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egarded extremely addictive, nicotine happens to be one of the most widely used drugs by virtue of being contained in tobacco. In this text, I discuss this psychoactive drug. In so doing, I amongst other things highlight the drug's street names, typical users as well as the effect the same has on users. Further, I discuss the drug's cultural aspects and medicinal usage.
Nicotine: General Information
According to Coon and Mitterer (2010), "nicotine is a natural stimulant found mainly in tobacco." The drug is delivered to the brain by sniffing, chewing or smoking tobacco. In that regard, it is important to note that each cigarette stick smoked delivers approximately 1 to 2 milligrams of nicotine to the lungs of a smoker. However, the amount of nicotine contained in each cigarette stick is usually much higher standing at approximately 10 milligrams. The reason for the much lower amount of nicotine…… [Read More]
Caffeinism describes the symptoms which occur when individuals who regularly drink large amounts of caffeine suddenly stop. While generally mild, symptoms have been reported to include muscle twitching and heart palpitations. In the DSM-IV, there are several disorders listed specifically associated with the use of caffeine.
Pregnant women are usually recommended to reduce their intake of caffeine, although the precise amount differs from study to study. In a study performed by Kaiser Permanente it was reported that the intake of 200 mg of caffeine per day was a significant risk for miscarriage. Another study, however, in the same year denied any association between risk of miscarriage and caffeine intake.
In light of the differing scientific evidence, one would probably be prudent to avoid or at least limit the use of caffeine in pregnancy, or even for general health. When any substance can be associated with a withdrawal syndrome, I believe…… [Read More]
Nicotine acts at the neuro-muscular junction to stimulate muscles. Paradoxically, smokers report that it relaxes them. Explain.
One of the paradoxes about nicotine addiction is that smokers report feeling relaxed after using, in spite of the fact that nicotine is a biological stimulant. The phenomenon is known in the literature as Nesbitt's Paradox or simply the nicotine paradox. Early research into Nesbitt's Paradox revealed that there are a number of potential variables influencing the perception of a relaxed emotional response. Behavioral activity levels, the level of central nervous system arousal, the type of emotion being reported, time elapsed since the nicotine fix, and both rate and dose of administration are linked to perceived emotional responses to smoking cigarettes containing nicotine (Gilbert, 1979). Of these variables, the degree of nicotine deprivation has been most closely linked to the paradoxical sensation that a stimulant creates a relaxation response. The solution to…… [Read More]
It also has promising medical uses, such as preventing Alzheimer's disease. However, nicotine is also a poison. It causes high blood pressure, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal distress, and can even cause death by overdoes. Furthermore, nicotine is an addictive drug with and its effects on some systems vary from person to person. hile withdrawal from nicotine is difficult, the negative effects of nicotine use indicate that it should not be used recreationally.
Christopher, James. Escape from Nicotine Country: How to Stop Smoking Painlessly. New York: Prometheus Books, 1999.
Cigarette Smoking." Cancer.org. 2005. American Cancer Society. 14 Mar. 2005 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_10_2X_Cigarette_Smoking.asp?sitearea=PED.
Leung, Melisse. "Tobacco." AMSA.org. 2005. American Medical Student Association. 14 Mar. 2005 http://www.amsa.org/resource/natlinit/tobacco.cfm.
Pugh, Phyllis. "hat are the Effects of Nicotine?" PCP's Place. 1998. Geocities. 14 Mar. 2005 http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/2257/niceffects.html.
Christopher, James. Escape from Nicotine Country: How to Stop Smoking Painlessly. New York: Prometheus
Cigarette Smoking." Cancer.org. 2005. American…… [Read More]
Caffeine and Nicotine: What They Do to the Body and Mind
Over the last several years, there has been continuing debate about the long-term impact of caffeine and tobacco consumption. This is because most people are consuming either one or both of these products on a regular basis. Various forms of research are showing that this will have an adverse impact on the underlying levels of health for the individual. To fully understand how this is happening, there will be focus on studying a number of sources in conjunction with each other. Once this takes place, is when these facts will illustrate the negative effects of these substances on the physical and mental health of the individual.
