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Nuclear Family Arrangement:
The nuclear family is simple and consists of heterosexual married couple and their children. The nuclear family arrangement is one of the oldest family structure and is prevalent in almost every part and society of the world. Traditionally, role and responsibility of the father in the nuclear family is of bread earner and protector of the whole family. On the other hand, woman in the traditional nuclear family is viewed as responsible for the households chores.
Despite the emergence of different types of family structure and arrangement, like single parent families, extended families, and many more, the nuclear family arrangement is still believed to be the most effective and efficient family structure. Although, the nuclear family structure has been under some criticism, still the advantages and benefits of this family structure are strong enough to ignore and overcome all criticism (Chamratrithirong, Morgan, & Rindfuss, 926-950).
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat, Morgan, Philip, & Rindfuss, Ronald. "Living arrangements and family formation." Social Forces 66.4 (Jun. 1988): 926-950.
Grief, Avner. Family structure, institutions, and growth: the origin and implications of western corporation. Prepared for an AEA session on the family, institutions, and economic growth, 2005. 10 July. 2011.
" All in all, this article points to the obvious advantages the nuclear family has over a blended family.
O'Leary, Daniel K., Heyman, Richard E., and Jongsma, Arthur E. The Couples Psychotherapy
Treatment Planner. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. This book provides a wide range of approaches to dealing with the behavioral, psychological and social problems that occur in a blended family. Not that nuclear families don't have their own stressors and problems, but the issues that Heyman, et al., present are unique to blended families and stack up as reasons why nuclear families are generally more successful. Behavioral issues with stepfamilies include: a) suspicions by the female partner that the male partner is
"sexually attracted to her daughter"; b) arguments between partners over "favoritism" or financial support and gifts for "biological vs. non-biological children"; c) frequent arguments over child discipline strategies; d) concerns as to leaving "opposite-sex…
Web Search for "Nuclear Family Arrangement"
Using the search engine Google, the term "nuclear family arrangement" results in a variety of different websites from wikis and scholarly articles, to videos and discussion groups. Google can find more that 2,500,000 results for that particular keyword search, but if your overall purpose for the search was to find support for the thesis: "the nuclear family arrangement is not the only practicable structure for a thriving family environment," one will only be partly satisfied.
The first three results are Wikipedia pages that start with "Nuclear Family," "Culture of the United States," and "Average Joe." The basic assumptions of all three sites is that the nuclear family is still considered the "norm" in American culture, even though demographic data demonstrates that "such households constitute less than a quarter of all households." ("Average Joe") And the very next site is an article that quotes a…
"Average Joe." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia." Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_Joe
Kottak, Conrad. "Families, Kinship, and Descent." McGraw Hill Online Learning Center. Retrieved from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/
"Nuclear Family" Retrieved from http://family.jrank.org/pages/1222/Nuclear-Families.html
Freewriting allows the writer to crystallize thoughts in preparation for a final paper or oral debate.
Another strategy is engaging in dialogue with others. As Goshgarian et al. point out, the dialogue does not have to be limited to conversation. It can include brainstorming together, soliciting of responses to one's freewriting, and interviews. The dialogue can be face-to-face or via electronic resources such as chat rooms, e-mail or listservs (Goshgarian et al. 70). Dialogue enables the writer to gather other opinions and perspectives. The writer may or may not change her mind; even if she does not, she gains an understanding of other's arguments and can use them as a starting point for the research that will support her own views in a debate.
The debate topic, that the nuclear family arrangement is not the only practicable structure for a thriving family environment, is one on which most people have…
Goshgarian, Gary, Krueger, Kathleen, and Minc, Janet Barnett. Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader. 4th ed. Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003. Print.
They worked longer hours in the workplace, but men had not made commensurate efforts in the home" (Pleck, npg). t is evident that while the role of women in the workplace and as a wage earner within the household has dramatically increased, their responsibilities within the home have not decreased a proportionate amount.
The result of having women as a secondary wage earner has created a differing division of labor. Men, who are traditionally negligent of family duties, must now assume more family responsibility. UN study results reveal that men now perform double their traditional family obligations within the household. This implies that men now have more responsibility in taking care of children, maintaining the house, and other domestic duties. Men however, have not been as impacted by this transition towards dual-earners within the family (Pleck, npg). This is because as both members of the family work, they also increase…
In the final analysis it is evident that women still have a disproportionately high percentage of domestic responsibilities. However, due to the increase in their working hours, men have assumed more responsibility than in the traditional family system. It evident that the transition to dual-earners has changed the role of family members, but the change is not nearly as profound as many would believe.
Liazos, Alex. "Childcare and time to be parents: Parenting, childcare, and work." Humanity & Society 15, 3 (1991): 291-303.
Pleck, Joseph. Working Wives / Working Husbands. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1985.
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
Family Social Policy
hat are the different ideological approaches to family social policy…how are they different?
Canada has traditionally taken the position that the responsibility for keeping a family intact is a private issue, not a public / governmental issue, according to Module 9. In terms of the ideological approach to families, the Module 9 explains four strategies.
Familialism is the approach taken in Canada for heterosexual family values; this approach supports women staying home to raise children and men getting jobs outside the home. Any struggles the family may have (money, marriage difficulties) are to be kept within the family.
Liberal Feminism differs from Familialism in that men and women have an equal basis for respect, both in the workplace and at home, but especially in the workplace. This ideology does not suggest that women should be raising children, staying home, and being homemakers. That typical role for a…
McDaniel, Susan A. (2007). Families, Feminism, and the State. In Power and Resistance.
Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.
Module 9. Family and child Welfare Policy.
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.
Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Family elations esearch
The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as complex socioeconomic issues that will be discussed in detail. A textbook, Public and Private Families, written by Andrew Cherlina share a lot of concepts of the film will be brought in to the discussion as well.
The various relationships that exist between Marxist theory, sociological perspectives, structural functionalism, as well as the family and early feminist theory are examined throughout the program. It examines the rapid decline in marriage over the last few decades as well as the great increase in couples choosing cohabitation. Divorce is increasing and the fertility rate is on the decline in the U.K. All of these factors have combined to affect the traditional family in Britain and has created new challenges for them in how everyday…
The Sociology of Families and Households. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.educationaltrainingvideos.com/The-Sociology-of-Families-and-Households.html
Cherlin, A. (2013). Public and Private Families: An Introduction (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Sociology of the Family. (2013). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://www.academicroom.com/topics/sociology-family
Parker, S. (2013, October 25). Why family issues are economic issues. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://www.wnd.com/2013/10/why-family-issues-are-economic-issues/
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.184.108.40.206840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother, a 51 years old father and an adopted 15 years old son. The mother is a clinical psychologist and the father is currently an out of work electrician. In this particular case:
big ticket purchases are generally decided by the mother, since she is the sole provider of the family; the father is charged with the family vacations food and toiletries are purchased on individual preference basically because the mother does not have enough time to cook group decisions are made in regard to the places where to dine out or electronic appliances to be purchased for the home the child's power of influence is revealed by his capability to research certain products and provide his mother with the required information…
Mann, a., Consumer Behavior - Family Purchasing Decisions Making Process, Ezine Articles, Retrieved at http://ezinearticles.com/?Consumer-Behavior-Family-Purchasing-Decisions-Making-Process&id=307532on February 8, 2008
Business Standard, 2004, Marketing with Precision, Rediff, Retrieved at http://imdownloads.rediff.com/money/2004/oct/28guest2.htm . On February 8, 2008
Chamberlain, B., Types of Families, Retrieved at http://www.hhs.wash.k12.ut.us/department/health/masters/ch5l1/type.htm. On February 8, 2008
Perner, L., PhD., Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing, Consumer Psychologist, Retrieved at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/on February 8, 2008
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…
Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,
University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.
Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration
of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml
Perhaps one of the most important findings of ootz is that there's the feeling that married couples today just aren't as happy as they were in the golden age of the 1950's. Here, she doesn't do a great job of refuting this supposed myth. She did find data that more couples reported their marriages to be happy in the late 1970s than did so in 1957. but, the use of data this old simply shows that ootz lacks appropriate evidence to support her argument. At least she does admit that between the late 1970s and late 1980s, marital happiness did decline in the United States. When dealing the higher deaths rates of our present generation, ootz does a poor job of putting these numbers in an unbiased contextual perspective. ootz explains how many marriages in the past were terminated by the death of a partner rather than divorce which she…
Cootz concludes with her own solution for the modern-day family,
The problem is not to berate people for abandoning past family values, nor to exhort them to adopt better values in the future -- the problem is to build the institutions and social support networks that allow people to act on their best values rather than on their worst ones. We need to get past abstract nostalgia for traditional family values and develop a clearer sense of how past families actually worked and what the different consequences of various family behaviors and values have been." (22)
Ironically, Cootz had just spent time arguing that the modern-day family still has great support networks and erosion from the 1950's is a myth. This is just one more example of logical flaws that exist throughout Cootz's chapter. Still, Cootz does a good job of making the reader think about the historical and environmental contexts of the family and to question supposed facts that are likely to be mere myths.
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs.
The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…
"Bowenian Family Therapy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/bowen.html
Vermont Center for Family Studies (n.d). What are the eight interlocking concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory? Retrieved online: http://www.vermontcenterforfamilystudies.org/about_vcfs/the_eight_concepts_of_bowen_theory/
The author of this report is asked to answer to several questions relating to family. These answers include what the main functions of a family are including the answer to the question from a functionalist perspective. How someone's family influences his or her cultural identity shall be answered to including item such as gender, race and identity. Finally, it shall be explained how family life has changed over the last thirty years. While the forms of family have changed over the last generation or two, the core functions of the family have not changed much at all.
The main functions of a family have not entirely changed over the year but they have shifted a bit. Traditionally, the main focus of family has centered around marriage and having children. However, the definitions of marriage and what makes an "acceptable one" over the years has changed and many families are…
Jayson, S. (2010, November 25). What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/yourlife/sex-relationships/marriage/2010-11-18-pew18_ST_N.htm
Levin, J. (2004, August 24). Functionalism. Stanford University. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
Family Theoretical Perspective
The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason why it attracts a lot of attention and consequent research. The topic of this paper is family and the chosen article is, "Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds."
The structures of family forms vary just as their definitions. There is no single form of true family. In earlier years the nuclear family that comprises of a single set of biological parents and their children was prevalent. However, there has been a trend towards multiple generations of the same family living and working together in the same household. Today, there are many types of family forms that can be seen and they are due to the evolution of the family that started off as a result of a…
Vem, B. (2014). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds.
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed.
In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles?
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…
Marcia .C. (2011). Culture and Family Dynamics. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/2010/11/culture-and-family-dynamics/
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/evidence-based-approaches-to-treating-adolescent-substance-use-disorders/family-based-approaches
Novella .R. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from
Families progress and grow as time continues. People may be at one stage and then move on to another. My family is a nuclear family and as my parents age, I wonder about how their health will get worse over time. The United States in general, has poor food quality and limited economic opportunity. There are political struggles, job struggles that contribute to chronic stress and a potential obesity epidemic.
I guess that my family as well as other American families will have problems concerning chronic health conditions that can be attributed to weight and food quality. Many Americans have nutrient deficiencies that can lead to chronic health problems like heart disease and diabetes. Although the American government attempts to educate people on healthy eating, the cheapest food available is usually heavily processed or laden with chemicals and pesticides. Things like avocados and apples, some of the foods that help…
Family on Family: An Interview With Uncle Simon
The idea of the family as a social subsystem is a very useful one in the academic world and in sociological and therapeutic practice, but it is not necessarily one that individual laypeople ascribe to when they think about their own family (Lesser & Pope, 2007). Though certain aspects of most people's conceptions of the family unit can be seen to mirror larger social structures in some ways, most people's views are much more individual and personalized (Carter & McGoldrick, 1998). The following interview, conducted with the interviewees uncle, demonstrates the personalized yet somewhat standardized view of family that can and does ultimately emerge when people think about their family.
The interviewee, Simon, had not previously though very much about the definition of "family" or how this definition was and is influenced by other social trends, though upon reflection he acknowledged that…
Carter, B. & McGoldrick, M. (1998). The Expanded Family Life Cycle. New York: Lavoisier.
Lesser, J. & Pope, D. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment. New York: Pearson.
Walsh, F. (2011). Normal Family Processes. New York: Guilford.
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling.
Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant of exactly what might have taken place that day. Her account of the accident holds the reader's attention, and, at the same time, seems purely objective.
Since the pilots of the 52 survived the disaster, along with the 52 navigator and spare pilot, her telling of the story comes first-hand -- at least the 52 crew's version since all aboard the KC-135 were killed. And, despite the vast differences between what the pilots told her and the results of the investigation board after the accident, Moran holds to an unbiased account of both.
She draws no conclusions other than repeating what the investigative board ruled. While the pilots described only a sudden explosion occurring at the rear of the 52 causing…
Moran, B. The day we lost the h-bomb: Cold war, hot nukes, and the worst nuclear weapons disaster in history. New York: Random House, 2009.
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families
Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008)
The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family
Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.
Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…
Beutell, N. & Wittig-Berman, U. (2008). Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850.
Carlson, J. (2009). Family therapy techniques: integrating and tailoring treatment. Florence, KY: Brunner-Routledge.
Chen, F. & Li, T. (2007). Marital enqing: an examination of its relationship to spousal
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from censure to even loss of careers. In addition, the altering of values inside the family may pave the way for sociological change in the family members in the future. As sociologist Noble states, "Today most people continue to spend most of their lifetime in nuclear family relationships though they undergo continuing changes in their aspirations and expectations as the structural and demographic circumstances of their lives change" (Noble, 1998). Thus, the two young children in the family may create families of their own that differ from the makeup of their own family, and recognize the diversity of society and family members. The sociological implications of the problem are many, and the family will have to weather them to stay together and…
Dentler, R.A. (2002). Practicing sociology: Selected fields. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Eatwell, R. (2003). Then theories of the extreme right. Retrieved from the University of Bath staff Web site: http://staff.bath.ac.uk/mlsre/MerklandWeinberg.htm20 Dec. 2006. (note, this is not an "edu" Web site, but it is a university web site for staff members of the university.
Folsom, J.K. (1934). The family: Its sociology and social psychiatry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kearl, M.C. (2006). Sociology of the family. Retrieved from the Trinity University Web site: http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/family.html20 Dec. 2006.
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial evolution. In fact, any so-called "modern" shift to a more egalitarian sharing of family responsibilities represents more of a return to the more natural state of families than any "radical" or "new" approach.
Branden (1999) agrees, again tying in excessive adherence to typical male and female roles as a potential source of unnecessary strain, especially where marital partners may be better suited to a different arrangement or sharing of responsibilities. Likewise, oberts (2007) also acknowledges the damage caused to marriage by dissatisfaction, especially among wives, as to the roles prescribed to them by society.
Myth # 4 - the Unstable African-American Family:
In their criticism of the notion that the African-American community reflects a lower level of marital and family stability…
Branden, N. (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Roberts, S. (2007) the Shelf Life of Bliss. The New York Times, July 1, 2007.
Schwartz, M.A., Scott, B.M. (2000) "Debunking Myths about Marriage and Families" in Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change.
Extended Family in Finding Nemo and Lilo & Stitch
In the American society, the concept of the family can be interpreted in various ways, due to the flexibility in which the term is used by Americans. More often, family does not only mean the nuclear family composed of the father, mother, and child/children, but it also includes relatives and friends who are close to the individual. Indeed, through the years, society has evolved to make its family institution bigger, more flexible, and wider, yet deeper, in scope.
The concept of the "family" is an important theme discussed in the animated films, Finding Nemo by Pixar and Lilo & Stitch by Walt Disney. These films centered its theme on how a family is constructed and what are the dynamics (or relationships) that develop from within upon its creation. This paper discusses and analyzes how these two films depict the concept of…
We can assume that by the twentieth century, times would have changed.
The typical family in 2075 will look radically different than it does today. Families will be looked upon units rather than families and their significance will be greatly diminished due to logic, reason, and the absence of bonding. The family will be more like a contribution to society - a cog in the wheel, if you will - and its only significance will be what it can contribute to society as a whole. The paternal bonds we are ware of today will be complete fiction. People will read about how the traditional family used to be and they will wonder at how parents and children interacted because this form of interaction has given way to productivity and the common good. Coontz prepares us for this type of future when she writes that as early as the eighteenth century…
esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82).
esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…
City University of Hong Kong Website. (n.d.) Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
Retrieved from http://www.is.cityu.edu.hk/staff/isrobert/phd/ch3.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Kroelinger, M. (2002). The Research Problem. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/the%20Research%20Problem.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Nachmias C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
Though this schema works for many, however, there are also downsides to these societal changes that are not often discussed as they are rather unpopular. With greater individual freedom comes greater individual and collective risk. This is not to suggest that women should be controlled by men, or indeed that any segment of society should be controlled by another, but as families become less structured and more permissive entities, responsibility for the production of socially connected citizens becomes more difficult to place, and the concept of social responsibility itself even comes into question. The answer to this predicament is that the family as a whole becomes responsible, though the individual roles are more freely and equally divided.
Some of these changes can even be observed during the Renaissance period that took place from the fourteenth through the seventeenth centuries throughout Europe. Though coming to England somewhat later than many mainland…
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)
These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.
Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…
Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3020821.html
Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542
The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:aCtD_N20o7QJ:www.norc.org/online/emerge.pdf+Decline+in+the+American+Family+Values&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=6
The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.afa.net/about.asp
ather than lamenting the loss of a family structure from an admittedly anomalous decade, Stacy (1993) argues that social reforms are necessary to ensure that children are cared for.
In Beck-Gernsheim's (2002:85) assessment, the focus should not be on "the black-and-white alternative 'end of the family' or 'family as the future'" but on "the many grey areas or better, the many different shades in the niches inside and outside the traditional family network." According to Beck-Gernsheim (2002) traditional definitions of family exclude many groups such as single people, the childless and single-parent families who have never married. They also ignore the potential conflict that occurs within traditional families. Beck-Gernsheim (2002) explains that changes in families, which have been occurring since industrialization, are the result of individualization.
In pre-industrial times, family structure was centered on work and economics, which each family member having a role to support the family farm or…
Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth. 2002. Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences, edited by Ulrich Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. London: Sage Publications.
Lareau, Annette. 2002. "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." American Sociological Review 67:747-776.
Popenoe, David. 1993. "American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):527-542.
Stacey, Judith. 1993. "Good Riddance to 'The Family' A Response to David Popenoe." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(3):545-547.
People read the world differently and that explains why they respond to the world differently. For instance my mother is very tidy and neat whereas my father is the exact opposite. When my family is looked at from the social interaction perspective then it can be clearly concluded that symbolic interaction definitely can explain the divorce (Farley, 2012).
The conflict theory looks at how people within a family struggle for power; how they disagree and how they compete for resources. Wealth and prestige form the basis for most of the competitions. When my family is looked at from the conflict theory it can be said that our family underwent conflicts and disharmony. This was due to the fact that there are different dynamics and roles played by my family members. First traditionally the father are seen as the head of the family and it should come naturally. However this was…
Farley, a. (2012).What is the Symbolic Interaction Perspective in Divorce? Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_10017957_symbolic-interaction-perspective-divorce.html
Ray, L. (2010).Conflict theory and the family. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/345499-conflict-theory-the-family/
Naveed, K. (2009).Family in Sociological Perspective. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.slideshare.net/naveedtaji/family-in-sociology-perspective
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Toulmin Argument on American Families
Up to 30 years ago, divorces were difficult to obtain and were very rare in American society. However, in 1969, the advent of no-fault divorce laws caused a spike in divorce rates. Qualifier follows- This paper argues that if the United States wants to preserve the traditional ideals of the American family, (claim follows) -- the no fault divorce laws must be repealed.
Support #1 follows -- The no-fault divorce laws have caused an alarming spike in the divorce rate. In a statistical study, researchers found an estimated.8 point average increase in the divorce rate after the no fault divorce laws were enacted. The 1970s saw a "divorce boom," when the divorce rate more than doubled. In fact, the divorce rates in the states that have adopted no fault divorce laws were much lower than their no-fault counterparts (Nakonezny, Shull, and Rodgers).
The ease of…
Connelly, Erin. "Like a stone is tossed in water, there's a ripple effect." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Goldberg, David. "Haunted by divorce." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 15, 2000. Proquest Database.
Miller, Toby. "30-year-old still feels 7-year-old's anguish." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Nakonezny, P.A., Shull, R.D., & Rodgers, J.L. "The effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1995: 57. Proquest Database.
The family unit certainly serves as mechanism to ensure the survival of the human species, just as "family" units in the animal world function primarily to ensure that the young offspring reach an age when they can survive on their own. Interestingly -- and expanding the analogy -- the concept of "surviving on their own" does not mean surviving in isolation, except for those few animal species for which a solo existence in the norm. Indeed, for some animal species, a solo existence is dictated by the demand of territory with large expanses of wilderness or prairie required for their subsistence. But for human's surviving on one's own is taken to mean primarily an emotional maturity -- achieving an adult capacity -- with a strong economic overlay.
As society becomes more diverse, examples of how families support this independent living that is nested within social groups that are…
Saroj Parasuraman's book, Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World, examines the modern conflict between work and family from a number of perspectives. The author delves into the specific types of work and family conflicts, and the impact that they have on a number of actors, and argues that these conflicts stem from changes in work and family during this century. Personally, Integrating Work and Family provided a new perspective on the responsibility for work/family conflict, and the potential damage that can arise from clinging to old stereotypes of the nuclear family.
In Integrating Work and Family, Parasuraman attempts to examine the conflict between family and work from a variety of those impacted, including individuals, employers, consultants, and counselors.
The book notes that while there has been a great deal of discussion about family/work conflicts, such conflicts remain a serious problem. Writes Parasuraman, "The problem of…
Parasuraman, Saroj, and Greenhaus, Jeffrey H. (1999). Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years
The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation
(Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001).
Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years
Clearly the economic…
Ali, A.J., & Wisniesk, J.M. (2010). Consumerism and ethical attitudes: An empirical study. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 3(1), 36-46.
Milot, L. (2001). Restitching the american marital quilt: Untangling marriage from the nuclear family. Virginia Law Review, 87(4), 701-728.
Perrone, K.M., & Worthington, Everett L.,,Jr. (2001). Factors influencing ratings of marital quality by individuals within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 3-9.
Families these days are "in crisis" because all of us have lost a lot of values that used to keep a family together (Kim, 2000).
In addition, Coontz very analytically eliminated all the myths about what families used to be, how & what they are in the current time, and what they should be (Kim, 2000). However, as a reader one might notice just little discrepancy in her dispute and statistics, which may remind that all of these socio-cultural examinations have been basically constructions that tell the story in a better way or worse than each other, but not flawless (Kim, 2000).
Thus, this is just too big an issue to get the whole thing completely balanced and organized. However, her logic has been well-developed and with given facts and statistics, it derived some very outstanding conclusions. For example, in the last two chapters, she tied up the analysis and…
Sheri & Bob Stritof. "Your Guide to Marriage: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap" http://www.marriage.about.com/
Kim Allen. "Review: The Way We Never Were by Stephanie Coontz." 2000
Amazon.com. "The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap: by Stephanie Coontz" http://www.amazon.com/
Judith Stacy is a professor as well as author of cultural and social analysis. She focused mainly on studies of gender, queer relationships, and sexuality. She explores the typical pattern of relationships that deviate the basic western marriages idea in her article.
In 1968 Stacey got her bachelor degree from university of Michigan. In 1968 she received degree of Maters in history from university of Illinois and from Brandeis she received her PhD in sociology degree in 1969. She stayed in the faculty of university of California in 1979-1997 and then she appointed as Streisand professor of gender studies and PRF of sociology in southern California.
Judith Stacy, an expert on the family is very well-known for her challenging research on conventional issues. She seems to be very impatient with the increasing war situation of same sex marriages, divorce, fatherlessness, marital fidelity and the like. She unveils many profiles around…
Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western
China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.
sociological perspectives (e.g., social functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction) be used to conceptually understand the family?
What fundamental changes to the family have been made over the last 40 years?
What is the "family"? Use the 3 sociological perspectives to explain.
Social functionalism views institutions like the family as necessary to preserve society. This perspective views the integrative components that make up society as greater than the sum of their individual parts and holds the family to be one of the fundamental building blocks that provide stability and coherence to people's lives. Preserving the family as a social institution is thus vital to reduce crime and to improve society as a whole. "Through kinship networks, people cooperate so that they can acquire the basic necessities of life, including food and shelter. Kinship systems can also serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed,…
Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in our times. (10th ed). Cengage.
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
prohibitively rising cost of housing in Rhode Island has affected both the nuclear and extended family. Rising housing costs may force family members to move to less expensive areas, causing a breakdown in both extended and nuclear family structure. However, this may be balanced by the increased tendency of young adults, who cannot afford the high housing costs in Rhode Island, to live at home.
Certainly, data outlined below indicate that the housing crisis in Rhode Island is very real and immediate. Individuals across Rhode Island society are beginning to feel the constraints of the difficult housing market, and low-income individuals are feeling the greatest strain.
Given that federal and private agencies are unable to keep up with the increasing demand for housing assistance for low-income residents, the housing crisis will only continue to grow. As a result, the pressures of the nuclear and extended family are not expected to…
Arditi, Lynn. House prices in R.I. soar in 2nd quarter. Low mortgage rates and a sluggish stock market promote heavy interest in real estate.
07/30/2002. The Providence Journal (projo.com). 30 October 2002. http://www.projo.com/news/content/projo_20020730_rhouse30.24270.html
Economic Research Service. County-level population data for Rhode Island. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/Population/PopList.asp?ST=RI&LongName=Rhode%20Island
Economic Research Service. Rhode Island State Fact Sheet from USDA/ERS. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/RI.htm
Television's depiction of families is crucial, as it is a means to understanding family; it displays families' appearance, the ideal family, the way spouses must behave, the manner of resolution of problems within, and by, a family, and the manner in which parents must behave towards their children. A majority of studies on the matter have concentrated on depicting vivid family structure descriptions, the existence of diverse representations of family, and kinds of interpersonal interactions in television facilities. As global programs have been dominated and influenced by products in American media, a majority of family depiction studies have revolved around American televised soaps/dramas. Program type determines how family is depicted. Family dramas, soap operas and sitcoms usually deal with family as the central theme, and most assessments of family portrayals use these as their subject. Action, adventure and other such genres of programs do not usually employ family as their…
Alexander, A., & Kim, Y. (2003). Television and Family. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406900427.html
Alston, J. (2012, October 24). How The Cosby Show spoke to race and class in '80s America. Retrieved from A.V. Club: http://www.avclub.com/article/how-emthe-cosby-showem-spoke-to-race-and-class-in -- 87848
Bryant, J., And Bryant, J. A., Eds. (2001). Television and the American family, 2nd edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cadet, D. (2012, August 25). 'The Jeffersons': How Sherman Hemsley And The Sitcom Changed The Landscape Of American Television. Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/25/the-jeffersons-show-legacy_n_1701026.html
Marriage, Divorce and Family Functions
Define the Institute of Marriage and identify the important cultural functions
Marriage encompasses a broad definition of the interpersonal unions established between partners granting them familial bond based on legal, social, and religious grounds. Further, marriage grants partners mutual conjugal rights. The family as a social unit functions to ensure the cooperation of its members based on aspects of child rearing and managing reproduction. Cultures endeavor to dictate the marriage patterns among other aspects. Cultures define the types of marriages such as monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry. On the economical aspect, cultures dictate dowry, bride wealth, and service.
Different societies have set different limitations on marriage. For example, some societies practice polygamy, especially African cultures whereas Westerners shun it and prefer monogamy. In the U.S., partners cannot enter into a new marriage arrangement without coming to a close on the previous one.
Love and marriage…
Brown, S. & Lin, I. (2012).The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990-2010 The Journals of Gerontology doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs089
Kennedy, S. & Ruggles, S. (2014). Breaking Up Is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980-2010. Demography. 51:587-598. DOI 10.1007/s13524-013-0270-9
Tach, M. L. & Eads, A. (2015). Trends in the Economic Consequences of Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution in the United States. Demography. 52:401-432. DOI 10.1007/s13524-015-0374-5
Vespa, J. & Painter II, A. (2011). Cohabitation History, Marriage, and Wealth Accumulation. Demography. 48:983-1004. DOI 10.1007/s13524-011-0043-2
The author of this report has been charged with doing a family assessment project. The largest part of this report shall be the genogram and ecogram. The personal version of these two diagrams as authored and put together by the author of this report are shown in the appendix. There will be some additional supporting and complementary information as well. This will include the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) and the Calgary Family Intervention Model. Both of those models will be discussed and reviewed in this report. Also worthy of mention will be the stages of the family life cycle. The rest of the report will be important information about the family members identified in the genogram. This information will include three generations of information, each family member being identified, the family relationship involved, the current age of the person (or age at death), the martial/relationship status of…
Konradsdottir, E. & Svavarsdottir, E. (2011). How effective is a short-term educational and support intervention for families of an adolescent with type 1 diabetes?. Journal For Specialists In Pediatric Nursing, 16(4), 295-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00297.x
Sveinbjarnardottir, E., Svavarsdottir, E., & Wright, L. (2013). What are the benefits of a short therapeutic conversation intervention with acute psychiatric patients and their families? A controlled before and after study. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 593-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.10.009
West, C., Bell, J., Woodgate, R., & Moules, N. (2015). Waiting to Return to Normal: An Exploration of Family Systems Intervention in Childhood Cancer. Journal Of Family Nursing, 21(2), 261-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074840715576795
Wright, L. & Leahey, M. (2012). Nurses and families.
Globalization has therefore transformed not just the role of nation-states, but also of families' abilities to maintain and protect their members. Families are compelled to be more self-reliant in an environment where they may have fewer options available to them. (Trask 2011)
In spite of the changes brought about by globalization on the family, one thing is clear though that this basic unit of the society remain intact albeit sometimes the members thereto are in disparate locations in the world. There is still that strong "familial" bond and kinship that distance and time could never break and at the end of it all, it is always the family that a person will go back to and identify with because the family is the foundation of that person. Circumstances may have changed the way families live together but the bond will never be severed. For members of the family needing to…
Carrington, Victoria. "Globalization, Family and Nation State: Reframing 'Family' in New Times." Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 22. 2 (2001): 185-196. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Falk, Audrey Faye. "Imbuing the Study of Family Resource Management with a Global Perspective." Family Science Review 16.1 (2011): 84-93. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Trask, Bahira Sherif. Globalization and Families: Meeting the Family Policy Challenge. 27 May 2011. 06 Jul. 2011. .
Pieces must first be cut down to the sizes and specifications listed on the plans you have selected, and shaped into the various different parts for both the siding and the interior of the submarine. This shaping and cutting can require some heavy-duty laser and cutting-edge equipment -- again, keep those friends close, unless you happen to have enough funds to acquire several dozen different pieces of heavy machinery. The heavy equipment needs continue with the next step, which is joining the individual pieces called for in the design through heavy-duty welding, utilizing electric arcs. A watertight craft able to withstand the pressures of deep-sea dives is of course essential to your happiness in your new sub, so make sure those welds are complete.
Once the craft is built, you will need some fissionable material -- enriched uranium is most typically used -- to power the vessel (and, if you're…
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
I grew up in China, the oldest of two daughters. My family unit, my gender, and my culture all had strong impacts on the way I have lived my life and on the way I live my life now. Who I am now is a direct reflection of my childhood and family of origin. Both my parents were senior electrical engineers. They are strong and hardworking people with positive attitudes. Our household was democratic in its structure. The children were treated with dignity and respect, and in return we gave a lot of respect to our parents. My mom and dad motivated and encouraged both my sister and me. As a result of the mutual love and respect in the household, my childhood was a happy one. I had enough structure in my life, from school and other activities, to develop a sense of self-discipline. My parents encouraged us…
Nontraditional families in America have seen a remarkable increase in numbers over the past twenty years. The traditional family unit depicted in sitcoms on television and spoken about in the literature still dominates the social scene but in actual numbers it exists in only about twenty-five percent of the nation's households. Strangely, discussions regarding this magical unit still occupy the thoughts and arguments of politicians, preachers and conservative activists as they talk about the merits of "family values." Yet, what truly is the impact of the nontraditional family on today's society? How do children raised in such families fare in the social make-up such as school performance and their social interaction and, finally, why are the remaining prejudices against such families not logically justified?
The rapid increase in the number of nontraditional family is a social phenomenon. Such families, few in number, existed in near anonymity until the past twenty…
Cherlin, A. (1999). Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science. Demography, 421-428.
Dush, C. & . (2009). Marriage and Family: Perspectives and Complexities. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Gennetian, L. (2005). One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family on Structure on Young Children's Achievement. Journal of Population Economics, 415-436.
Howe, E. (1988). Social Aspects of Physical Planning. The Practice of Local Government Planning .
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Family obligations are often at the heart of individual drive and guilt. They can drive a person to succeed and they can drive a person to do things that go against their very nature. In the film Alice Adams, the play Buried Child and the television series Everybody Loves Raymond the concepts of family obligation are the underlying motive to plot and action. The thing that is the same about these three programs on the thought of family obligation is that all of the characters do things for each other in the name of family obligation that they really don't believe to be the best thing for the individual they are trying to help.
In Alice Adams, Alice's not so glamorous family must make attempts to put on a show for her when she tries to improve her social status, not because they think there is a…
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
Family Management Styles Framework (FMSF) was originally developed to help families caring for a child with a chronic illness or chronic condition (Knafl, et al., 2016). However, the Family Management Styles Framework can be extended to address family functioning in other situations. Applied to my own family, the FMSF offers insight into how we might handle an unforeseen situation in which a family member were to be unexpectedly diagnosed with a chronic condition. In fact, the FMSF can offer a family like ours, which typically does not suffer from crises, a means by which to prevent and plan for unforeseen circumstances. Therefore, the FMSF can help families build resiliency.
We are a close-knit and happy family consisting of me, my husband, his parents, and our two children aged 6 and 8 years old. The Family Management Styles Framework can help my husband and me, and also my in-laws, in developing…
Knafl, K., et al. (2013). Patterns of family management of childhood chronic conditions and their relationship to child and family functioning. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 28(6): 523-535.
Knafl, K., et al. (2016). Family management measure. UNC School of Nursing. Retrieved online: http://nursing.unc.edu/research/office-of-research-support-consultation/resources/family-management-measure-famm/
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources
First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers.
At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…
1. Efrati, Amir (2013). In Online Ads, There's Google -- and Then Everybody Else. Wall Street Journal.
2. Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January 2008.
3. Graham, Jefferson, (2012). Talking Tech: Customers clog Panera's free Wi-Fi. USA Today
4. Dampier, Phillip, (2012). Panera Bread Stores Overloaded With Wi-Fi Users Who Won't Leave. On the Internet at http://stopthecap.com/2012/05/17/panera-bread-stores-overloaded-with-wi-fi-users-who-wont-leave/ . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
While the same-sex parent is important in a child's life, the opposite-sex parent is also tremendously important. For the 90% of the population that are heterosexual, the opposite sex parent is the person who teaches them how to have romantic relationships. There is a reason that little girls love their daddies and that little boys are mama's boys, which has nothing to do with incest or actual sexual behavior. Instead, healthy opposite sex parents allow children to practice flirting and inter-gender behavior in a safe environment, free from sexual pressure. In fact, it is when children are deprived of interactions with their opposite-sex parent that they tend to seek adult attention elsewhere, becoming vulnerable to molesters and other predators. The opposite-sex parent is also important in the life of homosexual children, because they help teach children how to relate to people of different genders. There are recognized behavioral differences between…
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.
Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…
Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique
Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy