Nile River Essays (Examples)

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The Non Native Planst and Animals of Hudson River Valley

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21791181

Non-Indigenous Occupiers of the Hudson iver Valley

There are animals and plants that are often considered to be native to any given region, they are vital to the ecosystem of the regions and need to be kept in balance to perpetuate the ecosystem of the region. When there is an elimination of threat to one of the native occupiers of the region, then there is a potential for risk of decimation of the other members of the ecosystem as well. However, the indigenous occupiers of Hudson Valley have faced threats elimination since the 1930s with the onset of new developments and housing which came along with non-indigenous species some of which were invasive. It is important to know that most of the time, the indigenous species, are considered to be those that are found on the East of Mississippi thriving naturally and can grow well in the prevailing weather in…… [Read More]

References

Defenders of Wildlife, (2016). Invasive Species in New York. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/new_york.pdf

FernCreek Design & Build, (2016). The Role of Native Plants. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://ferncreekdesign.org/whygonative.html

Hudson River Garden Calendar, (2016 ). Seedling Sale. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.hvgardencalendar.com/
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About Egypt

Words: 1533 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65027965

History Of Egypt

Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3

The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4

ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5

Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6

Conclusion & Suggestions

Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,

and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.

Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.

Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
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Geography on Political Cultural and Economic Development

Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81771943

Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley

The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.

Statement of Thesis

The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.

Mesopotamia & Egypt

What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm

Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from:  http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm
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Regions People Think of the Middle East

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8778552

Regions

People think of the Middle East and mistakenly think that the area is all the same. Most people think about the dry sand and the hot sun. People who do not know much about the area assume that all of the countries have the same land types and the same climates. These people make their assumptions because of what they see on television and in movies about these places in the world. They think of deserts and maybe the Nile River but they assume that the whole place looks the same and has many of the same things. The areas of Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Yellow River area, and the Indus River region are very different but they also have some things in common.

Ancient Egypt is known for being a desert region but it also has water ways which allow for plants to grow there. However, the area is…… [Read More]

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History of the High Aswan

Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15371076

The student editors continue, "Prior to the appearance of Lake Nasser [...] the Nubians cultivated plots along the shore. Those areas are now completely underwater. Many people have left the settlements that were created for them and returned to the lake's edge, trying to recreate their lost culture."

Sadly, because the dam has affected the flow of the Nile, and because the lakeshore is different from the river's edge, their way of life has been permanently changed. Many nomadic Egyptian tribes were also affected. They did not understand the effect the lake would have on their tribal lands, and these changes altered the way they care for their livestock and make their livings. In short, the dam affected people's lives adversely in many areas, and the human cost of the dam has been extremely high.

The dam added 30% to Egypt's usable agricultural land, but it has had an adverse…… [Read More]

References

Editors. 2000. The Aswan Dam. Denver, CO: University of Colorado at Denver. Available Online at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/index.html. Accessed 7 May 2007.

Osman, Hassan. Hydro Development in Egypt- Lessons from High Aswan Dam. Dams.org. Available Online at http://www.dams.org/kbase/submissions/showsub.php?rec=opt041Accessed 7 May 2007.

Swain, Ashok. Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. London: Routledge, 2004.

Water Wars: Fact or Fiction?" Futures (2001): 769.
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Aswan High Dam The Writer

Words: 1629 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76790523

cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/).In some cases it has happened that the entire reservoir becomes filled with silt and the investment in the dam is lost (the Aswan Dams (http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/)."

Special Edition

World news from the Washington Post's Foreign Service.

Full section

The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1970.

Alexandra Garcia - washingtonpost.com

Conclusion

The Aswan High Dam is one of the largest dams in the world and it provides a multitude of benefits to those who live in the surrounding area.

The electricity it generates is clean, and does not contribute to air or environment pollution. It maintains the river to control flooding which allows the environment to grow and prosper without fear of destruction.

The problems it created while being constructed included the destruction of artifacts that were thousands of years old. In addition it flooded a nation and the entire population had to be moved with their lifestyles and history destroyed.…… [Read More]

References

The Aswan Dams (Accessed 5-1-07)

http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/

The Aswan High Dam (Accessed 5-1-07)

http://www.proutworld.org/features/nile.htm
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How Geography Matters to Egypt Israel and Greece

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405124

Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece

Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.

