uman situation is presented in te Four Noble Truts.
How do te four truts specifically aim at correcting an inadequate view of te uman situation?
In wat way can te four truts be understood as a consistent and coerent wole?
te uman situation is presented in te Four Noble Truts in te following way: We generally tinks tat te essence of existence is appiness. In fact, we ave long sougt ways for making ourselves appy. Te four truts aim at correcting an inadequate view of te uman situation . Wat is tis inadequate view of te uman situation? Te American condition avows tat we are equally deserving of appiness wilst many believe tat appiness is witin our reac. Happiness, popular myt says, is not someting tat naturally appens but tat must be worked towards usually troug a cange of attitude. Many believe, even on a subconscious level, tat appiness must…… [Read More]
The Four Noble Truths as taught by Buddhism characterize human life universally. No human being, however healthy or however wealthy, is free from suffering or from desire. According to Buddhist teacher Ajahn Sumedho, "suffering or dukkha is the common bond we all share," ("The First Noble Truth"). Far from being a pessimistic negation of the value of human life, the first noble truth invites the individual to explore the origins of psychic pain and work to dispel them. The remaining three Noble Truths offer a deceptively simple yet highly logical philosophy: desire causes suffering, suffering can be eliminated by eliminating desire, and that the elimination of desire can flow from following the Eightfold Path as outlined in Buddhist scripture.
Desire causes suffering in the most mundane ways. As soon as I start desiring cookies or other junk food, I become restless, anxious, and filled with a sense of craving.…… [Read More]
The Four Noble Truths
In this explanation of the Four Noble Truths that can be found in the teachings of Buddhism, I will examine what these Truths mean and explain them in a way that a children’s Methodist Sunday School Class could understand. Instead of focusing on the foreign terms and the history or development of ideas, the explanation will mainly focus on what these ideas mean so that they can simply be comprehended at a basic level that even children of an entirely different religious background can grasp.
The Four Noble Truths come from the ideas presented by Buddha, who lived many, many centuries ago far away on the other side of the world. He became very much admired by those around him because he seemed to them to have discovered the secret of happiness: nothing upset him or made him lose his temper; he was always calm and…… [Read More]
The third truth is an extension or outcome of the second. If people realize the necessity of exchanging selfish for selfless, they will begin to find ways for overcoming the intense need for conceit. It is recognizing that one can and must end peesonal suffering.
This can be accomplished, said Buddha, through the fourth truth or the eightfold path to enlightenment: This is a series of changes designed to release the individual from ignorance and unwitting impulse and pick up a person where he/she is at that moment in life and set him/her down as a different individual who no longer has the disabling human traits. It is a path that one continues to follow throughout all of life.
Right Views: A way of life always consists of more than beliefs that can never be totally ignored, for humans are rational as well as social animals. However, one needs a…… [Read More]
He believed that these functions and their personal elements can be separated only artificially. The personal element in the selective function is an aesthetic response, and in heuristic function it is a goal-directed striving as the following Polyani quote clarifies:
Scientific passion serves also as a guide in the assessment of what is of higher and what of lesser interest; what is great in science, and what relatively slight. I want to show that this appreciation depends ultimately on a sense of intellectual beauty; that it is an emotional response which can never be dispassionately defined, any more than we can dispassionately define the beauty of a work of art or the excellence of a noble action."
