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Peaceful Approaches to Human Interaction
Throughout history, conflicts over scarce resources or fundamental differences in political or religious ideologies have exacted an enormous toll on humanity, with the 20th century being perhaps the most violent in human history. It is therefore not surprising that during the 20th century, a number of advocates of nonviolence emerged to promote alternative approaches to resolving human conflicts, including Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Given the turbulent times, though, it is also not surprising that there have been some advocates of violent approaches to resolving conflicts, including proponents of so-called "stand your ground" laws. Using reading from Gandhi and King, this paper examines the peaceful approaches to human interaction and the challenges to this model exemplified by "stand your ground" laws. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.
The Peaceful Model
Fair, Madison "Dare Defend: Standing for Stand Your Ground." Law and Psychology Review
38: 153-159, Annual 2014. Print.
Gandhi, Mahatma. Selected Political Writings. Hacket, 1996.
Hefner, Philip. "Spiritual Transformation and Nonviolent Action: Interpreting Mahatma
The African-American church and community were energized by the protest and successful social movement organizations were established as a result. For a decade, protests such occurred in the Southern United States and they were primarily supported. Sit-ins became popular and before long, the movement established an "important mass base' (Morris 525). The evolution of this form of protest is what led to the very organized force that would "topple Jim Crow" (525). During the mid 1960s, "highly public demonstrations" (525) increased in number and were strengthened with support from various individuals. These such protests demonstrated that African-Americans were serious more than anything else.
Martin Luther King was chosen to lead the movement and under his direction, nonviolent action emerged as "crucial, for it robbed the white power structure of its ability to openly crush the movement violently without serious repercussions" (525). King was perhaps the most effective voice for the…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Carmichael, Stokely. "Black Power." Black Protest. Joanne Grant, ed. New York: Ballentine Books. 1968.
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 1990.
Farmer, James. "The New Jacobins and Full Emancipation" Black Protest. Joanne Grant, ed. New York: Ballentine Books. 1968.
The two different parts of the Qur'an represent his idea; "The Meccan teachings are eternal, the Medinese teachings are for the historical context."
This argument is constructed out of the words of other scholars. The piece uses a historical approach compiled through the writings of other scholars who have expertise in their specific religious teachings. The author understands that his ability to judge and use information of Judaism and Islam is limited for he is from the Christian tradition. However, he does not want his own limitations weaken the strength of his essential argument. Therefore, he borrows pieces of arguments from other scholars in order to prove his argument correct.
The arguments and statements used in the description of the Bible are at times contradicting. For instance, the Old Testament is set up as a complete contradiction to the nonviolent themes within the New Testament. How then can the Judaic…
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on Non-Violence and Natural Law
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is internationally recognized for his iconic leadership of the Civil Rights Movement, which resulted in a furthering of social justice and fairness for people of color. Moreover, the work of King and his movement resulted in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. One of the key strategies that King embraced -- in addition to his soaring oratory, his charisma and his skills as a creative writer -- was the use of nonviolence. This paper reviews and critically evaluates his use of -- and advocacy of -- nonviolence in social change movements, and his use of natural law.
King's Education (Academics / Social Injustice)
In A.L. Herman's book, Community, Violence, & Peace, he presents sections on Gandhi, Buddha, Leopold and King. On page 120 Herman explains that King had…
Bass, Jonathan S. 2001. Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Martin Luther King. Jr., Eight White
Religious Leaders, and the "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
Bennett, Lerone Jr. 1976. What Manner of Man: Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago: Johnson
Publishing Company, Inc.
Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure as he helped to win civic liberties and social equality for the Black Americans during the 1950s and 1960s. His approach towards the struggle was based on nonviolent civil disobedience as opposed to armed struggle. In that, he was inspired by the philosophy of nonviolence used by Gandhi to gain independence for India against the British. Despite belonging to two different cultures and historical periods, there is great fundamental similarity in the philosophies of both the leaders. At the same time, King adopts a more active approach and gives relatively less stress on personal suffering and endurance.
hat King adopted from Gandhi's Philosophy
Gandhi initiated the civil disobedience movement against the British rule in the Indian subcontinent. Since the British had military superiority over the local Indian population, Gandhi devised a novel and effective strategy to highlight…
Center for Compassionate Living. Principles of Nonviolence. Center for Compassionate Living, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
King, Mary, E. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action UNESCO Publishing. 1999. Print
Nojeim, Michael, J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance Greenwood Publishing. 2004. Print
The King Center. The King Philosophy. The King Center, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
Martin Luther King & George Orwell
Martin Luther King and George Orwell's representations of an ethical society
Civil rights movement leader Martin Luther King and novelist George Orwell had been known for their political discourses regarding the extent of the government's responsibility to civil society. In the essay "My Pilgrimage to Nonviolence" by King and "Shooting an Elephant" by Orwell, each author's discourse contemplated the kind of ethical society that humanity should have. Their discussion centered on their experiences as members of a society where civil strife and inequality were the norm, devoid of each author's standards in an ethical (i.e., 'ideal') society. In King's "My Pilgrimage," he shared with readers the path he took and underwent in order to achieve his "intellectual odyssey to nonviolence." Citing famous works on the Enlightenment and Capitalism, such as Bentham, Mill, Rousseau, Marx, and Nietzsche, he realized that for him, an ethical society…
Throughout his life, Mahatma Gandhi gave emphasis to the notion that his twin principles of truth and nonviolence must be put in practice in every aspect of life as they have the strength to solve a number of human problems. His teachings were being practiced by his faithful disciples after achieving the political independence. The most prominent person in this regard is the leader and the spiritual heir of Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave (Bary, Hay, Weiler & Yarrow, 1958).