How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece

As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, Michael J. "Egypt." Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 15

Dec. 2015. .

Hicks, Derek. "Geography and the Early Greeks." Selinsgrove Area School District. Selinsgrove Area School District, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015. .

Zank, Michael. "Israelite History in the Context of the Ancient Near East." Boston University.
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Humanities Ancient Culture

Words: 2115 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58705771

Ancient Egyptian Gynecology

In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.

Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.

The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.

Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.

Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html

Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm

Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
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Slavery in the Bible in Modern Western

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54622671

Slavery in the Bible

In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.
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Ancient Early Church Middle Ages and Renaissance

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31339101

Ancient, Early Church, Middle Ages, and Renaissance Civilizations to the Contemporary Western Civilization

Two primary civilizations had emerged to form the first civilization of mankind -- that of the Mesopotamia, and Egyptian civilizations. Although other important civilizations had been formed during the ancient times such as the Sumerian and Akkadian empires, the important contributions and use of innovations and progress of the three aforementioned civilizations had influenced and developed the Western Civilization of today, thus, the focus of this paper will be on the contributions of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization to the present civilization of mankind.

One of the primary contributions of the ancient civilization to the Western civilization is the development of a water irrigation system. Through the development of water irrigation system, the Mesopotamians were able to cultivate plants as their food, giving way to the development of agriculture. The need to establish laws regarding irrigation control…… [Read More]

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Sudan and Its Civil War

Words: 2856 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58668813

S. government analysts report that the Sudanese have violated the border with the Central African Republic during various military expeditions (Sudan 2). Furthermore, although millions of Sudanese have been displaced by these civil wars, so too has it been forced to deal with large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad, seeking refuge from their respective conflicts as well (Sudan 3). According to these analysts, "Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations" (Sudan 2).

The Aftermath of the Discovery of Oil.

In their book, Africa's Thirty Years ar: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993, Burr and Collins (1999) report that on the on hand, the Sudan is blessed with abundant natural resources, but on the other hand, the nation has been unable to exploit these to their maximum advantage for a variety of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins. Africa's Thirty Years War: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.

Cypher, J.M. And J.L. Dietz. The Process of Economic Development. London: Routledge, 1997.

Dupraz, Emily. (2002). "The Oils of War: Conflict in the Sudan." Harvard International Review 24(1):10.

El-Tigani, Mahgoub. (2001). "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly 23(2):41.
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Social and Cultural Herodotus in

Words: 1278 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71305906

(Chapter II)

Herodotus admires the practical as well as the religious achievements of Egypt, however. "Now if the Nile should choose to divert his waters from their present bed into this Arabian Gulf, what is there to hinder it from being filled up by the stream within, at the utmost, twenty thousand years... Thus I give credit to those from whom I received this account of Egypt, and am myself, moreover, strongly of the same opinion, since I remarked that the country projects into the sea further than the neighboring shores," (Chapter II) He even gives Egypt this final credit, in comparison to Greek "The Egyptians, they went on to affirm, first brought into use the names of the twelve gods, which the Greeks adopted from them; and first erected altars, images, and temples to the gods; and also first engraved upon stone the figures of animals. (Chapter II)

But…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nagle, D. Brendan. The Ancient World. Fifth Edition.

Bailkey, Nels M. Readings in Ancient History.

Herodotus. "Histories." Chapter II. Retrieved in total at Internet Classics Archive.,  http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.2.ii.html .
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Chinese First Emperor as With the Egyptian

Words: 1431 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99027813

Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.

Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.

Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
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Designer Brands in Egypt

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47631079

Egypt, Fashion and Merchandising
Religion, culture, national pride and tradition all play a part in merchandising approaches and fashion businesses in Egypt. The tradition of the family, gender issues, the roles of men and women in society, the extent to which religious beliefs are promoted in the culture—all of this impacts merchandising and fashion. This paper will look at how religion influences merchandising approaches and fashion businesses in Egypt and discuss the effect that religion has on retail and whether or not religious customs appear to be changing.
Egypt is a predominantly Muslim country with a somewhat strong level of Coptic Christian communities. For that reason, the government adopts a secular attitude towards religion, but the religious culture and climate has a strong tradition for dictating dress and merchandising approaches. Other than in Cairo, where events like Cairo Fashion Week (2018) are annually held to promote fashion designs that are…… [Read More]

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History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
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Alexander the Great King Philip

Words: 3988 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60132116

Alexander saw himself as that philosopher-king who would install a new kind of cooperation and brotherhood with one or unified Greek culture, Hellenism, and speaking a common language, Greek (Smitha 1998). He intended that his subjects in the East would be reared and trained to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.

