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pressure people into accepting the idea that being slim and looking good are essential steps in a person's journey to happiness. Either because of the profits they can gain from the 'industry' of looking good or simply because they want to promote healthy practices, numerous individuals have gotten actively involved in providing advice to the masses with regard to what attitudes they need to take in order to lose weight. The present day obesity epidemic needs to be addressed from several perspectives, as simply promoting healthy eating habits and physical exercise seems to have a limited positive effect on the general public. The 'trend' is rapidly progressing and it would be safe to say that the number of obese people is going to increase as long as society continues to use strategies it is currently using with the purpose of fighting it (Burton, Creyer, Kees, & Huggins, p.1669).
1. Bjornelv, S., Nordahl, H.M., & Holmen, T.L. (2011). Psychological factors and weight problems in adolescents. The role of eating problems, emotional problems, and personality traits: The Young-HUNT study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,46(5), 353-62. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0197-z
2. Hernandez-Hons, A., & Woolley, S.R. (2012). Women's experiences with emotional eating and related attachment and sociocultural processes. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(4), 589-603. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1150195124?accountid=26503
3. Anbar, R.D., & Savedoff, A.D. (2006). Treatment of binge eating with automatic word processing and self-hypnosis: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 48(2), 191-8.
4. Matos, M.I.R., Aranha, L.S., Faria, A.N., Ferrerira, S.R.G., Bacaltchuck, J., & Zanella, M.T. (2002). Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 24(4):165-9
The Psychology of Obesity
Obesity is a significant public health problem. Due to negative nutritional habits, a lack of exercise and a greater proclivity toward lifestyle decisions which expose individuals to lesser physical activity, America is suffering an obesity epidemic with extensive implications to its national well-being. Obesity is proven to have a direct link to heart disease, high blood pressure and certain types of diabetes according to the Centers for Disease Control. (CDC1,1) The strains on the individual's health that are prompted by obesity can significantly reduce treatment options for these consequences while simultaneously increasing the individual's likelihood for premature mortality. These effects intercede with a disturbing set of indicators as to the increasing psychological propensity of individuals, families and especially toward behavior which is conducive to obesity. The wide permeation of the obesity problem in American is a product of psychological conditioning resulting from a combination…
American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics. The American Heart Association.
Burberry, Janice & Barbara Learoyd. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .
Centers For Disease Control (CDC). (1996) Guidelines for School Health Programs to Promote Lifelong Healtyh Eating. MMWR. Online at
Centers For Disease Control (CDC)1. (2009). Overweight and Obesity. Department of Human Health Services. Online at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa/Obesity/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Dietz, 1998). Obese children are often taller than their non-overweight peers, and are apt to be viewed as more mature. This is an inappropriate expectation that may result in adverse effects on their socialization. (Dietz, 1998). Overweight children and adolescents report negative assumptions made about them by others, including being inactive or lazy, being strong or tougher than others, not having feelings and being unclean. (American Obesity Association, 2000).
This epidemic did not occur overnight. Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions.
This study was concerned with genetics, family dynamics and parenting, and nutrition and dietary intake, all three of which contribute to childhood obesity. Specifically the researcher will attempt to determine what factors are contributing to the nations epidemic rises in obesity among children and what the effects are of the growing girth that is plaguing the nations children. The objective of the research study will be…
American Obesity Association. (2004). Childhood Obesity. Retrieved March 20th, 2005, on the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevalence.shtml.
American Obesity Association. (September 1999). Obesity in Youth. (Conference outcomes). Washington, DC: Author retrieved March 20th, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.com/Obesity_Youth.htm.
Axmaker, L. (2002). "Childhood obesity should be taken seriously." In Blasi, M.J.
2003). "A burger and fries: The increasing dilemmas of childhood obesity," Childhood Education, 79(5).
Childhood Obesity Focused on 6 to 11-Year-Olds in Tyler, Texas
Obesity is associated with a condition of calorific imbalance in which the ratio of consumption of calories consumed and the ones expended is skewed such that the amount of the ones spent is much lower than the amount consumed. The condition is influenced by a range of factors that include genetics, behavioral patterns, and environmental influences. In data availed by the Centre for Disease Control, children between the age of 6 to 11 with obesity condition stood at 7% in 1980 and increased to almost 18% in 2012. In 2014, figures from the Obesity Prevalence Map from the CDC showed that all states had obesity prevalence rates of 20% and above. Three of the states reflected an alarming 35% prevalence in their populations. The state of Texas was rated as having 30 to 35% people with obesity. Two states among…
Arons, A. (2011). Childhood Obesity in Texas, The Costs, The Policies, and a Framework for the Future. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.pdf on 28 February 2016.
Center for Disease Control, (CDC). (last updated: June 19, 2015). Childhood Obesity Facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…
CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.
Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
As it is, obesity emerges in cultures that become wealthy and start eating fast food.
Doctors are also responsible for promoting the myth that obesity is related more to genetics than to lifestyle by misrepresenting the statistics about the disease. As ebMD points out, "If one of your parents is obese, you are 3 times as likely to be obese as someone with parents of healthy weight." hat the ebsite fails to mention is that the reason why parents pass on obesity to children might not be related at all to genes, but to lifestyle habits. A child who grows up watching a parent eat potato chips and fast food while watching television might model behavior after that parent. If the parent is obese, the child will become obese not necessarily because of genes but because of behavior modeling.