In summary, logical empiricism provides a strict definition of science centered on facts. In comparison, integrative philosophy melds logical empiricism with tacit knowledge, blurring traditional empiricist distinctions between art and science. Today, the…… [Read More]
e may look at King Lear and see a bunch of messed up people but those people are some of the most realistic characters Shakespeare ever created. The best piece of advice to be gleaned from the play is to simply not allow any amount of wealth to blind one from truth. This is difficult because wealth attracts all kinds of people who feign affection. However, Lear illustrates that we can see beyond money and, if we try hard, we can do so and not have to lose our fortunes. People reveal who they actually are over time. The smartest thing anyone can do is pay attention and remember things. King Lear and Gloucester also show us that we are never too old to learn valuable lessons. e should never believe we know everything or even enough. An open mind and a bit of skepticism goes a long way when…… [Read More]
hile he pretended, she was "elusive on the matter of love" (1). hile she might have signed her letters with love, Jimmy "knew better" (2) but the idea made him feel better so he allowed himself the luxury of living in the fantasy. Jimmy's guilt for Ted's death was "like a stone in his stomach for the rest of the war" (16). Jimmy must work through this emotion, which is like "both love and hate" (17) and something he cannot escape. The "heavy-duty hurt" (17) he felt helped the others see how he cared for them.
Viet Nam is one of the worst nightmares in American history. Never has the country been so divided over issues no one clearly understood. ithout a clear enough reason for war, the government had to deal with growing concerns of faulty leadership. The war was long and painful with answers no arriving soon enough.…… [Read More]
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]
Life's Subjections: Changes To The ays Of Life Found In Tolstoy's ar And Peace
ar and Peace is a truly epic novel in that details a number of important themes as well as major events in the lives of its characters. In this respect it actually uncovers some of the most major events that are bound to take place throughout a person's life -- birth, death, marriage, divorce, war and peace. hat makes this particular novel so compelling is the fact that it largely depicts these life altering events through the fates of a couple of aristocratic Russian families during the time in which the usurper Napoleon Bonaparte is wreaking havoc on the European continent in the early part of the 19th century. As such, there is a certain romantic quality to this tale and to the life-altering events it depicts of people who in some cases are noble personages…… [Read More]
independent book stores are not suffering at this point, and are seeing a small upswing in business. Big book stores are struggling and becoming a relic of the 1990s, but smaller independent bookstores appear to be carving out a niche away from Amazon. However, among the major sellers, Barnes & Noble has taken a more aggressive stance in its competition with Amazon. It is refusing to sell books published by Amazon at its outlets. The truth is that this is a minor decision, not worth a lot of money, and Amazon couldn't care less, but it made for good headlines about the competition between these two companies -- note the hyperbole of the Business Week writer (Haq, 2012).
I think for Amazon to get into publishing was wise. There's a few reasons for this. First, backwards integration is something Amazon has done well. They are generally the price-setter in their…… [Read More]
How would the image of Jesus, the Noble Shepherd, have spoken to the Johannine community in their Greco-Roman context?
The image of the Noble Shepherd is anchored in time and geographic space, speaking directly to John’s audiences. A seemingly simple image and concept, the Noble Shepherd actually reveals the complex social hierarchies in Greco-Roman societies. Moreover, the Noble Shepherd embodies the ideals and ethics that defined the Greco-Roman community. Critical to the Noble Shepherd is the “noble death,” a death defined by self-sacrifice and which has its ultimate manifestation in martyrdom (Neyrey, 2007). The death of the Noble Shepherd is voluntary and conscious, and ironically shows how individuals can achieve eternal life through a death that is filled with political meaning.
Moreover, the Noble Shepherd is the epitome of a just and kind leader, the humble counterpart to a King. The Noble Shepherd is more closely tied to the earth…… [Read More]
Cultural Binary Opposition Demystified
Although it was initially created for popular consumption, there are a number of varying points of academic interest found in Karl May's novel Winnetou, The Chief of the Apache Part 1 Enters Old Shatterhand. This work is actually a study in post-colonialism and indicates many of the different mores that were popularized to propagate colonial notions. Perhaps the most important of these pertains to the conceptions of culture that are evinced in this novel, and which are typified in colonial endeavors almost anywhere throughout the course of history. Specifically, the notion of binary opposition emerges as one of the chief justifications for the colonization found in May's novel. Binary opposition is the diametric polarization of a pair of cultures -- in the case of May's novel, these include that of the Eurocentric westerner and that of the Native American. In May's work, the Eurocentric westerner perceives…… [Read More]
There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved easily by discerning the difference between the desire for truth, wisdom, and peace vs. The desire for things that are harmful to the psyche such as pride, revenge, or anger. The Four Noble Truths are essentially psychological in nature rather than spiritual or metaphysical. The Four Noble Truths are like a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
The Four Noble Truths can be understood as a consistent and coherent whole. In fact, the Four Noble Truths are best understood as a whole rather than being fragmented. When considered as a whole, the Four Noble Truths play themselves out in the person's mind each and every day, possibly each and every moment. The person who becomes more aware of how suffering arises in the…… [Read More]
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana.