In consolidating his huge territory, Alexander founded cities, mostly named Alexandria, in suitable and well-paved locations with sufficient supply of water. His army veterans, young men, merchants, traders and scholars settled there, infused Greek culture and, through them, the Greek language widely flourished. Through his mighty victories and territorial control, Alexander thus spread Greek civilization and paved the way for the incoming Hellenistic kingdoms and the conquest of the Roman Empire (Microsoft 2004).

He also felt that trade would unite his empire more strongly and so he forced new commercial possibilities and made abylon the center of brisk world…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dorst, Sander van. Macedonian Army. Van Dorst, 2000. http://members.tripod.com/~S-vn_Dorst/Alexander.html

Marx, Irma. Empire of Alexander the Great - Expansion into Asia and Central Asia. Silkroad Foundation, 2000. http://www.silk-road.com/art/alex.shtml

Microsoft Encarta. Alexander the Great. Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation, 2004. http://encyclopedia_761564408/Alexander_the_Great.html

Smitha, Frank E. Alexander Changes the World. World History, 1998.  http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch11.htm
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World Regional Geography

Words: 1755 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26051413

Geography

Questions On World Regional Geography

Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.

When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…… [Read More]

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Twenty Building Projects Discussed Below

Words: 3378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79782154

They were constructed or rather carved as a tribute to Pharaoh Ramses II and his queen Nefertari. The Temple of Edfu (237-57 BC) also shows the expertise and the cultural depth of the Egyptian culture. This temple on the West bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu is the second biggest temple in Egypt after Karnack. The religious foundations of the culture are clearly evident in aspects of the construction. For example, the decorations of the walls of the temple to the god Horus provide a cast array of scientific and mythological knowledge. This temple has also provided archeologists and Egyptologists with knowledge about the culture and its scientific and its advances in fields such as mathematics and astronomy.

Summary

In terms of materials and technological processes, the great ziggurats and pyramids show the use of ramps for building upwards and a strong durable material (mud-brick or granite).…… [Read More]

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Extra Lines Paragraphs Use Footnotes Endnotes

Words: 2179 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96911040

extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).

The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.

In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Donadoni, Sergio, "The Egyptians," (University of Chicago Press, 1997)

Loken, Israel P. "The Old Testament Historical Books:

An Introduction," (Xulon Press, 30.05.2008)

Modrzejewski, Joseph, "The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian," (Princeton University Press, 27.10.1997)
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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History of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38744496

Master Builders

Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.

Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]

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Classical Greek Indian Civilizations Egyptian Civilization

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63746864

art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.

The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]

References

Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html.

Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site:  http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .

Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.

Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site:  http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/ .
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Person in an Historical Setting

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30606307

Other techniques for improving the yields of agriculture included rudimentary means of employing pesticides to keep crops from being destroyed by insects and other such parasites. The development of improved tools for farming would also play a significant role in the increase of production.

As a direct role of changing from a hunter-gatherer society to an agriculturally-based society, there would be a number of specific changes to the way that particular group of people functioned. In many ways, agricultural societies are responsible for capitalism, or at least responsible for the need for capitalism. Once crops are produced at a level in which there can be a surplus created from their yields, there then becomes two forms of goods with which existence in such a society is based upon. The first would be consumptive goods, which are materials than can be consumed and which are, in the example of an agricultural…… [Read More]

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Political History of Egypt Examining the History

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89223911

Political History Of Egypt

Examining the History of an Ancient Land:

The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.

Egypt History

In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…… [Read More]

"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .

"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .

Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
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Pentateuch Consists of the First Five Books

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3414040

Pentateuch consists of the first five Books of the Bible. The Pentateuch is the same as what many people mean when they refer to the Torah, which is the first five books of the Tanakh. These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In both Jewish and Christian tradition, Moses is considered the author of most of the Pentateuch and the belief is that God dictated the books to Moses (Fairfield, N.p.). However scholars generally agree that the books actually reflect compilations of earlier writings by various different authors. Taken together, the five books introduce the reader to God. They explain that God is the creator of the universe and everything in it, how the world has imperfections despite being a divine creation, God's unique relationship with man, and the beginnings of the special relationship between God and his chosen people (Fairfield, N.p.).

The Pentateuch begins with Genesis. Genesis…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fairfield, Mary. "Pentateuch: What is the Pentateuch?" About.com. N.p. 2013. Web. 29 Oct.
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Statuette of Nedjemu

Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66544026

Statuette of Nedjemu of Ancient Egypt (image retrieved at (http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm) illustrates several aspects of Egyptian funerary sculpture that remained typical for almost 3000 years, although not in all of the surrounding ancient kingdoms and nations. This particular statue is thought to date from the Old Kingdom period, probably the Fifth Dynasty around 2500-2350 B.C.E. The strict use of proportionality on the part of the limestone structure as well as the rigid posture and the quiet facial expression "reflect the Egyptian desire to represent the deceased in a manner appropriate for eternity," in a stylized fashion, rather than to capture how the dead were uniquely individuated as people in life. (Art of Egypt, 2004)

This fixation upon honoring the dead is in direct contrast to Greek statues of the period that were more often used in living temple rites, although they were often equally rigid and stylized. (Artlex, 2004) According to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art of Egypt. (2004)

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/scultpurePlastic/SculptureHistory/ArtofEgypt/StatuetteofNedjemu/StatuetteofNedjemu.htm

Artlex. (2004) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at  http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/h/hellenistic.html 

Statuette of Nedjemu." (1996) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm
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Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Generally Develop Where

Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49396003

LANDFORMS

Barrier island beaches generally develop where:

a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore

During storms in winter:

a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches

b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands

c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed

Along the Midocean ridge

a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur

Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?

a Oregon

b California

c British Columbia and Alaska

d Texas and the Gulf Coast

e Hawaii

Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?

a Spreading

b Convergent

c Transform

d None of the…… [Read More]

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Whitman Frost Hughes Three Great American Poets

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92177541

Noiseless Patient Spider" by Walt Whitman

Who is the speaker in this poem? What are his/her concerns/feelings? What words in the poem give you this impression of the speaker?

The speaker of "A Noiseless Patient Spider" by Walt Whitman is the poet himself. The poet is watching a spider weave its web and muses about how this is a metaphor for his own soul seeking out new things.

Does the poem convey any particular sensory images (sight, smell, sound)? What words convey that image?

The language of the poem suggests unfurling and unreeling through the use of repetition and alliteration when describing the spider: "It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself, / Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them." The focus of the poem is on visual elements, as Whitman is observing the spider.

Q3. Is there a message in the poem? What words convey that message?

Whitman…… [Read More]

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Harlem Renissance and Negritude Writers

Words: 2280 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2139158



Secondly, even the beginning of the film presents an African motif. The drums that open the scene are representative for the ancient tribal singing and dancing. The same drums are present in Cullen's poetry, revealing a deep African symbol. Moreover, the drums also make the passage from the contemporary life in which the film is first set, to the imaginary and ancient time of slavery.

The characters are as well particularly chosen. For instance, Joe, a white skinned slave is important for pointing out the traditional individual that tries to escape his past, through all means possible. He rejects his mother, who is the embodiment of the African spirit, he worships a white God, Virgin Mary, and in the end, he takes on a position that implies behaving in a similar manner as the white oppressors.

Joe's mother, Nunu, represents in the film the symbol of the African heritage. She…… [Read More]

References

Cesaire, a.(1984) Africa. In Aime Cesaire: The Collected Poetry.Translated by Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith, University of California Press.