Vinoba Bhave is, thus, one of those great devout reformers of modern India whose selfless services have inspired the hearts of innumerable countrymen. At a very early age, Vinoba was determined to undertake a lifetime celibacy & selfless service to the needy. He was in search of a life in which he could synthesize both spirituality and practicality. When he discovered Gandhi, both of them worked for the…
Bary, T.D., Hay, S.N., Weiler, R., & Yarrow, A. (1958). Sources of Indian Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100539926
Bhave, Vinoba. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117006628
Mehta, S. (n.d.). Bhoodan-Gramdan Movement-50 Years: A Review. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.mkgandhi-sarvodaya.org/vinoba/bhoodan.htm
Muzumdar, H.T. (1952). Mahatma Gandhi Peaceful Revolutionary. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9283380
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004. http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html
Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
Thus the joy and anger of the sage do not depend on his own mind but on things." This indicates a lack of attachment to personal desire and emotion and mental states, and a commitment to spontaneity in response to life. Violence that arises because it is a necessary response to the environment, one may extrapolate, would therefore be considered different from violence that arises through selfish anger or rage. The idea that the sage responds freely to happenings in the world is very different from the western misconception that Buddhists try to block out all emotion. Emotion, like violence, is not necessarily to be rejected -- but it is to be experienced and acted not as a thing attached to the self but as a thing attached to the Pattern of which the self partakes. Non-violence is hence linked directly to the idea of Nirvana, because it is an…
It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (eber and Burrowes, n.d.).
Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change…
Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:
Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Jones, Chris. 2008. "Analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail."
Web. 27 April 2010.
Edited by Glenn D. Paige and Chung-Si Ahn, Nonkilling Korea is a collection of scholarly essays and material delivered at the Asia Center/Seoul National University and the Center for Global Nonkilling in Seoul during August 18-19, 2010. The material is written primarily about Korean values and culture, with the purpose of creating a shift in the discourse used to discuss modern Korean history. Whereas most Korean historiography focuses on war, and the political and militaristic aspects of 20th century conflicts surrounding Korea, the authors that contribute to Nonkilling Korea try to reframe history to include spiritual values and ethics. The book does not limit itself to a discussion of Korean history or culture per se, either. The editors cull material from sources that address other nations and cultures in relation to both South and North Korea, including the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nonkilling Korea includes an…
Since 1996, military abuses have forced one million villagers to flee their homes.
The presence and conduct of the military are central to the plight of these civilians. Military operations have placed a particularly heavy burden on rural populations affecting their ability to sustain livelihoods.
Cases of rape and sexual violence committed by military personnel, many of them against young girls and adolescents, have been reported by human rights organizations.
It should also be noted that after the crushing of the pro-democracy movement in 1988, the regime"…took a number of steps to increase their military strength."
Instead of considering the extent of popular dissent the government in fact increased their supply of arms and military strength in order to act even more effectively against any protests. "… the regime had begun planning an ambitious ten-year program to expand the armed forces and significantly upgrade their operational capabilities. The SLORC also…
Aspden, Rachel. "Forgotten Burma: As the Country Prepares to Vote in a Discredited Referendum, Rachel Aspden Visits the Forgotten Burmese Resistance -- the Eastern Ethnic Groups Promised Independence 60 Years Ago." New Statesman 5 May 2008: 31+.
Blaustein, Susan. "Burma's Surreal Police State." The Nation 30 Apr. 1990: 599+.
Burmese army's violence against civilians. 2010, March 26, 2010,
According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.
Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:
Ahimsa -- nonviolence
Satya -- truthfulness
Asteya -- not stealing
Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy
Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)
Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…
Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.
Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.
Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.
"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
Mookie's frustrated acts show that violence is sometimes justified as a means of "self-defense," in Malcolm X's words. Bigger did not have access to the words of wisdom of either Malcolm X or Martin Luther King Jr. More importantly, Bigger did not have access to a community of like-minded African-Americans who could sympathize with if not totally condone the use of violence to preserve cultural integrity and pride.