The first noble truth of Buddhism…… [Read More]
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…… [Read More]
Life of the Buddha:
What was the Buddha's name? How else do Buddhists refer to him?
His name is Siddhartha Gautama and he is often referred to as the 'awakened' or 'enlightened' one.
What are the circumstances in which the Buddha grew up?
Siddhartha was born in 563 B.C. He lived in a place called Lumbini and then was raised in Kapilavashtha, Sakya Kingdom's capital. During this time, Northern India was made up of various small and independent states. It is during this period, people came to challenge and question Vedic philosophy through a number of new religious and philosophical schools. There was a strong moral vacuum present.
What are the "four passing sights"?
The first is an old man that reminded Buddha of aging. The second was a sick person that reminded Buddha of pain and disease. The third was a corpse that reminded Buddha of…… [Read More]
Socrates and Zen
Socrates View of Life to Zenism
The objective of this work, Socrates View of Life to Zenism, will be to see if the sage Socrates agrees or disagrees with the way of the Zen masters. I noticed upon completion of the book, Dan Millman's semi-auto biographical tale, 'Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives,' that I was reminded of something I saw on TV in the cable system's reruns. Although simple, I was reminded of this -- When the student is ready the teacher will come.
That mantra came from a television series about a 'half American' and 'half Chinese' Shoaling monk. The Television series was Kung Fu and although the story was a little out of date, even for a western, the star of the show, Kwi Chang Cain, whenever in trouble or in a situation needing reflection, had an ancient memory jarred…… [Read More]
In the reading, Maya has been given different meanings by the Upanishads. From my understanding, the world contains both magic and matter. Therefore, the world is real because it takes many different forms and accommodates diversity. Therefore, God is our creator who directs us to the concept of Maya when dealing with nature. For the Shvetasvatara this implies that God is the one who rules over Maya and this includes human beings and all other things found on earth. The world can be looked at as something stable and permanent, but some disparity can be drawn from the aspect that makes movements. This move has enabled it to shift and change all the time and is similar to the world of one’s thoughts and dreams where changes also take place. Time is also seen by people to be something that is real and the distinct divisions in this element…… [Read More]
Because of his distress with what he had seen, Guatama is said to have ventured on his search to find an answer (religion). The four Noble Truths that were taught by Guatama were the truth of suffering, the truth of the origin of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering and the path that leads to the cessation of suffering (Hopfe & Woodward, 2009). What is said to keep humanity bound to the endless cycle of life is desire and a need to determine causation. King Asoka, the third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty, 3rd century B.C. was the first distinguished ruler of a unified India, and was considered one of the greatest political figures ever. He embraced the teachings of the Buddha, and subsequently transformed his polity from of focused on military conquest to one of victory by truth and righteousness (Dharmavijaya). His royal association with Buddhism helped…… [Read More]
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…… [Read More]
Four Noble Truths
The Truth of Suffering -- the First Noble Truth
The Buddha believed that humans suffer and struggle, which is the problem of existence. He believed that all existence comes down to dukkha, which translated means roughly "anguish," or "pain," or "suffering"; dukkha also suggests a word that isn't in the English dictionary -- "unsatisfactoriness" (the Buddhist Center). Dukkha also suggests that life / existence is temporary and conditional, and before humans can contemplate life and death people must come to terms with the self.
