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Omar Bradley in the Battle
Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8899169
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During that time the Allies were exiting Normandy through Saint Lo. In august, when the Allies were in Paris, Hitler was setting his trap, and setting in position his scarce resources to ensure proper backup. The Germans did not count for the success of this operation, with provisions of resources captured from the Allies.

During this culminant attack Hitler guarantied his commanding officers that they would receive a strong support from battle planes. The attack to the airplanes, that was daily terrorizing German cities, would motivate the most reluctant officers of Luftwaffe to support the operation.

The German officers were prepared for a prolonged operation of air defense der Grosse Schlag (the big blow) the air officers planned a force composed by 3.700 air planes, prepared, trained and planned exclusively for defense.

Hitler did not realize that the air force prepared only for air-to-air combat would not be very effective…



Stephen E. 1995. D Day: June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Omar N. 1983. A General's life: An Autobiography by General of the Army. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishing.

History of Film
Words: 2904 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73046306
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Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan

Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences worldwide. Though Hollywood depictions of the events that occurred prior, during, and after the invasion of Normandy may vary, they still aim to convey a similar message, one that assures the evil forces in the world will be overthrown and the world will be a much safer place. The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan aim to present the events that lead up to the invasion of Normandy on D-Day in an artistic and creative fashion while attempting to maintain an air of realism. The approaches taken to depict the invasion of Normandy in The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are a positive contribution to the combat film genre. Though creative licenses were taken in each film, the manner in…


Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.

Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September


D-Day: June 6, 1944.  / (accessed May 23, 2011).

D-Day Airborne Landings
Words: 2574 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3733191
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Allied Airborne Invasion of Normandy on D-Day


Contending Forces

The Commanders


The amphibious invasion of Normandy by Allied forces on 6 June 1944 was preceded by airborne landings to secure key objectives. The efforts of these airborne troops were an important factor in the success of the invasion. Three divisions took part in the airborne piece of the battle on D-Day. They were the American 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and the ritish 6th Airborne Division. All three units had combat jump experience and consisted of a combination of parachute and glider infantry regiments. The American portion of the airborne mission was code named Operation Neptune. In the sections below, I will examine the mission, operations, equipment, and leaders of these units on D-Day ("D-Day").


The paratroopers who participated in the D-Day invasion carried an average of seventy pounds of equipment. Officers averaged ninety pounds of equipment.…


Airborne Operations." D-Day and the Battle of Normandy. n.d. 21 February 2003 .

Ambrose, Stephen E. Pegasus Bridge: June 6, 1944. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.

Bando, Mark. 101st Airborne: The Screaming Eagles at Normandy. Osceola: MBI

Publishing Company, 2001.

Tactics a U S Armored Division WWII -
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32615806
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tactics a U.S. Armored division WWII. - Two pages, double-spaced 12-Point Times New

Although there were several different U.S. armored divisions during World War II that utilized a plethora of tactics, the typical composition of one and its tactics employed can be readily discerned by examining one such division in particular to function as a case study. In this respect the 2nd armored division, which was affectionately known as "Hell on Wheels" during the duration of its engagement in this war, serves as an excellent example of the specific sort of composition and tactics that such divisions typically used.

In terms of composition, this division was made up of four medium tank and a pair of light tank battalions. All of these battalions were comprised of three companies. Such a composition was typical of most armored divisions during World War II -- at its outset and early on in its…


Bando, Mark. Breakout at Normandy: The 2nd Armored Division in the Land of the Dead. Minneapolis: Motorbooks International, 1999.

Houston, Donald. Hell on Wheels: The 2d Armored Division. Novato: Presidio Press. 1995.

Smith, Steven. 2nd Armored Division: "Hell on Wheels." 2003. Shepperton: Allan, 2003.

Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Bayeux Tapestry Dear Family I Know That
Words: 1070 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70820317
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Bayeux Tapestry

Dear Family,

I know that the last two years have seemed arduous and that you all have missed me terribly, as I have missed all of you. It has not been easy trying to prevent injustice and to right a horrendous wrong. Usurper Harold has been in control of the English army and he is the most dangerous foe that has ever existed, I believe. It is truly mindboggling that Harold believes himself the rightful king when my claim is so strong and his so very weak. King Edward's mother was my own great-aunt after all. Harold can only state that Edward, Edward the Confessor, was his brother-in-law. He is connected by marriage! The right he has not as strong than that the woman who connects the man to our belated king. I am linked to the throne through blood which is something Harold can never claim. He…

Works Cited:

Brunetti, Giuseppe. (2011). "Possible Narratives: Re-telling the Norman Conquest." Universita

degli Studi di Padova.

Jameson, Carl. (2009). "Ode of Bayeux at War: Linking the Bayeux Tapestry and 'The Song of Roland.'"

Musgrove, David. (2010). "How English is the Bayeux Tapestry?" BBC History Magazine. 26-

French Associate Their Country With a Geometrical
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11459333
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French associate their country with a geometrical shape.





Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters

North and Western Coastal Regions

Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees

Central and Eastern France

The South (also known as the Midi)

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind

North and Western Coastal Regions


Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees


Central and eastern France


The south (the Midi)

Question 4

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…

Stephen Ambrose's 1994 Book D-Day
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 69030188
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Ambrose condemns the political system in Germany because it presented soldiers with little options in time of warfare. Germans were not allowed to act in accordance to their own thinking in critical times, as they were always required to respond to orders, regardless of the irrationality of those respective orders. The writer uses Germany's totalitarian system as proof that Americans were superior. In his opinion, the fact that they were free to express themselves any time they had the chance to do so rendered Americans more capable of emerging successful from a series of events that took place on June 6, 1944. In spite of the fact that Ambrose nonetheless managed to produce an accurate history book relating to the landings in Normandy, his writing would have probably been more convincing if he were to describe German troops to the same degree to which he described Americans.

It is almost…

Remarks on the 40th Anniversary
Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38996668
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Therefore he establishes a strong personal ethos which he sustains throughout the remainder of the speech, (Rowland, p. 237). Reagan knew that many in the audience which he was speaking to had actually been through the very even he spoke about. Therefore, he had to establish a very personalized ethos in order to live up to their expectations of his speech; as well as to better connect the event with those in the audience who had heard about the events of D-Day but had not experienced first hand. He focuses particularly on the fight of the Rangers because of their strategic involvement in the invasion, as well as the historical importance in the overall success of the invasion. He seldom uses comparisons because he is not talking abstractly about those events; he is telling them how thy really happened, to the people that they happened too, "And before me are…

Works Cited

American Rhetoric. "Ronald Reagan -- 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address."

CBS News. "Ronald Reagan's D-Day Tribute: In 1984 Speech Called Normandy

Where the West was Held Together.' .

Rowland, Robert C. "The Ethos of Rhetoric." Argumentation and Advocacy. Vol. 41.

WWII History
Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64637358
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Cornlius Ryan, one of the finest writers of the history of World War II, was born in Dublin in 192. He worked as a correspondent from 1941 to 1945 and covered stories of the battles in Europe for Reuters and the London Daily Telegraph and in the final months of the Pacific campaign.

The first book written, published in 1959, was The Longest Day, that sold four million copies in twenty -seven editions and later in 1962 a film was made on it. However, it is said that The Longest Day was originally published in 1959 and since then it ahs reprinted several times.

Furthermore, another book was published in 1966 The Last Battle, while in 1974, he finished his third book A Bridge Too Far, though at the same time he was undergoing treatment for cancer that killed him in 1976.

Moreover, he was the author was a native…

Key Battle of World War II
Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86563975
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Battles of World War II

Battle of Britain:

When Hitler conquered France in June of 1940, he acquired a forward base to launch his attack against England. Had England fallen in the Battle of Britain, the Nazis would have, at the very least, conquered the entire continent of Europe. The fall of Britain would have allowed Hitler to concentrate his forces on one front in Operation Barbarosa, the invasion of ussia, which he launched in 1941. Most

historians believe that, more than any other single fact, Hitler's decision to fight a war on two fronts, simultaneously, accounted for the eventual defeat of Germany at the hands of the Allies.

The Battle of Britain was won by the heroes of the British oyal Air Force,

flying Spitfire fighters who handed the German Luftwaffe its first defeat of the war in a savage, month-long battle over the skies of Britain in the…


1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)

2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)

4. Lucas, J. The Last European War (1976)

WWII Battle of Monte Cassino History Has
Words: 2237 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64322020
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WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino

History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.

This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…


Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.

Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at

Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.

Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.

Eleanor of Aquitaine the Power
Words: 2494 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27826587
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Eleanor and Henry did not live "happily ever after," though, and King Louis was reportedly enraged that the marriage went forward without his consent which the king would undoubtedly have refused to given had he been asked anyway.

A historian of the day, obert de Torigny, noted that it was unclear whether the Eleanor and Henry's marriage was the result of spontaneity or if the two had actually colluded to achieve this result. Cavendish points out that one of Eleanor's most recent biographers, Alison Weir, believes that Eleanor and Henry had been conspiring ever since they had met in Paris the year before and Eleanor had deliberately encouraged the annulment of her marriage to Louis. "Either way, when Henry succeeded to the throne of England in 1154, the effect was to give the rulers of England a domain in France stretching from the English Channel to the Pyrenees and covering…


Anderson, Carolyn. 1999. Narrating Matilda, 'Lady of the English,' in the Historia Novella, the Gesta Stephani, and Wace's Roman De Rou: The Desire for Land and Order. CLIO, 29(1): 47.

Barratt, Nick. 2004. Lackland. History Today, 54(3): 32, March.

Black's Law Dictionary. 1990. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Cavendish, Richard. 2002. Eleanor of Aquitaine Marries Henry of Anjou: May 18th, 1152. History Today, 52(5): 64, May.