Mookie and Bigger are remarkably similar, proving that little has actually changed for African-Americans in terms of gaining social and political power even after the Civil Rights movement. Richard Wright's novel Native Son illustrates the extent of racial discrimination during the early half of the twentieth century; Spike Lee's movie "Do the Right Thing" reveals the extent of racial discrimination during the latter half of the century. The protagonists in Native Son and "Do the Right Thing" live in different times and…
King and ouglas
Frederick ouglass and Martin Luther King were truly great men and great public speakers, and King was also a hero and martyr to the cause of nonviolent resistance who quite possibly was assassinated by Southern racists with the complicity of the federal government. As far as ethos is concerned, both had immense moral authority, since ouglass was an escaped slave who became the leading black abolitionist in the North, while Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who led the civil rights movement from 1955-68. ouglass in his Fourth of July speech used more pathos than King in his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, graphically describing the terrible conditions of Southern slavery that he had experienced himself. Unlike King, he did not make a moral argument for nonviolence although he strongly denounced the United States for betraying its own principles of liberty and democracy for all. In…
Douglass also had great moral authority because he had been born a slave but had escaped and gone on to become one of the leading black abolitionists in the North by 1852. He used pathos far more than King, and mentioned how at an early age had watched as slaves were shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans and Mobile, to the even harsher bondage of the Deep South cotton and sugar plantations. Slavery was therefore a "terrible reality" to him, and he knew from personal experience that it gave whites the power to treat blacks like animals and "to hunt them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder their families, to knock out their teeth" (Douglass 561). That the United States had permitted this evil institution to exist for so long made the Fourth of July a "sham," a "hollow mockery" and nothing more than "bombast, fraud, deception, impiety and hypocrisy" (Douglass 560). Nor did he believe that this massive injustice and oppression would be uprooted peacefully or though reasonable arguments, but only with "the storm, the whirlwind, and the earthquake" (Douglass Paragraph 564).
Nothing could be clearer that the absolute repugnance that Douglass felt toward the institution of slavery and how he hoped to inspire Northern whites to take action against it -- by any means necessary. King hoped to inspire equal abhorrence for segregation and racist violence in his white audience, but he also pointed out that when he started out in the civil rights movement in 1955 he had hoped for great support from white religious institutions in the South. He had received virtually none, though, and this had been one of his great disappointments, since for evil to prosper it required the silence of good people. Unlike Douglass, he took a strongly principled stand for nonviolence but warned whites that if peaceful change failed then the U.S., could expect a racial conflagration.
Communication and Leadership
hat makes a great leader? How is a great leader made? There is no single answer to that question because there are as many different kinds of great leaders as there are problems in society that need to be overcome. hile certainly it is true that many important and effective leaders share a number of the same qualities, it is also imperative to remember that each leader has different challenges that face him or her because of the particular historical circumstances that call that person to be a leader.
This research proposal maps out a plan to study the ways in which African-Americans become leaders in the United States today, looking at the struggles that they have to overcome in terms of the general level of background racism that still exists in this nation. But this is certainly not a research project designed to cast pity on…
We now turn away from recent history to contemporary American society to look at the ways in which some contemporary African-Americans are becoming leaders in their communities, despite the racism that they face from the surrounding world. http://www.twbookmark.com/books/33/0446675466/chapter_excerpt9276.html
This approach is significant because it proves how grassroots efforts gain momentum and affect change when passion is followed by commitment. Liz Fusco said the group's philosophy rested on the pillars of "education and the emphasis on black radicalism" (Sturkey). Education was essential to overcoming inequality and one result from this mindset was the Freedom School, which sought to educate African-Americans about their history and "emphasis on traditions of black Resistance"(Sturkey). The school's curriculum "emphasized the importance of historical knowledge in the formation of social identity. But they could also serve as a source of motivation for social activism" (Sturkey). The school is a direct result of what happens when people band together at a grassroots level and fight to make change.
The grassroots effort spread with Freedom Rides, the Mississippi Summer Project and the Freedom Ballot. The Freedom Ballot in 1963 is significant because it was an election the…
Cobb, Charles. "Black in Different Colors." Massachusetts Review. University of Massachusetts.
Danver, Laurence. Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History.
ABC-CLIO, LLC. Santa Barbara. 2011. Print.
Grant, Joane, ed. Black Protest. New York: Ballentine Books. 1968. Print.
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…
Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.
Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.
Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.
Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
nurture and nature dichotomy, people are born with certain traits and tendencies. However, the incidents and people in their lives will also significantly impact the directions they choose in life. Such was the case with Anne Moody. She may not have realized it then, but even early in her life Moody's path was chosen: she would do whatever it took to help end the degradation of blacks, especially in Mississippi.
Anne Moody (Essie May) became greatly aware of the differences between whites and blacks as a young child:
had never thought of them as white before. Now all of a sudden they were white, and their whiteness made them better than me. I know realized that not only were they better than me because they were white, but everything they owned and everything connected with them was better than available to me. (26)
It did not take Moody long to…
Work Cited: Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dial Press, 1968.
If this is to be achieved, man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love. The tortuous road which has led from Montgomery, Alabama to Oslo bears witness to this truth. This is a road over which millions of Negroes are traveling to find a new sense of dignity… [so] I accept this aware today with an abiding faith in America and an audacious faith in the future of mankind. I refuse to accept despair as the final response to the ambiguities of history…I refuse to accept the cynical notion that nation after nation must spiral down a militaristic stairway into the hell of thermonuclear destruction" (King, 1964).
On the subject of war, King received quite a bit of criticism when he came out against the war in Vietnam. On April 4, 1967, exactly one year…
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Acceptance Speech / Nobel Peace Prize 1964." Retrieved Dec. 6,
2009, from http://nobelprize.org .
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.]." African Studies Center
University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2009, from http://www.africa.upenn.edu/articles_gen/letter_birmingham.html.