The Truth of the Cause of Suffering -- the Second Noble Truth
Buddhism teaches that humans suffer because people are constantly craving, searching, seeking for answers outside ourselves that will bring happiness to us (about.com). The Buddhist Center explains that the "root" reason for suffering is the mind; people tend to "grasp at things (or alternatively push them away)" which makes humans "at…… [Read More]
Buddhist Beliefs about Human Life and Death
Buddhists do not believe that the essence of the individual ceases to exist after our physical death; instead, our mind continues to exist indefinitely but in a more subtle form (Gyatso, 2005). Buddhists believe that the mind is not dependent on physical form or on any physical or physiological processes; instead, it is a formless continuum that exists apart from the physical body and which survives the physical death of the body (Gyatso, 2005).
According to Buddhists, only the superficial conscious ceases to exist at death while the more subtle form of mind is eventually reborn within another physical form as part of an uninterrupted cycle of life, death, and rebirth into another life (AboutBuddhism.org, 2007). This cyclic existence is called samsara in Sanskrit. More specifically, the manner in which we live during our physical lives dictates the form into which we are…… [Read More]
hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com).
The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…… [Read More]
One primary example of the common ground on both sides of Siddhartha's revelation is in his persistence at meditation, which Hesse is able to use accordingly to reflect a time and place where this was considered standard theological training.
The already existent nature of this foundation in Hinduism, which Mossman describes as elucidating a status of 'religious prodigy' in Siddhartha, offers a natural passage into the search of inner-truth. In his meeting with the Buddha, Siddhartha's epiphany causes a withdrawal from theological spirituality, with the inward search for truth and knowledge represented in this man becoming the functional aspect of the novel's value to readers. hat begins as an apparent work of investigative theology though transitions into one with clearer implications to spirituality in the face of materialism and other modern trappings.
The Mossman essay is an insightful work for its examination of the graduation in Hesse's work toward a…… [Read More]
Akshobhya embodies steadfastness and battles anger. atnasambhava embodies compassion and battles desire and pride. Amitabha embodies light and is the antidote to malignancy. Finally, Amogasiddha embodies dauntlessness and battles envy.
Tibetan Buddhism is based on four noble truths and the eightfold path to enlightenment. The first noble truth is the existence of suffering, in that birth, death, disease, old age, and not having what we desire are painful. The second noble truth is the cause of suffering, or the craving of desire. The third noble truth is the end to suffering, in that to be free of suffering, one must get rid of craving, so that no passion or desire remain. The fourth noble truth is the end of pain through the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path is, according to Tibetan Buddhism, the way to reach nirvana, or an end to suffering. First, one must accept the noble truths. Second,…… [Read More]
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…… [Read More]
uddhism and Christianity
As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China after finding it entry into the far eastern cultures through India. (Kitagawa, 1966) uddhism is a system of belief with many sects that follow individual masters who are said to have achieved a new revelation on how to apply the Four Noble Laws. uddhism was meant to give the practitioners influence and control over suffering in the world by teaching then to have greater control over themselves. The combined effect was to help the uddhist to respond differently to the suffering around him. Thereby the uddhist would be less entangled in the suffering in the surrounding world, and indirectly be able to affect change by lessening the corporate experience in suffering. In Medieval Japan, which was ruled by militaristic lords who…… [Read More]
Buddhism and Its Teachings on Nobility
The Three Marks of eality
The three marks of reality involve Dukkha, Anicca, and Anatta. Dukkha encompasses unease, suffering, and dissatisfaction. In this case, the teachings advocate for analysis and the causes of suffering to understand and overcome the situation or event. Since Buddhism is not inherently pessimistic: we must attempt and see things as they are later responding appropriately. Anicca is about impermanence and change and since we are often disturbed by the element of a chance we get used to things. This includes us, in flux and when things arise and pass, it becomes difficult for one to cling to anything. Anatta is not a permanent self behind reality because everything relates to elements of 'process' and 'change.'