Summary of Current esearch
Sources showing short to medium term effects
Sources illustrating the short to long-term impact on physical and mental health
Application of Psychological Addiction
esources discussing how…… [Read More]
Broms et al. (2010) found that evening type people were more likely to become smokers, and less likely to cease their nicotine addiction.
The study was a cohort design that used random-effects model regressions over a longitudinal period of time in order to study the comparison of attraction to smoking and tendency to remain addicted between diurnal and non-diurnal participants.
A sample of 23289 same-sex adult twin individuals from Finland was used. Nicotine dependence was studied on a sub-sample of 676 individual twins. The subjects were split into four groups: morning type, somewhat morning type, somewhat evening type, and evening type. Past and present smoking patterns were assessed. The DSM-IV and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were both used to assess nicotine dependence.
esearchers found that of the four categories, it was diurnal types who were most likely to be past and current nicotine smokers and addicted to smoking,…… [Read More]
Friends From the Wrong Crowd
One of the most challenging things among the young people on America is the idea of bad company. This problem is so pronounced and serious taking into account that the people who surround and individual largely dictates the direction of the life that the individual will take and hence shaping their future.
Ryan a 23 years old boy came from a humble Christian family where no one was allowed to smoke. When Ryan joined campus he met Pat and Torrey who were cigarette addicts. They became his close friends and went a head and invited him to hang out with them for a weekend. Pat and Torrey offered Ryan a whiff of cigarette for the first time in his life. Ryan was hesitant and said an emphatic "No" to the request but they kept on insisting on him to smoke. Ultimately he ended up smoking…… [Read More]
Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.
Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…… [Read More]
Marginal ate of Substitution (MS) is the rate that an individual is ready to give up from "good A" to obtain one or more unit of "good B" while keeping the overall utility constant. In other words, MS reveals how many units of good x that an individual is ready to give up to gain extra unit of good y while keeping the same level of utility constant. The MS involves the trade off of goods to change the allocation of the total bundles of goods while maintaining the level of satisfaction. Typically, MS is calculated between goods being placed on indifferent curve. The product of cheeseburger and hotdogs is used to illustrate the MS. If the marginal rate of substitution of cheeseburger for hot dogs is 2, thus, consumer will be willing to give 2 cheeseburger to obtain 1 extra hot dog.
However, marginal rate of substitution diminishes…… [Read More]
Conclusions -- It becomes immediately clear that the art of the silent film depended on three major elements: smooth editing, appropriate use of subtitles, and actors who were able to use their eyes and movement to communicate or "play to the camera." It was surprising that only one of the films viewed seemed "primitive," and that was only the initial parts of Gertie. By the time we get to The ink, there has been an obvious improvement in camera techniques and the ability to film from different angles and heights, even if the camera is stable. In addition, the vaudevillian arm and comedy of The ink is classic. It is also interesting to note that the subject matter, while varied, seemed far less censored that what we would come to expect in later Hollywood years -- we see prostitution, abject poverty, criminal behavior, sexual innuendos with fairy creatures, and a…… [Read More]
This lack of ADH makes the collecting duct impermeable to water (www.nmc.edu/~koverbaugh/bio106/su02/chapt15.htm)." ADH production decreases when alcohol is consumed, resulting in dehydration.
When there is a low blood volume, the "juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes enin, leading to Angiotensinogen, Angiotensin I, and Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone, which increases the return of Na to blood. This increased salt in the blood causes water to diffuse into the blood from the urine (www.nmc.edu/~koverbaugh/bio106/su02/chapt15.htm)." The secretion of aldosterone is "also triggered when potassium levels are elevated (hyperkalemia), and through the sodium-potassium pump, it increases potassium excretion while increasing sodium reabsorption (http://www.dacc.edu/~lgarret/fluid.html)."
Alcohol consumption negatively affects the urinary system by decreasing the production of ADH. This reduction of ADH will cause the body to become dehydrated, and can lead to electrolyte imbalance.
Controlling the Internal Environment. (accessed 04 October, 2004). www.3redravens.net/apbio/Chap44notes.html).
