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Treatment of Data and Hypothesis in esearch
During the research, there was data that was collected and having been plotted on the histogram and the appropriate scatter plots, the obtained results gave a descriptive portrayal of the finding from the variables. The histogram and the scatter plot gave the pictorial correlation between the time spent and the frequency of the attendance of the gym session with the audio and visual aids and on the other hand without the aids. The descriptive approach enabled the clear display of the findings such that the correlations were seen clearly hence giving a descriptive statistics at the end of the collection of the data. This descriptive data hence has the potential of giving the researcher easy time in explaining the correlation between the variables involved. The descriptive data also gives the researcher the basic information about the variables that are in a dataset for…
Lund Research Ltd., (2013). Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/hypothesis-testing-3.php
The Regents of the University of Michigan, (2013). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/datamethods/descriptivestats.jsp
William M.K., (2006). Inferential Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statinf.php
A null hypothesis is what is being tested. Essentially, when one runs a statistical test, the objective of the test is to prove the null hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is not proved, then the alternative hypothesis is proved. A good example of this would be trying to test drinking water from a well to prove that it is safe. Let's say that the cutoff for safety is 100 parts per million of a specific element. We cannot tell by looking at it whether or not the water is safe, so we must test it. The null hypothesis is that the water is safe; in other words the null hypothesis is that the water will have under 100 ppm of the element. We run the test on the water and it shows 140 ppm.
This means that the null hypothesis was not proven -- the 140 ppm is higher…
What types of research question(s) can best be addressed through the use of case studies? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study approach?
The case study approach is favored in many research studies in the social sciences, particularly sociology and anthropology. Case studies are useful in examining questions about a particular social group, and also explain phenomena with multiple causes, such as 'juvenile delinquency.' Finding ways to treat this sociological problem requires viewing particular types of juvenile delinquency in a sociological context, examining familial and social data as it relates to the behavior, and assessing how, for example, urban delinquency is different from 'small town' delinquency or how delinquency is practiced or viewed differently by various ethnic, racial, and religious subgroups. The question 'do female gang members in urban locations exhibit less violent criminal behavior than their male counterparts' might be a useful case…
Compare and Contrast Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST)
The most commonly used statistical technique for testing the impact of the factor being discussed on observations is Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). Consequently, NHST is the famous approach to inferential statistics, especially when conducting quantitative research. Despite being the dominant approach, NHST has also become increasingly controversial given the belief by a considerable number of people that it is a flawed statistical method. The controversy and consideration of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing as a flawed statistical approach has contributed to the development of alternatives whose proponents consider more beneficial or advantageous unlike NHST. However, an understanding of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing requires correct interpretation of p values.
Meaning of p = .05
P value is commonly used across statistical approaches including regression analysis and t-tests because it determines the statistical importance or significance in testing a hypothesis. According to Frost…
Carver, R.P. (1978). The Case against Statistical Significance Testing. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.120.780&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Frost, J. (2014, April 17). How to Correctly Interpret P values. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from http://blog.minitab.com/blog/adventures-in-statistics/how-to-correctly-interpret-p-values
Gliner, J.A., Leech, N.L. & Morgan, G.A. (2002). Problems With Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST): What Do the Textbooks Say? The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(7), 83-92.
Levine et al. (2008). A Critical Assessment of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing in Quantitative Communication Research. Human Communication Research, 34, 171-187.
If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.
Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn
H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.
H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.
Estimate: Negative correlation -1
Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment Resources.com. 2008.
September 15, 2009 at http://www.experiment-resources.com/null-hypothesis.html
The author of this report has been asked to answer three broad questions about certain statistical terms and concepts. The first one of those will be standard deviation. The second of the three will be hypothesis testing. The final question will center on standard error and what it means. While statistics may be daunting and intimidating, the concepts and terms used in statistics parlance are not hard to understand or comprehend so long as they are explained and quantified carefully.
The first overall question is what precisely standard deviation happens to be. To put it simply, standard deviation is how dispersed a set of numbers are. For example, the numbers 1, 2 and 3 are very close together so the standard deviation value would be rather small. However, the numbers 1, 1000 and 1,000,000 would have a very large standard deviation because the overall range of the numbers…
Investopedia. (2007). Null Hypothesis Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/null_hypothesis.asp
Investopedia. (2010). Standard Error Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/standard-error.asp
Math Is Fun. (2015). Standard Deviation and Variance. Mathsisfun.com. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html
Stat Trek. (2015). Alternative Hypothesis: Definition. Stattrek.com. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=alternative_hypothesis
To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…
Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/research/
Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.
Retrieved December 9, 2009 athttp://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A29337.html
Efficient Market Hypothesis
As previously discussed, the weak form efficiency suggests that share prices should follow a random walk, in that each change in share price is unpredictable based on past information. Formally, this is expressed in the following relationship:
where the variables are independent and identically distributed random variables representing equity prices at times 1,2,3…,k. So X is the equity price, the equity price at a point in time n and the change in equity price at any given time is not explained by the past equity price.
The augmented Dickey-Fuller test considers the following model:
where p is the lag order of the process which can be determined by the examination of autocorrelation and autocorrelation plots, and are the factors determined by the regression. The unit root test has the null hypothesis, and the rejection of the null hypothesis implies that the time series is stationary. The variable…
Chen, J. (2008). Variance ratio tests of random walk hypothesis of the euro exchange rate. International Business & Economics Research Journal. Vol. 7 (12) 97-105.
Jamaani, F. & Roca, E. (2015). Are the regional Gulf stock markets weak-form efficient as single stock markets and as a regional stock market? Research in International Business & Finance. Vol. 33 (2015) 221-246.
Wright, J. (2000). Alternative variance-ratio tests using ranks and signs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. Vol. 18 (2000) 1-9.
2 = 11.39
This value does exceed the critical ?2 value for df = 2 at ? = 0.05. Therefore, we can assume that one of the observed values is significantly different from the expected value for that group. Without post-hoc pairwise tests it is impossible to say exactly which group is different. We can make an educated guess, however, that the proportion of 55+ shoppers in store a is statistically different from what would be expected by chance.
3. Collapse the response categories in the following table so that it meets the assumption of the Chi-square test, then perform the test.
Some High School or Below
High School graduate
2 = 6.49. This does not exceed the critical ?2 value for…
Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market
The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).
In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…
Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46
Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764
Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661
Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293
Ultra violet light affects many people, and several experiments may be done to either support or disapprove the hypothesis. Approval of the hypothesis forms a theory that people who are highly exposed to ultra violet light have higher chances of getting skin cancer. Theories on some scientific approach may serve as sources for theories. Observation of people's behavior may lead to development of hypothesis. This includes looking at how people dress during certain times or what they do at certain times of the year. esults obtained over a research or experiment may lead to development of a theory. Experience of the scientists in their work may be a source of hypothesis and theory. Many things happen around that nobody can explain them scientifically. The scientists come with a hypothesis about something and do numerous tests and observations to know how some things happen Eberhardt, 2003()
ole of hypothesis and theory…
Dembo, a., & Peres, Y. (1994). A Topological Criterion for Hypothesis Testing. The Annals of Statistics, 22(1), 106-117.
Eberhardt, L.L. (2003). What Should We Do about Hypothesis Testing? The Journal of Wildlife Management, 67(2), 241-247.
Loosen, F. (1997). A Concrete Strategy for Teaching Hypothesis Testing. The American Statistician, 51(2), 158-163.
Moschopoulos, P.G., & Davidson, M.L. (1985). Hypothesis Testing in Anova under Multinomial Sampling. Sankhy?: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B (1960-2002), 47(3), 301-309.
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Tips on Understanding and emembering the Three Types of Hypotheses
The three types of hypotheses can seem confusing at first, so it is helpful to devise tips for understanding and remembering their differences. The three hypotheses -- null, nondirectional and directional -- can best be described in the following terse manner: null means no relationship between variables; nondirectional means that there is a relationship or difference between variables but the hypothesis is not concerned with the outcome of the relationship/difference -- only with the fact that the relationship/difference exists; and directions means that the outcome is important to the hypothesis. To put it even more simply, null means no relationship/difference; nondirectional means relationship/difference; directional means outcome of relationship/difference (Elwell, 2013).
The tips to remembering these three types of hypotheses can include spending time examining many different examples of hypotheses and identifying their type. For instance, the resource text provides examples…
Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.
Memory and Mnemonic Devices. (n.d.). Psychcentral. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/memory-and-mnemonic-devices/
Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2016). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
Gall states sampling strategies like these may be incompletely accurate due to the verbal data given and artifacts researched. it's never 100% accurate, the sampling, due to the fact the data is gathered through verbal, at times, unproven means. Levin names certain strategies that could easily be devoid of accuracy due to researcher's lack of funds. "View that data-analysis strategies such as cross-validation, boot-strapping, and jackknifing "indicate the likelihood of replication" (Nix and Barnette) or "may provide an estimate of replicability" (Daniel). For readers not in the know and who might be misled by such semantic twists, allow me to elaborate briefly. A "replication" defined by corroborating analyses based on alternative slices or samples of the same data" (esearch in the Schools 1998)
Statistical power ought to be included in research because it implies the nature of accuracy. "Some of Nix and Barnette's assertions about statistical power and a study's…
Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. 2012.Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. [ONLINE] Available at: http://pages.uoregon.edu/mgall/statistical_significance_v.htm . [Accessed 12 May 2012]
Research in the Schools (1998). Volume: 5, Issue: 2, Publisher: MIT Press, Pages: 43-53. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/m/dmr/sigtest/6mspdf.pdf . [Accessed 12 May 2012]
Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.
Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.
With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…
Given that hypothesis testing holds the potential to provide keen business insights, the question that immediately arises is 'how does one conducts a hypothesis test?' It is a five step process.
1. First we formulate the null hypothesis (Ho), the statement or claim that will be tested. Using our earlier widget example, the null hypothesis (Ho) would be "Productivity is low in the widget making department because morale is low" (Bushman, 2007).
2. Next we formulate the alternative hypothesis (Ha), the exact opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) would be "productivity is unrelated to morale."
3. We then identify a test statistic that can be used to measure the truth of the null hypothesis (more on this shortly).
4. We determine the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis…
To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.
The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…
Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.
Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362
Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.
Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…
Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm
Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.
etter trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."
More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…
Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web. http://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/19426/bad-attitudes-complaints-handling-workplace-negativity
Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.
Bartel, Ann P. "Measuring the Employer's Return on Investments in Training: Evidence from the Literature." Industrial Relations 39, no. 3 (2000), 502-525.
Batt, Rosemary, Colvin, Alexander, & Keefe, Jeffrey. "Employee Voice, Human Resource Practices, and Quit Rates: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry." Industrial and Labor Relations Reviews 55, no. 4 (2002), 573-595.
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:
H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.
H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.
The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
9. The null hypothesis is not rejected, but continues to be valid.
10. The null hypothesis is not rejected, but continues to be valid.
Which child or children, if any, appeared to come from a significantly different population than the one used in the null hypothesis?
No children appeared to be from a significantly different population from the child used to derive the null hypothesis.
Problem 4: µ = 100; =40
Decision about H0:
Decision about H0:
Decision about H0:
Decision about H0:
Decision about H0:
Decision about H0:
My accepting of the test hypothesis will be preceded by my rejecting of the null hypothesis.
In the research question given in question 5, two variable types can be identified. These include the dependent and the independent variables. According to Hughes & Hayhoe (2007), the independent variable includes the intervention to be tested while the dependent variable essentially comprises of the result to be measured. In the research question outlined in question 5, the independent variable is caring for a pet. On the other hand, we have the dependent variable being the lifespan of a person over 65 to 75. According to McBurney and White (2009), the effects of the independent variable are reflected or mirrored on the dependent variable. In our case, caring for a pet which is the dependent variable can be said to be a measure of the behavior of the subject.
Hughes, M.A. & Hayhoe, G.F. (2007). A Research Premier for Technical Communication: Methods, Exemplars, and Analyses. Taylor & Francis
Kumar, R. (2011). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners (3rd Ed). SAGE
McBurney, DH, & White, T.L. (2009). Research Methods. Cengage Learning
Second, the researcher's intense exposure to study of a case can bias the findings (the case study as a research method); at the least, there are significant opportunities for subjectivity in the implementation, presentation, and evaluation of case study research (Case studies). This high degree of subjectivity opens the door for ethical issues, particularly if the study is being sponsored by a special interest. Third, case studies involve too much investment of time and money to be appropriate for large-scale research projects (Case studies).
eyea and Nicoll (1997) discuss the many factors that researchers need to consider when selecting a sample for a research project. A researcher must first determine the population of interest (every person, event, or object that meets specific characteristics). If the population of interest has too many members to study, the researcher then needs to formulate a sampling strategy to obtain a subset of the population…
Beyea, S.C. And Nicoll, L.H. (1997, October).Selecting samples for research studies requires knowledge of the populations of interest. AORN Journal. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_n4_v66/ai_19996778/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
Case studies. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/com4a1.cfm
Case study in psychology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_study_in_psychology
Case study: Strengths and weaknesses. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/pop4a.cfm
Standard deviation is a measure of how far the data is spread from the mean, and can be used to assess the accuracy of the sample mean.
Type I errors are improper rejections of the null hypothesis.
Type II errors are failures to reject the null hypothesis hen it should be rejected.
Level of Significance measures the likelihood of committing a Type I error.
Power analysis measures the risk of committing a Type II error.
Regression analysis measures the relationship between two groups, and can be used to compare separate groups or the same group after an intervention. There are several ways to perform regression analysis.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) measures the variance observed in groups of data and works to attribute observed variances to specific observed variables. There are different tests used to perform analysis depending on the type of data available and the desired information output.
75, p < .000. Ho: Mean IQ = 100. The mean difference of the sample from the test value of 100 (the average of the general population) was 29.25, with confidence intervals of 24.9 and 33.6, indicating that there is a 95% level of certainty that the true mean difference lies between these two numbers.
Ha: Mean IQ > 100
Level of significance: .05
This is a one-tailed test because our hypothesis has a built in direction (we are hypothesizing that the average IQ of the group of video game players will be higher than the average IQ of the general population).
Z Score = X -- X
Z Score = 129.25 -- 100 / 11.86
Z Score = 2.4 -- thus, the average of the data set has a Z score of 2.4
Sketch and shade the rejection region.
A z score of 2.4 has 49.18%…
The focus of this proposal is to use the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the video games influence behavior. There has been a general public concern on the risk factor of video games on the youth's behavior especially children under 18 years of age. Science Daily (2013) shows that video games are the risk factors to aggression and criminal behavior. Despite this assertion, there still a paucity of valid and reliable academic research on the risk factors of video games on behavior. This proposal attempts to fill the gap by using ANOVA to test whether the video games influence behavior.
Do video games influence the aggressive or criminal behavior?
ANOVA is an appropriate statistical test for the proposal because it will be used to test for a significant difference of two means. Using the ANOVA for the proposal, the researcher will be able to produce valid…
Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Office of the Surgeon General. (2001).Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. USA.
Science Daily (2013). Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows. Science News.
Conselling Master Questionnaire
Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)
In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.
The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.
Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
I would also define 'living alone' and carefully assess the living environment and region (economic factors, demographic variables, geographic elements amongst other factors) of the environment (both immediate and mediate, i.e. home and region) that the individual occupies.
7. Caring for a cat pet prolongs life of a person over 65 to 75 living alone in the Northwestern region of USA?.
Variables would involve 'caring' (the type and intensity of caring acts employed); 'cat' the type of pet; 'person' (assessing gender, family history, cultural factors, work situation or retirement; level of education; history of disease and related factors (such as falls, hospitalizations and so forth); economic standard of living; and person's personal history (particularly history of stressors). Further variables include 'living alone'; quality of living environment and region; social factors (immediate / extended family; community; involvement in community activities; involvement in extracurricular activities and the extent and intensity of these…
Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in Psychology. London: SAGE
Dellinger, a.B. & Leech, N.L. (2007). Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 309-332.
Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. NY: McGraw Hill.
Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.
It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…
America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.
Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."
Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
Z Test in Psychology
Stating the research question
The z test is being used to test whether watching a film about the conditions of institutionalized mentally ill patients will influence viewers' attitude towards the mentally ill. Evaluations are accomplished using a questionnaire and the scores for viewers and non-viewers will be compared using the z test.
The test subjects are students. The variable being tested by the z test is the mean scores obtained by the two groups on the survey instrument. The scores represent discrete numerical data. The z test will compare the survey score distributions between the two groups: viewers and non-viewers.
Specifying the null and alternative hypotheses
The null hypothesis (H0) for this experiment is that the mean survey scores of the two groups, viewers and non-viewers, will not be significantly different using the probability cutoff value of 0.05 (alpha). The alternative hypothesis (HA) is that the…
The exam though it's validity as a barometer for academic preparedness for higher learning is contested, is a means of examining the factors which have been shown to be directly related to the outcomes seen with this strategy. Block scheduling has been shown to correlate directly to mathematics, language, and critical thinking in terms of improving scores. Also, the application of this evaluative comparison across a variety of students and academic settings may resolve the existing questions regarding the relative failure of an otherwise successful technique to raise writing skills. The test will be administered at the conclusion of each trial period in the fashion it would be administered in its intended use. The scores of each student will be compared with their previous score. The overall bell curve of scores between conditions will also be compared as a means of determining both specific and general efficacy.
Description of esearch…
Gruber, C. & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2001). Effects of block scheduling on academic achievement among high school students. The High School Journal, 84, 32- 43.
Evans, W. Tokarcyzk, J., Rice, S., & McCray, A. (2002). Block scheduling an evaluation of outcomes and impact. The Clearing House,75, 319- 325.
Jenkins, E., Queen, A., & Algozzine, B. ( 2002). To block or not to block: That's not the question. The Journal of Educational Research, 95, 196- 203.