Cullen, C. (1928). Harlem Wine. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at  http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/52567-Countee-Cullen-Harlem-Wine 

Cullen, C. (2007). Heritage.retrieved 2 November 2007, at  http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/heritage/ 

Hughes, L. (2007) the Negro speaks of Rivers. Poets.org. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722
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Romantic Poet the Characteristics of

Words: 1236 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11886416

In O'Connor short story, "A Good Man is Hard to Find," the antagonist is an outlaw, in keeping with the frequent use of alienated members of society in Romantic poetry and literature. The alienated member of society is contrasted with the crass materialism and superficiality of the family the Misfit kills. The child June Star is so poorly brought up that she says: "I wouldn't live in a broken-down place like this for a million bucks!" To the owner of the roadside restaurant the family stops at, and is punished dearly for her transgression by the author O'Connor with death.

Yet the grandmother, upon hearing of the story of the Misfit says: "hy you're one of my babies. You're one of my own children!" The grandmother is said to "reached out and touch" the Misfit him on the shoulder, but the Misfit is said to have "sprang back as if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frost, Robert. "Fire and Ice." December 11, 2008.  http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Bryan_Ness/frost1.htm 

Holman, C. Hugh & William Harmon. "Romanticism." Definitions from a Handbook to Literature, Sixth Edition. Excerpt available on the web December 11, 2008 at http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng372/intro-h4.htm

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Poetry.org. December 11, 2008. http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722

Hughes, Langston. "Negro." Poem Hunter. December 11, 2008. http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/negro/
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Pre-Historic African Development the Concept

Words: 2501 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10467725

It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…… [Read More]

References

Brass, Mickey. The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa. Retrieved at  http://www.antiquityofman.com/Complex_WA_EA.html . Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: History of Africa. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Africa. Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: History of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Ancient-Egypt. Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: Sahara. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sahara#History. Accessed 14 September, 2005
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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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History of Construction of 10

Words: 7023 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9752980



The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).

There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Ancient Babylonia - the Ishtar Gate."n.d., viewed 14 November 2010,

"Ancient Egypt Brought to Life With Virtual Model of Historic Temple Complex." 2009, viewed 14 November 2010,

"Babylon and the Ishtar Gate." 2010, viewed 14 November,

Andrews, Mark. 2010. "Luxor Temple of Thebes in Egypt," viewed 14 November 2010,
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Ancient History Egypt Was More

Words: 1434 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73046620

their political systems were far less developed too, and although Egyptian religion had taken root in most of the communities of Upper and Lower Egypt temples had yet to reach their characteristic grandiose size until the pharaonic period. The rise of the great pharaohs meant an enormous boost in wealth and political power to the demigod/kings who could commission the large architectural projects that epitomize dynastic Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, massive pyramids flanked the Giza plateau, and later tombs and temples proved the might of pharaonic wealth and power. Egypt was therefore easier than Mesopotamia to manage and control under one centralized government because prior to the first King Menes, Egypt was comprised of relatively small and simple agricultural villages. Mesopotamia, on the other hand, was made up of city-states that had substantial wealth and power bases as well as centers of learning and technology. It is naturally easier…… [Read More]

References

The Story of Sinuhe." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at  http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html 

Wenamun in Byblos." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at  http://phoenicia.org/wenamun.html
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Papyri Awakening Osiris The Egyptian Book of

Words: 3588 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64486597

Papyri

Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian ook of the Dead

The Egyptian ook of the Dead is a western title for an ancient collection of Egyptian manuscripts, the majority of which were funerary in nature. These collected writings have also been referred to as the Egyptian ible or identified by the names of the scribes who penned them. The Papyrus of Ani comprises the most significant contribution to these texts, though there are some other minor sources which are often included. In the original languages, these works were more accurately entitled the ooks of Coming Forth y Day. One of the greatest challenges to English-language speakers when confronting all the great scriptures is the language gap. Unless one has the time and inclination to learn Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Greek -- or in this case, Egyptian Heiroglyphs -- it becomes necessary to read the scriptures in translation. The farther removed one's own…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budge, E.A. Wallis et al. (Trans.) The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani.  http://www.touregypt.net/bkofdead.htm 

Ellis, Normandi (Trans.). Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988.

Seawright, Caroline. "The Book of the Dead" Tour Egypt Feature.  http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/bod.htm 

Sophia Society for Philosophy. "Genetico-cognitive features of the ante-rational mind." Sophia Society for Philosophy.  http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/cognition.htm
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Society as if it Were

Words: 4861 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78890187

New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).

Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).

After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm

Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com:  http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm 

The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html

Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
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Knowledge and Skills to Get

Words: 4345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46430675

It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.

Mesopotamia

The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.

"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.



Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
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Egyptian Technology Since Their Creation

Words: 3377 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46086537

This labor force was effective, unified, and provided a strong centralized state. The pyramids acted not as slave pits, but as political, religious, social, and economic focuses for the people. Laborers believed their own eternity would be won through their service, and although their choices of work and location were based on socioeconomic factors, these individuals were free citizens of the state (David, a.R., 58).

In addition to the peasant labor, there were professional craftsmen and architects whose skills were required for the more finely detailed and skilled areas of the pyramid. These individuals had their own housing area within the barracks, and were treated to slightly nicer conditions than those of the slaves. They were also, some believed paid wages in exchange for their skills, since such skills were learned and honed only through repetition and higher learning, as opposed to the unskilled labor of the peasant force. These…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baines, J. "Ancient Egypt Timeline." Ancient History: Egyptians. BBC. 10 Nov. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/timeline.shtml.

Brier, B.A & Hobbs, H. Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Brunes, T. "Introduction: The Historical Background." Journal of the Southwest. 48.4 (2006): 331-332.

David, a.R. The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce. New York: Routledge, 1996.
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Regions & Two Countries the

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77937663



Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison

Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).

In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About.com. (2008). Fast Facts About Mesopotamia. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nearest/ss/052909Mesopotamia.htm.

Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html .

NAfrica_SWasia PowerPoint

Sub-SaharanAfrica PowerPoint
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Presumption Often Promulgated by Scholars

Words: 4661 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43906482

They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011,  http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf 

Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.

Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
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Alexander the Great There Is

Words: 7146 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79048295

Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.

ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Darius III," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press. Online. Available from Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/65/da/Darius3.html, Accessed June 5, 2006.

The Columbia Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published by Columbia University and is among the most complete encyclopedias ever produced.

Darius III," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Online.

Available from Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service
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History of Construction 26 Buildings

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89940409

In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.

Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.

Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)

While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…… [Read More]

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Wabash Watershed and Global Warming

Words: 2323 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19619410

Wabash Watershed and Global Warming

Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…… [Read More]

References

EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html

Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.

Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.

IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from:  http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
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African Beginnings Africa Was the

Words: 8160 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90731928

This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."

This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.

In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible,"  http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html  (accessed September 20, 2010).

BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).

"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES,"  http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
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harlem renaissance poems

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18330027

African-American culture flourished during the Harlem Renaissance. Although often characterized by and punctuated with the “double consciousness” of being both black and an American, the work of Harlem Renaissance writers and poets was variable and diverse. Countee Cullen is unique among Harlem Renaissance poets. Many of his works reflect the English poetic traditions, even more so than American or African-American ones. “Cullen considered the Anglo-American poetic heritage to belong as much to him as to any white American of his age,” (“Harlem Renaissance: American Literature and Art”). Implicit in Cullen’s poetic styles and formats was the belief in a blended identity, and yet the poem “Simon the Cyrenian Speaks” shows that Cullen indeed did struggle with the double consciousness. Langston Hughes took a different approach than Cullen did, in terms of poetic style, subject matter, and approaches to race. Contrary to Cullen, Hughes believed “black poets should create a distinctive…… [Read More]

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China and India One of

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62836011

We also know that they engaged in robust trade, both domestic and foreign and even over the Hindu Kush and into the Persian Gulf areas. Between 1800-1700 BC, though, most of the cities were abandoned, perhaps from environmental reasons (deforestation, etc.) and perhaps from invasion from Central Asia (Bentley, et.al., pp. 49-50).

By 3000 BCE, Ancient China had developed larger regional states and political/social units called dynasties. Each succeding dynasty took over more and more territory, which allowed for a similar development in Chinese culture. Chinese political orgaqnizations were complex, and based on both the family and socio-cultural unit. Because of the abundance of population working in agriculture, though, they also turned to technological innovations that increased their own power, but also tended to shield them from outside influences. Some of these inventions include: iron casting, the compass, gunpowder, geological mining techniques, mechanical clocks, row farming in agriculture, silk farming…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bently, J., et.al. Traditions and Encounters -- a Brief Global History. New York: McGraw Hill, 2010, Electronic.
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History of Project Management at

Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055

Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]

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Environment Lake Victoria Is a

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62453065

Still, it is not unimaginable, within a lake as large as Victoria that they might also divide into separate populations along very subtle lines of variation -- like mating behaviors or feeding preferences.