Fluid, Electrolyte, and pH Balance. (accessed…… [Read More]
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]
Punishment can be defined as a way to reduce a given behavior by attaching a consequence to behaving a certain way or doing a particular thing. Some of the consequences that denote positive punishment include loud noise, electric shock and a reprimand. The consequences that denote negative punishment include money, access to a given social environment and food. Several studies have discussed the effects and implications of aversive control. The main topics that have been covered include how they affect the use of nicotine, analysis of man's neuropsychiatric behavior and the use of aversive techniques such as punishment tools.
An aversive stimulus can maintain the behavior of an organism that rids another organism of the targeted aversive stimulus. This is definitely different from positive reinforcement where the reinforcing event is the production of the stimulus. One distinct characteristic of aversive control is an avoidance or escape behavior targeted.…… [Read More]
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
Drugs and Differences between Them
There are various types of drugs that have considerable effects on the brain and are used by individuals for various reasons. These types of drugs are classified into different categories i.e. stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. As the name suggests, stimulants are drugs that speed up an individual and can be dangerous while depressants are drugs that slow down an individual and can be dangerous by causing vomiting, unconsciousness, and even death. On the contrary, hallucinogens are drugs that make a person see and hear strange things or things that are not actually in existence. Similar to stimulants and depressants, hallucinogens can be dangerous because of their effect on a person's brain. Some examples of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens are oxycodone, nicotine, and mescaline. These drugs differ with regards to the composition, physical and psychological effects, manufacture or cultivation, how they are used, and individual's motivation…… [Read More]
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…… [Read More]
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…… [Read More]
power of statistical analysis is the power to define, interpret, and understanding numerical data which represents patterns in the real world. Without the ability to measure statistical data, the empirical, hypothetical world of educational models would not be able to be checked by actual performance in the absolute. While statistics has applications in many fields, statistical data is possibly the most powerful when used to identify patterns in personal behavior, and other fields of study which do not exhibit direct patterns across a sampling group. For example, mathematical equations govern how a specific metal will respond to different loads, and different conditions. However, there are no direct mathematical equations which govern the percentage of teenage drivers who will be involved in traffic accidents over a period of time. In order to interpret the influential factors over teen drivers, a statistical measurement of actual experience can be undertaken. Through statistical analysis,…… [Read More]
Long-Term Health Effects of E-Cigarettes
Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes have emerged as popular tobacco products, which are relatively different from conventional cigarettes. These new tobacco products include e-pipes, e-pens, and e-hookahs that are increasingly used as electronic systems for nicotine delivery. Electronic cigarettes are electronic devices that enable users to inhale vapor that contains nicotine and other substances. These devices are battery-operated and contain a heating component to heat electronic liquid from a cartridge that can be refilled and release aerosol or vapor that is filled with chemicals. Despite their increased popularity, the long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes remain largely unknown. The individual and public health effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unknown, which is the reason why these tobacco products are unregulated in the United States and across the globe. This research proposal is for a study that seeks to examine the long-term health of electronic cigarettes.
Background of…… [Read More]
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…… [Read More]
Decriminalization of Marijuana
Ever since marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. By the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances, there has been a realization among various groups of people that it was a mistake. However, almost 70 years on, and despite a watertight case in support of its decriminalization, marijuana -- a drug which is arguably less harmful than tobacco and alcohol -- continues to be illegal in the U.S. Of A. In this essay I shall argue why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay by demonstrating that it is a relatively harmless drug and explaining the benefits of legalizing the drug.
Before I proceed to present arguments in support of decriminalization of marijuana let us ponder over two important questions: a) whether marijuana is a sufficiently dangerous, harmful or addictive drug to justify its prohibition? b) Has the prohibition of…… [Read More]
Philip Morris International explain strategic plan selected company pursues regard business countries.
Company: Philip Morris International
Phillip Morris, one of the leading international tobacco companies, is split into two divisions: Phillip Morris International and Phillip Morris USA. The reason for this bifurcation is not administrative, but legal. Officially, Phillip Morris USA proclaims that there is no safe cigarette, and admits that quitting smoking is difficult. Its CEO recently proclaimed: "Because tobacco use is addictive and can be very difficult to quit, our tobacco companies help connect adult tobacco consumers who have decided to quit with cessation information from public health authorities" (Galuszka 2011). Phillip Morris USA must also comply with U.S. regulations banning televised cigarette advertisements and cigarette advertisements aimed at minors.