Norman Conquest of England the Consequences
Words: 1614 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6341636
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Norman Conquest of England: The Consequences

The Norman Conquest was a crucial event in the history of England. It was the occurrence of this event that led to further developments in the English Monarchy, as well as with regard to the government. It also influenced the English society and the language ultimately giving England a new perspective. There were numerous events that ultimately lead to the conquest of England. It all started off when, King Knute the mighty reined over England and Duke illiam the Bastard was the Duke of Normandy. England and Normandy had good relations before the conquest occurred, as Aethelred the Unready, was married to a Norman princess, and had fled the country seeking protection in Normandy. His son Edward was born and brought up in France and later his son returned to England to conquer the English throne in 1042. Edward was also known as the…

Works Cited

Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England, History Today, Oct 1996 v46 n10, p: 9

Baugh, Albert C. & Cable, Thomas. A History of the English Language, 3rd. ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton, 1978, p: 35-36

Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman Conquest through European Eyes, The English Historical Review, Sep 1995 v110 n438, p: 832

Ward A.W; Waller A.R; Trent W.P; Erskine J; Sherman S.P and Doren C, Van. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia In Eighteen Volumes, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons; Cambridge, England: University Press, 1907-21, p: 15-17

Postclassical Period the Norman Invasion
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 24661503
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Thus, the story of both the battle and the crafting of the tapestry is of historical and personal interest.


Because this movie will emphasize illiam's invasion, it is important that the movie be filmed in England. Both the region where the infamous battle of Hastings was fought, in addition to London, will be major locations in the film. The film will focus on the Norman's impact on English life and culture, in addition to warfare. This can be best emphasized by introductory and final shots at estminster Abbey, where Edward the Confessor was buried and illiam the Conqueror was crowned (Invasion of England n/d).


The two primary characters will be Harold Godwinson, the English heir to the thrown, and illiam, Duke of Normandy, the invader. Generous flashbacks will also include scenes from the life of Edward the Confessor. The groups that need to be represented are the English,…

Works Cited

Ibis Communications, "Invasion of England," Eye Witness to History.Com, , Accessed 27 November 2008.

Medieval-Life.Net, "Medieval Clothing," Medieval-Life.Net, http://www.medieval-, Accessed 27 November 2008.

Phillips, George. 1909. "St. Edward the Confessor," the Catholic Encyclopedia, . Accessed 27 November 2008.

The Middle Ages Web Site, Bayeux Tapestry." The Middle Ages Web Site, , Accessed 27 November

101st Airborne Division Headquartered in
Words: 1911 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11537428
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The 101st Division has also supported humanitarian relief efforts in Rwanda and Somalia, and have been deployed as peacekeepers to Haiti and Bosnia (101st).

As part of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Screaming Eagles were deployed once again to Iraq (101st). "The division was in V Corps, providing support to the 3rd Infantry Division by clearing Iraqi strong-points which that division had bypassed" (101st). Using the city of Mosul as their primary base of operations, they then went on to become part of the occupation forces in Iraq before being withdrawn in 2004 for rest and refit (101st). The existing infantry brigades, artillery brigade, and aviation brigades were transformed as part of the Army's modular transformation, with the addition of re-activating a new 4th Brigade Combat Team, called Currahee, and its subordinate units to form a 6-7 major units division, one of the Army's largest (101st).…

Works Cited

101st Airborne Division. Wikipedia. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at 

101st 1 Airborne Division: Air Assault. Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at

Lone Sentry. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at

Norman Conquest on England the
Words: 2065 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10501753
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Among the practices of the Anglo-Saxon in England before the conquest include, the introduction of their religious beliefs into the country. England became a Christianity practicing nation, as most of the Anglo-Saxons were Catholic Christians. Additionally, their political landscape had the organization of a divided nation, which devolved power to the states, then later the unified state. Therefore, due to this dynamic organization of the states in England, England was the most organized of all states in estern Europe. The country had divisions into shires, which are equivalent of counties and hundreds also called wapentakes (arren et al., p 78). Under these divisions, taxation assessment continued progressively, from hundreds to the shires, then the central kingdom. Tax collection was a duty of the local appointed agents of the kingdom, who after assessing the people, levied them. The tax was in the form of coins, with fresh coins minted three times…

Works cited

Warren Hollister, Robert Stacey, and Robin Chapman Stacey, the Making of England to 1399.

8th edition, Houghton Mifflin, 2000. ISBN 0618001018.

Lacey Baldwin Smith, This Realm of England, 1399-1688. 8th edition. Houghton Mifflin,

2000. ISBN 0618001026.

History World War II
Words: 1685 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34052508
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World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.

Leaders of the War

There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)

efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…


Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.

Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.

A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.

John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.

Mission and Vision of Allies and the Axis Armies
Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95519827
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Vision and Mission of Allies and the Axis Armies

The Allies power were the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. However, the Axis were German, Japan and Italy. The mission of allies was to liberate Europe and the Pacific against German insurgency. However, the mission of Axis power was to take over the world and kill all Jews. Typically, many countries fought on the side of allies and axis powers directly and indirectly. Major allied countries that fought during the World War 11 were the United States, Russia and France. However, German, Japan, and Italy fought on the side of the Axis power. Moreover, Britain, Soviet Union and China were the allies however, Finland was not part of the allies.

The overall mission plan of Allies operation was to weaken and break through defense line of the Omaha beaches as well as the Normandy beaches in order to liberate…

Military Technology Wins Wars Technology
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12452791
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S. system of communication was responsible for far too many problems, including the presidential conception of the value of the leader, Nhu Ding Diem. Key factors in this war were the misuse of technology in the south and intelligent use of simple technology by the north. The Battle of Diem Bin Phu was a classic miscalculation when the French thought that artillery could not be brought against them through the jungle. The North Vietnamese did just that, manually hauling big guns on jungle trails and over mountains, then followed with ammunition on bicycles. In addition they hid the guns in tunnels and set off charges in the jungle to confuse the French as to the sources of shelling.

After the French left, the U.S. set up Nhu Ding Diem as president of South Vietnam. Between him and his brother, they alienated more than half the population in short order with…

Works Cited

Best, Antony, Jussi M. Hanhim ki, Joseph a. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze. International History of the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 .


Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 .


Camille Pissaro Camille Pissarro Was Born in
Words: 1918 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43033770
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Camille Pissaro

Camille Pissarro was born in St. Thomas in Virgin Islands. A famous Fresh impressionist, Pissarro was taught and influenced by Barbizon and Corot School. ("Pissarro, Camille," 2012) It wasn't until later that Pissarro linked himself with the other impressionists and thus was portrayed in all the impressionist exhibitions. The era of the eight impressionists lasted from 1874 till 1886. From 1885 till 1890, Pissarro led a Neo-impressionist phase. Along with sharing and trying out different forms of art, Pissarro didn't back away from being an amazing teacher. He taught art to artists like Van Gogh, Cezanne and Gaugin.

The first school that Pissarro attended was at Passy near Paris during 1842 till 1847. It was his time during this school that Pissarro developed interest in drawing and going to museums. None of his parents had a link or interest in art as they were both merchants. It was…


(2007). Technique, style and method of Camille Pissarro. Retrieved from: . Accessed November 23, 2012.

(2012) Pissarro, Camille. The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed).The Columbia University Press

Clement, R.T., & Houze, A. (1999) Neo-Impressionist Painters: A Sourcebook on Georges Seurat, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Theo Van Rysselberghe, Henri Edmond Cross, Charles Angrand, Maximilien Luce, and Albert Dubois-Pillet. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

DeLue, R.Z. (1998) Pissarro, Landscape, Vision and Tradition. The Art Bulletin, 80 (4).

Regions Letter
Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60648431
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Recap" of class work so far, which two or three areas/fields of study would you like to pursue if you were in France? What interests you about these areas or fields of study?

In France, I would like to take a history of art class, focusing on modern art. I would also like to take some sociology classes, of special interest to me are classes focused on migration, the history of migration in France as well as migration patterns in this country today and its challenges for the French society, compared to similar issues in the U.S., for example. Since we are living in a globalized world and people are more mobile than ever, I am interested to study the problems related to migration in order to be able to offer solutions.

By means of the study of art history I would love to get a better grasp of art…

General George S Patton Jr
Words: 2065 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93135255
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Military Leadership Merits of General George S. Patton, Jr.

One aspect of cultural development which seems to be universal throughout the course of humanity's history is the innate desire of society to lionize the accomplishments of triumphant military leaders. Perhaps owing to a subconscious desire for the implicit protection provided by effectual wartime figures, nearly every civilization from the ancient Greeks to contemporary suburban Americans has placed its generals, admirals, and other military authorities on a proverbial pedestal, lauding their preternatural ability to motivate men during the heat of battle while achieving strategic victories. Among this nation's long lineage of military leaders -- which begins with George Washington's revolutionary heroics and includes famed generals like Andrew Jackson and William Tecumseh Sherman -- one of the most competent and accomplished figures to ever lead American troops on the field of battle was also considered to be among the most controversial. General…


Atkinson, R. (2007). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943 -- 1944 (The Liberation

Trilogy). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Axelrod, A. (2006). Patton: A Biography. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Blumenson, M. (1974). The Patton Papers 1885-1940. Vol. I.

Truth -- Well Perhaps Not
Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22740126
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And yet, of course, this is a far better fate than served out to so many. And so they are allowed to live. (Except for Oskar's beloved Roswitha, who is killed by the "good guys" -- the Allied troops at Normandy.)

Can Art Save Us?

Oskar appears to grow up when he converts his childish toy to a professional instrument and becomes a jazz player. Jazz was anathema to the Germans (at least to the Nazis) because it was a symbol of a lesser race. It was black music -- and blacks were barely human to the Nazis. In taking up such a musical trope, Oskar seems to cast off the Nazi part of himself, seems to find an authentic degree of redemption. But then he takes on the guilt of a murder that he did not commit. He is unable to escape the collective guilt of his nation, his…

Knowledge and Skills to Get
Words: 4345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 46430675
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It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.


The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…

Works Cited

Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.

"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.

Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):

Salinger Tracing Expressions of Post-War
Words: 2368 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98624376
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" Both of these statements are quite arguably true, yet both also smack of the immature self-assuredness that belies the innocence of the speaker, and it is this aspect of the girl -- her very pretensions to adulthood that, in effect, render her a more honest adult than most real adults -- that the narrator of the story seems to find the most interesting and appealing. As the girl is only beginning to glimpse the lack of innocence that accompanies growing up, and appears to be enjoying it, the narrator is able to travel the reverse course and rediscover an innocence thought lost.