The Four Noble Truths
The noble truths relate to suffering, its origin, cessation, and the path to the cessation of the suffering. Suffering is…… [Read More]
Dharma is related to "karma," another basic Buddhist principle that governs reincarnation and rebirth. Karma is the idea that a person must perform moral deeds throughout his life to attain a higher level of reincarnation and rebirth. Karma governs these moral deeds, and a person must "pay" in the next life if they do not act morally and spiritually in this life. Thus, karma governs more than one life, and is an important concept in the religion.
Buddhism differs from many of the world's major religions in many ways. For example, monks are the holy men of the religion, but they do not act as priests or officials of the church. In fact, many rituals, such as baptism and marriage, are considered family rituals and are not presided over by monks. They do attend funerals, because Buddhists believe death is simply the gateway to another life, and the beginning of…… [Read More]
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.
The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…… [Read More]
In this field attachment is seen, as it is in uddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."
McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the uddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.
The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.
There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…… [Read More]
The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.
Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."
Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."
In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…… [Read More]
New Culture May 4th movements. Why considered important modern Chinese history? 2. What Han synthesis? Who principle figure process elements bring create ? 3.
As suggested by the terminology, the New Culture movement refers to the attempt to rise against traditional Chinese culture. The movement was initiated by various Chinese intellectual circles around 1916 and was related to the perception that Confucian tradition contributed to the country's stagnation and national weakness and inhibited the development of China. The May 4th Movement, part of the overall Chinese cultural reform, refers to the day in 1919 that marked the immense popular protest against some of the terms that the treaty of Versailles included. The population reacted against Japan receiving territorial rights in China which had been previously owned by Germans. The Chinese intellectuals deemed the imperious need of a cultural movement that would enable China's adaptation of norms to those of the…… [Read More]
In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.
The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.
There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.
REFRERENCES…… [Read More]
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews
According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…… [Read More]
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…… [Read More]
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").
Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…… [Read More]
Suffering is part of life. People feel joy and they feel pain. Christianity and Buddhism share many similarities when it comes to suffering. Christianity provides the story of Job and his suffering at the hands of Satan. Buddhism offers Siddhartha and his journey into enlightenment. While Christianity and Buddhism differ in how they respond to suffering, both are aware suffering is inevitable. The case study of George and his diagnosis of ALS is similar to the stories of Job and Siddhartha. All three came from a means of success and then suffered later on. But it is how that suffering is interpreted that the worldview of each faith can be examined and thus applied to the case of George and his difficulties with ALS.
To begin, Christianity has always included the idea of suffering, with the story of Job being the most prominent example. Job was a good man that…… [Read More]
How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.
Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.
Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]
1960's approximately 200,000 people in the United States claimed to be of the Buddhists sect (Nattlier). Some of these began to think of themselves as Buddhist after a personal experience such as visiting Asia, reading in depth about the religion or talking with others who had experienced the religion firsthand. However, most of them were Hawaiian residents whose parents and grandparents had immigrated from China and Japan. Today these numbers are much greater. It is estimated that somewhere between two and three million followers live in the U.S. (Nattlier). A more conservative guess represents a tenfold increase since the '60s. Some of this increase may be due to individuals coming to the United States from Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Taiwan. However, Americans of non-Asian ancestry are also becoming Buddhists. Overall, there have been two Buddhisms -- Asian immigrant Buddhism and American con-vert Buddhism -- and three…… [Read More]
Nirvana, or the goal of it, helps individuals cope with some of the most basic questions in life including why we are here, where we are in life, what we are doing, and where we are going. Through contemplation, the individual comes to a place of peace that allows him or her to look at these questions in a selfless way. By considering things from a selfless perspective, individuals will be more inclined to realize the truth of life. This truth can be attained through the four noble truths of Buddhism, which include the notion that life includes suffering, and that suffering is caused by desire or selfishness. Suffering can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path in Buddhism.