Internationally, however, smoking is far more acceptable socially than it is in the U.S. While consumption of cigarettes is going down in the U.S., it is actually escalating…… [Read More]
A Solution Refinement for Individual Smoking Cessation
Cigarette-smoking, tobacco addiction and nicotine dependency are widespread and permeating public health concerns. Indeed, the combination of the high rate of addiction to tobacco products and the clear empirical relationship between these products and a number of critical negative and even fatal health outcomes qualifies this is a substantial problem requiring a direct solution. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), "smoking is a leading cause of cancer and death from cancer. It causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix, as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm (a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chest), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma, hip fractures, and cataracts." (NCI, p.1)
This constitutes a very compelling motive for pursuing resolution of the problem…… [Read More]
Courage, the ability to face danger or hardship without showing fear, may have subtly different meanings in various cultures, but it is universally viewed as a virtue.
Courageous people, e.g., those who show bravery in wars and battles are honored by their nations, communities and even enemies through medals, rewards and praise. Most heroes in history built their reputation due to the extra-ordinary courage shown by them in the face of adversity. Cowardice, on the other hand, is almost unanimously considered to be a vice and cowardly people are commonly derided as chicken-hearted, gutless, and "yellow."
Some people distinguish between "physical courage" and "moral courage" although both types of courage are usually present side by side. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. may be categorized as possessing "moral" courage as he took an unflinching moral stand against racial discrimination. However, King could not have been morally courageous if he was…… [Read More]
The fact that the patient uses a full pack each day suggests signs of tolerance. The patient encounters withdrawal signs such as mood changes and anxiety. The patient does not show efforts of regulating or reducing the use of cigarette. Despite knowledge on the effects of the drug, the patient continues to use the drugs (Dziegielewski, 2010).
1. The councilor should involve the patient's parents in treatment sections in order to motivate or influence the patient's perception of the treatment
2 the best method for treatment in this case is behavior modification approach; in this case, the patient should be educated on the consequences of drug use. The patient should receive rewards if she managed to modify her drug use behavior for a specific period.
3. To help the patient avoid drugs, she should avoid areas in which there is easy access of drugs and alcohol. Mostly, the…… [Read More]
Electronic Cigarettes International Group (ECIG) is an international producer, distributer and retailer of e-cigarettes, e-liquids, and vaporizers with outlets and kiosks in several countries around the world as well as online stores. The company has steadily been growing over the past two years with sales approaching $20 million per quarter in 2016 (SA Transcripts, 2015).
Dan O'Neill replaced Brent Willis as CEO and President of ECIG on January 9, 2015. Dan O'Neill's record of experience as CEO of Molson's and top leadership positions at Heinz and Star-Kist suggests that ECIG is positioned under uniquely qualified leadership for the first time since its creation (it was under Willis that company's share price plummeted to its current record lows). With the reduction of debt and the one-time write-off of losses taken by O'Neill in his first year as President, the company has pivoted for better years (Hoogervorst, 2012).
The electronic cigarette and…… [Read More]
Vape Nation Business Plan
Mission of the Company
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Services
F. Financial Statements and Projections
F1. Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
F2. Forecasted Balance Sheet
G. Financial eport
G1. Financial Projections
G2. Financial Position
G3. Estimated Capital/Investment Needs
Suggested length of 1-2 pages
Vape Nation, based in the U.S. in California is national start-up that expects to compete in the emerging vapor industry, utilizing vaping technology, e-liquids, and e-cigarettes to market itself to local, national, and online customers.
A2. Mission of the Company:
The mission of Vape Nation is to create brand awareness, brand loyalty, and capture market share in the emerging vaporizer market.