This rediscovery happens in a far more direct way at the end of the story, when the narration has switched primarily to a third person, until Sergeant X -- who is obviously embittered, somewhat shattered, and generally disconnected from his life -- receives a letter form Esme.…

Works Cited

Eger, Christopher. "The Military Service of J.D. Salinger." Accessed April 2010. 

Salinger, J.D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.

Salinger, J.D. "For Esme -- With Love and Squalor." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.

Salinger, J.D. Franny and Zooey. New York: Back Bay Books, 2001.

Milau Viaduct Stepping Out on
Words: 2289 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 45433070
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To put this in better perspective, the average driveway requires between six and seven meters of concrete, meaning there is well over twelve-thousand driveways' worth of concrete stretching out for two-and-a-half kilometers over the valley of the iver Tarn, at times higher than the Eiffel Tower and most of the buildings in New York City (BridgePros 2010). All of this material went to good use, creating not only the tallest vehicle bridge in the world, but also one of the safest and most assuredly long-lasting (BridgePros 2010).

Yet despite the football-stadium's worth of concrete and steel somehow suspended in the skyline of southern France, there is a tremendous and awe-inspiring beauty to the Milau viaduct bridge that defies the massive scale of the project. From this plan's initial design phases, the bridge was meant to be an epic and lasting work of art, and it was incredibly successful in attaining…


ArchInform. (2010). "Dr. Michel Virlogeux." Accessed 27 April 2010. 

BridgePros. (2010). "Milau Viaduct Project." Accessed 27 April 2010.

Discovery. (2010). "Milau Viaduct." Discivery. Accessed 27 April 2010. 

Foster + Partners. (2010). "Chief executive." Accessed 27 April 2010.

Steven Spielberg Arguably the Most
Words: 2435 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66442906
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This section has incredible sound editing with the camera bobbing up and down out of the water and the sound going from muffled to vibrant. Spielberg then gets to the beach and goes back and forth between individual shots of one or two men, and then wider shots of the full scope of the battle. This gives the view the sense of the personal and the large-scale event. Hanks' character finally gets to shelter on the beach and the sound goes quiet as he is shell shocked; this technique of low sound and slow motion creates the feeling of disorientation for the audience. Moving up the beach, the camera is hand-held so the shots are tight and shaky with the people cut off at the sides of the frame. This technique makes the action seem more intimate and gives a real sense of what the action was like on the…


Entertainment Weekly, (21 January, 1994). Making History. Retrieved from:,,300806,00.html 

Entertainment Weekly, (24 July, 1998). Message in a Battle. Retreived from:,,284082,00.html

Social Clevages & Political Quarrels
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58244760
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My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.

1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.

For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…


Roskin, M. (2008). Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture. New York:


Titans Clashed by Glantz &
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These are the best that Germany and the Soviet Union have at the same time and, while this is a known fact in most other history books for Germany, the authors of "When Titans Clashed" show better the importance of great generals for the final victory of Soviet Union as well. A new generation of generals, replacing the ones that had died in the purges of the 1930s, show their talents in all the battles of the Eastern front and, subsequently, in the conquest of erlin. The general acceptance is that these generals could have had even greater success had they not been caught in a political game, where the Commander in Chief, Stalin, was always aware of potential successes that could impact his authority.

The general opinion that the authors seem to share and promote in the book seems to rely on the main idea that, while the Western…


1. Glantz, David; House, Jonathan. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas. February 1998

Warfare the More War Changes
Words: 4069 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28377646
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This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.

Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…


Bacevich, a. (2008). thinks our political system is busted. In "The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Petraeus, D. (2007). The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Retrieved from .

Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Knopf.

Modern Political Thought
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Modern Political Thought

The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…

Works Cited, continued

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.

White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.

Hitler Youth A Primary Cultural
Words: 4467 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16663298
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Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…

Works Cited:

Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at 

The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth.

Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at 

Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at

Ambrose Stephen Citizen Soldiers The
Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93855449
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The sense of loyalty is clearly shown, not only in the soldiers' following of orders and willingness to subject themselves to often increasingly-adverse conditions in order to achieve the goals that their commanding officers had set for themselves and to continue advancing the Allied lines, but also in their commitment to their fellow soldiers. This also displays the soldier's sense of duty, honor, and integrity. There is no sense in the book of soldiers flagging due to the hardships that they endured, but rather the perseverance that is born of an extreme commitment to duty. This conduct is the only type of honorable conduct for a soldier; there is no honor in allowing those around you to pick up your slack or to push for success where you gave in to failure. There is also no integrity in such a stance, and it was each individual soldier's commitment to retain…

Douglas Brinkely's the Boys of
Words: 1281 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 32502934
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The Rangers eventually located the battery of cannons that had been moved by the Germans and destroyed them with thermite grenades and helped secure the adjacent beaches for the rest of the D-Day invasion forces.

