjects may not be significant. hat will be needed are basic demographic information (such as age, level of family income etc.), and the direct answers to the survey questions.

A second ethical consideration is the use of other research paper or reports as references. But this can be easily solved by citing all the references that I will be using though a credible citation style. This then shows that the research abides with the copyright law of those published journals, articles and/or reports.

Measurement

Summary of the reviewed literature will serve as one major factor for the conclusion. This will provide amble information regarding the subject matter. From the said literature review, statistics and other vital information regarding parent smokers and children smokers will be revealed. This information is not limited from one country or area alone, because for sure, the epidemiology and…

Works Cited

Smoking Statistics. March 1999.  http://unr.edu/homepage/shubinsk/whosmok1.html . June 4, 2004.

What Smoking Does to Your Body? http://www.click2quit.co.uk/why_quit/WQ01i.aspJune 4, 2004.

Substance Addiction the Magnitude of
Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43378451
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ILIOGRAPHY

NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NK83257

- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NK83253

rauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012

from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/730366

Fisher, P.A. et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral dis-inhibition in childhood and adolescence,

Developmental Psychopathology. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335443

Hamdan, a.H. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC.

Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-clinical

Johnson, K et al. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, Archive of Disease

in Childhood. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.bmj.com/content/88/1/F.2.2.ful

Johnson, K and Leff, M (1999). Children of substance abusers. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.long

Kraft, W.K. et al. (2010). Future trends…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83257 

- Screening and assessment.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NBK83253 

Brauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012

from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/730366

Minmum 750 Words The Tobacco Industry Is
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Minmum 750 words.

The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…

Bibliography:

Pahl, Nadine, and Richter, Anne, "Does the Latest German Anti-Smoking Law Affect the Restaurant Behaviour of the Berlin People?," (GRIN Verlag, 2009)

Slovic, Paul, "Smoking: Risk, Perception & Policy," (SAGE 2001)

Smokers Are More Susceptible to Asbestosis Than
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Smokers are More Susceptible to Asbestosis than Non- Smokers

It is common knowledge that cigarette smoking is bad for your health. There are a multitude of diseases and health issues which are either caused or exacerbated by cigarette smoking. These diseases and health issues include but are not limited to coronary heart disease, stroke, many cancers, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic airway obstruction, infertility, stillbirth, and asbestosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Here the focus is on asbestosis and the relationship it has with smoking.

According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease egistry, "Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term disease of the lungs caused by high exposure or long duration of exposure to asbestos. Asbestosis is not a cancer. Cigarette smoking will make this asbestos-related illness worse. The disease typically develops 10 to 20 years after initial exposure, getting worse over time. It causes lung tissues to scar.…

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2006, June). Cigarette Smoking, Asbestos

Exposure, and Your Health. Retrieved from  http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/site -

kit/docs/cigarettesasbestos2.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, January 10). Health Effects of Cigarette

Metallica Blackened at First Glance a Heavy
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Metallica "Blackened"

At first glance, a heavy metal band like Metallica may not be an obvious candidate to be promoting good-for-you, good-for-the-earth causes like reducing pollution and saving the Earth from destruction at the hands of lazy humans. And yet, hidden deep within the rock guitar and tough-guy exterior of the band lies a group of artists who are passionate about how humankind treats the Earth. Like many other musicians, the members of Metallica use their art to talk about what they believe in and to try to influence their fans to care about the projects they support. Some artists use their music to talk about politics, family, or moral issues, and some use it to talk about causes they support. The Metallica song Blackened, released in 1988, is one example of music meant to expose the band's thoughts on how humans could be close to destroying the earth, and…

Work Cited

Herringa, Nick. (December 7, 2007.) "Is Metallica Edging Closer to the PR Revolution?" Retrieved May 9, 2011 from  http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig8/heeringa1.html 

Hetfield James; Ulrich, Lars; and Newsted, Jason. (September 11, 1988.) "Blackened Lyrics." Retrieved May 9, 2011 from  http://www.metallica.com/songs/blackened.asp 

Live Earth. (June 19, 2007.) "Metallica, Kasabian, Pussycat Dolls and Terra Naomi Join Live Earth London Line-Up." Retrieved May 9, 2011 from http://liveearth.org/sv/press/pressrelease/metallica-kasabian-pussycat-dolls-and-terra-naomi-join-live-earth-london-line-up

Look to the Stars. (2011.) "Lars Ulrich's Charity Work, Events and Causes." Retrieved May 9, 2011 from  http://www.looktothestars.org/celebrity/615-lars-ulrich

Student Smoking Behavior
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Students Smoking Behavior

The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…

References

Indiana University (2011), September 14). Campus smoking ban reduced students' smoking, changed attitudes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 11,2013 from  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110914122700.htm 

Schorr, M.(2009).A Third of college students smoke. Retrieved September 11,2013 from  http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=118065&page=1 

Coster, D.(2013). Campus smokings ban a drag for some students. Retrieved September 11,2013 from  http://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news/news/9122346/Campus-smoking-ban-a-drag-for-some-students

Aapt Level IV Cert Written Test
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AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test

Anxiety

Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…

Bibliography

Akiskal, H.S., & Benazzi, F. (2006). The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent major depressive and bipolar II disorders: Evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1): 45 -- 54.

Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M.C., Bernert, S., Bruffaerts, R., Brugha, T.S., Bryson, H., Girolamo, G., Graaf, R., et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: Results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(420): 21 -- 7.

Berrios, G.E. (1999). Classifications in psychiatry: A conceptual history. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(2): 145 -- 60.

Clarke, G.N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M. & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2): 183 -- 204.

Marketing Tobacco Marketing Get Them Young or
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arketing

Tobacco arketing: Get Them Young or Not at All

The tobacco industry has been in a battle to capture the youth market for decades mainly because of the degree of brand loyalty that is characteristic of cigarette smokers. Cigarette companies have a lot at stake in making sure that their brand is one of the first tried by the young smoker. In its bid to obtain young smokers, R.J. Reynolds created the Joe Camel campaign with a cool character that youths found highly appealing and the company created fierce advertising, promotional, and sales campaigns to take their message to market. The Joe Camel campaign proved to be one of the most successful bids to capture young smokers in tobacco history. Ultimately, its tremendous success was in part the reason for the campaign's eventual downfall, as public outcry demanded that cigarette companies stop marketing to adolescents and as courts gained…

Magazine Ads. http://www.costkids.org/targetingkids/magazineads.htm (26).

Boyles, Salynn. "Joe Camel May Be Gone, But Legacy Lives On." WebMD Medical News, Aug 15, 2001.  http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.86774 (26 Nov. 2002).

Tobacco Marketing To Young People, Young People: A Key Expansion Market. http://www.infact.org/youth.html (26).