A3.…… [Read More]
Dangers of E-Cigarettes
Since the discovery that tobacco smoking causes a myriad of health problems, lobby groups in the health sector and other interested parties have put pressure on the tobacco industry to force the manufacturers of their products to print warning messages on cigarettes. However, the cigarette industry still has a way out of the current situation. It has not been pushed to put the same warning messages on eCigs and similar products made for vaping. According to the Center for Disease Control, the young people in the US are more likely to use e-cigarettes that any other form of tobacco product. Surveys show that in 2016, over 2 million young people in learning institutions and elsewhere used an e-Cig at some point in 2016. There is a mistaken belief that eCigs are not harmful. Studies show that vaping, though a little less harmful, it is harmful all the…… [Read More]
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]
Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.
"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…… [Read More]
S. operations. "The joint venture, now known as MillerCoors is designed to create cost savings in the U.S., where SAB is the second biggest brewer and Molson the third behind Anheuser Busch" (Herman 2007). Thus, the SABMiller arm of Altria is also falling into line with the general acknowledgement for the need to cut costs in terms of business operations in the U.S. This is good news for Altria as well because it ensures that the product lines in which it still possesses an interest extend beyond the realm of tobacco are likely to cut costs and may improve their market showing in upcoming months. Given that beer is less expensive than many other alcoholic beverages, even during a recession it is more likely that people will consume beer than more expensive wine or spirits, and alcohol is more socially acceptable from a health standpoint than cigarette smoking in the…… [Read More]
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]
Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]
Bee Colony Collapse
John Smith, Environmental Defense Fund
Dear Mr. Smith, thank you for your thoughtful letter concerning the issues surrounding the "colony collapse" of honeybees. e are critically aware of this problem and we are searching for answers along with scientists, environmental experts, and others who recognize the vital role that honeybees play in the production of food in the United States and in the world.
However, at this time, we are not prepared to take a stand and announce that we will only purchase fruit from companies / farms that eschew the use of neonicotinoids. If it turns out that empirically proven research concludes that this pesticide indeed is the cause of the dramatic reduction in honeybee colonies, we will of course take the path that is most responsible in terms of our need to provide our jelly and jam consumers with the highest quality product at a…… [Read More]
vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.
Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.
Much is to be taken into…… [Read More]
responsibilities as it relates to implementation of the MIPCD project. All four study arms should be described.
Barriers and Solutions
Diabetes is linked to cardiovascular mortality, neuropathy, stroke, amputation, periodontal disease, kidney failure, and blindness.
Attending a session with an endocrinologist or primary care appointment or filling medications for diabetes is required.
The number of deaths from chronic illnesses in the State of New York is slightly more than the U.S. average, principally on account of a greater number of deaths from heart disease. The characteristics of chronic illness include complex causality, long latency, various risk factors, functional disability/impairment, prolonged illness, and improbability of cure, in some instances.
They deeply impact the affected person's physical, mental and emotional well-being, and are linked to substantial economic costs.
Timely chronic illness detection and cure, in addition to a focus on self-management on the part of the…… [Read More]
My friend has been a smoker for five years. She is a pack-a-day smoker. Not only is this habit expensive (she may spend upwards of $50 a week on this habit), but it is also not very good for health, as numerous studies have shown (Agaku, King, Dube et al., 2014). I would like to help her quit smoking so that she can save her health, save money, and just be an altogether more enjoyable person to be around. (It is not that much fun being around a person who smokes all the time). To solve this problem, I have applied the six-step problem solving process. This paper will review the steps and explain what I did step-by-step to help my friend quit smoking.
Step One: Define the Problem
The problem my friend was having was that she was smoking a pack a day and did not know how…… [Read More]
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]
Part 3) What does the Court conclude in the case and why? The Court concluded that the FDA did not, under the current set of legal standards, have the power to enact and enforce the regulations and could not "regulate" tobacco. The Court had the legal responsibility, under a previous precedent Chevron USA v Natural esources Defense Council (467 U.S. 837), whether Congress had already spoken to the issue at hand., and if so, must give deference to Congress' decision. In this case, Congress had, under several occasions, spoken to the rule of law, and therefore, the Court could not expand or contract said authority.
Part 4) if regulation of tobacco is to occur, what has to happen first? Two things, which have actually happened. 1) Congress must rule that tobacco products are drugs and that the FDA may regulate drugs, and 2) Congress must expressly grant the DFA the…… [Read More]
The union thus acts as an advocate for worker's legal rights, including their right not to be subject to drug tests as well (although this issue is far more contentious, given that Xanitos also argues that testing is required from the point-of-view of patient safety.