President Ronald Reagan and the Rebirth of Patriotism

President Reagan may have been a "B movie" actor who was best known for his roles in movies such as "Bedtime for Bonzo," but he was also enormously patriotic and served his country admirably during World War II by making a series of training films and helping raise funds for the war effort. As noted above, he was also a captain in the Army Air Corps, but his poor eyesight precluded his serving in combat. Nevertheless, his moving tribute to the men of the 2nd Ranger Battalion helped fuel a rebirth of patriotism in the U.S. that Brinkley suggests continues to the present day. Indeed, President Reagan…

Gauguin and Degas Paul Gauguin
Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53308288
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These pastel-colored etches influenced Degas' late-life paintings. Those were characterized by women frequently engaged in some type of grooming, such as bathing. Rather than the tightly-structured lines of his earlier works, these later works seemed more hurriedly-drawn and less meticulous than his early works.

For example, in oman Drying Her Hair, a pastel on paper, Degas depicts the back of a nude woman, drying her hair. Unlike many of his works, which overtly differentiate between women of different classes and different occupations, this image in the photo is very every-woman. The bather is classically female, but the painting holds no clues as to her lifestyle outside of the bath. Moreover, the work demonstrates Degas' unique use of light, as it contains unrealistic amounts of shadow, almost as if the bather is caste in an artificial light. Though Degas rejected much of what has come to be associated with Impressionism, his…

Works Cited

Degas, Edgar. Dancer at Rest, Hands Behind her Back, Right Leg Forward. Brooklyn Museum,

Brooklyn, NY, 1882-1895.

Degas, Edgar. Portrait of Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source." Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn,

NY, 1867-1868.

Evolution of the U S Army
Words: 1583 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51576810
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S. Congress and president over the past 50 years to justify inordinately high levels of funding for projects that were not needed or where the money would have been better spent, particularly in terms of flood control along the Mississippi River and in the state of Louisiana where the impact of Hurricane Katrina highlighted their misguided efforts in recent years.


The research showed that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has a long and proud history of contributions to the country and members of the Corps have served in peacetime and combat roles since the Revolutionary ar and every war since. The Corps' original mission has expanded, though, but remains focused on managing the nation's waterways and risk management activities. The research also showed that the Corps contributed to America's victory in orld ar II in many ways, but the service has been the target of an increasing amount…

Works Cited

"About Us." 2009. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [Online]. Available: http://www.usace.

Brown, Jerold E. Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001.

Coll, Blanche D., Jean E. Keith and Herbert H. Rosenthal. The Corps of Engineers: Troops and Equipment. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1958.

Media During Wartime the Media
Words: 2326 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27270034
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Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…


Acheson, Dean, and Dean Acheson. The Korean War. New York,: Norton, 1971.

Hersh, Seymour. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: American Soldiers Brutalized Iraqis. How Far up Does the Responsibility Go?" The New Yorker May 10, 2004.

Landau, Saul. Freedom Fighters, Terrorists or Schlemiels? . 2009. Available: . April 14, 2009.

MediaResearch. How the Media Vote. 2009. Available: April 14, 2009.

Battle of the Bulge the
Words: 3256 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 18687801
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The Allied leaders all believed that all that the enemy could do at the time had been to wait for them to come. Montgomery and Eisenhower had been positive that the Nazis lacked both the petrol and the men to lead an offensive campaign.

Anyone else could agree with them at the time as it had been known that Hitler had lost most of his resources along with the loss of his allies. Furthermore, the world had been aware that Hitler had lost influence in Germany and that the bombing attempt had also crushed his confidence in his own men.

Nevertheless, Hitler managed to get together an impressive number of soldiers and resources. During the last months of 1944, his army seemed to have recovered and it appeared to be ready to lead an offensive. The Fuhrer knew that this had been his last chance of winning the war because…

Works Cited

Alan Bullok, "Hitler, a Study in Tyranny," Harper & Row, 1962.

Axel Axelrod, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History," Alpha books, 2003.

Bruce P. Schoch, "Battle of the Bulge," Merriam Press, 1999.

Patrick Delaforce, "The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's final gamble," Pearson Education, 2004.

Leadership How Battles Are Won
Words: 2883 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57626554
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He explained that it was not popularity and looking good to others that should constitute success. It was what one struggled over and kept him thinking all night. He specifically spoke about President Truman's difficult decision to use nuclear weapons and his own military decision to risk lives (Roberts). According to him, the first rule about leadership is to take charge when in command (Saint 2001). The second rule is to always do what is right. He said that the challenge of leadership is to inspire others or followers to perform what they normally would not do. He described great leaders are "ordinary people in extraordinary times." According to him, great leaders are in history books because they responded adequately to the demand of extra ordinary times. He also said that leaders must take the time to train future leaders coming up through the ranks (Saint).

Schwarzkopf's adept leadership in…


Blumenson, M. (2004). Patton legend. 6 pages. Army: Association of the United States Army

Campbell, a (2007). Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr. 5 pages. Cape May County Herald. Retrieved on May 26, 2008 at;

Carter, J.C. And Finer, M.S. (2004). A survey of leadership. 8 pages. Infantry Magazine: U.S. Army Infantry School

Fisher, K. And M. (2000). H. Normal Schwarzkopf. 4 pages. CarpeNoctem. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 at

Lord Balfour Made a Unilateral
Words: 1319 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40198354
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A century ago, Britain, with the largest fleet of modern Dreadnoughts controlling the high seas, was the indisputable global military power, but already struggling to maintain control over her distant colonies in the Far East and Middle East. Generally, only the nation enjoying a power monopoly benefits from as unipolar world.