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
It did not permit them to provide medical or humanitarian aid to the enemy side, which was common in other wars. More than 2,000 Mennonites were drafted, and, for the first time, spent time in military camps. Another 600 to 800 left the United States for Canada. Finally, in 1918, the Farm Furlough Bill allowed COs to do farm labor in lieu of military duty due to the extensive labor shortage (ibid)
Not every CO could change his status, however. Each situation was taken by itself and evaluated separately to determine if the individual was truly a conscientious objector. In fact, about ten percent of those Mennonites who declined all service to the military were court-martialed and sent to jail, sixty percent found some other option of service such as farm labor or reconstruction work, and thirty percent of those drafted remained in army camps without opportunity to meet with…
Bernhardt, a.F. (1909) German element in the U.S. with special reference to its political, moral, social and educational influence. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Klees, F. (1950). Pennsylvania Dutch. New York: Macmillian.
Lederach, J.P. (2000) From the ground up: Mennonite contibutions to international peacebuilding. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press.
Melton, G.J. (1988). "Mennonites," the Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit: Gale Research.
Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.
The uddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning…
Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network, http://religion.krishna.org/Articles/2000/10/00184.html
Names of Paradise," Al-Islam. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/
Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm & http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr1.htm
Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
Thus, spatially, the peacemaking pyramid solution to criminal justice functions as thus: the base of the pyramid is nonviolence, followed by social justice, inclusion, correct means, ascertainable criteria, and on its top categorical imperatives for the system as a whole. But note what a great responsibility this places upon members of the community, whether they be criminals or not, to engage in nonviolent means in what may be a violent society. hile the model may be admirable in its stress upon dialogue, negotiation, and above all conflict resolution, it seems to have little role for the need of victims to seek justice, or of higher government institutions to be involved at lower levels of the process.
Fuller, John. (2001) Criminal Justice: A Peacemaking: Perspective. New York: Allyn…
Fuller, John. (2001) Criminal Justice: A Peacemaking: Perspective. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Shen Tong, in his Almost a Revolution, provides the first autobiographical account of the student uprising in Beijing during the summer of 1989 to reach western audiences. The book as come under attack for being somewhat self-serving and Tong has been accused of attempting to "cash-in" on the tragedy that occurred at Tiananmen Square by publishing his own, insider's account.
Despite these accusations, Almost a Revolution is a valuable rendering of the student movement's atmosphere and ideologies because it comes from the perspective of those who were involved. It should be regarded as something of a primary historical source, in this respect; accordingly, we should expect it to be filled with personal and nationalistic bias, but this does not detract from its capability to illuminate the events that took place for those of us who were not there.
Accepting Tong's position with reference to the movement, other critics have noted…
1. Abraham, Yvonne. "Cashing in on Tiananmen." Changing China, 1997. Available: http://www.bostonphoenix.com/alt1/archive/news/97/03/27/CHINA_6.html .
2. Palumbaum, Judy. "China and Inner Asia." The Journal of Asian Studies, May 1991. Vol. 2, Iss. 50.
3. Tong, Shen and Marianne Yen. Almost a Revolution. Boston: Haughton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Abraham, Yvonne. "Cashing in on Tiananmen." Changing China, 1997. Available:
Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.
As great a figure as the Noble-prize winning civil rights leader Martin King Luther Jr. may be accounted in the annals of world and American history, and in political, religious, and social rights activism, no man's thought stands alone -- no man's thought springs from simply his own brain in isolation. Every great thinker and leader is part of a larger and complex history of human thought and social influences. Martin King Luther Jr. was a Christian minister and philosopher whose nonviolent philosophy of civil disobedience was profoundly influenced by Biblical, New Testament documents of Jesus and other Christian spiritual writers, as interpreted through the African-American tradition. King also wrote during a time period when the philosophy of the Indian nonviolent leader Gandhi had shown the world how, through nonviolence, the oppressing power's wrongful influence could unintentionally act as a public relations force of…
Blethen, Frank. "Diversity: the American Journey." Martin Luther King, Jr. Retrospective. Editorial. January 17, 2003. The Seattle Times.
King, Martin Luther. Jr. "I've been to the Mountaintop." April 3, 1968. AFSCME Organization. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at http://www.afscme.org/about/kingspch.htm
King, Martin Luther. Jr. "Letter From a Birmingham Jail." April 16, 1963. Historical Text Archive. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle& ; artid=40
Norrell, Robert J. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee. Chapel Hill, UNC Press, 1985.
ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…
Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.
Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721
Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict
A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict
Introduction to Structural Violence
Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…
Addison, T. And Murshed, M. (2001). From conflict to reconstruction: Reviving the social contract. UNU/WIDER Discussion Paper No. 48, Helsinki: UNU/WIDER, Retrieved at www.wider.unu.edu / research.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and nonviolence: Pathways to understanding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved http://www.greggbarak.com/custom3_2.html
Barak, G. (2007). A critical perspective on violence. In Walter S. DeKeseredy and Barbara Perry (2006) Advancing Critical Criminology: Theory and Application, Lexington Books.
