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Nhs Corporate Social Responsibility Practice in a
Words: 2377 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46226002
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NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice

In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.

The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…


Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.

Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.

Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.

D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.

Mainstream Leadership Has Received Abundant
Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13884707
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, 2002). This may be particularly so since, as Van Wart (2003) points out, part of the reason for the omission of research on the subject of administrative leadership is due to the circumstance of contextual complexity in other words the difficulty of distinguishing between the varying nuances of leadership and administrative positions. One needs tight conceptualizations and empirical operationalization in order to do so. Whilst in a general stance, we may see 'leaders' as sharing the same tonal content, empirical research points out differences. The leader of paid employees, for instance, would have very different duties and expectations (and consequently responsibility) than the leader of a volunteer organization, and so forth. Issues of contextual complexity also apply to otter concepts such as mission. (Baliga & Hunt, 1988). The act of observation is also a factor in that the very act of the observer may affect the end-results (Kiel, 1994).…


Baliga, G, & Hunt, J. (1988) An organizational life cycle approach. MA: Lexington Books.

Denhardt, R. & Denhardt.T. (2000). The New Public Service: Serving Rather than

Steering. Public Administration Review 60 (6): 549

Kiel, J. (1994). Managing chaos and complexity in government. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Institutional Property and Process the
Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 83201152
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Impotantly, he builds his case on the
sociological theoies of those who peceded him. To this extent, he
emaks at one junctue, "as Giddens (1984) states, 'institutions by
definition ae the moe enduing featues of social life... giving solidity
to social systems acoss time and space.' Institutions exhibit these
popeties because of the pocess set in motion by egulative , nomative,
and cultual cognitive elements." (Scott, 1) In othe wods, the
implications of the institution ae essentially ecipocal. It is only
ational that popety and pocess should exist within the context of a
cycle. The human aspects of an institution, whethe it be a sustained
cultual goup such as a global eligious faith o a copoation with a
centuy of oganizational development behind it, thee ae aspects of
society which ae going to inevitably impact the ways the people behave.
Fo instance, with the adoption of Civil Rights in the…

references throughout his discussion will ultimately remove many of the
stigmas and simultaneous obstacles by which minority groups can hope to
achieve equality.
This example reflect the fact that the concept of the institution is
a distinctly human one which has taken on a systems-level proportion based
on its permanence, its permeation and its power. As a result,
institutional property and process are engaged in a constant exchange, with
human interactants functions as the grease in the gears.

Films as Expressions of a Society's Values
Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94045278
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Films as Expressions of a Society's Values

Criminals are glamorous and so are the people who follow them.

The countries to be compared are the United States and Italy.

Each American film has an Italian counterpart that is similar in premise, characters, and sometimes time period.

The films that will be referenced are: Angel of Evil (Italy) -- Blow (USA); Giallo (Italy) -- Se7en (USA); The Girl with the Pistol (Italy) -- I Shot Andy Warhol. (USA)

How is the criminal lifestyle glamorized? How is the criminal lifestyle glorified? The paper will locate and explain examples as well as counterexamples.

The comparison will elucidate which culture glorifies criminals as well as the people who follow them, such as detectives, the media, or people who are fans of their work.

Narrative & Production

A. There must be some initial exposition and/or summary of the plot of each film (brief), as…


Abrams, Nathan, Bell, Ian, & Udris, Jan. Studying Film. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

Bellantoni, Patti. If It's Purple, Someone's Gonna Die -- The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Oxford, UK: Focal Press, 2005. Print.

Benyahia, Sarah Casey, Gaffney, Freddie, & White, John. AS Film Studies -- The Essential Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Bordwell, David, & Thompson, Kristin. Film Art -- An Introduction. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

Character Survive Globalization Can Character
Words: 2032 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38775794
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It involves a new way of thinking and living "based on attention to people, and not primarily attention to goods" (Schumacher 70). Such a new system would prioritize the local community, would reinvigorate agriculture through the use of intermediate technology, would re-infuse rural life with dignity, and would stop depleting natural resources. He is fond of quoting the Gandhi dictum of "production by the masses, rather than mass production." Rather than pouring aid into developing nations, which has not be shown by positive economics to have any effect on reducing poverty, he believes there should be an emphasis on real education -- teaching people how to become sustainable with new affordable technology rather than just giving them factory jobs. The key is on making the technology affordable, which means relaxing the grip of capital and cost saving in view of the higher goal of helping human beings create fruitful lives…