. This as a major development of the industry is bound to come out in the analysis.
ecession and the Performance of Banking Industry
ecession worked negatively on the banking industry especially so because the industry was still at its initial growth stage. The industry has reformed and change significantly following changes in observed. The data analyzed is expected to show how much recession influenced the changes in policy and regulations. It will also show that banks had a lesson to learn as far as the economic performance and trends were concerned. To date, given the trends banking industry are seen as most susceptible to the economic downturn and the key resolving this is to make changes as a safe guard measures. This is expected to come out in the data analyzed showing the existence of policy and operation changes and strategies adopted in light of economic performance.
Avery, et al. "Consolidation and Bank Branching Patterns." Journal of Banking and Finance 23.2-4 (1999): 497-532. Print.
Barzun, J., and H. F Graff. The Modern Researcher 6th Ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth 2004. Print.
Boyd, John H., Sungkyu Kwak, and Bruce Smith. "The Real Output Losses Associated with Modern Banking Crises." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 37.6 (2005): 977-99. Print.
Mishkin, Frederic S., and Philip E. Strahan. What Will Technology Do to Financial Structure? . Washington Brookings Institution 1999. Print.
Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process
The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.
Delimitations (See Leedy)
A. Literature Review
C. General Management Issues
D. Project Related Issues
F. Definition of Terms
H. Project Submission…
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
Explain why you are not using other methods
The method described above is the most applicable to this study since I would need a closely involved study. I would not use a quantitative experimental approach since randomization is out of the question here -- this is a convenience sample. I would also like to have a rich study that operates in a real-life situation and this cannot be studied via empirical means.
I agree with Dilthey (1954) that humans, being more flexible and diverse than objects studied in a lab (animals included), cannot and should not be 'frozen' under a 'microscope' for statistical analysis and factual conclusions. Humans, not reducible to the physical world, cannot be fissured down to discrete variables. Doing so would result in ignoring the very aspects of their humanity, consequently leading to erroneous conclusions.
I also choose qualitative rather than quantitative methodology since this is longitudinal…
Charmaz, K. (2006) Constructing Grounded Theory. NY: Sage,
Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
Correctional Service of Canada. The CAC System [Online] Retrieved from:
There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport as elite and having a lower willingness to participate.
Here the key concerns will consist of social and cultural perceptions of a sport and how these impact on willingness to try the sport.
Summary. The committee believes that in order to successfully offer archery and fencing as sports in the community program, these level-of-difficulty and social-psychological concerns about the two possible sport offerings must be understood. Obviously, the study of each research question above will inform the other, as both archery and fencing have had similar prestige perceptions in the general public for decades (See for example, Crawford, 1977; and Riess, 1980). As Jones and Gratton (2004) point out, research in sports science constitutes a systematic consideration of a problem as it relates to a situational need for information. In order to study the way potential…
Bowker, A. (2006). "The relationship between sports participation and self-esteem during early adolescence." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 38(3) (July): 214-229.
Crawford, S. (1977). Occupational prestige rankings and the New Zealand Olympic athlete." International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 12 (1): 5-16
Reiss, S. (1980). "Sport and the American Dream," Journal of Social History 14 (2): 295-303
Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…
Incentives and Performance
Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…
Heil, G., et al., (2000). Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Kopelman, R., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Martin, A. (2009). Motivation and Engagement in the Workplace. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 41 (1): 223-43.
organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.
Organizational Studies: Article eviews
The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,
Jisu Huh, Leonard N. eid & Soontae An
The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the…
" (Zemsky, 1)
The null hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report no perceptible connection between post-tenure review and job performance.
The alternate hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report that post-tenure review improves job performance.
Nature of the Study
Significance of the Study
The significance of the proposed research is based in the need for greater study of online instruction in higher education with relation to post tenure review. As with all other elements of this research process, we can initiate a discussion on the significance of the research with a reiteration of the fact that amongst educators without classification, the perspective on post-tenure review is generally hostile. This is because tenure is considered by most educators to be an important feature of the profession demanding of protection. To this end, Ceci et al. (2006) indicate that…
Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241-260.
Bowden, R.G. (2009). The Postsecondary Professoriate: Problems of Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Employment Law. Academic of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(3).
Ceci, S.J.; Williams, W.M. & Mueller-Johnson, K. (2006). Is Tenure Justified? An Experimental Study of Faculty Beliefs About Tenure, Promotion, and Academic Freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 553-594.
DeFleur, M.L. (2007). Raising the Question #5: What is Tenure and How Do I Get it? Communication Education, 56(1), 106-112.
The question of whether TANF is working to reduce the number of teen pregnancies is inconclusive. The literature review leaves many more questions than answers.
The literature review found many conflicting results and studies that were significantly flawed. The real impact of TANF on teen pregnancies cannot be determined from the studies conducted thus far. The mass media was found to quote inconclusive findings. The body of evidence found is in need to further studies to determine the status and effects of TANF on teen pregnancy. This research will fill the gap in research by providing a reliable assessment of the impact of TANF on the ability to teen mothers to become independent and successful.
The literature review found many effects of TANF on the status of mothers as a result of the program. However, there were many flaws found in the program as well. In order for TANF…
Acs, G. And Koball, H. (2003). TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers under Age 18. No. a-62 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States." Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310796 .
Center for Impact Resarch (CIR) (2001). Accessing TANF Assistance: A survey of Low-Income
Young Mothers in Chicago. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.impactresearch.org/documents/chicagotanfexecutive.pdf
Kaestner, R., Korenman, S., and O'Neill, J.(2003). Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage
1. The taster determined 11 of the 14 samples correctly. Three samples were incorrectly identified. Thus, the taster received a statistical score of 88%.
2. The results failed to support the null hypothesis. There was obviously a difference between the organic and conventional food items.
3. This output indicates that while there is a difference, the margin of 10% is too small.
4. The test indicated that for greater than 50% of the time the taster was able to identify the differences between organic and conventional foods.
5. For the next test, I would most likely use one fruit and run multiple tests with a single piece tasted each time.
Fullion, Laurence & Arzai, Stacey (2002), Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Nutrition & Food Science, 32(4): 153-157.
Padel, Susanne & Foster, Carolyn (2005), Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why…
Correlation & Regression
A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.
In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.
Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score
Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points
The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no…
Alcoholism will be defined, according to the DSM as a "maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:…a failure to fulfill major role obligations; & #8230;recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous; & #8230;recurrent substance-related legal problems;" and "continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance" (Alcohol abuse diagnosis, 2011, Mental Health Channel).
Operational definition of dependent variables 2: Subjects will be asked to answer a questionnaire on current behaviors, to see if they cohere with the above DSM definition of alcoholism.
Operational definition for the independent variables 2: Losing a spouse will be defined as having lost a partner with whom the individual was either a. legally married to or b. had a significant,…
Alcohol abuse diagnosis. (2011). Mental Health Channel. Retrieved January 26, 2011 at http://www.mentalhealthchannel.net/alcohol/diagnosis.shtml
elationship Among Self-Esteem, Stress, Coping, Eating Behavior, and Depressive Mood in Adolescents
What is the research problem? Is the problem statement easy to locate and is it clearly stated? Does the problem statement build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study?
The research problem explores the relationship between coping strategies, emotional problems and the tendency to overeat in adolescence. The problem statement is easy to identify and is contained in a properly labeled separate section located at the beginning of the study. The problem statement uses statistical data about the need to control obesity and adolescents as the key persuasive argument for the study.
Does the problem have significance for nursing? How might the research contribute to nursing practice, administration, education, or policy?
The study has significance for the nursing profession due to the health related problems that are caused by obesity. The problems do not end with…
Martyn-Nemeth, P., Penckofer, S. & Gulanick, M. et al. (2009). The relationships among self-
esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents. Res. Nurs. Heatlh. 2009 Feb;32(1):96-109.
The data was gathered using a sub-analysis of a large randomized control group of 1047 pregnant young women. The data was collected from the assessments at the given time intervals.
The BMI was used as the dependent variable and STD occurrence was used as the independent variable.
Alpha coefficient was not used in the statistical models of this study.
The results of this study support the importance of the association between BMI and sexual risk, and suggest the need for sexual risk prevention and weight loss programs among young mothers.
Questions and Personal Design
-How important is BMI to overall health?
-Is there a difference in the severity of STD/STI's, if so how does that affect the importance of the study's outcome.
Designing a study for my topic would require assigning the independent variable STD occurrence and the dependent variable would be that…
Kershaw, T. et al. (2011). The Skinny on Sexual Risk: The Effects of BMI on STI Incidence. AIDS and Behavior, 15. 7 Oct 2011; 1527-38.
How do people react in a crowd?
In the first instance, differences must be made between the various faces of the 'crowd' and operational definitions must be arrived at. As Intro to ociology defines it:
Crowds are large numbers of people in the same space at the same time. (http://freebooks.uvu.edu/OC1010/index.php/ch19-collective-behaviors.html)
The 'crowd' itself is divided into various characteristics. There is, for instance, the Conventional Crowd which a crowd that gathers for a typical event that is more routine in nature. Then you have the Expressive Crowd that gathers to express an emotion (e.g. Woodstock; the Million Man March; or the 9-11 Memorial ervices). And finally you have olidaristic Crowds that gather as an act of social unity (e.g., Breast Cancer awareness conventions). All of these are non-violent and mostly predicable in their outcome.
Other categories of crowds are the emotionally charged so-called 'Acting crowds' that have a goal or…
McPhail, C. (1991). The myth of the madding crowd. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Le Bon, Gustave (1895) Psychology of Crowds. [Improved edition www.sparklingbooks.com.]
Mackay, Charles (1841). Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. Wordsworth Editions
PsyBlock.com 7 Myths of Crowd Psychology
The following study suggests that whilst macro and micronutrients are conducive to plant growth it is water that has the greatest impact on, and is the most crucial regulator of plant growth and, when regulated, can lead to the highest growth spurt. The author of this study, therefore, wished to test the effects of a pellet, one of whose elements originated from a microorganism, powder that sourced from a microorganism, and water. The hypothesis was that whilst each would contribute to plant growth, the greatest amount of growth would emerge from the water and that even thoguh all plants in each of the other 2 studies initially received the same amount of water in their feeding / growth process, addition of water to the experimental study of the Brassica rapa would -- due to water's enhanced absorption capacities -- evidence enhanced plant growth.. Formulating these hypotheses in a scientific manner:…
Environmental factors effecting growth: Water and humidity extension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/env_factors.html
Higa, T. & Wididana, GN. (1991) The concept and theories of effective microorganisms. Proceedings of the first international conference http://www.infrc.or.jp/english/KNF_Data_Base_Web/PDF%20KNF%20Conf%20Data/C1-5-015.pdf
Kloeeper, JW & Schroth, MN (1981) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology, 71, 642-644.
Millhouse, DE & Munneke, DR (1979) Increased growth of Nicotinana glyutinosa as partially related to accumulation of ammonium-nitrogen… Phytopathology, 69, 793-797
The sample population for the stomach cancer trials included 594 patients that were Her2 positive. It is not known if patients in the stomach cancer trial included both males and females. Exclusionary criteria were not made available for either of the studies. All of the patients were receiving standard chemotherapy treatments, in addition to receiving Herceptin (Pollack, 2009). The sample populations for these studies were large for a clinical trial. Many times, it is difficult to find patients that fit the criteria for inclusion in the study. This was not a problem for these studies. The sample population of the study improves the validity of the study and confidence in the drug to be effective in patients that meet the criteria for administration of Herceptin.
The study design in both cases used a comparative study. One group was the test group and would receive the treatment being tested, in this…
F. Hoffman-L Roche Ltd. (2009). Herceptin (Trastuuzumab). Retrieved June 6, 2009 from http://www.roche.com/products/product-details.htm?type=product&id=102 .
Pollack, A. (2009). Promising Results in Stomach and Breast Cancer Drugs. The New York
Times. May 31. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/01/business/01drug.html
Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?
hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.
Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…
Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.
Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.
Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.startelegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:Metro73/1:Metro73101296.htm
Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…
Alreck, P.L., & Settle, R.B. (1995). The survey research handbook." Chicago, Irwin.
Abbot. (2003) Abbot Laboratories Systems and Tests. Retrieved November 13, 2003, http://www.abbottdiagnostics.com/systems_tests/syscat.cfm?syscat_id=3&path=1
Andrews, Charles G. (2003). Comparative Analysis of Management. Retrieved November 16, 2003, at http://www.coe.unt.edu/allen/Dissertation-Example/CharlieAndrewsdissertation.pdf
Boyer, K.K., Olson, J.R., Calantone, R.J., & Jackson, E.C. (2002). Print vs. electronic surveys: A comparison of two data collection methodologies. Journal of Operations Management, 20 (4), 357-373.
This research study will examine the impact of teachers' expectation on students' overall academic achievement. The research will be conducted at Huntington Park High School, located in the city of Huntington Park. It is one of the largest high schools in Los Angeles Unified School District and has an enrollment of over 5000 students with 3-track calendar. The ethnic backgrounds of the students consist of 98.6% Latino, 0.6% black and 0.3% white. The students of Huntington Park High School (HPHS) have not been challenged to perform to their best abilities. One of the reasons may be that the teachers perceive them as incapable and lacking motivation, and so they feel it is unfair or hopeless to expect more from the students. The subtle messages received from their teachers may make the students feel incapable of handling demanding work. This could also be a factor in the students'…
1.Brehm, S. & Kassin, S. (1996). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Muffin.
2.Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. Retrieved September 9, 2003 at http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/-daniel_schugurensky/assignment1/11968rosenjacob.html
3.Tauber, R. (1998). Good or bad, what teachers expect from students they generally get. Retrieved September18, 2003 at http://www.ericfacility.net/databases
4.Thomas, W.(1928). First impressions are lasting impressions. Retrieved September18, 2003 at http://www.ericfacility.net/databases
As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.
At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…
Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/etc./cron.html
Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html
Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42
United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2.htm
Criminal Justice & Criminology
Has the Miranda vs. Arizona ruling decreased the percentage of arresting official violations of defendant Fifth Amendment rights?
CJ327W esearch Methods in Criminal Justice
The Miranda vs. Arizona ruling has attracted notable attention to the treatment of the accused in the hands of the law. Specifically, the ruling affirmed the rights to the accused under the law and to the legal rights of the accused. The research was to reveal the degree of law enforcement lack of enforcing the Miranda rights to the accused. A questionnaire presented to four group types that have a stakeholder interest in the law enforcement and legal rights aspect of the case was distributed to determine the activity relevant to Miranda enforcement process. The findings are expected to reveal abuse within the system and a notable increase in the Miranda violations for the accused.
Purpose & Audience
The Miranda vs.…
Allen, H. (1967). Miranda v. arizona: Is it being applied? Criminal Law Bulletin, 3(3), 135-1441. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55778946?accountid=13044
A, M.N. (1971). The court and local law enforcement: The impact of miranda Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55776023?accountid=13044
Brazier, Alex. "The people on the bus get searched and seized: why police conduct in suspicionless bus sweeps should be circumscribed." George Washington Law Review 78.4 (2010): 908-941. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 22 Feb. 2011.
H, A.S. (1971). Police authority and the rights of the individual Arc Books. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55779413?accountid=13044
groups in this study are independent. Despite the fact that they were not randomly assigned to groups but were assigned based on physical sex/gender is immaterial; inclusion or exclusion in one group did not influence inclusion or exclusion in the other group in any way. As there was no matching/pairing and no influence on the inclusion/exclusion or group assignment of any participant based on the status of another participant, the groups are independent.
is the t-statistic for the Mental Health (MH) questionnaire completed by the participants. This corresponds with a p-value of 0.002. According to the Bonferroni principle, significance in this study would be indicated by a p-value of 0.0033 or lower given the alpha level of 0.05 and the fact that 15 individual measures were taken/t-tests performed (0.05/15=0.0033). As 0.002 < 0.0033, this result is significant -- the groups can be said to have a significant difference in Mental…
Landecker (2009) examines the methods of teaching by a professor at Trinity College who teaches sentence diagramming to her students. The technique is no longer a common one in English classes, so the methods of the professor are quite unique. The students, however, show great enthusiasm for the practice and are able to break down the structure of complex sentences with skill and they do so in a competitive manner as part of the professor's overall testing of their abilities: they must partake in a competitive diagramming game in which one half of the class competes against the other half and points are deducted for sentence diagramming errors. The study indicates that the method is helpful for promoting participation and enthusiasm in the classroom but its narrative structure does not provide any indication as to whether the exercises have an effect on the students' ability to craft a well-written sentence…
Landecker, H. (2009). Diagram this headline in one minute, if you can. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(36): 10-12.
Sipe, R. B. (2006). Grammar Matters. The English Journal, 95(5): 15-17.
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…
evaluator, researcher or observer watches what takes place and then attempts to analyze the data gathered during that observation to present the findings. n experimental study attempts to provide a scenario that can be answered by conducting experiments, while a study using surveys to determine results is a survey study. Each of the methods can use quantitative, qualitative, mixed and action research methods to gather data, and each of the three basic methods will also go through a step-by-step process as it attempts to come to a conclusion.
The step-by-step process for conducting basic research encompasses a number of steps. The initiation of a research project begins with a curiosity factor. Human beings are naturally curious and questioning how and why certain things are the way they are oftentimes leads to an attempt to discern those how's and why's. Those attempts are the first step in research. n individual wishes…
Investopedia (2010) Null hypothesis, accessed on December 8, 2007 at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/null_hypothesis.asp
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scientific investigation includes both independent and dependent vaiables. The independent vaiable is the cause (antecedent) of the dependent vaiable, the pesumed effect (consequence). Fo the pesent study thee ae two independent vaiables: inclusive and self-contained educational pogams. The eceiving, o dependent, vaiables ae child development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC tests. Although not included in the pesent investigation additional independent vaiables could have been age, gende, and eligibility categoy.
Pupose and Design of Study Accoding to the authos the study was designed to study the effects of two diffeent types of educational pogams (inclusive vs. self-contained) fo students with significant disabilities with espect to gains and ate of impovement in levels of development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC on a pe and post-test basis. The autho's eseach question was stated somewhat appopiately: "What ae the effects of attending inclusive vs.…