Following the Eightfold Path leads to Nirvana and it begins with an awareness of life's problem, determination to solve this problem, abstention from lying, evil speech, killing, stealing, and immorality. It…… [Read More]
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…… [Read More]
The Humanistic Faith proposes neither a concept of deity nor a concept of Evil. We allow each individual practitioner to conceive of God in whatever way best suits their personality or cultural environment with the one caveat: that God never suggests that one person or group of people are superior or inferior to any other. Sexism and other social biases will not be tolerated by the Humanistic Faith.
Our rituals are simple but are constructed from a variety of worldwide sources. Influenced by Buddhism, we suggest that our practitioners examine the concept of the Four Noble Truths: the life is suffering, and that all suffering is caused by desire. To understand that pain is an integral part of life is, we believe, the doorway to genuine religious understanding. All living creatures suffer at some point and going through suffering with open eyes and a willing heart can help eliminate many…… [Read More]
Taoism offers an ideal of nonaggression that does not strive to improve upon the existing order. However, unlike Buddhism, which can advocate action of present mindfulness to relieve suffering (such as the protests of Tibetan monks striving to create a free society) Taoism seems more passive, and less apt to critique existing society, in contrast to Buddhism. Taoism's main critique of Confucianism, for example, was not that Confucianism promoted an inequitable and hierarchical society of age and social class but that it tried to change things in the existing world, which was already perfect. Taoism is a philosophy that is proudly one of submission, not resistance. Even a good ruler, in the Taoist view "sidesteps" the need for direct action -- unlike Buddhism, which provided a path for warriors, so long as they upheld a virtuous ethic, and remained 'in the moment,' responding only with as much force as was…… [Read More]
Tibetan uddhism's doctrine that human consciousness has a primordial oneness with the universe and is eternal is perhaps best understood through a comparison with Western thought on the subject. The study of human consciousness by Western civilization has been dominated by scientific materialism. As a result, although major breakthroughs have occurred in understanding mind and body phenomena, the tendency has been to reduce the mind to no more than biological processes in the brain.
This conceptual framework of human consciousness is supported by the theory of evolution, which maintains that human emotions and behavioral traits are necessary for survival in the outer physical universe.
Viewed from this context, the assumption that human consciousness ceases at the moment of death seems fairly logical. Tibetan uddhism, however, has a very different view of the origins, nature, and role of consciousness in the natural world.
In stark contrast to Western beliefs, Tibetan uddhism…… [Read More]
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…… [Read More]
3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis)
In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be represented through any kind of pain and regardless of its form. The best representation of suffering can be presumably felt when a change from a state of happiness to a state of unhappiness occurs.
The cause of suffering (duhka-samudaya) states that most of the suffering that humans feel is because of their desires. Most humans are inclined to wish for something that they believe would grant them happiness. However, in most cases, the goal set by some might not have the desired effect on them once it has been achieved. In order for people to leave suffering behind, they would need to understand that the human nature does not necessarily depend on granted wishes.
The cessation of suffering (duhka-nirodha) refers directly…… [Read More]
Colors were essential as a means of expression in art as well.
Explanation of laughter
Laughter is rarely allowed in public, a cordial smile being always preferable. This limitation is yet again a proof of the influence Buddhism had on the aesthetic values of the world. (Clasquin, 2001)
Buddhist religion, as one of the oldest in the world, represents the expression of the constant quest for the meaning of life and the overcoming of suffering.
The philosophical system it set in place, the artistic standards it established, along with the moral percepts it promoted, Buddhism is an important influence on the aesthetic values of modern civilizations.
Clasquin, M. (2001) eal Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. etrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India,…… [Read More]
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.
The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…… [Read More]
religion, origin, cultural practices and its influences on Confucianism.
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy that is developed from the life and teachings of Buddha. Buddhism has almost 380 million followers all over the world. The number has been increasing at a greater proportion in the modern era. The religion started over almost 2500 years ago. The main message of Buddhism is that a soul should attain enlightenment. The religion preaches a way of living which is based on the avoidance of self denial and self indulgence. One interesting factor about Buddhism is that there is no superior God in Buddhism.