Bohman, J. (2010). Critical theory, [Web], The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/archives / spr2010/entries/critical-theory
Cyrus the Great of Persia and Emperor Ashoka of India
The history of a nation is measured chronologically by its rulers. An era of history can be discussed while comparing the government and sociology of one nation to that of another existing in the same time period. How then, can we compare two nations that existed in two different portions of the world, nearly three centuries apart? Since one cannot do a direct comparison of the individuals, the only thing that can be measured is their historical impact. hich man, Cyrus the Great of Persia or Emperor Ashoka of India, was the better man? That is to say, when comparing their lives, their successes, and their failures, which man did a better job as a successful ruler of his nation?
Ashoka, also written as Asoka, ruled India during the Mauryan Dynasty from approximately 269 to 232 BCE. His reign is…
Abbott, Jacob. Cyrus the Great. Safety Harbor, FL: Simon Publications, 2001. Print.
Abeyasingha, Nihal. The Universal Catechism: a Homily Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.:
Pastoral, 1993. Print.
"CAPTIVITY." JewishEncyclopedia.com. Web. 17 Nov. 2010.
MLK Meaning in Letter From Birmingham
Making Meaning of MLK's Letter to Birmingham
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" was written as a response to an open letter that appeared in a local newspaper from eight white clergymen of the state, including bishops, pastors, and a rabbi. In it, they called upon Dr. King for an end to the protests and what they considered "civil disobedience" taking place in the city (Patton 53). They urged instead for patient negotiation and legal action to address any perceived denial of rights to black citizens.
King responded calmly and rationally to the issues raised in the open letter. In what is one of his only written works, the Letter addresses the men as "Fellow Clergymen" and as "brothers." He wrote, "since I feel you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want…
Berry, E. (2005). Doing Time: King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8(1), 109-131.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. (2006, 03). Letter from Birmingham Jail. The Atlantic Monthly, 297, 55-56.
Patton, J.H. (2004). A Transforming Response: Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7(1), 53-65.
Violence in Plato: The Euthyphro
In the dialogue of the Euthyphro, Plato depicts an exchange between the titular young, aristocratic man who has decided to turn his father in for manslaughter and the Greek philosopher Socrates. According to Euthyphro, his father left a slave in a ditch to die when the slave was accused of killing another slave, causing the slave to die of exposure. Euthyphro defends his actions as pious while Socrates reacts with incredulity. This suggests that although the primary impetus of the dialogue is a condemnation of impious actions, Plato does not give much weight to the violent death of the slave. Euthyphro is portrayed as ignorant because he cannot come up with an acceptable definition of piety to Socrates and little regard is given to the death of the slave which prompted the drama to take place. Violence (or anti-violence) is not the primary preoccupation of…
Would King align himself with Utilitarianism? J.S. Mill asserted that the good can only be measured by the consequences of an act, whether pleasurable or painful. In its well-known simplified form, the maxim of Utilitarianism says that what should be chosen is what brings "the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people." Mill nuanced the notion of happiness, subordinating sensual happiness to mental happiness. King would have agreed on its social principle to maximize good for the most number of people, while disagreeing with the notion that mental happiness is higher than physical happiness. King's view of happiness is related to the direct physical conditions of humans, like poverty and inequality. He would have advocated raising the freedom and happiness of oppressed people physically above all. Only then could pleasure be increased in social conditions of equality and freedom. King would have appreciated the practical emphasis…
King, Martin Luther, Jr. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edited by James M. Washington. New York: HarperOne, 1986.
Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham City Jail," in a Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr., ed. James Melvin Washington, 289-302 (New York: HarperOne, 1986), 290.
King, "Letter," 293.
King, "Letter," 292.
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.
Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.
Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.
Finally, in international relations,…
Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.
Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
The change was not all positive, however. Bailey notes that the social and psychological transformation that followed women working outside the home "mounted to tidal-wave proportions" (1020). hile women working outside the home in the urban age were not too terribly different from women working outside the home in the agricultural age, the movement raised questions about women's roles, family, and the workplace. The feminist movement was born from a mentality that women did not need to sty at home. Once they were in the workplace, however, they complained that they were expected to bring home the bacon and cook it as well. Feminists protested against sexism and even went up against historic giants like Yale and est Point. It was not long before women were seen flying airplanes and traveling in space. Feminists also railed against tradition organizations that judged women for their looks such as beauty pageants. They…
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 1990.
Farmer, James. "The New Jacobins and Full Emancipation" Black Protest. Joanne Grant, ed.
New York: Ballentine Books. 1968.
Morris, Aldon D. "A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political and Intellectual
Mookie is similarly conflicted. He rants about Italian-Americans after a falling out with Pino early in the film, calling as many stereotypes as he can name. When Sal uses the "N" word, Mookie feels betrayed and chooses to fight back. He "fights the power" of racism, and the institutions that he feels support racism. His act of violence was in express solidarity with Radio Raheem, who he pledged support to as a brother. Mookie also never seems to completely trust or even like Sal, in spite of Sal's kindness. His mistrust of Sal reveals Mookie's own internal prejudices that prevent racial harmony in America. Spike Lee demonstrates Mookie's attitudes by his cavalier approach to work and his not being willing to allow Pino to insult him. Mookie's lack of decisiveness is part of his personality, though, and does not have a bearing on his attitude towards Italian-Americans. Mookie is nonchalant…
The first independent clause begins in a strong active voice, with a strong decisive verb, (Graff, 2006).