A more controversial drug testing issue is prohibiting all workers from using tobacco, a controversial practice that has become increasingly common amongst healthcare establishments. "More hospitals and medical businesses in many states are adopting strict policies that make smoking a reason to turn away job applicants, saying they want to increase worker productivity, reduce health care costs and encourage healthier living" (Sulzberger 2011: 1). However, the union argues "such policies are a slippery slope -- that if they prove successful in driving down health care costs, employers might be emboldened to crack down on other behavior by their workers, like drinking alcohol, eating fast food…… [Read More]
, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).
Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…… [Read More]
The use of the cowboy as the main symbol of the brand responded to the needs that people had at those times. It was a figure who stood for authenticity.
In addition, its complexity derived from the fact that being nonetheless a "real" person, older, wrinkled, it had style and class. In addition, it was a character who took complete control of the things in his life and this was appealing for everyone. People wanted to be like the cowboy. Strong and free. It was a long way from the may feel that the Marlboro cigarettes started out with.
The example that has been analyzed in this paper demonstrates how powerful image can be. The Marlboro cigarettes themselves have surely underwent a process of technological development regarding filters, the quantity of nicotine they include, their chemical composition, etc. ut these changes were insignificant compared to the changes that the brand…… [Read More]
Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.
The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]
More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.
The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).
I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years.…… [Read More]
Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.
However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…… [Read More]
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…… [Read More]
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…… [Read More]
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…… [Read More]
At any rate, the identity of the subjects may not be significant. hat will be needed are basic demographic information (such as age, level of family income etc.), and the direct answers to the survey questions.
A second ethical consideration is the use of other research paper or reports as references. But this can be easily solved by citing all the references that I will be using though a credible citation style. This then shows that the research abides with the copyright law of those published journals, articles and/or reports.
Summary of the reviewed literature will serve as one major factor for the conclusion. This will provide amble information regarding the subject matter. From the said literature review, statistics and other vital information regarding parent smokers and children smokers will be revealed. This information is not limited from one country or area alone, because for sure, the epidemiology and…… [Read More]
NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NK83257
- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NK83253
rauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012
Fisher, P.A. et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral dis-inhibition in childhood and adolescence,
Developmental Psychopathology. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335443
Hamdan, a.H. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC.
Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-clinical
Johnson, K et al. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, Archive of Disease
in Childhood. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.bmj.com/content/88/1/F.2.2.ful
Johnson, K and Leff, M (1999). Children of substance abusers. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.long
Kraft, W.K. et al. (2010). Future trends…… [Read More]
Minmum 750 words.
The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…… [Read More]
Smokers are More Susceptible to Asbestosis than Non- Smokers
It is common knowledge that cigarette smoking is bad for your health. There are a multitude of diseases and health issues which are either caused or exacerbated by cigarette smoking. These diseases and health issues include but are not limited to coronary heart disease, stroke, many cancers, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic airway obstruction, infertility, stillbirth, and asbestosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Here the focus is on asbestosis and the relationship it has with smoking.
According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease egistry, "Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term disease of the lungs caused by high exposure or long duration of exposure to asbestos. Asbestosis is not a cancer. Cigarette smoking will make this asbestos-related illness worse. The disease typically develops 10 to 20 years after initial exposure, getting worse over time. It causes lung tissues to scar.…… [Read More]
At first glance, a heavy metal band like Metallica may not be an obvious candidate to be promoting good-for-you, good-for-the-earth causes like reducing pollution and saving the Earth from destruction at the hands of lazy humans. And yet, hidden deep within the rock guitar and tough-guy exterior of the band lies a group of artists who are passionate about how humankind treats the Earth. Like many other musicians, the members of Metallica use their art to talk about what they believe in and to try to influence their fans to care about the projects they support. Some artists use their music to talk about politics, family, or moral issues, and some use it to talk about causes they support. The Metallica song Blackened, released in 1988, is one example of music meant to expose the band's thoughts on how humans could be close to destroying the earth, and…… [Read More]
Students Smoking Behavior
The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…… [Read More]
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]