Buddha (in Sanskrit means the "Awakened One") lived in mid 6th- 4th century Before Christ, a teacher in the North of India. Siddhartha Gotama, who later became Buddha, was born in a well off rich family. He had a simple and luxurious life but decided to give up all…… [Read More]
Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual nourishment, he pursued a path to enlightenment on his own. Thus around 650 BCE Buddhism was born.
ith no deity or creation story, Buddhism appears to be more of a philosophy of living than a fundamental religion, although different sects of Buddhism espouse various beliefs in supernatural beings and dogma. Buddhists generally accept scientific explanations of the creation of life.
The central tenets of Buddhism are summarized in the Four Noble Truths: Suffering is inevitable; suffering is caused by desire and attachment to desire; to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire; in order to do so, follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path includes Right Views, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Contemplation. Buddhism is…… [Read More]
The quote urges a return to the simple essence of Buddhism. Related to the three turnings, the quote refers to the unity of Buddhist doctrine from the expression of the Four Noble Truths to the Maitreya's complex explication of Buddha nature.
The term revolution applies to both doctrine and path in the Mahayana. Revolution implies a transformation of consciousness, a possibly instantaneous awakening of the Buddha-mind. A revolution of consciousness can extricate the mind from the wheel of samsara. Alternatively, consciousness can evolve gradually with the ultimate goal of ceasing the revolution of the wheel. As doctrine, revolution suggests continual application of Buddhist teachings throughout successive revolutions of the karmic wheel. As path, revolution is the active step toward consciousness change. Meditation and contemplation of the sutras are such active steps that are revolutionary in character because they lead to a revolution of consciousness.
Before the lecture starts,…… [Read More]
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…… [Read More]
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…… [Read More]
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or Hinayana, which is found in Stri Lanka, Southeast Asian, and the Mahayana, which is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan (Buddhism pp). A third school, called Vajrayana, is traditional in Tibet and Japan (Buddhism pp).
The basic doctrines of Buddhism include the "four noble truths," which state that existence is suffering, called dukhka, the cause of suffering is due to craving and attachment, called trishna, the cessation of suffering is called nirvana, and the path to the cessation of suffering includes the "eightfold path" of right views, "right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration" (Buddhism pp). Buddhism describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity and substance (Buddhism pp).…… [Read More]
Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana
For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian immigrants arrived on these American shores as workers - the unique teachings and practices of Buddha have incorporated itself into Western society. And throughout the migration of this religion through the centuries, one goal has never changed: to achieve enlightenment as Buddha had under the bodhi tree. And what Buddha did next is the fundamental foundation of Buddhism: he taught others how to achieve it, too: he didn't keep the secret to himself. But there is no secret in achieving enlightenment. It only requires commitment, aspiration, following certain practices and vows, and understanding many concepts within Buddhism can an individual become enlightened. Three of the concepts an individual must come to understand are the laws of karma, identifying Nirvana, and knowledge…… [Read More]
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…… [Read More]
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…… [Read More]
Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism are related more to practice than to core doctrine, as both branches honor the Shakyamuni Buddha as the historical founder of Buddhism, believe in the efficacy of the sangha, and honor concepts central to Buddhism like the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. However, the geographic and historical evolution of Mahayana and Theravada has led to some significant cultural differences and differences in expression and ritual between these two branches. Whereas Mahayana Buddhism spread more widely throughout East Asia including China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, and Nepal, Theravada Buddhism has historically been centered more in South and Southeast Asia, with hubs in Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand.
Goals such as wisdom and enlightenment remain common between Mahayana and Theravada, but the main difference between the two branches is with the sutras. Theravada is a branch of Buddhism that holds the Pali Canon as the main…… [Read More]
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…… [Read More]