Queer Identity and Why Its Oppression Results in the Maitenance of Heteronormative Power Structures
Ancient beliefs about human sexuality and hetero-normative power structure have transgressed ages and some of them are unfortunately still negatively influencing modern societies.
ucretius was describing in 60 BC the proper sexual position for women who were wives and not whores as that of a beast who is supposed to engage in sexual relationships with the sole purpose of procreation. ucretius was thus suddenly bringing humanity back to the animal kingdom. Considering that it was happening over two millennia ago, it is not surprising since the knowledge about human sexuality had its limitations imposed by the level of general knowledge in that age. Sexual liberation and evolution for that matter started with the first wife who admitted having sex for the sake of pleasure and not only to procreate.
Societies changed tremendously since then and the…… [Read More]
Target Group and their Local Government
To determine the actual effects of diabetes on the indigenous population, you must examine the areas where many of these individuals live. This will provide insights as to possible issues that could be contributing to the problem by: examining the policies of the local government, looking at relevant health statistics, determining fruit / vegetable consumption and looking at the different support services / infrastructure. These different elements are important, because they provide insights about how the local community could be contributing to the problem. If you can see how these factors are affecting a particular community, then the government can begin to design intervention strategies to reduce the overall effects. Once this takes place, is when you can see how this demographic of 25 to 64-year-olds can be effectively targeted for an intervention.
A description of the Local Government and relevant socio-demographic characteristics of…… [Read More]
Prosecuting a former President for illegal activity in his role as President would certainly increase partisan bickering; making it less likely that Obama could effectuate meaningful change in his administration. Doing that might actually cause people greater harm. For example, the economy is having a direct impact on Americans right now, diverting funds into an expensive investigation that might not even result in a realistic possibility of prosecution for Bush or other high-level officials, would be a waste of taxpayer money. Obama must consider all of those issues when making the decision whether or not to investigate Bush. The most reasonable conclusion is for him not to instigate a criminal investigation against Bush, but to correct the illegal behavior, compensate victims, and move forward.
ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good
Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606.
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment…… [Read More]
Normative Ethics and the Right to Privacy
Who owns a person's email after that person has died is a question that is coming up more and more with the advancement of technology. Cases such as those of deceased service members whose family wanted access to their email after they were killed in combat have made the news. Rulings were that the emails belonged to the deceased person and that person's Internet service provider, through the contract the person had with the company. Because of that, the parents or other family members who were grieving their lost loved one could not be given access to their emails. Whether that is "fair" is a matter of opinion, but is it ethical? In order to answer that question, it is important to explore the issue from both a utilitarian and deontological standpoint, as those are contradictory to one another. A conflict between two…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism and ule Utilitarianism
Normative ethics entails accessing the moral standards that relate to right and wrong conducts. Normative ethics provides the ideal for socially correct behaviors. Normative theories are founded on an individual's principles of determining and differentiating between right and wrong (achels & achels, 2009). Therefore, it is appreciable that normative theories are founded not only by the societies' expectation but also on the principles an individual rides on as far as right and wrong relate. This paper presents a comparison between Act utilitarianism and ule Utilitarianism.
On the overall, utilitarianism determines ways of determining the best action depending on the choices individuals face. The guiding principle of utilitarianism is basically the consequence of individual actions, policies and laws (achels & achels, 2009). The evaluation of ones actions in utilitarianism is thus dependent on the outcome of the action and whether the outcome satisfies the individual's…… [Read More]
White and Its Impact on One's Position And Status In Society
Being white in the modern world affects one's position and status in society because society is very much the outcome of white Anglo-Saxon protestant (WASP) foundations, ideology, and practices that began hundreds of years ago with the break-up of Europe united under one faith, wherein all peoples who accepted that faith were viewed as part of the same mystical body. With the rise of Protestantism, the view changed, and every individual body or group of people held their own faith, and the ideology of the WASP came to dominate much of the world, fueling capitalism, colonialism, and industrialization. Today, diversity is discussed yet the WASP ideology is still strong under the surface and segregation is evident in society.
Thus, being white is like being part of the WASP club, of being born into a socially acceptable position based on…… [Read More]
While all ethical theories appeal to me in some way, the one I relate to the most is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism suggests that the ethical decision should enhance as much happiness as possible. I appreciate this idea, which is why I believe I make more decisions using a utilitarian ethic than any other. With Kantian duty ethics, I struggle with the absolutism. I do not believe it is possible to have one principle govern every ethical decision that I make. For example, I do believe that sometimes it is acceptable to tell lies. I have told lies to make my parents or girlfriend feel good, and I do not think it hurt them. In fact, I believe that if they knew now which lies I told and when, they would not even be upset. I would never tell a lie that I could later not admit to, however, I relate…… [Read More]
POSITIVE AND NOMATIVE ECONOMICS ELATES TO THE U.S. GOVENMENT
The objective to the success of a specific science is the capability to identify and delineate opinions on 'what is' from 'what ought to happen'. This includes providing a demarcation between positive statements and normative statements. Positive statements deal with 'what is, was or what will be' but the normative statements deals with 'what ought to be' and are based on value judgments regarding what is good or what is bad. The positive conclusions could be considered as those which are extensively applicable throughout the whole world and they are testable whereas the normative instructions are not testable but constitute the basis for formulation of positive statements. Positive statements are for example, when we ask economists to inform us regarding how the price system operates, we are asking them to travel us along the road of positive economics. The following statement…… [Read More]
Theoretical approaches to ethics.
Normative ethical theory
Normative ethics is the descriptor that is applied to the entire caliber of a certain perspective of ethics that has various sub-categories to it. As general definition, normative ethics is the term given to the moral investigation that queries how one should act in an ethical manner. To this end, a quantity of ethical systems exists that seek to answer that question. To differentiate normative ethics from other philosophical ethical theories, meta-ethics, for instance, attempts to objectively examine standards for right and wrong in a comparative, phenomenological manner, whilst descriptive ethics -- another brand of ethics is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs.
Normative ethics may also be called 'prescriptive' since it recommends a certain moral route of conduct for an individual. So, for instance, descriptive ethics would be concerned with investigating and describing the proportion of people that hold ethnic discrimination…… [Read More]
counterfactuals or theoretical, normative, or political implications of the facts conveyed in the assignment.
n his "Arsenal of Democracy," Zelizer (2010) indicates that, contrary to the popular truism that "politics stops at the water's edge," domestic concerns has intruded onto national security. Pages 431 onwards document George Bush's controversial War on Terrorism and show how Bush stoked his house with conservative Republicans of like-minded views and how these people carried their partisan politics into everything including their fight against terrorism.
Clinton, for instance, had battled terrorism by bringing it into the legal and judicial field and treating domestic terrorism as a high-level crime
For Bush, it was a war from the beginning.
Bush's stance reveals as much:
"Today our nation saw evil," The president said in a televised address on the day of the [9/11] attack, "the very worst of human nature." On September 13, he said, "We have just…… [Read More]
The reason for this is that the phenomenon generally occurs within groups. Individuals who function in a group often do so differently than when left upon their own. To conduct the study, one individual and one group of people should be observed in two separate rooms.
The individual will be able to observe the group by means of a one-way window. The group will be unaware of the individual. All the group members except one were told to clap their hands in unison when a piece of rhythmic music begins to play. The individual in the adjacent room will observe this behavior as well as be able to hear the music.
As soon as the music begins to play, it is hypothesized that the person without prior coaching will be initially surprised. The other group members will overtly or covertly stare at the person or encourage him or her to…… [Read More]
The fight itself was beautifully orchestrated by Ali through the study of Foreman's technique, movement, strength, and weaknesses. hile preparing for the fight, Ali focused training on his weaknesses, and on Foreman's strengths as a fighter. Ali also took advantage of the public's support and encouragement and used it to build up his esteem, mentally and amongst the African peoples. Foreman, on the other hand, stayed out of the public eye and was reluctant to take part of the cheering for or against his opponent. Foreman was rather laconic during his stay, saying little and staying out of the spotlight. Ali took advantage of the publicity that the fight was receiving and was constantly in front of the camera, whether he was boasting his great skill, advocating his political views, or trying to psych Foreman out. Ali boasts include his great ability to be able to manipulate Foreman's actions stating,…… [Read More]
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…… [Read More]
, 2002). This may be particularly so since, as Van Wart (2003) points out, part of the reason for the omission of research on the subject of administrative leadership is due to the circumstance of contextual complexity in other words the difficulty of distinguishing between the varying nuances of leadership and administrative positions. One needs tight conceptualizations and empirical operationalization in order to do so. Whilst in a general stance, we may see 'leaders' as sharing the same tonal content, empirical research points out differences. The leader of paid employees, for instance, would have very different duties and expectations (and consequently responsibility) than the leader of a volunteer organization, and so forth. Issues of contextual complexity also apply to otter concepts such as mission. (Baliga & Hunt, 1988). The act of observation is also a factor in that the very act of the observer may affect the end-results (Kiel, 1994).…… [Read More]
Impotantly, he builds his case on the
sociological theoies of those who peceded him. To this extent, he
emaks at one junctue, "as Giddens (1984) states, 'institutions by
definition ae the moe enduing featues of social life... giving solidity
to social systems acoss time and space.' Institutions exhibit these
popeties because of the pocess set in motion by egulative , nomative,
and cultual cognitive elements." (Scott, 1) In othe wods, the
implications of the institution ae essentially ecipocal. It is only
ational that popety and pocess should exist within the context of a
cycle. The human aspects of an institution, whethe it be a sustained
cultual goup such as a global eligious faith o a copoation with a
centuy of oganizational development behind it, thee ae aspects of
society which ae going to inevitably impact the ways the people behave.
Fo instance, with the adoption of Civil Rights in the…… [Read More]
Films as Expressions of a Society's Values
Criminals are glamorous and so are the people who follow them.
The countries to be compared are the United States and Italy.
Each American film has an Italian counterpart that is similar in premise, characters, and sometimes time period.
The films that will be referenced are: Angel of Evil (Italy) -- Blow (USA); Giallo (Italy) -- Se7en (USA); The Girl with the Pistol (Italy) -- I Shot Andy Warhol. (USA)
How is the criminal lifestyle glamorized? How is the criminal lifestyle glorified? The paper will locate and explain examples as well as counterexamples.
The comparison will elucidate which culture glorifies criminals as well as the people who follow them, such as detectives, the media, or people who are fans of their work.
Narrative & Production
A. There must be some initial exposition and/or summary of the plot of each film (brief), as…… [Read More]
It involves a new way of thinking and living "based on attention to people, and not primarily attention to goods" (Schumacher 70). Such a new system would prioritize the local community, would reinvigorate agriculture through the use of intermediate technology, would re-infuse rural life with dignity, and would stop depleting natural resources. He is fond of quoting the Gandhi dictum of "production by the masses, rather than mass production." Rather than pouring aid into developing nations, which has not be shown by positive economics to have any effect on reducing poverty, he believes there should be an emphasis on real education -- teaching people how to become sustainable with new affordable technology rather than just giving them factory jobs. The key is on making the technology affordable, which means relaxing the grip of capital and cost saving in view of the higher goal of helping human beings create fruitful lives…… [Read More]
But "few states with mandatory insurance for IVF still require couples to undergo three cycles of ovulation induction and artificial insemination before IVF" thus encouraging the use of a technology more likely to result in multiple births (Roan, 2007, p.4).
hen contemplating the use of fertility drugs or IVF, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology advocates discussing the possibility of selective reduction and the patient's comfort level with this practice before any procedures are performed. However, its guidelines, are not binding. For example, "the U.S. fertility industry has guidelines on how many embryos doctors can implant, with the number varying by age and other factors. The guidelines call for no more than one or two for a generally healthy woman under 35, and no more than three to five, depending on the embryos' maturity, for women over 40" (atkins & Neergaard 2008). Eight embryos would be "well beyond" these…… [Read More]
Health and Culture
Alejandro Flores was the first in his family to be born on American soil. This meant that Alejandro's life was destined to straddle two worlds: one of the life of his parents and ancestors in Puerto ico and the other of his life as an American citizen. Alejandro's parents were "very proud" that their son could be born on American soil and worked hard to make that happen ("The Case of Alejandro Flores," n.d.). Alejandro's Spanish-speaking household consists of he and his three older siblings and one younger one, his parents and his grandmother.
Severe asthma has hampered Alejandro's health since he was age two. His parents have changed their lifestyle to accommodate and remedy the situation, going so far as to move to a new apartment. Alejandro receives and takes medication for his asthma but still experiences symptoms such as nighttime wheezing. Because the medications were…… [Read More]
In this scenario, organizations are not viewed as isolated entities, but instead are a part of the entire system of information and action in the world. This definition makes the most sense because most real-life examples of organizations fit this model. For instance, political organizations from the United States major political parties, like the Republicans and Democrats, special interest groups, like Green Peace, and terrorist organizations are often concerned with their own interests, but are still a part of the swirl of information that ripples around them. Political organizations make appeals to individuals and other organizations; special interest groups rely on the tests of universities and independent researchers, along with other special interest groups; and terrorist organizations are often involved with religious organizations. It is only a conglomeration of organizations that allows any one organization to achieve any accomplishment.
Furthermore, both the rational system definition and the natural system definition…… [Read More]
Globalization has greatly weakened the traditional way in which governments functioned. The ever increasing economic integration has had an impact on the autonomy and power of existing national governments and given greater access to other non-state political and economic actors. (Steger, 2004)
Every human order in the past has lived off a shared image of the world view that served to plant the feet of its members tightly in time and space. Yet none actually ever dreamt of linking together the oceans and continents and the people who lived in them. Each of these individual world views only emerged after military defeats suffered in modern Europe. These world views included global acquisition of territory, resources and subjects in the name of empires and the will to unite the world through fascism and Marxism. They indeed left permanent marks on the lives of people, institutions and systems but they failed to…… [Read More]
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
Homosexuals Should Not Be Ordained Into the Christian Ministry
To believe that the laws written in the Bible came directly from God, as Christians do believe, is also to accept that all the laws stated in the Bible should be obeyed and that it is not up to man to decide what laws in the Bible should be obeyed and which can be ignored. hile some attempt to justify lifestyles by stating the Bible does not apply to the modern world, these individuals fail to understand the consequences of these views. Though many have chosen to accept homosexuality and argue that same sex marriages and even ordination to the ministry should be acceptable, 1 Corinthians states, "Don't you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or worship idols, or commit adultery, or who are male…… [Read More]
Practicum Report: Assessment of Fair Housing Act using a Normative Policy Evaluation Method
I considered this as a great opportunity for exploring the role played by the public policy practitioner in the Public Housing sector. I got to assess the Fair Housing Act, via a normative policy evaluation methodology. Collection of data was achieved through observation and literature review of materials that included policy guidelines as well as records for the housing agency. It is clear from the assessment of programs and processes that XXXX Housing Agency obeys all the state and federal conditions on housing, such as the Fair Housing Act. Nonetheless, in order to improve the Act and make it even more accommodating for the smaller groups, the following recommendations are suggested; (1) HUD should supervise and impose grantee’s jurisdiction-wide favorable fair housing responsibilities via a reviewed Analysis of Impediments procedure. (2) The HUD needs fund beneficiaries…… [Read More]
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…… [Read More]
Is there a limit to one's professional obligation to the patient? Is that the same as advocacy?
Advocacy can be construed as a professional obligation to the patient, especially when advocacy is framed as an ethical obligation. There are therefore few limits to a nurse's ethical responsibilities to the patients, even though some situations may seem morally ambiguous. Many nursing researchers promote the concept of patient advocacy as "an ethic of practice," one that is an immutable part of the professional responsibilities of the nurse. (Gaylord & Grace, 1995, p. 11).
Are the characteristics of caring relevant to 2010?
The characteristics of caring are more relevant in 2011 than they were in 2010 or have ever been before, in part because of increasing patient diversity. Knowledge of the different concepts of health, healing, illness, and the role of the doctor helps make nurses more accountable to patient needs. Viewing…… [Read More]
electoral participation of American citizens and it looks at some of the factors that determine their voting behavior or patterns, also mentioned is how campaigned strategies are employed by candidates shaped by this knowledge.
he second section looks at the powers of the presidents and how different presidents have exercised powers given to them by the electorate, this part also points out how limits have been placed on the powers and if at all they have been effective.
Normative theory vs. findings of empirical research
First of all it's important to note that the normative theory is vital on understanding the political behavior of the American public and when regarding citizenship norms to participation they refer to voting in elections, being active in politics, political associations and the selection of products for ethical, political or environmental reasons. he normative theory of the ideal citizen and the findings of empirical research…… [Read More]
Thucydides and Plato had conflicting methods in their attitudes toward the good life. Thucydides demonstrates empirical thinking in his readings of human nature and comportment throughout the Peloponnesian War and Plato demonstrates normative thinking in the writing within his books and discourses in particular Gorigia. Plato's interpretations of a good life revolve on principles that an individual has reached contentment. What contentment means to Plato is a person who has no desires because that person possesses all-encompassing love in his/her life.
Plato understood this to be equal for everyone and that displaying entire virtue is accessible by everyone. Virtue is accessed by everyone when one has all love and none of the desires. This is how Plato views access to virtue which is markedly different from Thucydides' perspective. Plato's understanding of love more so involves a mythological comprehension of the world.
The Greek Historian, Thucydides, however, demonstrated his imperialistic methodology…… [Read More]
Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.
Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…… [Read More]
philosophical approaches to ethics. I did not begin this course with an extensive understanding of normative ethics. Instead, because the utilitarian approach is similar to my own, I assumed that most people had a utilitarian approach to ethics. Not that I would advocate an overt harm to an individual in order to help society, but I believed that the right choice would be dictated by the greatest good. I agreed with the notion that "we choose the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs have been taken into account" (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). However, what I did not realize is that I was also employing some deontological perspectives in my own personal normative ethics. There are some lines that I feel should never be crossed, which is deontological in its orientation. "In contrast to consequentialist theories, deontological theories judge the morality of choices by criteria different…… [Read More]
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…… [Read More]
When I am leading a team, I never take all the credit of the success and I make sure that every member of my team has played an equally important role in achieving our goal. Similarly, when my team experiences a failure I take personal responsibility for that (Mind Tools, 2011).
As a member of the society, I am passionate about serving the society and being a valuable asset to it. I try to serve the community in every way, be it physically, intellectually, and financially. When I have to take up certain decisions, I critically analyse all the pros, cons, best case, and worst-case scenarios and then take up my decision. Again, I never let myself be caught in what is called "analysis-paralysis." This is because I believe that although a leader should not make impulsive decisions, however, he should always be prepared for making spontaneous decisions. Furthermore, he…… [Read More]
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…… [Read More]
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality esearch
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
One of the most contentious debates in the field of psychology today is the question of nature vs. nurture, or the extent to which biology influences personal psychology vs. cultural constructs. Although it has fallen out of favor somewhat, there is also the Freudian 'essentialist' argument, which suggests that certain mental models span across cultures. According to the article, "Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture," traditional theories of adolescent development have emphasized the importance of the individual, and focused upon the creation of an adult self as if it existed outside of culture in both the Freudian and biological discourses of psychology. Herdt (2004) conducts a review of Freudian and developmental psychology, to argue for a more culturally-informed understanding of the progression of adolescent development.
In the field, a philosophy of…… [Read More]
The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…… [Read More]
pressures China, Jamaica, America expressed article, ethics play a role decision making financial, environmental, cultural issues? How concepts positive normative economics reflected context? How market efficiency, economizing, market system affect ethical issues? Format paper APA standards.
Ethics and business making
Society has experienced much change in recent years and the business environment has similarly progressed significantly as more and more international players started to get actively involved in expanding their businesses while also putting across cooperating attitudes. Even with this, these bodies are well-acquainted with the fact that their actions reflect negatively on society as a whole in some cases and come to adopt approaches that demonstrate that they are more interested in profits than they are in ethics. Countries like China, Jamaica, and the U.S. are among those who are hesitant about adopting strategies that would reduce the level of pollution they provoke because they know that this would…… [Read More]
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]
Patient Access to Experimental Drugs
Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.
Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…… [Read More]
This does not surprise me. In most instances, I work towards clarification of objectives, for example, although this is largely to ensure that there are no problems with my assessment. In general, however, I am willing to engage in a consistent flow of feedback with bosses, something that allows all parties concerned to have input. Considering that the other surveys showed a tendency towards consultative and facilitative styles, this is consistent with my character in general. Communication flow is important in any relationship between leaders and followers, and I believe that the leader needs to encourage this flow, but also that the follower needs to be willing to engage in this communication flow as well in order for the communication to work.
What this survey tells me is that it is critical for me as a leader to cultivate good followership traits in my followers. They need to be able…… [Read More]
The job of therapy is in no small part to help individuals push back about over-simplification. Behind the comedy in this movie -- and it is a very funny movie -- is the recognition that much of what makes us miserable in our lives is the fact that we find ourselves limited in our sense of Self by the categories that other people bring to bear on us. And the more distant that we are from what our society considers to be "normal," the more our lives are likely to be constrained by other people's concept of the "Other."
The gay characters in this movie have far less latitude to define themselves in ways that serve themselves (rather than the straight individuals in the movie or a broader straight society in general) than is true of the straight characters. And the more closely the gay characters align themselves with what…… [Read More]
But due to the ineffective allocation of resources, while money was spent on his care when his blood sugar was 'out of control,' and when he began to develop blindness and other symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes, he did not receive the consistent but relatively low-care necessary to reduce the causes of his inability to manage his condition. Conclusion Healthcare operates within the market system, and is subject to opportunity costs like any other good or service. However, overall the healthcare system does not operate upon the principles of efficiency, often due to the bureaucracy of the healthcare system and its methods of reimbursement and prioritizing acute over primary care.
Gawande, Atul. (2009, June 1). The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care. The New Yorker. etrieved February 2, 2011 at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/06/01/090601fa_fact_gawande#ixzz1CpZ4jbV
Gawande, Atul. (2011, January 24). The hot spotters. The New Yorker. etrieved February…… [Read More]
Growth models are more reliable in NCLB research because: a) status models depend on data that is "vertically scaled" (measuring from one grade to the next); b) status models can be linked to "individual students or schools over time"; and c) status models sometimes employ "hierarchical linear modeling" -- a more sophisticated and potentially esoteric technique (Azin, p. 74). Meanwhile, growth models are more effective in evaluating the success of students and schools under NCLB because they take into account "gain scores" (which are calculated by examining the difference from the starting point to the end point) (Azin, p. 74). Further, the multilevel growth model for evaluation measures both student growth and group-level growth, offering researchers and educators an opportunity to factor in teaching quality and school quality.
Conclusion: There have been many valid criticisms of NCLB, ranging from a dearth of full funding to the fact that many teachers…… [Read More]
These communicative actions help form the basis of human society.
In fact, a major part of action psychology focuses on the tension between autonomy and heteronomy, which focuses on the social and cultural context of actions. Some action theorists attempt to resolve that tension by assuming that cultural rules are man-made, although the implied intentionality of those norms may be incomprehensible in modern times, because they have been passed down through ages, and may have developed in a different context, where actions were more likely to bring about different goals or consequences. It also looks at crowd behavior, which may seem like a sociological phenomenon, but can be explained as a group of individuals sharing the same goal, which can result in the wide-spread development of atypical group behavior, which becomes normative over time, such as Southern lynchings.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of…… [Read More]
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…… [Read More]
The article is an exciting approach to capitalist development in that it finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously and can practically work. As the study points out, one of the classical things that capitalism does is to "creatively destroy." It is this ability to destroy what is old and does not work and build and impose what is new and does is the primary benefit of capitalism. What sustainable entrepreneurship has done is to apply this as a positive force in realizing the field's lofty goals where public government initiatives have failed to achieve them. The article conducts an extensive literature review to accomplish just this task (ibid. pp. 223-225).
However, until now, there has not been one universally recognized definition of what sustainable development is. Such research and definitions have implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely…… [Read More]
These appraisals can be for an activity that has helped the community in one way or the other. Emotional influence is more based on the presence of social appraisals as well. How an individual can be more beneficial to the society is also counted as an important factor.
This is considered as one of the most important factor. In these cases, the more managed a person is, the lesser is the emotional influence. The main definition of self-management is to make sure that minimum influence is taken of the emotions and more focus is given to the main tasks. Self-management is an important task that can help in managing stress that may relate to the community and work.
Communication and Symbolization
Increased communication is important in reducing the emotional influence on an individual. Symbolization and communication is an important factor as these can help in reducing emotional influence. Social…… [Read More]
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…… [Read More]
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Anwar's…… [Read More]
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…… [Read More]
Ethnicity and ethnic groupings are socially constructed ideas. This means that the things we consider to be designations between peoples, such as their skin color or nationality, are really just arbitrary determinations. For example, take someone who is African-American, or "black." Educated people know that the skin color of the individual will have little if any bearing on the individual. However, the stereotype of the person will be that he or she is uneducated, that they are potentially involved in crimes or criminology, or at the very least they will have a relative who is. Additionally, they will have an anger and prejudice against the other ethnicities, particularly white people. These are all stereotypical constructions. If someone does not conform to these ideas, they are considered by some to be beyond the norm and to be rejecting his or her stereotypical behaviors. Sociologically-imposed labels are everywhere. This is also…… [Read More]
Ethics abortion. ethics? hat abortion? related affect . A breif history abortion. Does abortion fall metaethics, normative ethics, applied ethics? I include Christian, Jewish, Islamic views abortion.
There has always been much controversy regarding the issue of abortion, as while many believe that it would be perfectly normal for people to have access to the practice, other consider that it is wrong and that society would practically accept the killing of innocent human beings by supporting the concept. Morality is one of the principal ideas that comes up when discussing with regard to abortion. Numerous individuals believe that there is no situation when abortion can be considered to be right. Some believe that abortion is justified when it is performed with the purpose to protect the mother's life and others consider that the pro-abortion argument is very complex and that there are a series of situations when abortions needs…… [Read More]
3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.
4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.
5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…… [Read More]
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Stanley…… [Read More]
Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…… [Read More]
Emotional Experiences and Differences in Gender
Gender is a biological reality with many social consequences. The paper addresses several terms as a context within which to consider emotional experiences because of differences in gender.
Somatic experiencing is a method to avoid or provide damage control for traumas that produce posttraumatic stress disorder. Somatic therapy concentrates on the sensory and felt experience of the patient. The person is to express his/her experience in a manner most detailed and focused as part of the process of recovery from severe trauma(s). This theory was first introduced by Levine (1997) and his theory is derived from his observations and analyses of traumatic experiences within the animal kingdom. As women are stereotyped to be more emotional and more able to communicate their emotions, differences in gender will play a role in this form of therapy. (Grossman & Wood, 1993) Men who adhere to traditional…… [Read More]
Multifaceted Media epresentations of Mental Illness in Australia
In the 21st century, the age of the digital and social media revolutions, as well as the age that demands information, media, and technological literacy from the average person, it is becoming common and respected knowledge that all forms of media have the power to influence behavior and attitudes. Media is a form of communication, entertainment, and education. While most media is not generally considered as contributing to normative/institutional education, media educates viewers nonetheless. Media educates viewers as to how to participate in various cultures by practicing similar beliefs, rituals, behaviors, attitudes, and preferences and more. Media teaches culture, whatever the culture may be. It is a common experience of the human condition to feel pressure to conform at various stages of life. The paper analyzes and reflects upon the messages the media sends viewers regarding attitudes of people with mental illnesses.…… [Read More]
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
The…… [Read More]
Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons
The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…… [Read More]