At the same time, national alliances between European nations significantly complicated the prospect of exerting national power by military action, made crystal clear by the way a local Balkan conflict culminated in a prolonged world war involving the world's largest military powers costing millions lives for the first time in the history of armed conflict. The degree to which the world of the 20th century developed into uneasy bi-polar balances of power culminated in the dangerous nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union that produced enough thermonuclear weapons to destroy the entire world many times…


Friedman, Thomas, L. (2005) the World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux

Scheuer, Michael. (2004) Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror. Washington DC: Brassey's

Hollandaise Sauce A History How
Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59458946
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Many people fear that hollandaise, because of its opaque color is used to conceal tainted meat, or old fish, and there are concerns about food poisoning if white sauces are allowed to stand too long. Raw or uncooked eggs can transmit salmonella and other diseases, and diners may wish to make sure that they only consume well-cooked eggs. The poached eggs of Eggs Benedict pose another problem for this resistance to uncooked or undercooked eggs. Also, in today's fast-paced society, breakfast and brunch foods are less popular than in the past and many people are simply not familiar with hollandaise sauce, except as mayonnaise in sandwiches or as the cheese component of fast food breakfast sandwiches. Learning how to handling dairy-based sauces with proper precautions as well as techniques are essential for all chefs. hen menu-planning, there are also dietary concerns related to the heavy fat content in the sauce.…

Works Cited

Hollandaise Sauce." Gourmet Sleuth. 2007. 18 Dec 2007. 

Hollandaise Sauce." (2007). Hollandaise Sauce United Kingdom. 2007. 18 Dec 2007.

Karpf, Josh. "Recipes." Eggs Benedict New York. 2007. 18 Dec 2007. 

Stradley, Linda. "History of Sauces." What's Cooking America? 18 Dec 2007.

Stephen Dorril Did the British
Words: 1675 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3990768
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S. would exhibit in this regard. hen it came to capturing "knowledgeable experts and technologically useful materials" that would be useful in rocket technology, the MI6 professionals were "either too gentlemanly or else totally undisciplined" (Dorril 137). And indeed, Britain came in "second" to the U.S. In securing rocket technology, and moreover, "British rocket experts simply handed over to U.S. intelligence officers nearly 90% of their target intelligence and received little in return" (Dorril 137). This was a failure of enormous import.

On page 139, Dorril goes on to discuss the MI6 mission to gather German nuclear intelligence and in April 1945, the British - this time not allowing the Americans to step in ahead of them - smartly brought ten captured German nuclear scientists back to England and placed them in a country house near Cambridge. The house was wired and so all the conversations between the "Uranium Club"…

Works Cited

Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service.

London: The Free Press, 2000.

Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (London: The Free Press, 2000), 10.

Death of Marat Jacques-Louis David's
Words: 1661 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31637979
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This painting is David's masterpiece and one of the great curiosities of modern art because, by a strange feat, it has nothing trivial or vile. What is most surprising in this very unusual visual poem is that it was painted very quickly. When one thinks of the beauty of the lines, this quickness is bewildering. This is food for the strong, the triumph of spiritualism. This painting is as cruel as nature but it has the fragrance of ideals. Where is the ugliness that hallowed Death erased so quickly with the tip of his wing? Now Marat can challenge Apollo. He has been kissed by the loving lips of Death and he rests in the peace of his metamorphosis. This work contains something both poignant and tender; a soul is flying in the cold air of this room, on these cold walls, around this cold funerary tub.

As audelaire is…


Simon, Robert. 1991. David's Martyr-Portrait of Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau and the conundrums of Revolutionary Representation. Art History 14 (4): 459-487.

Vaughan, William, and Helen Weston, eds. 2000. Jacques-Louis David's Marat. Cambridge:

Decision to Use the Atomic
Words: 1585 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58194182
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Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…


Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.

World War II in Europe
Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23478242
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By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-

3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…


Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)

Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)

Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)

St Anselm One of the
Words: 3082 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92075421
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This essence is based on his belief that free will an the freedom of choice which is the exercise of free will are rooted in "uprightness":

If freedom-of-choice had not been given to rational nature in order for it to keep uprightness-of-will for the same of this uprightness itself, then freedom would not have been conducive to justice, since it is evident that justice is uprightness-of-will for the sake of this uprightness itself. (Anselm 110)

It appears that Anselm is ultimately equating free will with uprightness-of-will, for he argues that there is nothing -- even God -- which can separate the will from its essential uprightness:

Indeed, although He can reduce to nothing an entire substance which He has created from nothing, He is not able to separate uprightness from a will which has it... If God were to remove (the oft-mentioned) uprightness from someone, he would not will him…

Works Cited

Anselm. Anselm of Canterbury: Volume 2. Toronto: Edward Mellen, 1976.

Anselm's Ontological Argument." 2007. July 22, 23007.

Hartshorne, Charles. Anselm's Discovery: A Re-Examination of the Ontological Proof for God's Existence. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1965.

Kent, W.H. "St. Anselm." New Advent (2007). July 23, 2007. .

European Resistance Movements in the
Words: 4304 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43688761
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A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.

A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).

Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…


Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.

Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.

Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.

Saving Private Ryan Directed by
Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12522368
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Therefore, while the film depicts one of the most important elements of the war, it also symbolizes the personalities and strength of the men who fought in the war, and so, it is the epitome of a war film. It recognizes the individual and group effort that led to victory, and shows that even the most average men can be carried to greatness by the situation and necessity.

The film also recognizes the difficulties of war, and the seemingly senseless ways people kill each other in war. All of the men who died in this film, both German and American, died to save one man, who did not want to leave his unit. "Saving Private Ryan" is a graphic film, but it only shows a few of the many horrors of war. Watching it, the viewer gets an excellent idea of what the fighting forces endured during World War II.

Cultural and Construction History of
Words: 8066 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21023993
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Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…


1. Cultural Environment

Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.

Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.

Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.

Advancements in Military Technology and
Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33371527
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They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.

The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…


Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from 

Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from 

Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from

History Western Civilization a Book Called the
Words: 1874 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16137744
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history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.

Joan of Arc

Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…

Schism of 1054 Rifts the
Words: 1462 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82259492
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Although the split between the two factions was largely created by political motives, these were based upon or made manifest in varying ecclesiastical practices which each side accused the other of as being heretical. These viewpoints of the differing ecclesiastical customs were conceived of during the epoch in which there was a singular conception of Christianity, and any variance from that was considered incorrect, both morally and otherwise, and deserving of grounds for one to be "anathematized" (Humbert 9) what was perceived as the true and proper form of Christian practice. When attempting to analyze which of these factions was correct in its viewpoints of the proper religious customs of this religion, it is important to note that the Byzantine empire's version of Christianity was largely orthodox, and was based upon the original texts and practices of Christianity as disseminated directly from the Bible.

To that end, it should be…


Gregory, T.E. "The Division of Christianity Between East and West: The Schism of 1054."

Apple Trees Apples Are Among
Words: 2593 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15889134
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(How they're grown) Vigilant trimming or clipping is required for Apple trees for the period of the first five years of growth. As the trees flower, the fruits require shield from insects that damage the apples. General practice is to use chemicals to look after the orchard. The apple tree requires a period of dormancy or rest. This is the reason for non-growth of Apple trees in areas where average winter temperatures are more than 48 degrees F. In the spring, frost can spoil the apple flowering. The best areas for Apple trees to grow are hilltops or slopes as the frost shifts downward the slope prior to the undoing of flowers. The apples' food delivery from the tree is stopped two weeks before reaping and the apples turn into sweeter. Mainly during September and October, the majority of apples are cropped by hand. (Life Cycle of Apple Trees: Apples…


Apple Facts, Nutritional Information and Recipes" Retrieved at

Apples" Retrieved at

Grieve, M. "A Modern Herb: Apple" Retrieved at 

How they're grown" Retrieved at

Satiric Themes in Voltaire's Candide
Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14258603
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arfare was obviously distasteful for Voltaire as he showed with 'Te deum' or the Christian hymn of thanksgiving. The soldiers of both the parties sing the song even though neither side was in a position to have won the battle. Voltaire showed that the atrocities of war would never be prevented even with international laws. As Voltaire depicted two armies present as a glorious spectacle, he was showing the terrible atmosphere that was created in the music and gunfire. Candide saw that on the battlefield that guns and bayonets would lead to more thirty thousand rogues death and Candide trembled in terror. So when the both kings and their armies sing 'Te Deum' only Candide seems to understand that both sides of the village are ruined. In summary, Voltaire is quite clear when he describes all that Candide saw from the shocking massacre of the community was the soldiers' lust…

Works Cited

Yahoo Education. Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet de. Retrieved on 24 Jan. 2005, from .

Voltaire's Candide

Paratrooper Francis L Sampson
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life of a World War II veteran. Specifically it will contain the biography of Paratrooper Francis L. Sampson during World War II. Father Francis L. Sampson was an ordained Catholic priest, a paratrooper, an Army chaplain, and rose through the ranks to become a Major General during his Army service. During World War II, he served as a paratrooper, was taken prisoner by the Germans, and became the eventual inspiration for a blockbuster movie.

Francis L. Sampson was born in Cherokee, Iowa on February 29, 1919. He graduated from Notre Dame University in 1937, and entered St. Paul's Seminary located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, where he studied to be a Catholic priest. He was ordained as a priest in 1941, and worked as a priest briefly until 1942, when he enlisted in the U.S. Army as a chaplain. By 1943 he had completed Army chaplain school and joined the 501st…


"The Greatest War Film Ever." The Mirror (London, England) 25 July 1998: 26.

Hourihan, William J. "A Paratrooper Chaplain." 1997. 20 April 2005.


Mackenzie, Drew. "The True Story Behind Spielberg's New Blockbuster." The People (London, England) 13 Sept. 1998: 8.