This sort of interpretation of the situation in Lake Victoria, however, rests upon the notion that the species of cichlid found there evolved from a single ancestral species. Yet, even Meyer acknowledges that this might not be the case: "Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic." Put differently, it is possible that the species of cichlid that have evolved in Lake Victoria came from a group of distinct, but closely related, fish that colonized the region several thousand years ago. If this is the case, then the scientific importance of the Victorian cichlids would be somewhat diminished, because a less explosive series of adaptive radiations could explain…… [Read More]

Reference:

Goldschmidt, Tijs. 1998. Land-Use Changes and NIS in Lake Victoria. Bright and Lodge, 1998.

Kolar, Cynthia S. And David M. Lodge. 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington D.C.: Island Press.

Meyer, Axel et al. 1990. Monophyletic Origin of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes Suggested by Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Nature, 347.

Office of Protected Resources. 2005. Endangered Species Act of 1973. NOAA Fisheries. Available:
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Anthony the Great Why St

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19228397

St. Anthony is recognized as the head of the monastic family. His date of birth was in 251 and somewhere in Egypt. His parents died when he was only sixteen years old. He remained to be the guardian of his younger sibling, Dious. Six months after the demise of his parents, he went to the church to hear the word of our lord. 'If you would be perfect, go sell all you have, given to the poor and come follow me.' (Matthew 19:21)

He regarded to this advice as a personal message sent to him God himself. From the fortune his family left behind, he sold 300 acres land that was fertile and the proceeds he gave the poor remaining with a little for taking care of his sister. He left the sister to be taken care of by the community of virgins. This allowed him to be free and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthony and Derwas J. Chitty. The Letters of Saint Anthony the Great.Fairacres, Oxford: SLG Press, 2010. Print.

Athanasius, .The Life of St. Anthony the Great: 17 Jan 356 Written a.d. 357. Willits, CA: Eastern Orthodox Books, 2008a. Print.

Athanasius, .The Life of St. Antony the Great. Willets, CA: Eastern Orthodox Church, 2009b. Print.

McDannell, Colleen. Religions of the United States in Practice: 1. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
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How Paganism and Mystery Religions Influenced Christianity

Words: 2172 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81593474

paganism and mystery religions influenced Christianity.

Paganism

Paganism and mystery religions

Pagan Mystery religions have been associated with paving the way for Christianity presentation across the ancient and present world. They played the role of preparing the people emotionally and mentally in understanding the kind of religion which was represented by Christianity. They existed in varying degrees, examples was the Galilean cult which was to replace them. There encouragement was for a shift from the philosophical and state religion systems towards the craving for personal salvation as well as promise of immortality. It is believed that Christianity have been manifested through the paganism and mystery religions, since they were involved in doing the groundwork which paved the way for Christian missionary work. Most of the perception, as passed from paganism into Christianity got a highly insightful and spiritual meaning by Christianity.

The early church developed from the Greco-oman world which…… [Read More]

References

Angus, S., The Mystery Religions and Christianity, (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York: 1925),

 http://web.uvic.ca/~tarnas/Platos_Cave/Welcome_files/MysteryReligions.pdf 

Cumont, Franz, The Mysteries of Mithra, (The Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago: 1910).

Cumont, Franz, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, (The Open House Publishing Co., Chicago: 1911).
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Human History the Concept of

Words: 5712 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60516710

Those who went took with them knowledge of Mesopotamian customs, ideas, and skills, but many chose to remain, having put down firm roots during the decades of exile (LeMiere 19). Mesopotamia itself became even more cosmopolitan than before, since not only did the Persian court at times visit and contribute to local administration, but also foreign levies and mercenaries did tours of military service there. Anti-Persian feeling in conquered lands led to scurrilous rumors, such as the tale that Xerxes destroyed the statue of Marduk-Bel in Babylon (LeMiere 20).

This story has proved to be a fabrication: the cult statue continued unscathed to embody the presence of the god in his undamaged temple in Babylon during subsequent centuries, and so Herodotos' description of the golden statue of Marduk-Bel in the time of Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) need not be doubted. Continuity of cult and architecture are thoroughly attested by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, R. Architecture of Ancient Samaria. New York: Prentice Hall, 1989. Print.

Akkermans, P. "Tell Sabi Abyad: Preliminary Report on the 1986 Excavations." Akkadica 52 (1987): 10-28. Print.

Blackham, M.. "Further Investigations as to the Relationship of Samarian and Ubaic Ceramic Assemblages." Iraq 53 (2006): 1-16. Print.

Boethius, a. The Golden House of Nero. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Print.
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 4755 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70233119

One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).

The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…… [Read More]

References

Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.

Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.

Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.

Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.
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Metes and Bounds The History

Words: 2934 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84834281



Source: Hockett 1940:264

This land surveying method proved to be highly accurate, a feature that was in sharp contrast to the methods that had been used in some American colonies such as Virginia that allowed the use of so-called "indiscriminate locations," a practice that caused an enormous amount of land boundary disputes (Hockett 1940). hile the land surveying method used pursuant to the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785 was partially based on techniques that had evolved in New England, the origins of some of the features included in the legislation remain unclear (Hockett 1940). Notwithstanding this lack of historical precision concerning the origins of the features contained in the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785, the land surveying methods it set forth were so efficient and effective that the same techniques were applied to the rest of the country as westward expansion continued, eventually dividing all of the public lands in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, John L. North American Exploration, Vol. 3. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,

1997.

Ariel, Avraham and Nora Ariel Berger. Plotting the Globe: Stories of Meridians, Parallels, and the International Date Line. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
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Tour of the World Is

Words: 2151 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63577141

The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).

(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.

(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400

(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…… [Read More]

References:

Antarctica, Enjoy Chile,  http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php  last accessed on December 10, 2009

Australia Tourist Guides, Sino, 2009, http://www.sino.net/australia-tourist-guides/attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009

India Tourist Attractions, Info India,  http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html  last accessed on December 10, 2009

Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
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Risk Melathion I Have Been

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45509417

Mosquitoes cause immediate hazards to human beings. For the pesticide, it is required only that human beings not be exposed to the application process. The substance degrades to harmless soon after application. It could furthermore reduce the mosquito population by 90%, which also means a like reduction in WNV hazards to local inhabitants and tourists.

c. Exposure

As mentioned above, the effects of exposure are immediate. Exposure to either mosquito carriers of WNV and the pesticide during and immediately after application should be entirely avoided. Education regarding pesticide exposure is easier to control than mosquito exposure.

d. Risk Characterization

Another concern voiced by opponents to the pesticide option is that an information program may not reach all inhabitants. Some of the poorer community may for example not have televisions, radios, or the Internet so that such vital information can reach them. This is however easily mitigated by door-to-door visits, as…… [Read More]

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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
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Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria

Words: 5263 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25995575

Global Business Cultural Analysis

Nigeria

Nigerian History

Synopsis of Nigerian government

Nigerian monarchy to presidential system

The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government

Nigerian major commodities

Oil

Food

The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria

Cultural dimensions

Individualism

Power distance

Masculinity

Uncertainty

Model of culture

Universalism or Particularize

How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?

The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world

How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?

The role of women in the workplace

Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)

Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria

Conclusion

eferences

Abstract

Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]

References

Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=60705725&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=35745908&site=ehost-live&scope=site
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Hurston and Hughes the United States Has

Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96297186

Hurston and Hughes

The United States has a history of racist policies towards African-Americans and other minorities. The predominant ruling class of this country has always been wealthy white Christian men. In order to sustain this position of power, all other minorities whether those be based on skin color, gender, or religion have been marginalized and classified as other. This othering has engendered a feeling in those people of the marginalized groups a feeling that in the United States, particularly in the first one hundred years of the nation's history, those othered people have minimal importance and are inferior to the people in power. riters Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were both part of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and their works reflected the mentality of the oppressed African-Americans living in the United States at a time when they were still a marginalized people. Using her short story…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hughes, Langston. "I, Too." Print.

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Print.

Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to be Colored Me." Print.