This represents his shift from true passiveness to a form of non-violent action. Then, the dependent clause "realizing that except for Christmas," begins with a gerund. The verb to realize is transformed into a noun with the adding of a "-ing." This is aimed at showing the general modality of the speaker. The speaker and all involved had a previous knowledge of the realization involved in the process. Then King Jr. refers back to the object Easter with the subject and verb of "this is." This is a form of a relative clause which is therefore a form of adjective clause, (Lewis, 1986).
The next sentence continues the modality of the gerund verb. This sentence is a dependent attached to an independent clause first beginning with a gerund, "Knowing that a strong economic…
King, Martin Luther Jr. (1963). Letter from Birmingham jail. University of Pennsylvania. African Studies. 12 June. 2008. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
Lewis, Michaels. (1986). The English verb: an exploration of structure and meaning.
Language Teaching Publications.
Strunk, William & White, E.B. (1999). The elements of style. Longman Publishers.
.. carved out caves for Buddhist monk worship, lavishly subsidized the order's work, and even arrogated to himself the chore of preventing schisms in Buddhism" (67). His examples include charity and erecting hospitals for men and animals. (Albinski 68-9) Chodorow maintains that Asoka's example "enhanced the prestige of Buddhism" (Chodorow 146). It should be noted that Asoka was a "pragmatist" (147). He did "not abolish capital punishment. His official policy was one of religious tolerance as appropriate for a far-flung empire inhabited by many different communities"(147). His was a different plan of conquest, as it involved religion and general good will toward others. According to Israel Selvanayagam, Asoka's dharma is twofold. One aspect is "practical, concerning interpersonal relationships and emphasizing the duties of each individual at home and in security; the other is doctrinal in a general sense and includes a special concern for sanctity of animals, toleration of other…
Albinski, Henry. "The Place of the Emperor Asoka in Ancient Indian Political Thought." JSTOR Resource Database. Site Accessed May 20, 2008. http://www.jstor.org
Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.
Chodorow, Stanley, et al. A History of the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javonovich, Publishers. 1986.
Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations: Combined Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2002.
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
e are consuming too many of our natural resources and our use of fossil fuels threaten the survival of our planet. The developing world seems to placing further strains upon the earth, with no signs of abatement in population growth or industrialization. e are torn apart by nationalism rather than united as a species, in the Middle East, in Africa, and Eastern Europe. e have more material goods, but less spiritual satisfaction.
In answer to all of these questions, we must look to the persona of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi, first and foremost, grappled with issues afflicting the region, and the cultures and faiths that are most troubling to the geopolitical crisis of today, namely the tensions between the Muslim and Hindu populations of East Asia. He also provided many solutions to all peoples, not just his own. His philosophy of nonviolence inspired Martin Luther King Jr. He also embraced people…
Hughes, Langston. "Harlem." Langston Hughes. 12 Mar 2008. http://members.aol.com/olatou/hughes.htm
Owen, Wilfred. "Dulce et Decorum Est." Emory University. 12 Mar 2008. http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/Dulce.html
His impetuous style however drove him in a series of aviation accidents that often caused the concern of his close ones. In this sense, he experienced three close calls from having a plane crash, once during practice run in Texas, the second time because of flying too low in Spain, and the third one in Virginia. Although these experiences point out a sense of carelessness, they are also relevant for a courageous and free spirit.
There are certain moments that are defining for establishing the true nature of one's character. Often these moments come at a time of great need and suffering and underline the best qualities in an individual. The early adulthood of John McCain was deeply marked by the war in Vietnam, as that of many young people in the 1970s America. Due to his abilities as a good aviator, he became involved in the war, motivated by…
Keepandshare. John McCain biography. 2007. Accessed 23 February 2008, at http://www.keepandshare.com/doc/view.php?u=63650
McCain. Ready from day one. 2008. Accessed 23 February 2008, at http://www.johnmccain.com/About/
McCain, John. Why Courage Matters? New York: Random House, 2004.
McCain, John, Character is Destiny. New York: Random House, 2005.
Soon the war effort worked its way into popular culture, just as the green movement it doing today.
The key to a good media campaign is to use respected figures to promote the cause. Green is a rapidly growing phenomenon that has been dubbed "greenwashing" by advertisers (Makower). Lauren Zalanick, president of Bravo Media identified three key customers as the target audience of the green market. They include college grads, and the former hippies of the flower power movement (Makower). According to Makower, Zalanick revealed several plans that will be rather expensive endeavors to promote green practices within the network, such as replacing the company vehicles with hybrids and using recycled paper. This is considerable expense for something that is just a surface marketing effort to attract a larger viewer audience.
Hollywood stars such as Sheryl Crow, Leonardo DiCaprio and Cameron Diaz have all been outspoken their support of the…
Friedman, T. The Power of Green. April 15, 2007. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/15/magazine/15green.t.html?_r=2&oref=slogin Accessed December 2, 2007.
Koerner, B. Rise of the Green Machine. April 2005. Issue 13.04. Wired. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.04/hybrid.html . Accessed December 2, 2007.
Makower, J. NBC's 'GreenWeek': Not Business as usual. November 13, 2007. CNNMoney.com. http://money.cnn.com/2007/11/13/news/companies/makower_NBC/index.htm?postversion=2007111311 Accessed December 2, 2007.
Miller, J. We Can Do it!. Produced by Westinghouse for the War Production Co-Coordinating Committee NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-179-WP-1563). www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/its_a_womans_war_too/images_html/we_can_do_it.html
Finally, the universalizing stage is often referred to as enlightenment, or having achieved a true understanding of the nature of good virtue. (Fowler, 1995; p.p. 73-145).
Clearly, my personal ethical values are heavily influenced by my stage of personal development. As I continue to grow, my values will evolve and adapt to my new way of looking at the world. The way that defining moments influence me will also be controlled by my ethical level of development. However, having at least a conscious understanding of my level of development allows me to better understand my ethical influences, work to overcome the obstacles my ethical development stage creates, and better work to be a better employee and leader.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard usiness School Publishing.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through…
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through Literature. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Fowler, James W. (1995): Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Gilligan, Carol. (1993): In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mississippi is fortunate in having men at its leadership who have vowed to prevent integration of our schools. The very sovereignty of our state is threatened'."
Most whites in the state opposed Meredith's admission, and the Governor of the state vowed not to allow Meredith to enter the school, or segregate other schools. A reporter notes, "The following day Barnett spoke on the air, saying, 'No schools will be integrated while I am your governor.' Calling Meredith's admission 'Our greatest crisis since the War Between the States,' Barnett said that the federal government was 'employing naked and arbitrary power'."
In fact, even after the courts assured Meredith he could enroll; Governor Barnett met him on the steps of the school and denied him admission. Meredith did finally attend the University for a year, and graduated in 1963 with a law degree.
Of course, his year at Ole Miss was not…
Editors. 2007. About James Meredith. Jackson, MI: Online. Available from Internet, ttp:/ / www.jamesmeredithbooks.com/about.html. accessed 16 April 2007.
Fisk, Candace D., and Beth Hurst. "James Meredith at Ole Miss: 'Victory over Discrimination'." Social Education 68, no. 6 (2004): 418+.
Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Mazama, Ama. "Paul Hendrickson. Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy." African-American Review 37, no. 4 (2003): 662+.
Okonkwo seems full of passionate intensity to preserve things as they are, and to preserve his sense of masculine, patriarchal authority. But although this sense of passion seems to have its origin sense of nostalgia for traditional forms of control, it is also too tied up the man's ego to be called a conviction. A true conviction about justice is not self-interested. It is also worth remembering that Okonkwo's father did not embody such authority within his own family structure, thus Okonkwo partly wishes to defy his own family's tradition. And Okonkwo's sense of wishing to preserve the positive aspects of his personal authority does not mean that he is not willing to kill his adopted son, for fear of looking weak, even though this hurts the tribe's future. Thus Okonkwo lacks convictions that transcend the self, and denies such positive self-sacrificing values as feminine.
Biblical narrative of Genesis, the characters are less clearly defined as personalities than the heroes of Homeric epics. Instead, their sense of moral worth as human beings is defined by their actions. Adam and Eve are the first human beings, not unique human beings in terms of their heroism. They defied the orders of God, ate the apple of the tree of knowledge, and brought sin into the world. Homeric characters are more sharply defined by their innate character traits: Odysseus is clever, Penelope is faithful, and Achilles is short-tempered but highly adept in battle.
Homeric characters are also less clearly judged by their morality in the sense of their obedience to the gods. Odysseus harms the son of Poseidon and is judged harshly, even though he only blinded the Cyclops in self-defense to protect himself and his men. But Athena values Odysseus and protects him because of his cleverness,…
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
African-Americans have been and are still continuing to be affected disproportionately by poverty, mortality rates for treatable diseases and employment discrimination, as recent studies show. A study last month resolved that black patients die from cancer at higher rates than whites, and still another study found that employers still practice a form of racial profiling that prevents many African-Americans from entering or moving up in the job market. While these and other finding point to the continued existence of institutional racism, conservatives have conducted efforts in the last years to dismantle affirmative action programs, arguing that they are no longer needed. Many say that the U.S. is unable to recognize and deal with contemporary racism because it has also been unable to deal with its past history of slavery, and with slavery's legacy.
One of the most influential and monumental leaders for the freedom of Blacks was one Malcolm Little…
Philip Randolph stepped into the limelight and became a very visible national spokesperson for African-American rights in the 1940s and 1950s. He focused his attention on the rising number of blacks on relief and the number of defense industry jobs that were increasing with the war effort heating up. These jobs traditionally excluded blacks. Randolph proposed the March on Washington - a mass action protest to demand change. He was also a great leader and helped the Blacks get their freedom.
James Farmer was also a great black leader and his efforts paid seed into the black freedom movement although he himself could never see through to the end of his dream. Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty.
Information on the leaders from: http://www.stanford.edu/~tommyz/
Economic sanctions are an important tool of U.S. foreign policy. They are used for a variety of reasons and often have substantial repercussions for countries on the receiving ends. Sanctions are used as a way to stop objectionable actions of foreign governments such as: to stop military adventures, arms proliferation, support of terrorism and drug trafficking, and human rights abuses among others. (Department of the Treasury website, 2002) "In conjunction with diplomacy and other measures, sanctions seek to demonstrate U.S. resolve and express outrage, change the behavior of the target country, and deter other countries from resorting to similar actions in the future." (Carter, 1988)
"Sanctions provide a middle road response between diplomacy and military action." (Day, 1992) Ineffective sanctions have led to U.S. military intervention in Panama, Haiti, Somalia, and Iraq, just to name a few places, and the consequences have been quite harsh. Not to mention…
1. Carter, Barry. International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
2. Clark, Ramsey, The Children are Dying The Impact of Sanctions on Iraq, 1996, WorldView Forum Inc., New York.
3. Day, Erin. Economic Sanctions Imposed by the United States Against Specific Countries: 1979 Through 1992. CRS Report for Congress 92-631 F. Congressional Research Service, August 10, 1992.
4. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control. "Foreign Assets Control Regulations." Available at http://www.ustreas.gov/ofac . 21 February 2002.
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.
Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…
Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.
King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org /peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html.
Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…
Cool Nurse. "Marijuana." Cool Nurse Web site. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004:
MDCH. "Key Facts from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Michigan
Department of Community Health. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004: http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2941_4871-79336 -- ,00.html
Business Ethics magazine recently awarded the Chroma Technology Corporation, a Vermont-based manufacturer of high-tech optical lens products, the "Living Economy Award" as part of the 16th Annual Business Ethics Awards. The Living Economy Award is offered to the company that best exemplifies "the living economy with practices of employee ownership, fair wages, and environmental stewardship," (Business Ethics). One of the key reasons why Chroma earned the accolade was due to its unique official salary structure: no employee earns less than $37,500 and none more than $75,000; therefore, no upper-level management official makes more than twice as much as anyone on the shop floor. Chroma's unique salary structure in part reflects my vision of corporate business ethics and the values I would like to embody as a professional. There are other reasons why I admire Chroma's policies. They employ an egalitarian meeting format modeled after the Quakers; they ensure environmental sustainability…
Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics. http://www.business-ethics.com/ .
Non-Violence." BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/war/nonviolence.shtml.
Here he is talking about the same ideal of non-violence for the sake of mental purification. Yet he gives a violent example when describing how this tranquility works. He says: "Take, for example, Emperor Shun's execution of the four criminals. They themselves had committed the crimes and Shun, therefore executed them. Did Shun have any personal feeling or selfish desire in the matter?..." So it appears that the important this is not avoiding all forms of violence in the world or in action, but avoiding all forms of violence of the mind. So a martial artist in the above example may be able to intervene violently to stop a rape, and yet do so without any hate or anger in his heart.
That this is an internal peace is obvious when it is contrasted to the negative ideal of judgementalism or anger. Many people would argue that society should execute…
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…
In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.
Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.
However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [
Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.
Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…
Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994, http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm
Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://afgen.com/abmovement.html
NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
The second way to resist oppression listed by Martin Luther King in his essay is the violent way, a way he disapproves of and a way against which he speaks. "A second way that oppressed people sometimes deal with oppression is to resort to physical violence and corroding hatred. Violence often brings about momentary results. Nations have frequently won their independence in battle. But in spite of temporary victories, violence never brings permanent peace. It solves no social problem; it merely creates new and more complicated ones. " This type of resistance is the most striking of all, and the easiest to recognize in real life, and also in this film. It is a type of resistance that both the oppressed and the oppressor sometimes use. A march of protest sometimes turns violent, and by doing so it serves no goal and brings no deliverance to the suffering. In…
Author not available, "Martin Luther King Jr.," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Sept. 26, 2006. Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr .
Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951-1970," Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972, copyright the Nobel Foundation, nobelprize.org, Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006. http://nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html
Author not available, "HBO films Iron Jawed Angels-Synopsis," Copyright © 2006 Home Box Office, Inc. All Rights Reserved, Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006. http://www.hbo.com/films/ironjawedangels/synopsis /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
These findings suggest that rap may affect society in several ways. For example, how adolescent whites perceive rap may impact their support for race-based policies such as Affirmative Action as they grow older and become more politically involved. Further, to the extent that rap helps to promote interracial relationships, cross-racial social networks resulting from rap may increase employment opportunities for blacks and other non-whites (97).
However, state Thompson and Brown, another scenario is just as plausible. Since so many of the studies on racial attitudes and rap music have been cross-sectional, it is possible that over time the relationship between whites' opinions on rap music and racial attitudes may change. It is feasible that as the average young adult white rap supporters get older, have a family, and begin a career, the relationship between their opinions of rap music and their perceptions of blacks and support for liberal values may…
Aaron, C. 1998..Black Like Them. Spin Magazine
Farley, C. 1999..Hip-Hop Nation. Time, February 8.
Goff, J.R. 2002. Close Harmony. Greenboro: University of North Carolina Press.
Jackson-Brown, I. 1990. Developments in black gospel performance and scholarship.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana.
The first noble truth of Buddhism…
Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved: