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Nuclear Power Plant Safety
Engineering countermeasures for radioactive material release
In order to prevent the release of radioactive material into the environment, nuclear power plants are designed to be resistant to a number of natural destructive forces, such as hurricanes, tornados, and earthquakes (.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [.S. NRC], 2011a). Within the plant, critical systems are designed to limit and control radioactive material release should they fail. These design considerations include the following (.S. NRC, 2011a):
fire prevention, detection, and suppression strategies and technologies redundancies, compartmentalization, and automation in critical instrumentation and controls independent protection systems and controls a control room designed so that it can be occupied safely during an accident
reactor power oscillation suppression and reactivity limit controls a closed loop coolant system that can exceed normal operational conditions and is amenable to regular inspections and testing during reactor operation reactor coolant leak detection system
an emergency core…
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2011b). Appendix B to Part 50 -- Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants. Retrieved from http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part050/part050-appb.html
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2011c). Part 19 -- Notices, instructions, and reports to workers: Inspections and investigations. Retrieved from http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part019/full-text.html
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2011d). Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/fire-protection-fs.pdf
Given the position of the company within the Swiss and Western European energy markets, as well as the general position of nuclear energy within the current push towards green energy, a slight expansion -- or at least the increase of production -- would be the best current strategy for the company. As a partial provider of a public service, whether or not it is publicly owned, there is not a great deal that Leibstadt can do in the way of direct competition or expansion. Increasing production, however, can make the plant more efficient and able to offer its energy slightly cheaper perhaps, expanding domestic growth slightly and export potential more significantly. This could also help counter some of the public pressure on the nuclear energy industry in Switzerland, as well as shoring up the strength the company already has in its market share and production capabilities.
Visiting the Leibstadt…
Public Health Disaster esponse
Public Health esponses to Disasters
Public Health responses to three disasters in Japan; Pandemic and All Hazard Preparedness Act (PAHPA)
What other public health measures were undertaken to mitigate the impact of these disasters?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention engage in public health preparedness programs as regular part of their mission. Public health preparedness programs are designed to enhance the capacity of communities, individual citizens, and public health systems to address emergencies and disasters that have implications for impacting health and well-being. Factors considered by public health preparedness programs include: Activities focused on prevention, quick responses that result in protecting people and the environment, and recovery measures that are required by the "scale, timing, or unpredictability [of a health emergency or disaster] that threatens to overwhelm routine capacities ("CDC," 2014).
The World Health Organization (WHO) is the lead agency for ensuring that the public…
Christodouleass, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M., & Glatstein, E. (2011, June). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2334-2341 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1103676
CDC responds to earthquake, tsunami and radiation release in Japan. [Website] Retreived http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/03/cdc-responds-to-earthquake-tsunami-and-radiation-release-in-japan/
Saoshiro, S. (2012, February 23). Hosono sees bigger govt role in Japan nuclear power. Reuters. Tokyo. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/23/japan-nuclear-idUSL4E8DN53H20120223
Nuclear energy: The Current Debate
Energy creation and consumption has been the primary driving force of political and military action since the Industrial evolution, and arguably for centuries before this shift mechanization and the widespread use of fossil fuels. In the twentieth century, mankind acquired the ability to harness the power of atomic splitting and nuclear chain reactions seemed to many a promise of freedom form the problems of fossil fuels, including their expense and their unwanted effects on the world (i.e. pollution). Some were even so optimistic about nuclear energy's potential that they envisioned a world where electricity was free, and energy meets were easily, cheaply, and entirely met by nuclear means. eality has not been so rosy, of course, and concerns regarding the environmental and health safety of nuclear energy -- especially in the light of recent seismic events in Japan -- are now a major…
Bommer, J., Papaspiliou, M. & Price, W. (2011). Earthquake response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants in the UK. Nuclear Engineering and Design 241(3): 968-77.
Lee, C. & Chiu, Y. (2011). Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis. Energy Policy 39(4): 2111-20.
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…
Portable Nuclear Power
Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?
As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.
What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…
Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.
Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…
Bodansky, D. (2004). Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects (2nd Edition ed.). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC.
Hatch, M., Ron, E., Bouville, A., Zablotska, L., & Howe, G. (2005). The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Epidemiol Review, 27 (1), 56-66.
Jo, D.-J., & Gartzke, E. (2007). Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (1), 167-194.
Ryan, V. (2009). Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…
Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
There have been rumors relating to the fact that the authorities might have lied concerning the number of curies released and that it had actually been much bigger.
hile the initial communications from the authorities advised people not to panic and that the situation had been under control, the later reports informed people that precautions needed to be taken. Several tens of thousands of people had been evacuated from the area within a few days and the surrounding schools had been closed. According to surveys done consequent to the event, people apparently considered that the job done by the authorities had been deficient.
According to the studies performed in order to determine the level of radiation exposure, people had not been subjected to life-threatening doses of radiation. The average dose of radiation to which people have been subjected to consequent to the TMI incident is believed to be eight millirem.…
1. Walker J. Samuel. (2006). "Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective." University of California Press.
2. Warrick, Joby. (1997). "Study Links Three Mile Island Radiation Releases to Higher Cancer Rates." Retrieved July 28, from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/tmi/stories/study022497.htm
3. (2001). "Three Mile Island: 1979." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the World Nuclear Association Web site: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf36.html
4. "No Radiological Health Effects at TMI." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the American Nuclear Society Web site: http://www.ans.org/pi/resources/sptopics/tmi/healtheffects.html
Another lesson learned by the fusion research has been its impact on the development of future nuclear weapons vs. existing test ban treaties. It would be possible with successful nuclear fusion results to test weapons without an actual above or below ground explosion due to the nature of the science. The question is raised whether that would be a violation of the nuclear test ban treaties. Also, the potential power of these weapons is mind-boggling -- perhaps 100x existing nuclear weapons. They make the atomic and hydrogen bombs look like firecrackers in comparison.
The mere thought of pure fusion weapons has given pause for thought, and the development of even minor successes in this field cause lessons to be learned about the future control and management of fusion devices.
Most importantly, the fifty years of research into nuclear fusion have brought the world to the point of learning…
Brooks, M. (2009). 13 things that don't make sense: The most baffling scientific mysteries of our time. New York: Random House.
Buhl, G. (2005, November 8). Nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from georgebuhl.com: http://www.georgebuhl.com/Assets/PDFs/Fusion.pdf
Doyle, J. (2009, April 1). Scientists take another stab at nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/03/31/MN7M16QB7I.DTL
Kahney, L. (1999, December 12). A century of spectacular failure. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from wired.com: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/12/32916
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources
First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers.
At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…
1. Efrati, Amir (2013). In Online Ads, There's Google -- and Then Everybody Else. Wall Street Journal.
2. Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January 2008.
3. Graham, Jefferson, (2012). Talking Tech: Customers clog Panera's free Wi-Fi. USA Today
4. Dampier, Phillip, (2012). Panera Bread Stores Overloaded With Wi-Fi Users Who Won't Leave. On the Internet at http://stopthecap.com/2012/05/17/panera-bread-stores-overloaded-with-wi-fi-users-who-wont-leave/ . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
In addition, problems would also exist outside of the nuclear power plant itself, with the suppliers of the nuclear material also being a possible target of attacks or a source of materials for weapons. This shows that what Ansolabehere suggests as one problem is really a whole range of problems.
Another important point to note is that the possibility of nuclear power plants becoming a source of nuclear weapons and becoming terrorist targets is only a possibility. In contrast, storage of nuclear waste and the safety of nuclear power plants is a current problem that already exists for the power plants in operation. Grossman (p. 206) notes that current nuclear power plants were not designed for more than 40 years of use and are considered hazardous. Grossman (p. 207) also notes that the government is currently planning to store nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountains, an area that is near…
Ansolabehere, S. "The Future of Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 192-204.
Grossman, K. "The Push to Revive Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 205-209.
This is mainly done by the plants using non-renewable sources of energy. The plants also differ in the competency of the amount of watts produced. Due to the extent of sources used, some plants produce enormous amounts than others. A good example is the nuclear plant at Crystal iver; it contributes to 15% watt production compared to the solar plant at Indiantown that contributes to 3% of power production.
The data collected through this research is concrete. Statistical information has been extracted from vital databases such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SEDS Database and the Institute of Energy research. Though the information is rightfully available, it is not possible to create Florida's electric power network due to poor infrastructure on the transmission network and the availability of many plants and substations.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Institute of Energy Research. (2009). Real GDP per Capita 2008: Bureau of Economic Analysis. News Release: GDP by State.
Kirkland, K. (2007). Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Infobase Publishing.
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…
ADL (2015). The Iranian nuclear deal: Why it matters. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.adl.org/israel-international/iran/c/the-iranian-nuclear-threat-why-it-matters.html
Al-Ghoul, A. (2013). Hamas mixed on Iran nuclear deal. Uruknet.info. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.uruknet.info/?p=m102915
Al Jazeera (2015). Why Saudi Arabia and Israel oppose Iran nuclear deal. Al Jazeera Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/saudi-arabia-israel-oppose-iran-nuclear-deal-150401061906177.html
Anishchuk, A. (2013). Iran's Rouhani says wants nuclear issue resolved, but draws lines. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/13/us-nuclear-iran-rouhani-idUSBRE98C0EQ20130913
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
poor air quality in major cities in China has increasingly been viewed as a serious health threat -- and an economic problem as well -- over the past few years. The major culprit for this persistent pollution has been identified as coal-fired power plants, but auto emissions and factories are also contributors to this environmental problem. It has gotten so bad in Beijing, China, that on Tuesday December 8, Chinese leaders triggered a "red alert" closing schools, suspending factories, and keeping one-half of the vehicles off the streets (Mader, 2015). hat are the health-related issues brought on by this hazardous smog in China? This question will be addressed in this paper.
China's Air Pollution Kills up to 500,000 People Each Year
According to Chen Zhu, the former Chinese Health Minister -- who is a professor of medicine and a leading molecular biologist in China -- the terrible smog that envelops…
Kaiman, J. (2014). China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists.
The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Mader, I. (2015). China smog triggers closure. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.ap.com .
Moore, M. (2014). China's 'airpocalypse' kills 350,000 to 500,000 each year. The Telegraph. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk .
Several interesting facts surrounding he China Syndrome are worth bringing out at the beginning of this paper. First, Jack Lemmon, Jane Fonda, and Michael Douglas, the principal actors in the film, were all actively anti-nuclear at one time during the 1970s and 1980s in California and Oregon. Fonda in fact flew from Los Angeles to Eugene Oregon in 1976 to appear as a celebrity on behalf of the proponents of Measure B, a ballot proposition (which failed) that would have restricted the further development of nuclear plants in Oregon pending the establishment of a safe repository for the highly radioactive "nuclear waste."
he same kind of ballot measure that was voted on in California in 1976, and was defeated because of massive advertising by the utilities, which used scare-tactic V commercials showing a family eating dinner by candlelight (the direct implication was that the lights would go out…
The "logic" of what Commoner has been saying for many years is playing out very clearly through the Bush Administration in Washington, in several ways. For example, rather than push Detroit to build cars that get much better mileage, the administration has sided with the auto industry, and worked against legislation that would force Detroit to make more fuel-efficient cars. Two years ago, the administration even went so far as to advocate tax breaks for people who buy big gas-guzzling SUVs.
Rather than push solar power usage on middle class homes, cutting the need for electricity to heat hot water in homes, the administration has pushed for more the building of more nuclear plants, and has re-written rules regarding the Clean Air Act, in order to help utilities avoid having to install expensive equipment to put out less pollution.
The administration has also pushed for more oil drilling in places like Alaska, which plays into the hands of the oil companies, and does nothing for the average consumer and homeowner. And as for energy policies, and getting input from Americans as to what they feel should be pursued for future energy sources, this administration has been very pro-oil, pro-nuclear, and secretive about its plans. Vice President Dick Cheney held an energy meeting at the White House in 2001, and though many groups sought information about what corporations were represented, and sued to find out what companies were invited and participated, the case went all the way to the Supreme Court, and still that information is not forthcoming.
According to Pugh (1990), the organizational structure is an instrument that appears from the need to fulfill the organizational aims and objectives with the tools and activities that are available. Following the way that this process is managed, several types of organizational structures can be identified, including pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures and matrix structures.
Westinghouse organizational structure falls into several different categories. On one hand, it is a bureaucratic structure. Among the characteristics of such an organization, Weber (1948) identifies several: "precision, speed, unambiguity, & #8230; strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration."
The bureaucratic nature of the organizational structure at Westinghouse is motivated by at least two aspects: (1) the nature of the industry in which Westinghouse operates: the nuclear industry, highly regulated, which implies…
1. Handy, Charles, (2007). Understanding Organizations. Penguin Books.
2. Deal T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982
3. Weber, M. (1948). Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge
4. Pugh, D.S., ed. (1990).Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…
Kyler, D. (2013, February 4). An Honest Look at Sustainability. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sustainablecoast.org/site/honestlook.html
Matthews, M. (n.d.). Which One is Better for the Environment: Coal or Nuclear? Retrieved
April 28, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/one-better-environment-coal-nuclear-20469.html
A website called Texas Radiation Online documents a number safety violations and cost overruns for current Texas nuclear power plants that somehow have been forgotten in the news in the last few years. This is rather ironic, considering that nuclear power was supposed to be very cheap. Then Atomic Energy Agency, Chairman Lewis Strauss said in 1954 that "It is not too much to expect that our children will enjoy in their homes electrical energy too cheap to meter,."
Evidentally, Chairman Strauss was not talking to the people of the city of Austin, TX. The amounts passed onto ratepayers are in the billions of dollars. As the City of Austin joined State of Texas Nuclear project in 1973, the plant was estimated to cost $1 billion, with the Austin's share set at $161 million. This ballooned to $6.2 billion with the town's share at over $1 billion. Nuclear power has…
Hertsgaard, Mark. "We must imagine a life without oil. " Environment. AlterNet.org, 08 April 2008. Web. 28 Nov 2010. .
Thompson, Richard. "Additional coal-fired power plants in Texas would produce more 'bad air' days in Louisiana, group says." 16 Nov. 2010. Web. 28 Nov 2010.
"Texas Nuclear Power Plants." Texas Radiation Online, 2003. Web. 28 Nov 2010. .
The United States currently garners about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power plants ("Nuclear Power Now" nd). Moreover, nuclear power poses fewer direct dangers than coal-produced electricity ("Nuclear Power Now" nd).
Furthermore, nuclear physicists are working towards solutions to the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Scientists hope also to devise new ways of improving nuclear power production processes, and most importantly, to minimize the creation of radioactive waste. As waste creation is minimized and waste storage is made safer, nuclear power will become a more sensible option. Until then, it should remain a small but significant percentage of all electricity generation worldwide because nuclear power does not exacerbate the immediate problem of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview…
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview with PBS Frontline. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/etc./faqs.html
The other categories of biological weapons which need dispersal devices are regarded as having lower risk due to the sensitivity of the biological agents to heat, light and shock. (Unit 8: Terrorism and CET)
5. Effectiveness of the Training:
The training is effective on the grounds that team learns about (i) Disaster Preparedness: Under this team members are instructed to ready themselves and their neighborhoods for the various hazards which might catch them unaware (ii) Team organization & Disaster Psychology: Dealing with organization and management principles needed for a CET to function effectively covering critical incident stress for the victims as also workers. (Starting a CET Program - Step 7: Delivering Training)
The various reasons are (i) CET Training support a collaborative effort between emergency services and the people inside the community. The CET program equips people with practical knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for hazards which may strike their areas…
Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/12-NuclearPowerPlants-IG-Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Rimer, Deb. Teamwork Counts; Anticipating the Best, Preparing for the Worst. Sedgwick County Newsletter. 10-12, August, 2004. Retrieved from www.rbcertaa.org/NL%207-03.pdf" http://www.sedgwickcounty.org/cert/CERTIssue%2001.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Starting a CERT Program - Step 7: Delivering Training. Retrieved at http://www.cert-la.com/manuals/Delivering-Training.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Unit 8: Terrorism and CERT. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/IG-CERT-Unit8Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
Steam and Gas Turbines
Combining steam and gas turbines into one power generation system has been a tremendous boom for multiple industrial sectors. As Pirsh & Sage (n.d.). point out, "the major advantages advanced for such cycles were the improvement in overall cycle efficiency and the reduction in capital costs," (p. 39). A combined steam and gas turbine provides the best of both worlds by minimizing heat loss and maximizing energy output gains. Energy companies like GE have been actively promoting the use of combined steam and gas turbines; while others like ANSYS have been dedicated to the development of cutting-edge combined turbine systems for use in multiple sectors. In addition to their obvious applications in commercial and private power generation, combined steam and gas turbines also have rich potential for use in naval and maritime situations.
Gas and steam combined turbines are therefore available in a wide range of…
"8.7 Combined Cycles in Stationary Gas Turbine for Power Production," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/SPRING/propulsion/notes/node67.html
Boss, M. (n.d.). Steam turbines for STAG Combined-Cycle power systems. Retrieved online: http://site.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/tech_docs/en/downloads/ger3582e.pdf
Brain, M. (n.d.). How power grids work. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/power1.htm
"Chapter 6: Turbines, Generators, and Power Plants," (n.d.). Energy Story. Retrieved online: http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter06.html
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…
Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.
Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
CISM Program Surry Nuclear Power Plant
What is CISM?
Why is a CISM program necessary for the agency?
Agency description, community, and social context
Prevention and Interventions
Chronic health and innovative approaches
Proposed Budget .17
Critical incident stress management plays an important role in assuring the psychological resilience necessary for those who are exposed to a traumatic incident. This proposal outlines a program to add mental Health Services to the existing emergency management plan for the Surry Power Plant. The current plan does not address mental health issues, and this is an important need that will need to be considered in the future. The current plan will modify the existing plan through the addition of mental health services for the community.
Proposal: CISM Program
What is CISM?
A critical incident is any event that produces stress or trauma to personnel that are directly or…
Blesdoe, B. (2002), June). CISM: Possible Liability for EMS Services? Prehospital Perspective.
2002; 1(6): September (reprint of Best Practices piece) Retrieved from http://www.bryanbledsoe.com/data/pdf/mags/CISM%20(BP).pdf
Bledsoe, B.E. & Barnes, D. (2003) "Beyond the debriefing debate: What should we be doing?"
Emergency Medical Services Magazine; 32(12), 60-68.
Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).
None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…
Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm
Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.
Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.
Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…
EDF (2011). California's global warming solutions act. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://www.edf.org/climate/AB32
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future.
Even given the fact that the investigation proved the maximum exposure that any one person had as a result of the meltdown was no more than one x-ray would create there were more than 2,000 law suits filed in court with claims that the exposure to radiation caused varying health issues for individuals (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
The court chose ten test cases on which to decide the outcome of all 2,000 cases. Those cases took 15 years to resolve and in 1996 the lawsuits were dismissed in favor of the defendants (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
It should be noted that the operators and emergency operating procedures (EOPs) did not recognize the accident as a classic LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) since…
Three mile island (accessed 5-20-06)
Fact Sheet on the Accident at Three Mile Island (accessed 5-20-06)
CISM in the Event of a Terrorist Attack on a Nuclear Facility
This research explores the impact of mental stresses experience by workers at a nuclear power plant during and after a critical incident. Concerns over critical incidents at nuclear facilities has caused public fear that was exasperated during the Three Mile Island incident. The dangers of nuclear power and radiation exposure are embedded in modern culture and have been since the height of the Cold War. Another associated fear has been the possibility of terrorists using a nuclear facility as a target. The World Trade Tower bombings exasperated these fears when it was realized that such an attack was possible right in everyone's backyard.
A critical incident involving a nuclear power facility is different from a similar critical incident that does not involve a nuclear plant. Core meltdown is the greatest fear surrounding nuclear power plant accidents. The recent…
Barnett, L. (2007). Psychological effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival. 23 (1), 2007.
Hatch, M., Wallenstein, S. & Beyea, J. et al. (1991). Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant. Am J. Public Health. 81(6): 719 -- 724.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2011). Fukishima Nuclear Accident Update Log. Retrieved from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
Jones, B. (2011, March). Praise for 'heroes' working to avert nuclear catastrophe. March 16, 2011. CNN World. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-16/world/japan.nuclear.heroes_1_millisieverts-radiation-nuclear-power-plant?_s=PM:WORLD
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The objective of the article is to question the credibility of the decision adopting by the Bush's administration on North Korea due to claims that it (North Korea) was constructing a Uranium plant. Based on the universal structures of thought by Elder and Paul, it is apparent that the question at issue in the presented case is the credibility of the decision taken by the U.S. government towards North Korea. The U.S. believed that the North Korean state was in its quest of building a nuclear power plant secretly without the awareness of the U.S. As such, it promoted to U.S. To adopt sanctions against the North Korea such as suspending its deals with the state. The U.S. depended on unreliable information since up-to-date it has not verified the existence of a Uranium plant in North Korea as speculated by the report.
The decision adopted…
Another Intelligence Twist. (2007, March 2). Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101507.html
Protecting the Infrastructure
It is important to ensure that infrastructure is resilient, secure, and are able to survive and swiftly recuperate from different occurrences, which ranges from the minor accidents to the very damaging events, such as Hurricane Sandy. Practical, planned, and well-coordinated efforts are important for strengthening and maintaining a secure, working, and flexible critical infrastructure-which includes assets, systems, and networks-which are essential to public assurance and the safety of New Yorkers, as well as their well-being and prosperity. This attempt is viewed as a shared responsibility among local entities and states, and private and public owners as well as operators of critical infrastructure (The City of New York, 2016).
A High Profile Target
The Indian Point Energy Center is the target. This is a 3-unit nuclear power plant station found in Buchanan, New York, exactly south of Peekskill. It is located at the Hudson iver east bank, about…
Homeland security and Emergency Services. (2016, January 15). Critical Infrastructure
Protection Unit. Retrieved from Homeland Security and Emergency Services:
The City of New York. (2016, January 15). Critical Infrastructure & Services. Retrieved from NYC Mayor's office of Sustainability:
To win back his son's love, Homer knows he has to do something to impress him directly: he has Tony Hawk help him win a skateboarding competition. Homer's willingness to eventually come through for his family is admirable. Marge's patience is even more admirable, because she has seen Homer risk the children's lives as well as her own. Ultimately, Homer and Marge Simpson set aside their differences and move on, still bonded together as husband and wife. They never reach the point where they are just "staying together for the kids" as many married couples do. In every episode in which Homer and Marge seem to be at the breaking point, they reunite with love and passion.
Their sexual relationship is strong too. Peterson & Green note that a "satisfying sexual relationship is one of the keys to a quality marital relationship." Several Simpsons episodes depict Homer and Marge exploring…
The Factbook: Eye-Opening Memos on Everything Family." Retrieved Feb 26, 2008 at http://www.pobronson.com/factbook/pages/44.html
Peterson, Rick and Green, Stephen. "Families First-Keys to Successful Family Functioning: Family Roles." Virginia Cooperative Extension. June 1999. Retrieved Feb 26, 2008 at http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-093/350-093.html
Stage." Developmental Theories. Retrieved Feb 26, 2008 at http://www.nursing.twsu.edu/advhealth/lesson/8/additional8.htm
(Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook, 2009)
asic components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers include the following basic components although there is a plethora of existing specific features used in design of the Shell and Heat Tube Exchanger. The components specifically are:
(1) Tubes -- "...the basic component of the shell and tube exchanger, providing the heat transfer surface between one fluid flowing inside the tube and the other fluid flowing across the outside of the tubes. The tubes may be seamless or welded and most commonly made of copper or steel alloys. Other alloys of nickel, titanium, or aluminum may also be required for specific applications. The tubes may be either bare or with extended or enhanced surfaces on the outside." (Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook. 2009) Corrugated tubes have been more recently developed and is stated to have heat transfer enhancement both inside and out as…
Double pass http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5203405.html
ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 1, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Parts UG-125 to 136, Pressure Relief Devices. Online available at: http://www.asme.org/catalog/
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (nd) Online available at: http://www.tema.org/
API STD 661, Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service (nd) Online available at: http://www.cssinfo.com/apigate.html
The primary sources of energy in the UK comes in the form of oil and gas reserves from the North Sea and coal. These sources are expected to continue to be dominant until at least 2020, although it should be noted that the annual output from the North Sea is now on the decline (UK Parliament, 2010). As a result, the government has embarked on a strategy to reshape the energy dynamic of the nation. The objective of the program is to establish renewables as the largest source of energy in the UK by 2020.
Nuclear power has been downplayed in the UK energy landscape. A lull in new capacity existed until 2007, so no new capacity is expected to replace decommissioned nuclear power plants until at least 2017, meaning that renewables development is critical to reshaping the UK energy landscape (Ibid). Wind is the crucial form of…
Appleyard, D. (2013). UK confirms plans for 39gw of offshore wind by 2030. Renewable Energy World. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/uk-confirms-plans-for-39-gw-of-offshore-wind-by-2030
Department of Energy and Climate Change (2013). UK renewable energy roadmap update 2013. Department of Energy and Climate Change. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/255182/UK_Renewable_Energy_Roadmap_-_5_November_-_FINAL_DOCUMENT_FOR_PUBLICATIO____.pdf
Czyzewski, A. (2011). Government reveals plans to reform UK's energy landscape. The Engineer. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.theengineer.co.uk/news/news-analysis/government-reveals-plans-to-reform-uks-energy-landscape/1009385.article
Buchan, D. (2013). Can shale gas transform Europe's energy landscape? Centre for European Reform. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2013/pbrief_buchan_shale_10july13-7645.pdf
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
The authors report that such an event would cause flooding and could kill many people (Copeland & Cody 2003).
The authors further assert that Bioterrorism or chemical threats could deliver massive contamination by small amounts of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals, and could endanger the public health of thousands. While some experts believe that risks to water systems actually are small, because it would be difficult to introduce sufficient quantities of agents to cause widespread harm, concern and heightened awareness of potential problems are apparent. Characteristics that are relevant to a biological agent's potential as a weapon include its stability in a drinking water system, virulence, culturability in the quantity required, and resistance to detection and treatment. Cyber attacks on computer operations can affect an entire infrastructure network, and hacking in water utility systems could result in theft or corruption of information or denial and disruption of service (Copeland &…
Anderson R. (September 29, 2003).
Mayors Meet in Chicago to Discuss the Nation's Water Problems. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.usmayors.org/uscm/us_mayor_newspaper/documents/09_29_03/UW_water_summary.asp
Coleman K. (Jan 16, 2005). Protecting the Water Supply from Terrorism. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=735&trv=1
Copeland C. And Cody Betsy. (2003) Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector: Resources, Science, and Industry Division. Report For Congress.
Additionally, the leader of the virtual team communicated in a far more effective manner than did the leader of the team at the nuclear site. Perhaps the leader of the virtual team realized that the only way to achieve the team's objective was through a consistent, regular and ongoing communication style that would enhance the team's effectiveness. Therefore, the leader diligently addressed the issue in an ongoing manner.
The nuclear site team's leader, knowing that a face-to-face meeting could take place within a matter of mere moments was most likely much less diligent in communicating the needs, goals and objectives of the group.
The ComCorp study states that "a number of disintegrating forces continually pull teams apart, including time zone differences, local pressures, cultural differences, and a general lack of face-to-face contact and interaction" (Kerber). No such circumstances exist for the nuclear plant or other local leadership teams.
Kerber, K.W. & Buono, a.F. (2004) Leadership challenges in global virtual teams: Lessons from the field, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 69, Issue 4, pp. 4-10
Rogers, M.J. & Walker, C.M. (2010) Evaluation of leadership teamwork interventions at DTE Energy -- Fermi 2 nuclear power station, Power Engineering, Vol. 114, Issue 5, pp. 6-8
Future of Energy: Guiding Decisions ith Evidence
In order to reduce the negative environmental impacts of an ever growing human population and increasing demands for energy as technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities and even households have the opportunity to shift their energy sources to those that are renewable. However, not all locations are equally amenable to any particular form of energy. This analysis will look at personal consumption of energy of the course of a normal routine and attempt to determine the major sources of energy use that are present in my life. It was found that heating and cooling and transportation were among the leading items that contributed to my total energy consumption. There are various ways in which these energy consumption sources could be minimized to create a better conservation of energy strategy in my normal routine.
The world is facing environmental crises from…
EIA. (2013, March 7). Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use. Retrieved from U.S. Energy Information Administration: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=10271&src=%E2%80%B9%20Consumption%20%20%20%20%20%20Residential%20Energy%20Consumption%20Survey%20 (RECS)-f1
Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., & Quigley, J. (2009). Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings. American Economic Review.
Gordon, R., Kinsey, G., Nayaak, A., & Garboushian, V. (2010). 30% CPV Module Milestone. AIP Conference Proceedings, 171-174.
Kunzig, R. (2014, September 19). A World With 11 Billion People? New Population Projections Shatter Earlier Estimates. Retrieved from National Geographic: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140918-population-global-united-nations-2100-boom-africa/
Intelligence Practical Exercise
Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).
Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.
Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…
Ali Rathore, S. (2016). Brussels Attack - Lessons Learned. A JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM RESEARCH.
Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmeron, J., & Wood, K. (2005). Analyzing the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure to Attack and Planning Defenses. Tutorials inOperations Research, 102 - 123.
GEOINT Analysis. (2017). Retrieved from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency: https://www.nga.mil/ProductsServices/GEOINTAnalysis/Pages/default.aspx
International Nuclear Safety Group. (2010). The Interface Between Safety and Security at Nuclear Power Plants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Environmental Protection Agency
The history of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dates back to 1970 under the Nixon Administration and it was created in order to protect people and the planet by enforcing the laws and regulations passed by Congress. The EPA has ten stations and nearly 30 labs with which it assesses the environment, conducts research and takes part in educating the public. The EPA was formed in response to growing public pressure regarding the dangerous and negative impact that human actions were having on the planet. Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring in which a world bereft of natural life was envisioned as a result of deadly pesticides and chemicals released into the environment (EPA History, 2018). The book had a big impact on Senators and the EPA was formed in response to serve as an agency that would ensure the protection of the environment in the…
While there were students of color in the community, their race was rarely, if ever, a source of conflict. The unfortunate outcome, however is that in being "Color Blind," and believed that everyone is being treated the same. In reality, the outcome does not celebrate the uniqueness of those same ethnic groups. The bigger implication in my work will be the study of the blending of economic classes. Prior to the consolidation of the schools, ainier had numerous rural one to four room schoolhouses. Each school had its own distinct area of the county and each group was resistant to blending with the others. This was an area of generational poverty. Families were land rich and money poor.
In the early 1970's, when Portland General Electric began construction on the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, there were the beginnings of a local population explosion. The first group to come to…
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2000). Escape from cluelessness: A guide for the organizationally challenged. New York: American Management Association.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Feagin, J.R., Orum, a.M. & Sjoberg, G. (1991). A case for the case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Admiral Hyman ickover
Admiral ickover was known as one of the most brilliant people to have ever become part of the U.S. Navy. He was rude to some, aggressive in his approach, unconventional in his ideas but was still the only man to serve the Navy for 63 long years. The man who blatantly ignored rules is known as the man behind the introduction of nuclear technology in Navy. This is believed to be his biggest achievement for which his services will never be forgotten because nuclear technology is now an inseparable part of the Navy and without him, this technology would have never made its way into this segment of the U.S. armed forces.
Admiral ickover was four years old when his family moved to United States from Poland. His Jewish parents faced hardships initially and ickover began working at Western Union after high school. But in 1918, he…
1) Michael Duffy. Reported by Bruce van Voorst/Washington, NATION: "THEY BROKE THE MOLD" Hyman George Rickover: 1900-1986., Time, 07-21-1986, pp 27
2) John W. Crawford, Steven L. Krahn. The naval nuclear propulsion program: a brief case study in institutional constancy. Journal Title: Public Administration Review. Volume: 58. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 1998.
3) Duncan, Francis, and Richard G. Hewlett (1974). Nuclear Navy 1946-1962: Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
4) B. Scott Titsworth - An ideological basis for definition in public argument: a case study of the individuals with Disabilities in Education Act. Journal Title: Argumentation and Advocacy. Volume: 35. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 1999. Page Number: 171.
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120203519.html
FEMA & obert T. Stafford Act of 1988
Disaster relief has been an issue of significant focus for the federal government through the Federal Emergency Management Agency was not created until 1978. The significance of disaster relief for the federal government is evident in the creation of the earliest piece of federal legislation in 1803. The federal government created the Congressional Act of 1803 as its earliest legislative attempt to address disaster relief. Since the enactment of this first piece of legislation, the federal government has prioritized disaster relief and management since the country has been characterized by increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters. Some of these efforts undertaken by the federal government include the enactment of obert T. Stafford Act of 1988 and the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
easons and Events that Lead to Creation of FEMA
The Federal Emergency Management Act was established in…
Bazan, E.B. (2005, September 16). Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State -- Foreign Press Centers website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/53688.pdf
Emergency Management Institute. (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Concepts. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/docs/chapter%201%20-%20intro%20to%20crisis,%20disaster%20and%20risk%20mgmt%20concepts.doc
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2015, January 31). About the Agency. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: http://www.fema.gov/about-agency
McCarthy, F.X. (2011, June 7). Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33053.pdf
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…
39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism
Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html