Public policy is also to blame for obesity. It is a…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity and overweight. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/fastats/overwt.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
Obesity Prevention Nonprofit Organizational Marketing Plan
The primary purpose of this report is to help investors understand the need for a program which will help reduce obesity throughout the UK and then less developed countries in Eastern Europe. The problem is that the environment that many developed countries have created for themselves advances obesity without intending to. There is also the danger among less developed countries, that are beginning to see some amount of prosperity, that they could have the same issues that the rest of the developed world is having (Hill, Wyatt & Peters, 2005).
The goal is to use a program that has been proven to be effective to make sure that people have the tools that they need to be able to combat obesity. The issue is that the predominance of obesity is among the poor and especially with women and children. Therefore,…
Arozian, M. (2003). Branding for nonprofits: How a community nonprofit can establish a presence among those it serves and those it depends on for support by linking its name to a very recognizable symbol. The Public Manager, 32(2), 9-11.
Barreto, R.A., & Hughes, A.W. (2004). Under performers and over achievers: A quantile regression analysis of growth. Economic Record, 80(248), 17-33.
Colls, R., & Evans, B. (2010). Challenging assumptions: Re-thinking the "obesity problem." Geography, 95, 99-104.
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace? Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-277.
Interview with an Obese Individual
For this assignment I interviewed an obese individual from the South Florida area. I found it difficult to select an individual based on their physical condition. It was definitely a challenge to, not only identify such an individual, but also find a way to approach them without being insulting or making the person feel uncomfortable about their condition obesity in any way. Although I am familiar with some obese people through my network of friends and family, I chose to select an individual that I was not acquainted with so that there was slightly less pressure to not be offensive in anyway. For example, I obviously know that this is a sensitive subject for many obese people, and I was personally worried that if I somehow offended someone that was within my network that it would cause some kind of issue for my…
The former are commissioned to improve the balance and affordability of healthy food options and the latter are considered valuable policy advocates, with prominent entertainers and athletes serving to the proliferate an important message. ith respect to the distribution of this method, though certain demographics are targeted for their heightened vulnerability, the state of California is the population served on the whole here. The implications of this service direction are crucial to such large-population contexts as the Los Angeles County and metropolitan area.
The program is generally facilitated by public funding such as the taxpayer's allotment which is given to the California Department of Public Health.
The primacy of prevention is crucial to what the COPP does. Therefore, one its core services is the provision of outreach to those demographics which are recognized as being high risk. In our research, populations of particular note are those living in…
Brownell, KD. (2007). Culture Matters in the Obesity Debate. Los Angeles Times.
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). (2010). California Obesity Prevention Plan (COPP). State of California.
Los Angeles County Public Health. (2006). The Obesity Epidemic in Los Angeles County Adults. Retrieved July 10, 2010, from http://lapublichealth.org/wwwfiles/ph/hae/ha/obesity05.pdf
Schwarzenegger, A.; Belshe, K. & Shewry, S. (2006). California Obesity Prevention
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/contributing_factors.htm
Health Consequences." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In fact, social researchers Michael Gard and Jan Wright (2004) point to studies that show:
today's children, in both developing and industrialized countries, are taller and heavier than in the past, in spite of relatively stable or falling energy intakes among children from industrialized countries. Their fat intakes are falling and the percentage of total energy derived from protein is rising. Lower energy intakes are apparent even among young children and seem to be more pronounced in girls than in boys (olland-Cachera and Bellisle 2002:74) (Gard and Wright, p. 115)."
While there is evidence that is compelling in both research camps, the result is that parents are, today, taking a more concerted role in their children's nutritional needs and paying closer attention to the ways in which their children spend their leisure time. Whether or not childhood obesity is the urgent problem that some experts suggest it is, we…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5014370999' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
Many Americans would rather die or cut off a limb than be fat... (Worley). There is an underlying prejudice towards the excessively overweight that has, to a large extent, become an accepted part of society. As Worley states, it has become "...acceptable to shun fat people and make them the butt of cruel jokes" (Worley). Worley, Schwartz and others also emphasis the negative way that fat people are treated in public, as well as by family members. This leads to feelings if shame and a loss of self-esteem, with all the negative psychological aspects that this implies.
However, there are organizations that have realized the extent of this problem and who actively involved in raising public awareness about unfair prejudice and in helping combat such prejudice in society. The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) has reacted against this innate prejudice in society by providing a platform and a…
Hearne. S. et al. F as in Fat: How obesity policies are failing in America. April 20, 2008. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:pbbUEelBegwJ:healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf+the+Centers+for+Disease+Control+reports+only+eight+percent+of+elementary+schools+offer+daily+physical+education+classeshl=en
Kreulen G. Informing the Debate. 2002. April 18, 2008.:
NAAF Policy: ADOPTION DISCRIMINATION. April 18, 2008. http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html
Country Worst Obesity
Three countries: Why obesity rates are so high
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. As noted in its 2015 Fact Sheet on the issue of obesity and overweight worldwide, over-nutrition rather than under-nutrition is linked to a higher percentage of deaths across the globe. Broadly speaking, this phenomenon is associated with an expansion of industrialization and a more Westernized, processed diet, causing a dramatic decrease in caloric expenditure and an increase in easily-consumed calories from processed foods. Obesity is a multi-factorial disease, linked to changes in "health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education" ("Obesity and overweight," 2015).
The United States has one of the highest obesity rates in the world: 30.6% ("Obesity: Countries compared," 2015). This has caused a great deal of understandable shock and consternation in many quarters. How is it…
Berl, R. (2012). Why we're so fat. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
LeBillon, K. (2012). French kids don't get fat. Retrieved from:
These studies point to other factors that contribute to obesity and being overweight among children. For some experts, the association with genetics has grown out of changes in human physical activity. Concerns such as obesity did not matter when people were physically active. However, sedentary lifestyles and more time spent in front of video games and televisions have caused the human body to react differently to high-fat, high-carbohydrate diets.
Additionally, the rise of obesity among disadvantaged households also highlights allied social problems. Many of such households are run by single parents. Others are headed by parents who both work in order to support their families. This leaves them little time to supervise their children's diets and activities. Thus, even if the marketing of fast-food items were regulated, there is no guarantee that children will be able to make nutritional choices.
Children who come from a disadvantaged socio-economic background face additional…
Obesity has become a global epidemic, “a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries,” (WHO, 2018). Because many, if not most, cases of obesity can be prevented and the resulting health problems mitigated, it is important to raise awareness and have a comprehensive public health intervention plan. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence on the importance of public health interventions and especially for preventative care.
Health literacy and other preventative methods can be applied in culturally appropriate ways to tackle the problem of obesity. To be culturally appropriate, public health interventions also need to take into account variables like gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic class: all of which have an influence on how health information is communicated but also on diet and lifestyle norms.
An integrated model…
Studies that continue to seek a link between childhood SEP and adult BMI have tended to use "representative national samples," the authors explain. There is "regional variation in the SEP-adiposity relationship," they explain, that "may make a difference in a regionally constrained sample such as ours" (Trotter, p. 1092). "Regionally constrained" is a legitimate conclusion as to why there is such a variance between the Los Angeles sampling and the NHANES data collected between 1999 and 2004 and their own sampling. The NHANES reported a higher (31%) rate of obesity than the Los Angeles findings (20%). These authors admit the Los Angeles data is "regionally constrained."
Measurement: The reader loses faith in the veracity of this research when the authors explain (p. 1092) that there is "missing data" (up to 18% of data missing from "working class status"). Moreover, the "self-reported" weight of participants leaves a reader wondering just…
Trotter, LaTonya J., Bowen, Deborah J., and Beresford, Shirley a.A. (2010). Testing for Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Position
and Adult Adiposity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(6), 1088-1094.
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
In that regard, such foods are more likely to be consumed by those in the lower income brackets as they seek to shelter some dollars. hen it comes to technological and agricultural innovations, Nnakwe explains that such occurrences drive down the prices of food (209). Cheaper food could motivate people to eat much more than their regular portions. Further, weight gain and thus obesity may be as a result of giving up smoking. There are various reasons that support this assertion. To begin with, those who quit smoking may increase the food portions they ingest largely because individuals tend to taste their food better after they quit smoking (National Institutes of Health). Further, quitting smoking affects the body's calorie burning rate. According to the National Institutes of Health, "nicotine raises the rate at which your body burns calories."
In conclusion, it is important to note that although most of…
Centers for Disease Control -- CDC. "Adult Obesity Facts." CDC. N.p., 27 April, 2012. Web. 22 July, 2012.
National Institutes of Health -- NIH. "What Causes Overweight and Obesity?" NIH. N.p., 01 November, 2010. Web. 21 July, 2012.
Nnakwe, Nweze E. Community Nutrition: Planning Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2009, Print.
Rossen, Lauren M. And Eric a. Rossen. Obesity 101. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. 2011, Print.
Indeed, we spend more money on healthier food by comparison to fast food products. While the former require a larger amount of money, the latter is accessible to even low income families.
By comparison to smoking and alcohol, obesity is not different at a first glance. They all create a certain dependence of a taste or flavor. At the same time, this dependence can be stopped and controlled through a strong will. However, obesity can transform a healthy body into a heart suffering one, with circulation problems and even psychological disorders and social rejection.
Obesity has become a strain even for the health care system. This is due to the fact that it represents the cause of heart diseases, blood pressure, and weakness of the immune system because there are not enough vitamins consumed and too much negative substances in turn. Thus, the health care system, by providing assistance in…
Evangelista, Arlene, et al. The Fast Food Nation: Obesity as an Epidemic. Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, New York: Cornell University, Ithaca, 2004 15 January 2008 http://mtbi.asu.edu/downloads/Obesity.pdf
Medical News Today. Obesity Among Women in U.S. Becoming More Socially Acceptable, Study Says. 2007. 15 January 2008 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/79184.php
Sibbald, Barbara. Obesity may soon be leading cause of preventable death in U.S.. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2002. 15 January 2008 http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/166/5/642-a
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
It will not focus on achieving a certain standard of thinness, and will emphasize the importance of behavioral modification as an essential component of healthy living. A national and comprehensive obesity campaign can be effective, if implemented correctly and in a fashion that promotes overall wellness, not simply achievement of a standard of thinness. Obesity can be conquered if it is approached from the perspective that healthy and well people are the norm and the ideal American person.
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Behrens, Laurence & osen, Leonard J. Writing and eading Across the Curriculum.
A pp. 440-516). New York: Longman: 2001.
Crister, Greg. "Too much of a good thing." (2001). In Laurence Behrens and Leonard J.
osen (Eds.) Writing and…
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
This association between education, socioeconomic level and obesity has not yet been fully explored, and may be false, since rates of obesity are increasing in high and middle income groups as well.
Medical issues may lead to weight gain, and must be considered in the differential. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome are often associated with weight gain. Lack of knowledge surrounding the condition may also contribute to rates of obesity. In a recent study published in American Family Physician (2007), Americans were surveyed asking to report approximate height and weight, which was then used to calculate BMI. esponses showed 20% of Americans were obese and 38% were overweight. Since this study is based on self-report, it is quite possible that there is an even higher degree of obesity, since many people underreport their weight. These figures certainly differ from objective data gained from the Centers…
International Obesity Task Force (2007) Global Rates of Obesity, 2006. Accessed on the Internet on 14 October 2007 at http://www.iotf.org/database/GlobalAdultTableJune07.htm
Davidson M, Knafl KA. (2006) Cultural Analysis on the concept of Obesity. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 3, 342-350
No Author Listed. (2007) Poll Shows Americans Underestimate Obesity Problem. American Family Physician. 2; 15-16.
Katz DL, O'Connell M, Yeh MC, Nawaz H, Nijke V, Anderson LM, Cory S, Dietz W. (2007) Public Health Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Overweight and Obesity in School and Worksite Settings MMWR,
Obesity and Genetics
esearch shows that science has been displaying that genetics have always been playing a position in obesity for quite a while. It is clear that the genes can openly produce obesity in syndromes for instance, with the Prader-Willi syndrome. Nevertheless, genes do not at all times forecast future health (Genetics, 2006). Behavior and genes could both be required for an individual to be heavy. In some circumstances multiple genes possibly will raise one's weakness for obesity and necessitate outside factors; such as abundant food supply or not having much physical activity. With that said, this paper will discuss genetics and the role it plays in obesity.
Obesity is Complex
Obesity is not that simple but it is a complex disease. It results from the dealings of an extensive variability of hereditary and ecological factors (Hirschhorn, 2005). The mutual progress in measureable heredities, genomics and bioinformatics…
Chouet, H. (2011). Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned? Current Genomics, 12(3), 169-179.
Farooqi, S. O. (2006). Genetics of obesity. Biological Science, 361(1471), 1095-1105.
Genetics, H. M. (2006). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Oxford Journals, 15(2), 124-R130.
Hirschhorn, H. N. (2005). Genetics of common forms of obesity: a brief overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 215S-217S.
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
Obesity increases the risk for many fatal diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and is recorded in the United States, as being the second preventable leading cause of death (smoking is the first) (World Health Organization, 2000). One of the recommendations for weight-loss is exercise. The Consumer eport (2002), for instance, showed that exercising at least three times a week was a strategy that 73% of successful dieters shared (Brannon & Feist, 2007).
Many people, however get intimidated at the very thought of exercise due to the required self-discipline and immensity of the project. Then, too there is gym membership that is costly for the average working person, aside from which there is the element of time too. For someone, for instance a single mother whose life orbits around her job and her children, attending a gym would mean an hour less of work that she, patently, can barely afford to do.…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Hakim, A.A. et al. (1998). Effects of walking on mortality of nonsmoking retired men, New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 94-99.
Stofan, J.R., DePietro, L., Davis, D., Kohl, H., & Blaie, S.N. (1998) Physical activity patterns associcated with cardiorespiratory fitness. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1807-1813.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series, 894.
Obesity and Diabetes: A Community Health Problem
Many people do not consider obesity to be a deadly non-communicable disease -- and yet research shows that obesity is one of the main causes of death in American communities, and it is growing (Tabish, 2007). The community chosen for this paper is a typical, demographically diverse suburban Middle America community: the city is Pueblo, Colorado. The vulnerable population chosen here is the community's children. Children are especially vulnerable to the risk of obesity and by extension diabetes. This paper will review why this is so and what a community health nurse can do to help address the issue. The purpose of this paper will be to identify strengths, risks and barriers associated with this population's vulnerability to obesity and diabetes and what can be done to actively combat this problem.
Vulnerable Population Overview
Diabetes is a growing threat to communities around the…
Cunningham-Myrie, C., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9): 970-978.
Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's
Dietitian, 10(8): 24.
Goran, M., Ball, G., Cruz, M. (2009). Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
Program Design on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a very serious epidemic today, it is estimated that about 16.3% of children all over the world are obese.in the past four decades the rate of obesity for children that are aged between 6 and 11 years has gone up by more than four times.it is a serious pandemic since obese children are likely to suffer health consequences not only in their childhood and adolescence but also throughout their lives as adults. They are at risk for problems of joints and bones, sleep apnea, psychological and social problems, health diseases, type II diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Childhood obesity is an epidemic that cuts across the lines of ethnicity, family income, and race however, there are certain populations that are at a higher risk as compared to others. Some of the populations that are at risk include Latinos, African Americas, Native…
Digate, N.(2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/preventing-childhood-obesity
Segal, E. (2009). Fighting Obesity: What Works, What's Promising. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.sparkpe.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Fighting-Obesity-Report.pdf
Pekruhn, C. (2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity a School Health Policy Guide. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/web-assets/2009/01/preventing-childhood-obesity -
WHO. (2014). What can be Done to Fight the Childhood Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_what_can_be_done/en/
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
obesity is a growing problem that negatively strikes the health of many children in Canada. From a statistical analysis of childhood obesity in Canada in 1996, reports show that 23% to 36% of Canadian children with age ranging from 7 to 13 are considered overweight and obese (Willms, 2004). This rate of obesity continuously increases every year, thus, resulting to the widespread concern of Canada's national healthcare system to solve the problem of obesity.
This study finds the prevalence of obesity, particularly in the childhood years of Canada's children, a major health dilemma. Obesity is a major disease because it is not only a problem of being unhealthfully overweight, but also a health crisis that leads to other serious health ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. With the alarming increase in rate of obese Canadians, this study finds it important to provide the public with sufficient information about obesity.…
Johnston, J.M. (2004). Eating Disorders and Childhood Obesity: Who are the real gluttons?
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (12).
Willms, J.D. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventive Measures. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (3).
Tremblay, M.S., Willms, J.D. Is the Canadian Childhood Obesity Epidemic Related to Physical Inactivity? International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1100-1105.
Health Public Good
Public Health as a Public Good
The United States has one of the lowest cost food options available to its consumers in the world. For an extended period, people assumed that this was a benefit of capitalism and that competition had helped push down the prices and made food available at lower costs through the market. However, many externalities have arisen in these circumstances that are now pointing researchers to question the consequences of having mass processed food available to consumers. The United States, as well as many other industrialized nations, currently has epidemic rates of obesity as well as the related obesity diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
This trend is not restricted to just adult and the obesity rates among children have subsequently risen as well. This has made many instructions and activists compare the effects of poor diets and their health consequences to…
Adams, R. "Fat is a financial issue: Litigation over obesity could consign Big Mac, large fries and bucket-sized." 27 December 2002. The Guardian. Web. 28 March 2013.
Benloulou, J. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit." April 2005.
"CASE 2-7." McDonald's and Obesity. N.d.
Chicago Defender. "Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies." Chicago Defender (2003): 1. Online.
Social: Personal -- Obesity Academic Subject: Health Possible academic topics: Is obesity a health epidemic? Has treatments obesity successful? How food environment affected obesity? Unit II Posted: Tuesday, November 20, 2012 hen engaging academic writing, determine purpose analyze audience academic writing, begin academic language, exhibits common features mentioned LBCH Chapter 10
Obesity -- one of the most horrible health epidemics today
There is presently much controversy regarding obesity and its current status, as while many prefer to believe that it is an isolated condition, others consider that it is a health epidemic. Society is generally inclined to neglect obesity and considers malnutrition to be much more important in comparison to it. More and more parts of the world are affected by the malady and it is gradually becoming obvious that the masses need to get actively involved in combating it using any means they have available. Many tend to believe…
Brody, Jane E., "Attacking the Obesity Epidemic by First Figuring Out Its Cause," NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/health/13brody.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Neergaard, Lauran, "No end to U.S. obesity epidemic, forecast shows," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the MSNBC Website: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/47324248/ns/health-diet_and_nutrition/t/no-end-us-obesity-epidemic-forecast-shows/#.ULTak6y6dHU
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This work will further propose nursing strategies to address the problem. This work will use two bills currently in Congress. Two pieces of legislation have been introduced to address the problem of childhood obesity are those of H.. 3144 and H.. 3092. This work in writing conducts a policy analysis of these two bills presently before the U.S. Congress.
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This…
Dahlkemper, Kathy (2009) Healthcare: House Bills 3092, 3144 aim to cut obesity rate and related illnesses. The Hill 16 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thehill.com/special-reports/healthcare-july-2009/55607-healthcare-house-bills-3092-3144-aim-to-cut-obesity-rate-and-related-illnesses
Hellmich, Nancy (2009) Obesity a Key Link to Soaring Health Tag as Costs Double. Health Affairs -- USA Today. 28 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-07-27-costofobesity_N.htm
Whelan, Ellen-Marie, Russell, Lesley, and Sekhar, Sonia (2010) Confronting America's Childhood Obesity Epidemic: How the Health Care Reform Law Will Help Prevent and Reduce Obesity. May 2010. The Center for American Progress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/05/pdf/childhood_obesity.pdf
H.R. 3144 -- Healthy Communities Act of 2009. Bill Summary & Status 111th Congress (2009-2010) CRS Summary. The Library of Congress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/D-d111:60:./temp/~bdI0gM:@@@D&summ2=m&
Change4Life: Government Movement to educe Childhood Obesity
Change4Life, a public health program in England, effective since January of 2009 and organized by the Department of Health is the country's first national social marketing campaign to reduce obesity (NHS, 2009, pp. 13). More specifically aimed at families with children under twelve years old, the initiative seeks to reduce childhood obesity and foster healthy and happy children, who in turn grown into happy and healthy adults. In recent years, a rise in obesity numbers and a decrease in physical activity led the Change4Life campaign to challenge the behaviors of English families that lead to excess weight gain (Change4Life, 2009, pp.1). In hoping to eliminate obesity from the earliest stages of life, Change4Life works to not only adjust citizen's weight, but their overall health and well-being through education and easily-accessible information. In essence, this campaign aims to encourage people to lead overall healthier…
Boseley, S. 2011 November 15. Obesity advisory group disbanded by government. The Guardian. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/nov/16 / obesity-advisory-group-disbanded [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
The Bow Group. 2009. Bow Group responds to the Children's Food Campaign: Criticism
of Change4Life. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.bowgroup.org/content/bow-group-responds-childrens-food-campaign-criticism-change4life [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
Change4Life. 2009. Change4Life Evaluation: Summary of Approach. Web. Retrieved
Few other public health issues have drawn as much attention, and garnered as much support for policy and programming as obesity. Obesity programs have been initiated and implemented at the federal and state levels, and all fifty states currently have early childhood education physical activity and healthy eating regulations and policies (The State of Obesity, 2018). All the major national public health research organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health likewise inform and promote obesity-related policies and programs. Government agencies like the Food and Drug Administration and the USDA also have distinct policies and programs. In spite of the abundance of both private and public funding for anti-obesity research, policy development, and programming, the majority—two-thirds—of American adults are overweight or obese, and more than a fourth of all healthcare costs in the nation are consumed by obesity-related issues (Levi, Vinter, Richardson, et…
obesity in young adults has led to efforts to circumvent the problem. By understanding what may cause obesity and testing out methods that can help obese young adults lose weight, researchers hope to find a viable method that can lead to positive changes in health. Thesis: Young adults experiencing obesity may suffer from mental health problems triggered by lack of healthy habits like excessive sitting, lack of exercise, and unhealthy eating habits. Some offer weight loss solutions through the use of social/mobile technologies. However, no one strategy has been found to be effective in creating successful long-term weight loss.
Brief Background of young adult obesity in America and in other countries.
Explanation of obesity in young adults from a lifestyle perspective: "High sitting and low activity increased obesity odds among adults. Irrespective of sitting, men with low step counts had increased odds of obesity" (Cleland, Schmidt, Salmon, Dywer, &…
Cleland, V., Schmidt, M., Salmon, J., Dywer, T., & Venn, A. (2014). Combined Associations of Sitting Time and Physical Activity with Obesity in Young Adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11(1), 136-144. doi:10.1123/jpah.2011-0143
Dreber, H., Reynisdottir, S., Angelin, B., Tynelius, P., Rasmussen, F., & Hemmingsson, E. (2017). Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study. Clinical Obesity, 7(1), 1-10. doi:10.1111/cob.12170
Godino, J. G., Merchant, G., Norman, G. J., Donohue, M. C., Marshall, S. J., Fowler, J. H., . . . Patrick, K. (2016). Using social and mobile tools for weight loss in overweight and obese young adults (Project SMART): a 2-year, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 4(9), 747-755. doi:10.1016/s2213-8587(16)30105-x
Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.
Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…
Boehmer, T., Lovegreen, S., Haire-Joshu, D., & Brownson, R. (2006). What Constitutes an Obesogenic Environment in Rural Communities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 411-421.
Casey, a., Elliott, M., Glanz, K., Haire-Joshu, D., Lovegreen, S., Saelens, B., et al. (2008). Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Preventive Medicine, 600-604.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…
Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm
How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml
Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S
Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml
ole of Schools on Childhood Obesity
Eating and Exercise Behaviors of School Professionals
What Should Schools Do to Make a Difference?
Address physical activity and nutrition through a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) approach.
Designate a school health coordinator and maintain an active school health council.
Assess the school's health policies and programs and develop a plan for improvement.
Strengthen the school's nutrition and physical activity policies.
Implement a high-quality health promotion program for school staff.
Implement a high-quality course of study in health education.
Implement a high-quality course of study in physical education.
Increase opportunities for students to engage in physical activity.
Implement a quality school meals program.
Ensure that students have appealing, healthy choices in foods and beverages offered outside of the school meals program.
ole of Schools on Childhood Obesity
Schools have been identified to preclude eating disorders and child obesity as accurate…
Bryan, C., Broussard, L., & Bellar, D. (2013). Effective Partnerships How School Nurses and Physical Education Teachers Can Combat Childhood Obesity. (pp. 20-23). NASN School Nurse.
Cale, L., & Harris, J. (2013). 'Every child (of every size) matters' in physical education! Physical education's role in childhood obesity. (pp. 433-452). Sport, Education and Society.
Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2012). Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. (pp. 45-61). International journal of preventive medicine.
Lee, H. (2012). The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children. (pp. 1193-1203). Social Science & Medicine.
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is on the rise in America and across the world. Obesity presents physical, social, and emotional complications for all sufferers. However, childhood obesity is especially concerning because the chronic conditions associated with obesity such as type II diabetes and heart disease are increasingly difficult to manage over time and today's generation of obese children is more likely to become a generation of overweight adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 17% children and adolescents aged 2 -- 19 are obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014). Obesity in children is significantly correlated with poverty and certain specific minority statuses. "In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics (22.4%) and non-Hispanic black youth (20.2%) than non-Hispanic white youth (14.1%). The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth (8.6%) than in youth who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic" obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014).…
Bray, G. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4): 537-543
Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/537.full
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Drug dosing is often based overall on the "volume of distribution for the loading dose and on the clearance for maintenance, with volume of distribution being increased if drug is distributed among lean and fat tissues (Casati & Putzu, 2005).
Coe, Saleh, Samuel & Edwards (2004) report that multiple problems related to anesthesia and obesity exist. The level of obesity defined by MBI has a significant impact on the type of anesthesia most patients choose (Coe, et. al, 2004). ecent studies have focused on encouraging patients to lose a certain amount of weight prior to surgical intervention to make anesthesia delivery a more viable and safe option (Coe, et. al, 2004). Unfortunately most patients undergoing bariatric surgery have utilized all other resources thus must risk any potential contraindications associated with anesthetic delivery in order to lose weight.
Obesity is a complicated and rapidly advancing disease affecting millions of people…
Bostwick, G.J. & Melcher, J. (1998). "The obese client: Myths, fats, assessment and intervention." Health and Social Work, 23(3): 195.
Cabay, C., Dreyer, M.G. & Pellegrinelli, N. (2001 - May). "Leptin directly induces the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in human monocytes." Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 86: 783-91.
Casati, A. & Putzu, M. (2005 - mar). "Anesthesia in the obese patient: Pharmacokinetic considerations." J. Clin Anesth. 17(2): 134-45.
Coe, A.J., Saleh, T., Samuel, T., Edwards, R. (2004 - Jun). "The management of patients with morbid obesity in the anaesthetic assessment clinic." Anaesthesia, 59(6): 570-3.
Childhood and Adult Obesity
Obesity can be described as a condition when a person has accumulated excess body fat, which might be detrimental for his health. According to statistical records by the World Health Organization (WHO), there are at least 300m obese people in the world and this figure is increasing rapidly. Obesity was not a government concern until the mid-1970s when reports regarding increasing obesity were produced by ray in the U.S. and UK, asking the government and the Medical Research Council to carry out research on obesity. However, the governments then, took no cognizance of this issue, but instead, eventually, it did lead to the establishment of research centres. From 1980s onwards, this matter had evinced interest in doctors who specialised in this field, and the United Nations organized a panel to discuss the issue. The government still chose to remain silent. (ranca et al., 2007)
Branca, F., Nikogosian, H., & Lobstein, T. (2007). The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response: summary. World Health Organization.
James, W. P. T. (2008). WHO recognition of the global obesity epidemic. International Journal of Obesity, 32, S120-S126.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic (No. 894). World Health Organization.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
prediction comparison vote real members House Representatives a law. 1. You choose real members House Representatives, Republican Democrat. (There 435 members House, find interests .
A tax on obesity as seen by Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives Bill Cassidy and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives James McGovern
Obesity has come to be a significant issue in the United States today, with more and more individuals displaying the malady's symptoms. As a consequence, the authorities have gotten actively involved in trying to control it through installing tougher regulation and by implementing programs meant to educate people with regard to attitudes they should take toward the concept. hile agreeing about the significance of this issue, American politicians seem to have different opinions on the matter -- some believe that the solution stays with tougher legislations while others consider that it all comes down to education and…
"Bipartisan Bill Launched to Treat and Reduce Obesity," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://conscienhealth.org/2013/06/bipartisan-bill-launched-to-treat-and-reduce-obesity/
"Rep. Jim McGovern's 4th "End Hunger Now" Speech: The Obesity Paradox -- Video," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.hhe.tv/rep-jim-mcgoverns-4th-end-hunger-now-speech-the-obesity-paradox-video/
"Text of the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act of 2013," retrieved July 13, 2014, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/hr2415/text
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Message for Target Population: Health Education and Diet
The message for my target population—adults at a behavioral health clinic—is the following statement: It is important to maintain a healthy diet, low in sugar—especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), as the latter has been linked with the onset of heart disease, liver disease, obesity and diabetes (Bocarsely, Powell, Avena & Hoebel, 2010; Malik et al., 2010; Stanhope et al., 2015). This means, primarily, adults should take efforts to eliminate soft drinks and soda pop from their diets—as these are among the primary beverages high in HFCS.
The four domains of health literacy are: (1) Fundamental literacy, (2) Scientific literacy, (3) Civic literacy, (4) Cultural literacy (Zarcadoolas, Pleasant & Greer, 2005). In order for the health education message described above to have an effect on the target population, the target population has to possess knowledge in the four domains of health…
Again, like with all other programs, there is no effective strategy for addressing the root causes of the problem with the individual. This makes any kind of initiatives much less effective over the long-term.
The Impact of the Programs
The impact of anti-obesity programs is that they are doing little to address the problem. The biggest reason why these programs are not working is because of a one size fits all approach when it comes to weight loss and health. This is challenging, as the body will lose weight in different amounts and the results will not be obvious for a while. This causes the person, to feel that any kind of efforts to deal with these challenges is a waste of time (which eventually leads to the same type of destructive habits as in the past).
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a study…
"Coping and Support." Mayo Clinic, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"F as in Fat." Healthy Americans, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"Obesity Rates in the U.S." Fit Sugar, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"Strategies to Overcome Obesity." Health Policy and Market, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
health issue of obesity is gaining attention from diverse groups in society nowadays. For some years now, the many cases of health problems resulting from obesity have been the focus of research and studies of many scientists from different countries. Today, due to the increasing percentage of obese people in many nations, obesity research is among the major programs considered by health service groups and governments.
Obesity is a health problem that refers to excess fats in the body resulting to being overweight. Usually, obesity is caused by improper diet. Some critical illnesses that toll life are associated with obesity. Studies have shown that being obese causes an individual to lose a few years from his life expectancy.
Currently, countless of health articles, news, and journals regarding obesity are disseminated to bring attention to the public about its consequences. ecause of this, questions have been raised if such exposure of…
Curtis, Tom. Glasgow and Edinburgh Named UK's Fattest Cities.
News Scotsman. 07 June 2003. http://www.news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?id=288892003&tid=677
Josling, Leanne. Obesity: A Curable Epidemic.
World Socialist Web Site. 05 June 2003. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/apr2000/obes-a29.shtml
Boulton, Martha (2005) Exploring alexithymia, depression, and binge eating in self-reported eating disorders in women. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Dahm, Lori (2005) Obesity update: are we getting any thinner?(Special Report)
Private Label Buyer
Merrick, Joav (2005) Psychosomatic reasons for chronic pains.(Editorial)
Southern Medical Journal
____(2006) Obese people may be more sensitive to pain.(NEWS Breaks)(Brief article) Nutrition oday
PORER, LAWRENCE C. WAMPLER, RICHARD S (2000) Adjustment to Rapid Weight Loss. Families, Systems & Health
Rubin, Jay J. (2005) Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.(CME opic: Psychosomatic Pain) Southern Medical Journal
ucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
his study will seek to determine whether or not obese post operative patients have a higher incidence of psychosomatic disorders and illnesses than non-obese post op…
The need for this study is evident. The cost factor of psychosomatic illnesses may be reduced if it can be determined whether or not the obese patient population has a higher incidence of psychosomatic illness in post op. If it does then future steps can be taken to better prepare the obese patient population for surgery to reduce the incidence of post op psychometric illness.
Tucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
Specifically, the objection is that govenment has a legitimate inteest in potecting individuals in society fom one anothe and may egulate o estict choice fo that eason in many ways. Howeve, thee is a cucial distinction between egulating behavio fo the public good and doing so as extensively fo the good of the individual. Accoding to that view, the choice to consume iesponsible quantities of fast food is, howeve inadvisable, stictly a pivate matte of individual choice in which govenment authoities have absolutely no business intefeing (Balko, 20__).
In geneal, it is difficult to ovecome the objections expessed by Balko, at least with espect to competent adults who pay fo thei own medical cae diectly o though health insuance. Howeve, Zinczenko's concens may pevail ove the competing inteests of pesonal choice and autonomy with espect to two classes of people: (1) adults making nutitional choices fo mino childen, and (2)…
references for satisfying foods (Orbach, 20__). There is substantial empirical literature detailing the manner in which obesity is sometimes a consequence of unconscious impulses, particularly in relation to maintaining emotional distance from others or of reacting to specific threats, such as in connection with long-term post traumatic responses to sexual violation. In other instances, obesity may be largely a function of a defensive (pre-emptive or reactive) response to social vulnerability or rejection (Orbach, 20__).
Even more fundamentally, standards and perceptions of body type and composition are intimately connected to social values and norms pertaining to attractiveness and sexual desirability (Orbach, 20__). Furthermore, those perceptions take on greater significance by virtue of their place within the power differential and the dynamics of gender superiority in society. At the simplest level, males enjoy much greater leeway with respect to deviating from the supposed ideal male physical prototype whereas females have considerably more difficulty avoiding serious consequences of being overweight completely outside of any health-related issues or concerns (Orbach, 20__).
As between the two different concerns of human health and the autonomy of the individual, the latter interest is more important than the former, at least as regards independent adults. However, even adults may rightfully relinquish certain autonomous rights as conditions of eligibility for public resources, at least with respect to choices that increase their reliance on those resources. Likewise, the rights of parents are rightfully less autonomous when it comes to choices that affect their minor children. Ultimately, issues of nutritional choices and obesity may involve much deeper concepts than human physical health. They may also represent important issues in connection with personal psychological impulses, social constructs about definitions of physical attractiveness, and even inter-gender relationships in society.
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short