Friedman, Milton. "The Methodology of Positive Economics." In Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Schumacher, E.F. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Health and Culture Alejandro Flores Was the
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95323455
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Health and Culture

Alejandro Flores was the first in his family to be born on American soil. This meant that Alejandro's life was destined to straddle two worlds: one of the life of his parents and ancestors in Puerto ico and the other of his life as an American citizen. Alejandro's parents were "very proud" that their son could be born on American soil and worked hard to make that happen ("The Case of Alejandro Flores," n.d.). Alejandro's Spanish-speaking household consists of he and his three older siblings and one younger one, his parents and his grandmother.

Severe asthma has hampered Alejandro's health since he was age two. His parents have changed their lifestyle to accommodate and remedy the situation, going so far as to move to a new apartment. Alejandro receives and takes medication for his asthma but still experiences symptoms such as nighttime wheezing. Because the medications were…


"The Case of Alejandro Flores." (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Phillips, M.J. (n.d.). Normative cultural values. Lecture. Online:

Hall 2003 Scott 2003 Offers
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91762777
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In this scenario, organizations are not viewed as isolated entities, but instead are a part of the entire system of information and action in the world. This definition makes the most sense because most real-life examples of organizations fit this model. For instance, political organizations from the United States major political parties, like the Republicans and Democrats, special interest groups, like Green Peace, and terrorist organizations are often concerned with their own interests, but are still a part of the swirl of information that ripples around them. Political organizations make appeals to individuals and other organizations; special interest groups rely on the tests of universities and independent researchers, along with other special interest groups; and terrorist organizations are often involved with religious organizations. It is only a conglomeration of organizations that allows any one organization to achieve any accomplishment.

Furthermore, both the rational system definition and the natural system definition…

Globalization Has Greatly Weakened the Traditional Way
Words: 2571 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93867561
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Globalization has greatly weakened the traditional way in which governments functioned. The ever increasing economic integration has had an impact on the autonomy and power of existing national governments and given greater access to other non-state political and economic actors. (Steger, 2004)

Every human order in the past has lived off a shared image of the world view that served to plant the feet of its members tightly in time and space. Yet none actually ever dreamt of linking together the oceans and continents and the people who lived in them. Each of these individual world views only emerged after military defeats suffered in modern Europe. These world views included global acquisition of territory, resources and subjects in the name of empires and the will to unite the world through fascism and Marxism. They indeed left permanent marks on the lives of people, institutions and systems but they failed to…


Castells, M. 2008. The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks, and global governance.616(1),

Chandler, D. 2004. Constructing global civil society: Morality and power in international relations.

Dean, J., Anderson, J.W., & Lovink, G. 2006.Reformatting politics: information technology and global civil society . New York: CRC Press.

Eberly, D. 2008. The rise of global civil society: Building communities and nations from the bottom up. Encounter Books.

Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy
Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74340233
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Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry

The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…


Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.

Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.

Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.

Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.

Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century
Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 17194104
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Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)


The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1


ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…


Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:

Why Gay Should Not Be Ordain in the Church
Words: 3549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64262410
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Homosexuals Should Not Be Ordained Into the Christian Ministry

To believe that the laws written in the Bible came directly from God, as Christians do believe, is also to accept that all the laws stated in the Bible should be obeyed and that it is not up to man to decide what laws in the Bible should be obeyed and which can be ignored. hile some attempt to justify lifestyles by stating the Bible does not apply to the modern world, these individuals fail to understand the consequences of these views. Though many have chosen to accept homosexuality and argue that same sex marriages and even ordination to the ministry should be acceptable, 1 Corinthians states, "Don't you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or worship idols, or commit adultery, or who are male…

Works Cited

Davis, John Jefferson.2004. Evangelical Ethics. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.

Frame, John M. 2008. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.

Hekminiak, Daniel A., Ph.D. What the Bible Really Says about Homosexuality. Episcopal Bishop of Newark NJ. 1994

Siker, Jeffery S. Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate. Westminster John Knox Press Louisville, Kentucky. 1994

Fair Housing Act
Words: 3288 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11914156
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Practicum Report: Assessment of Fair Housing Act using a Normative Policy Evaluation Method
I considered this as a great opportunity for exploring the role played by the public policy practitioner in the Public Housing sector. I got to assess the Fair Housing Act, via a normative policy evaluation methodology. Collection of data was achieved through observation and literature review of materials that included policy guidelines as well as records for the housing agency. It is clear from the assessment of programs and processes that XXXX Housing Agency obeys all the state and federal conditions on housing, such as the Fair Housing Act. Nonetheless, in order to improve the Act and make it even more accommodating for the smaller groups, the following recommendations are suggested; (1) HUD should supervise and impose grantee’s jurisdiction-wide favorable fair housing responsibilities via a reviewed Analysis of Impediments procedure. (2) The HUD needs fund beneficiaries…

Business' Environmental Responsibilities and Stewardship
Words: 4956 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82302299
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In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid,

elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.

efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…


Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved from September 30, 2010

Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition

Nursing Is There a Limit to One's
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72521533
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Is there a limit to one's professional obligation to the patient? Is that the same as advocacy?

Advocacy can be construed as a professional obligation to the patient, especially when advocacy is framed as an ethical obligation. There are therefore few limits to a nurse's ethical responsibilities to the patients, even though some situations may seem morally ambiguous. Many nursing researchers promote the concept of patient advocacy as "an ethic of practice," one that is an immutable part of the professional responsibilities of the nurse. (Gaylord & Grace, 1995, p. 11).

Are the characteristics of caring relevant to 2010?

The characteristics of caring are more relevant in 2011 than they were in 2010 or have ever been before, in part because of increasing patient diversity. Knowledge of the different concepts of health, healing, illness, and the role of the doctor helps make nurses more accountable to patient needs. Viewing…


Beyea, S.C. (2005). Patient advocacy: nurses keeping patients safe. AORN Journal. On FindArticles. Retrieved online: 

Gaylord, N. & Grace, P. (1995). Nursing advocacy: An ethic of practice. Nursing Ethics 2(1): 11-18.

Hanks, R.G. (2008). The lived experience of nursing advocacy. Nursing Ethics 15(4): 468-477

Vaartio, H., Leino-Kilpi, H., Salantera, S. And Suominen, T. (2006), Nursing advocacy: how is it defined by patients and nurses, what does it involve and how is it experienced?. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20: 282 -- 292. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00406.x

Don't Have One
Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63089446
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electoral participation of American citizens and it looks at some of the factors that determine their voting behavior or patterns, also mentioned is how campaigned strategies are employed by candidates shaped by this knowledge.

he second section looks at the powers of the presidents and how different presidents have exercised powers given to them by the electorate, this part also points out how limits have been placed on the powers and if at all they have been effective.

Normative theory vs. findings of empirical research

First of all it's important to note that the normative theory is vital on understanding the political behavior of the American public and when regarding citizenship norms to participation they refer to voting in elections, being active in politics, political associations and the selection of products for ethical, political or environmental reasons. he normative theory of the ideal citizen and the findings of empirical research…

The president's power has been developed overtime by the congress that has the ability to expand these powers for the purpose of managing the economy and protecting the country in times of war. The presidential powers can also be extended through legislative actions as well as through the concept of inherent powers that are inferred from the country's constitution

Limitations of presidential powers

Most notably in the 20th century the congress used the powers it had to limit those powers bestowed on the president and good example of this was the War power act of 1973, which saw the presidential powers being limited as he was now required to notify the congress before sending American troops to combat, further more he was also required to seek approval for continued deployment after a sixty days period had elapsed while the troops were still in combat. However this hasn't been effective as consecutive presidents have refused to adopt the war power resolution citing that it is against the powers constitutionally bestowed to the President and thus not binding.

Plato and Thucydides
Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66496103
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Thucydides and Plato had conflicting methods in their attitudes toward the good life. Thucydides demonstrates empirical thinking in his readings of human nature and comportment throughout the Peloponnesian War and Plato demonstrates normative thinking in the writing within his books and discourses in particular Gorigia. Plato's interpretations of a good life revolve on principles that an individual has reached contentment. What contentment means to Plato is a person who has no desires because that person possesses all-encompassing love in his/her life.

Plato understood this to be equal for everyone and that displaying entire virtue is accessible by everyone. Virtue is accessed by everyone when one has all love and none of the desires. This is how Plato views access to virtue which is markedly different from Thucydides' perspective. Plato's understanding of love more so involves a mythological comprehension of the world.

The Greek Historian, Thucydides, however, demonstrated his imperialistic methodology…


Benardete, S. (2009). The rhetoric of morality and philosophy: Plato's Gorgias and Phaedrus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mara, G.M. (2008). The civic conversations of Thucydides and Plato: Classical political philosophy and the limits of democracy. Albany: SUNY Press.

Van, P.R., & Westfall, C.W. (1993). Architectural principles in the age of historicism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Redundancy and Survivor's Syndrome Investigating
Words: 3538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 96236096
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Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.

Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…


Brandes, P., et al. 2008. 'The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff.' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies

14 (3), pp. 233-247

Carey, M. 2007. 'White-Collar Proletariat? Braverman, the Deskilling/Upskilling of Social Work and the Paradoxical Life of the Agency Care Manager.' Journal of Social Work 7 (1), pp.


Philosophical Approaches to Ethics I Did Not
Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85008647
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philosophical approaches to ethics. I did not begin this course with an extensive understanding of normative ethics. Instead, because the utilitarian approach is similar to my own, I assumed that most people had a utilitarian approach to ethics. Not that I would advocate an overt harm to an individual in order to help society, but I believed that the right choice would be dictated by the greatest good. I agreed with the notion that "we choose the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs have been taken into account" (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). However, what I did not realize is that I was also employing some deontological perspectives in my own personal normative ethics. There are some lines that I feel should never be crossed, which is deontological in its orientation. "In contrast to consequentialist theories, deontological theories judge the morality of choices by criteria different…


Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2012, December 12). Deontological ethics. Retrieved December

19, 2012 from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website: 

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Retrieved December 19, 2012 from Markkula Center for Applied Ethics website:

Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality
Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1198736
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The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…


Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.

Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Boudon 2001 Theories of Social
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 87823124
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For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…

Herdt G 2004 Sexual Development Social Oppression
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 61194422
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Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality esearch

& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39

One of the most contentious debates in the field of psychology today is the question of nature vs. nurture, or the extent to which biology influences personal psychology vs. cultural constructs. Although it has fallen out of favor somewhat, there is also the Freudian 'essentialist' argument, which suggests that certain mental models span across cultures. According to the article, "Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture," traditional theories of adolescent development have emphasized the importance of the individual, and focused upon the creation of an adult self as if it existed outside of culture in both the Freudian and biological discourses of psychology. Herdt (2004) conducts a review of Freudian and developmental psychology, to argue for a more culturally-informed understanding of the progression of adolescent development.

In the field, a philosophy of…


Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality Research

& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39

Performativity the Intersections Between Gender Sexuality Identity
Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36433611
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The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…

Pressures China Jamaica America Expressed Article Ethics
Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48658956
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pressures China, Jamaica, America expressed article, ethics play a role decision making financial, environmental, cultural issues? How concepts positive normative economics reflected context? How market efficiency, economizing, market system affect ethical issues? Format paper APA standards.

Ethics and business making

Society has experienced much change in recent years and the business environment has similarly progressed significantly as more and more international players started to get actively involved in expanding their businesses while also putting across cooperating attitudes. Even with this, these bodies are well-acquainted with the fact that their actions reflect negatively on society as a whole in some cases and come to adopt approaches that demonstrate that they are more interested in profits than they are in ethics. Countries like China, Jamaica, and the U.S. are among those who are hesitant about adopting strategies that would reduce the level of pollution they provoke because they know that this would…

Works cited:

Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, John, and Ferrell, Linda, "Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2012)

Prakashan, Nirali, "Business Ethics"

Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs
Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 80916514
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interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.

Elaine Graham's Transforming Practice Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Words: 4411 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 75473831
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Elaine Graham's

Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Major Schools of Thought and Actors

In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.

As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…

Works Cited

Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental Drugs
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Patient Access to Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.

Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…


Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from: 

Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from: 

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:

Leadership in the Survey on
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This does not surprise me. In most instances, I work towards clarification of objectives, for example, although this is largely to ensure that there are no problems with my assessment. In general, however, I am willing to engage in a consistent flow of feedback with bosses, something that allows all parties concerned to have input. Considering that the other surveys showed a tendency towards consultative and facilitative styles, this is consistent with my character in general. Communication flow is important in any relationship between leaders and followers, and I believe that the leader needs to encourage this flow, but also that the follower needs to be willing to engage in this communication flow as well in order for the communication to work.

What this survey tells me is that it is critical for me as a leader to cultivate good followership traits in my followers. They need to be able…

Birdcage How Do We Learn
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The job of therapy is in no small part to help individuals push back about over-simplification. Behind the comedy in this movie -- and it is a very funny movie -- is the recognition that much of what makes us miserable in our lives is the fact that we find ourselves limited in our sense of Self by the categories that other people bring to bear on us. And the more distant that we are from what our society considers to be "normal," the more our lives are likely to be constrained by other people's concept of the "Other."

The gay characters in this movie have far less latitude to define themselves in ways that serve themselves (rather than the straight individuals in the movie or a broader straight society in general) than is true of the straight characters. And the more closely the gay characters align themselves with what…


Adams, M.V. (1996). The multicultural imagination: "Race," color, and the unconscious. New York: Routledge.

Robinson-Wood, T. (2009). The convergence of race, ethnicity and gender: Multiple identities in counseling. Princeton, NC: Merrill.

8 | Page

Healthcare Public Policy Lessons in
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But due to the ineffective allocation of resources, while money was spent on his care when his blood sugar was 'out of control,' and when he began to develop blindness and other symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes, he did not receive the consistent but relatively low-care necessary to reduce the causes of his inability to manage his condition. Conclusion Healthcare operates within the market system, and is subject to opportunity costs like any other good or service. However, overall the healthcare system does not operate upon the principles of efficiency, often due to the bureaucracy of the healthcare system and its methods of reimbursement and prioritizing acute over primary care.


Gawande, Atul. (2009, June 1). The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care. The New Yorker. etrieved February 2, 2011 at

Gawande, Atul. (2011, January 24). The hot spotters. The New Yorker. etrieved February…


Gawande, Atul. (2009, June 1). The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care. The New Yorker. Retrieved February 2, 2011 at 

Gawande, Atul. (2011, January 24). The hot spotters. The New Yorker. Retrieved February 2,

2011 at 

Gibson, Jennifer, Douglas K. Martin, & Peter a Singer (2004). Setting priorities in health

No Child Left Behind --
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Growth models are more reliable in NCLB research because: a) status models depend on data that is "vertically scaled" (measuring from one grade to the next); b) status models can be linked to "individual students or schools over time"; and c) status models sometimes employ "hierarchical linear modeling" -- a more sophisticated and potentially esoteric technique (Azin, p. 74). Meanwhile, growth models are more effective in evaluating the success of students and schools under NCLB because they take into account "gain scores" (which are calculated by examining the difference from the starting point to the end point) (Azin, p. 74). Further, the multilevel growth model for evaluation measures both student growth and group-level growth, offering researchers and educators an opportunity to factor in teaching quality and school quality.

Conclusion: There have been many valid criticisms of NCLB, ranging from a dearth of full funding to the fact that many teachers…

Works Cited

Azin, Mariam, and Resendez, Miriam G. "Measuring Student Progress: Changes and Challenges

Under No Child Left Behind." New Directions for Evaluation no. 117 (2008): 71-84.

Hanushek, Eric a., and Raymond, Margaret E. "Does School Accountability lead to Improved

Student Performance?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24.2 (2005): 297-327.

Eckensberger 2001- Discussion Questions Does
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These communicative actions help form the basis of human society.

In fact, a major part of action psychology focuses on the tension between autonomy and heteronomy, which focuses on the social and cultural context of actions. Some action theorists attempt to resolve that tension by assuming that cultural rules are man-made, although the implied intentionality of those norms may be incomprehensible in modern times, because they have been passed down through ages, and may have developed in a different context, where actions were more likely to bring about different goals or consequences. It also looks at crowd behavior, which may seem like a sociological phenomenon, but can be explained as a group of individuals sharing the same goal, which can result in the wide-spread development of atypical group behavior, which becomes normative over time, such as Southern lynchings.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of…

Environmental Security the Environment and
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The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…


Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.

Sustainable Entrepreneurship the Purpose of
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The article is an exciting approach to capitalist development in that it finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously and can practically work. As the study points out, one of the classical things that capitalism does is to "creatively destroy." It is this ability to destroy what is old and does not work and build and impose what is new and does is the primary benefit of capitalism. What sustainable entrepreneurship has done is to apply this as a positive force in realizing the field's lofty goals where public government initiatives have failed to achieve them. The article conducts an extensive literature review to accomplish just this task (ibid. pp. 223-225).

However, until now, there has not been one universally recognized definition of what sustainable development is. Such research and definitions have implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely…


Schaltegger, S. And Wagner, M.. (2011). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Innovation:

Categories and Interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment. 5 (1), 222 -- 237.

Components of Emotional Experience Emotions
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These appraisals can be for an activity that has helped the community in one way or the other. Emotional influence is more based on the presence of social appraisals as well. How an individual can be more beneficial to the society is also counted as an important factor.


This is considered as one of the most important factor. In these cases, the more managed a person is, the lesser is the emotional influence. The main definition of self-management is to make sure that minimum influence is taken of the emotions and more focus is given to the main tasks. Self-management is an important task that can help in managing stress that may relate to the community and work.

Communication and Symbolization

Increased communication is important in reducing the emotional influence on an individual. Symbolization and communication is an important factor as these can help in reducing emotional influence. Social…


Kensinger, a.E. (2009). Emotional Memory Across the Adult Lifespan, Essays in Cognitive Psychology. Psychology Press.

Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J.M., and Barrett, F.L. (2010). Handbook of Emotions. 3rd edition. Guilford Press.

Communication and Culture Europe Greece
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In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).

Part 3: Africa, Tanzania

Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…

Works Cited

Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < 

Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.

Human Security in Asia
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Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,

With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.


Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.

Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.

United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994.

Aging and the Elderly The
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The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."

Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…


Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.

Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.

Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.

Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.

Ethnomethodologists Ethnicity and Ethnic Groupings Are Socially
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Ethnicity and ethnic groupings are socially constructed ideas. This means that the things we consider to be designations between peoples, such as their skin color or nationality, are really just arbitrary determinations. For example, take someone who is African-American, or "black." Educated people know that the skin color of the individual will have little if any bearing on the individual. However, the stereotype of the person will be that he or she is uneducated, that they are potentially involved in crimes or criminology, or at the very least they will have a relative who is. Additionally, they will have an anger and prejudice against the other ethnicities, particularly white people. These are all stereotypical constructions. If someone does not conform to these ideas, they are considered by some to be beyond the norm and to be rejecting his or her stereotypical behaviors. Sociologically-imposed labels are everywhere. This is also…

Works Cited:

Macionis, John J. (2006). Society: The Basics. Pearson.

Macrae, C. Neil (1996). Stereotypes and Stereotyping. New York, NY: Guilford.

Smith, Eliot R., Mackie, Diane M. (2000). Social Psychology. UK: Taylor & Francis.

Wyer, Robert S. (1998). Stereotype Activation and Inhibition. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ethics Abortion Ethics What Abortion Related Affect
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Ethics abortion. ethics? hat abortion? related affect . A breif history abortion. Does abortion fall metaethics, normative ethics, applied ethics? I include Christian, Jewish, Islamic views abortion.


There has always been much controversy regarding the issue of abortion, as while many believe that it would be perfectly normal for people to have access to the practice, other consider that it is wrong and that society would practically accept the killing of innocent human beings by supporting the concept. Morality is one of the principal ideas that comes up when discussing with regard to abortion. Numerous individuals believe that there is no situation when abortion can be considered to be right. Some believe that abortion is justified when it is performed with the purpose to protect the mother's life and others consider that the pro-abortion argument is very complex and that there are a series of situations when abortions needs…

Works cited:

Alcorn, Randy, "Why Pro-Life?: Caring for the Unborn and Their Mothers," (Hendrickson Publishers, 31.01.2012)

Bailey, Jacqui, "Abortion," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 15.12.2011)

Dreifus, Claudia, "The Dalai Lama," Retrieved April 19, 2013, from the NY Time Website: 

Holtz, Carol, "Global Health Care: Issues and Policies," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 07.07.2008)

Economics Taxation on Tobacco Discussion
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3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.

4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.

5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…


Berlinger, Joshua. "Why Smokers Shouldn't be Scared of the WHO's Global Recommendations for Cigarette Taxes." Business Insider, Web, Available from: , 2012. 2013 May 13.

Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. "Wealth Health Organization Calls for Higher Taxes on Tobacco." The New York Times, Web, Available from: , 2002. 2013 May 13.

Behavior Prejudice and Social Psychology Gender-Based Stereotypes
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Prejudice and social psychology

Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society

Cultural impact of host cultures

The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.




Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.

Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.

Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).

Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed
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Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…


Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived -

Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.

Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.

Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived

Emotional Experience and Differences in Gender
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Emotional Experiences and Differences in Gender


Gender is a biological reality with many social consequences. The paper addresses several terms as a context within which to consider emotional experiences because of differences in gender.

Somatic experiencing is a method to avoid or provide damage control for traumas that produce posttraumatic stress disorder. Somatic therapy concentrates on the sensory and felt experience of the patient. The person is to express his/her experience in a manner most detailed and focused as part of the process of recovery from severe trauma(s). This theory was first introduced by Levine (1997) and his theory is derived from his observations and analyses of traumatic experiences within the animal kingdom. As women are stereotyped to be more emotional and more able to communicate their emotions, differences in gender will play a role in this form of therapy. (Grossman & Wood, 1993) Men who adhere to traditional…


Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993) Sex Differences in Intensity of Emotional Experience: A Social Role Interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(5) 1010 -- 1022.

Kring, A.M., & Gordon, A.H. (1998) Sex Differences in Emotion: Expression, Experience, and Physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 686 -- 703.

Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item
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Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper


Aging Critical Issue in Aging
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Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons

The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…


Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:

Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.

WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, Pearson Assessments, 2012) was designed to evaluate cognitive functioning in adults aged 16 to 90. The WAIS-IV is the most recent updated version (released in 2008) of the most commonly administered intelligence test for adolescents and adults (Canivez, 2010). The test has its roots in the Wechsler -- Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1939). David Wechsler, a psychologist who was dissatisfied with the standard of intelligence testing of the times, based his original tests on his notion of intelligence as "the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment" (Wechsler, 1939, p. 229). All versions of the WAIS attempt to measure general intelligence and other facets of intelligence via the administration of numerous subtests. Each of these subtests is an estimate of a particular cognitive…


Canivez, G., L. (2010). Test review of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition. In R.A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, & K.F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 684-688). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Frazier, T.W., & Youngstrom, E.A. (2007). Historical increase in the number of factors measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability: Are we overfactoring? Intelligence, 35(2), 169-182.

Pearson Assessments. (2012). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV):

Assessment and information. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from

Lead Ethics
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Leadership Ethics

Sorry Sorry, You did a great job. The rewrite is for another job.In many ways Scott Summers (better known as Cyclops) -- the fictional leader of the team of mutant superheroes The X-Men -- is an example of a quintessential leader. He was initially deputized as team leader as a teenager and led the team well into his 20's. During that time he dealt with a variety of rotating team members and super-villains that tested the limits of his strategic prowess as a leader, and presented a number of ethical challenges germane to leadership in general. A closer analysis of the career of Summers provides poignant illustrations about many of the six principle ethical challenges that leaders face.

Virtually all leaders have to contend with ethical issues related to information management, and Summers was no different in this respect. When the team was in Scotland battling the shape-changer…


Claremont, C. (2000). The Essential X-Men 2. New York, NY: Marvel Comics.

Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262.

Johnson, C. (2011). Organizational Ethics, A Practical Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Women's History Questions After Reading the Introductory
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Women's History Questions

After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?

Do women benefit from the American Revolution?

In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.

The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…

Canada USA Relations
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International Politics

Expanding the United Nations' mandate

The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.

However, the above functions…


Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from 

United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from

Post Feminism and Hip Hop
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Carnal teachings: raunch aesthetics as queer feminist pedagogies in Yo! Majesty's hip hop practice" by Jilian Hernandez, the essay explores the concept of 'raunch aesthetics' in the video for the song, "Don't Let Go." Hernandez also explore the notions of community cultural capital, color blind/new racism, and postfeminism through the performance of the women in the video. Hernandez's interpretation of queer and feminist teachings via these four concepts and through the music video provides a unique look, into analysis of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory.

The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by…