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Obesity in the United States
The extent of the Problem
Obesity as one commentator says, is not just a "matter of aesthetics" but has become a major public health problem in the United States. Similarly, Federal health officials have categorically stated that "the growing prevalence of obesity in the United States represents a significant health threat to millions of Americans." Obesity is seen by health officials in a serious light and is very often described as an "epidemic' that has to be vigorously controlled.
Jeffrey Koplan, director of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) recently stated that "the continuing epidemic of obesity is a critical public health concern" and "as a nation, we need to respond as vigorously to this epidemic as we do to an infectious disease epidemic."
These remarks are not alarmist but are supported by solid statistics that point to an increase of nearly 60%…
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Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher, and Phillip B. Levine. "Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity." Economic Perspectives 27, no. 3 (2003): 30+.
Obesity in America:
The prevalence of obesity and related health problems has increased dramatically in the past few decades to an extent that it's now regarded as one of the most pressing public health issue in the United States. Generally, obesity and overweight are usually brought by various factors such as socioeconomic, behavioral, cultural, metabolic, environmental, and inherited effects. This health issue contributes to the increase of the risk of several illnesses like heart disease, breathing problems, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and various kinds of arthritis and cancer. The main reason for the increased risk is that the prevalence of health risks enhances as a person's weight increases. Due to its prevalence in the United States, obesity has been identified as a national health objective by the Department of Health and Human Services. This health issue is among the 10 leading health indicators in the national health objectives…
"Action Plan -- Healthy People 2010 Objectives for Prevention and Control of Childhood
Obesity." (n.d.). American Public Health Association. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.apha.org/programs/resources/obesity/obesityactplan.htm
"Financing Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Federal Funding Sources and Other
Strategies." (2005). The Finance Project. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.financeproject.org/publications/obesityprevention.pdf
Obesity in America
Many think of obesity as a disease that may need medication to retract, may be genetic in origin and, thus, not the fault of the individual, and, therefore, may be biologically rather than culturally deteremined. However, as this essay intends to show, people with genetic predisposition to obesity can still prevent their obesity from occuring, or can control it, by followign the guidelines of a healthy diet and regular physical activity. It is the American culture, far more than biology, that has created the prevelant tendency to obesity by presenting an environment that promotes obesity and discourages a healthy lifestyle. In essence, while obesity is a disease, it is one of the most easily preventable diseases for those who approach it proactively, though this may require certain departures from the American lifestyle.
Obesity increases the risk for many fatal diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and recorded in…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Wang, Y., & Lobenstein, T. (2006). Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. 1, 11-25
Wang, Y, Monteiro, C, & Popkin, B.M. (2002). Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. Am J. Clin Nutr. 75, 971-7.
Obesity in America
Obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing health problems in the United States. Indeed, the overall trend toward obesity in American adults, as well as children and adolescents, has been increasingly identified by doctors, scientists, and the media as an "epidemic." All that is necessary for one to see how prevalent this problem has become is to note the wide plethora of diet pills, plans, gimmicks, and other remedies guaranteed to melt away the excess pounds plaguing the American population. Although many in the country imagine that their weight problems have much more consequence to their appearance than their health (or, at the very least, many give much more import to these issues), the truth is that the increasing prevalence of obesity in America has far reaching implications, chief among them issues of ethical, scientific, economic, political, and population-based significance.
The National enter for hronic…
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health. (2004). "Overweight and Obesity: Frequently Asked Questions." Web site. Retrieved from Web site on 26 April, 2004 http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/faq.htm#adults
Office of the Surgeon General. (2004). "Overweight and Obesity." Web site. Retrieved from Website on 26 April, 2004 http://22.214.171.124/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=b3f044963b5dab17dc695d649fb620e5&lat=10831376 27&hm____action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2esurgeongeneral%2egov%2ftopics%2 fobesity%2fdefault%2ehtm
Reuters. (2004). "Sanolfi Trial Results Show Promise for Obesity Drug." Web site. Retrieved from Web site on 26 April, 2004 http://126.96.36.199/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=0861b6446960b98247cb0af6a85515c9&lat=1083137 041&hm____action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2eobesity%2eorg
Obesity in America: Obesity and Sexual Orientation
This study examined the obesity risk for the sexual minority groups in the United States of America. The first part explains the obesity epidemic in the United States and its effects on the common man. It also describes the overall national medical expenditures that are attributable to obesity. In the second part, new approximations of obesity rates by sexual orientation have been presented using the data and information from two large representative surveys conducted in America. The first one is taken from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey that contained the information associated with self-reported sexual orientation. The second one is taken from the 1996-2002 Behavioral isk Factor Surveillance System that included information regarding the intra-household same-sex unmarried partnerships. esults suggested that gay men are less likely to be obese whereas lesbian women are more likely to be obese when compared with their…
1. Obesity. In: The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. 2009. Available from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=117036534. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
2. Freedman DH. How to Fix the Obesity Crisis. Scientific American Magazine [online]. 2011. Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-to-fix-the-obesity-crisis . Accessed June 22, 2012.
3. Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Liang L, Caballero B, Kumanyika SK. Will All Americans Become Overweight or Obese? Estimating the Progression and Cost of the U.S. Obesity Epidemic [online]. 2008; 16 (10), 2323 -- 2330. Available from: http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v16/n10/full/oby2008351a.html . Accessed June 22, 2012.
4. Pi-Sunyer FX. The Obesity Epidemic: Pathophysiology and Consequences of Obesity [Online]. Obesity Research. 2002; 10, 97S -- 104S. Available from: http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v10/n12s/full/oby2002202a.html . Accessed June 22, 2012.
In some cases, doctors can prescribe weight-loss medicines along with a program of diet and exercise."
esearchers believe that anyone with a BMI of 30 or higher can improve his health through weight loss (Gilles, 2003). This is particularly true for those who are severely obese. Sometimes a weight loss of just 5 to 10% can vastly improve health by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
An increase in physical activity is one highly recommended form of treatment for obese people (Pories et al., 1995). Exercise increases energy expenditure, improves health conditions, combats depression, and helps maintain weight loss. In most cases, 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity is recommended most days of the week. In a study of women who had regained lost weight compared to those who maintained their weight loss, researchers found that 90% of maintainers engaged in vigorous exercise at least three times per week for…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP). (2004). Defining Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/about.htm .
Gilles, Gary. (2003). A Growing Epidemic: Severe Obesity Is on the Rise. Rockhill Communications.
Hemmelgarn, Melinda. (2004). Foods and Fitness. Missouri Families. Retrieved from the Internet at http://missourifamilies.org/quick/nutritionqa/nutqa52.htm .
Medical Network Inc. (2004). What Causes Obesity? HealthAtoZ.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/nutr/obes/causes.jsp.
As it is, obesity emerges in cultures that become wealthy and start eating fast food.
Doctors are also responsible for promoting the myth that obesity is related more to genetics than to lifestyle by misrepresenting the statistics about the disease. As ebMD points out, "If one of your parents is obese, you are 3 times as likely to be obese as someone with parents of healthy weight." hat the ebsite fails to mention is that the reason why parents pass on obesity to children might not be related at all to genes, but to lifestyle habits. A child who grows up watching a parent eat potato chips and fast food while watching television might model behavior after that parent. If the parent is obese, the child will become obese not necessarily because of genes but because of behavior modeling.
Public policy is also to blame for obesity. It is a…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity and overweight. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Americans Are Eating Fewer Calories, So Why Are We Still Obese?" Time. 22 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://healthland.time.com/2013/02/22/americans-are-eating-fewer-calories-so-why-are-we-still-obese/
WebMD. Obesity -- Cause. 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/diet/tc/obesity-cause
It would be expected that the children would push for increased recess time. Note that no mention was made regarding diet. Also note that this specific class was selected by the principal therefore objectivity is further corrupted.
However, use of the focus groups as means of gathering information may have been more advantageous in regards to the other 2 groups (parents and staff / teachers) since it prompts thought on the matter and inter-communications that yields discoveries on the matter and ideas about how to improve the situation. The idea about the parent volunteers, for instance, could best have emerged in a focus group environment. (Albrecht et al., 1993).
There, too, could have interviewer / facilitator bias and confounding details involved. The two trained moderators were Caucasian whereas the population was of mixed ethnic origin. Nuance of different cultural approach could have been overlooked and cultural misunderstanding involved. The two…
Albrecht, R., Johnson., J., & Walther, J. (1993). "Understanding communication process in focus groups," in D.L. Morgan (ed.) Successful focus groups. Long: Sage.
Asch, S. (1955) "Opinions and Social Pressure"
Breakwell, G., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2007). Research methods in Psychology. Sage: London.
One study indicates that "Although fast food provided one-third of some respondents' daily caloric intakes, those meals included almost no milk, fruit or fruit juices, which are important nutrient sources among key food groups. In fact, as the frequency of fast food consumption increased from zero days to two days, the intake levels of vitamins A and C, carotenes, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium decreased..." ("Fast food consumption increase obesity risk")
We must make it clear that our basic enemies in this case are the fast food companies and not the fast food itself. This is because despite being criticized repeatedly for lack of ethical consideration in preparing food, they have continued offering people with food that contains very high levels of fat and absolutely no real nutritional value. When we ask companies like Enron, Exxon and others to develop code of ethics and incorporate ethical values in way they do…
TV, lots of fast food triple obesity risk. Monday, March 10, 2003 http://www.cnn.com/2003/HEALTH/diet.fitness/03/10/fastfood.tv.ap/
Fast food consumption increases obesity risk (24/05/2004)
Robert W. Jeffery, Judy Baxter, Maureen McGuire and Jennifer Linde. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006
obesity in the United States. Specifically, it will contain a persuasive argument on why obesity is a problem in the United States, and why it is ridiculous to think that the number one disease in America is the most preventable in America.
Obesity is a big (pardon the pun) problem in America today, and it is only getting bigger. Some people attribute the problem to fast food and sedentary lifestyles. Some people attribute it to family life spent rushing from activity to activity instead of centering on home, family activities, and healthy lifestyles that include regular exercise and home cooked meals. However, obesity is a problem all around the world today. Part of the problem stems from the fact that humans are evolved from beings who had to work hard for what they ate. The earliest hunter-gatherers subsisted mainly on vegetation and fruits with an occasional mammoth or two thrown…
Should the first solution be called upon, it will be limited by the fact that the public may rebel, failing to re-elect those senators and congressmen who are in favor of the legislation. Indeed, the Supreme Court may even find some of the more extreme forms of legislation unconstitutional. The second solution, however, is limited by time and the fact that it could lead to the ridiculing of obese students who already suffer from low self-esteem. However, the limitations facing the second solution, or education in order to change culture are less far-reaching than the limitations of legislation. Educational programs could quickly be implemented both in schools and in adult learning centers that focus on whole wellness, including emotional wellness, and that instruct students that obesity is a disease, not unlike cancer or diabetes, conditions that one would never find amusing or laughable. Further, through education, the problem of obesity…
Centers for Disease Control. (2009, July 24). U.S. Obesity Trends. Retrieved August 7,
2009, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ data/trends.html#State
Frankenfiled, G. (2000, Jan. 14). Obesity Plus Low Self-Esteem May Lead to Risky
Behavior in Teens. Retrieved August 7, 2009, from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/news/20000114/obesity-plus-low-self-esteem-may-lead-risky-behavior-teens
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Collins, C.F. (1996). African-American women's health and social issues. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Diet-Related Chronic Diseases that Disproportionately Affect African-American Men. State of Florida: Health. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from www.5aday.gov/aahealth/aamen/diet/pdfs/FL_state.pdf.
Drevenstedt, G.L. (1998). Race and Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Religious Attendance on Subjective Health. Review of Religious Research, 39(3), 246.
S Gubbels. Talks about how obesity is a major problem of our society and how it is affecting the children and adults. The article talks about the causes and the consequences of obesity and provides certain prevention for this problem. The article relates the problem of obesity with the Health Belief Model and talks about how the Model contributes in motiving the people to bring Health behavior change in their lives. It point out the reasons for people in bringing behavior changes associated with the Health Belief Model. (J.S Gubbels, 2013)
In the article "Health Belief Model in the Town of Obese Elderly Women use Health Education" by Zeng Gui Ying, the writer talks about how the Health Belief Model is a major source of information and education for the obese women living in towns and villages .It tells that how the model motivates and encourages the obese women to…
Baranowski, T. (2012, September 6). Obesity. Are Curent Health Behavior Change Models Helpful in Guiding Prevention of Weight Gain Efforts.
Boskey, E. (2010, 24 March). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Health Belief Model.
Galletta, G.M. (2012). Medicine Health. Obesity.
J.S Gubbels, M.J. (2013). ISRN Obesity. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity.
For adolescents living in the Delta, health education on modifiable risk factors is mandatory if any change is to be seen.
FINDINGS of the REVIEW of LITERATURE
Findings of the literature reviewed in this study include the key roles of mothers, cafeterias in schools, physical education teachers and food accessibility in overweight African-Americans. Community initiatives which are combined and integrated with school and home initiatives focused toward healthier eating have been found to be effective in educating and treating African-Americans who are suffering from obesity. Sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits coupled result in not only obesity but also oftentimes more serious diseases and complications such as experienced by those with diabetes mellitus, which is a common complication of obesity among African-American individuals.
RECOMMENDATIONS for PROGRAM DESIGN
ecause there are cultural factors that greatly impact the rate of obesity among African-American individuals it is necessary that these types of programs…
Environmental Influences on Physical Activity and Obesity in African-American Adolescents - a Multilevel Perspective. (2008) Active Living Research. Online available at http://www.activelivingresearch.org/node/11623
Dietz, William, (2000) Focus Group Data Pertinent to the Prevention of Obesity in African-Americans. From the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.
Cultural Attitudes Toward Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity Among Overweight African-American Girls" by Josephine E.A. Boyington and colleagues is found at http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/apr/07_0056.htm?s_cid=pcd52a36_e .
Hughes, Gail D. (2002) Obesity and the African-American Adolescent, the Mississippi Delta Report. 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. 11 Nov. 2002. Board 8. Online available at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_46137.htm
Indeed, we spend more money on healthier food by comparison to fast food products. While the former require a larger amount of money, the latter is accessible to even low income families.
By comparison to smoking and alcohol, obesity is not different at a first glance. They all create a certain dependence of a taste or flavor. At the same time, this dependence can be stopped and controlled through a strong will. However, obesity can transform a healthy body into a heart suffering one, with circulation problems and even psychological disorders and social rejection.
Obesity has become a strain even for the health care system. This is due to the fact that it represents the cause of heart diseases, blood pressure, and weakness of the immune system because there are not enough vitamins consumed and too much negative substances in turn. Thus, the health care system, by providing assistance in…
Evangelista, Arlene, et al. The Fast Food Nation: Obesity as an Epidemic. Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, New York: Cornell University, Ithaca, 2004 15 January 2008 http://mtbi.asu.edu/downloads/Obesity.pdf
Medical News Today. Obesity Among Women in U.S. Becoming More Socially Acceptable, Study Says. 2007. 15 January 2008 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/79184.php
Sibbald, Barbara. Obesity may soon be leading cause of preventable death in U.S.. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2002. 15 January 2008 http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/166/5/642-a
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/contributing_factors.htm
Health Consequences." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
It will not focus on achieving a certain standard of thinness, and will emphasize the importance of behavioral modification as an essential component of healthy living. A national and comprehensive obesity campaign can be effective, if implemented correctly and in a fashion that promotes overall wellness, not simply achievement of a standard of thinness. Obesity can be conquered if it is approached from the perspective that healthy and well people are the norm and the ideal American person.
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Behrens, Laurence & osen, Leonard J. Writing and eading Across the Curriculum.
A pp. 440-516). New York: Longman: 2001.
Crister, Greg. "Too much of a good thing." (2001). In Laurence Behrens and Leonard J.
osen (Eds.) Writing and…
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
In fact, social researchers Michael Gard and Jan Wright (2004) point to studies that show:
today's children, in both developing and industrialized countries, are taller and heavier than in the past, in spite of relatively stable or falling energy intakes among children from industrialized countries. Their fat intakes are falling and the percentage of total energy derived from protein is rising. Lower energy intakes are apparent even among young children and seem to be more pronounced in girls than in boys (olland-Cachera and Bellisle 2002:74) (Gard and Wright, p. 115)."
While there is evidence that is compelling in both research camps, the result is that parents are, today, taking a more concerted role in their children's nutritional needs and paying closer attention to the ways in which their children spend their leisure time. Whether or not childhood obesity is the urgent problem that some experts suggest it is, we…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5014370999' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
Obesity and Genetics
esearch shows that science has been displaying that genetics have always been playing a position in obesity for quite a while. It is clear that the genes can openly produce obesity in syndromes for instance, with the Prader-Willi syndrome. Nevertheless, genes do not at all times forecast future health (Genetics, 2006). Behavior and genes could both be required for an individual to be heavy. In some circumstances multiple genes possibly will raise one's weakness for obesity and necessitate outside factors; such as abundant food supply or not having much physical activity. With that said, this paper will discuss genetics and the role it plays in obesity.
Obesity is Complex
Obesity is not that simple but it is a complex disease. It results from the dealings of an extensive variability of hereditary and ecological factors (Hirschhorn, 2005). The mutual progress in measureable heredities, genomics and bioinformatics…
Chouet, H. (2011). Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned? Current Genomics, 12(3), 169-179.
Farooqi, S. O. (2006). Genetics of obesity. Biological Science, 361(1471), 1095-1105.
Genetics, H. M. (2006). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Oxford Journals, 15(2), 124-R130.
Hirschhorn, H. N. (2005). Genetics of common forms of obesity: a brief overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 215S-217S.
Many Americans would rather die or cut off a limb than be fat... (Worley). There is an underlying prejudice towards the excessively overweight that has, to a large extent, become an accepted part of society. As Worley states, it has become "...acceptable to shun fat people and make them the butt of cruel jokes" (Worley). Worley, Schwartz and others also emphasis the negative way that fat people are treated in public, as well as by family members. This leads to feelings if shame and a loss of self-esteem, with all the negative psychological aspects that this implies.
However, there are organizations that have realized the extent of this problem and who actively involved in raising public awareness about unfair prejudice and in helping combat such prejudice in society. The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) has reacted against this innate prejudice in society by providing a platform and a…
Hearne. S. et al. F as in Fat: How obesity policies are failing in America. April 20, 2008. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:pbbUEelBegwJ:healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf+the+Centers+for+Disease+Control+reports+only+eight+percent+of+elementary+schools+offer+daily+physical+education+classeshl=en
Kreulen G. Informing the Debate. 2002. April 18, 2008.:
NAAF Policy: ADOPTION DISCRIMINATION. April 18, 2008. http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html
The key to this program's success is changing the way the citizens approach their daily lives, without changing the traditions and practices that are unique to the community.
Teaching children how to cope with this unique conundrum will be difficult but could be the most successful approach in the long run. If the program is successful in slowing down the rate of obesity found in the younger citizens, then it could have longer lasting effects than the same program instituted with older citizens. One study showed that obese children are much more susceptible to diseases, especially diabetes than adults are with the same body mass index.
The study concluded that, "After stratification age and body mass index (BMI) the risk ratio for diabetes in Anti-HCV+ participants increased when age decreased and body mass index levels increased" (ang, ang, Yao, Chang, Chou, 2007, p. 202). Diabetes is currently a non-curable disease…
Bell, a., (2006) the kids are not OK, National Underwriter (Life & Health/Financial Services Edition), Vol. 110, no. 36, p. 41
Callaway, L.K., McIntyre, H.D., O'Callaghan, M., Williams, G.M., Najman, J.M., Lawlor, D.A., (2007) the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, Number 4, pp. 421-428
Confessore, N., Farmer, a., (2006) "In Borough Park, the unusual taste of fear." The New York Post, May 10, 2006, pg. B.3
Cooke, R., (2006) When normal is not necessarily good, New Statesman, Vol. 135, Number 9, p. 135
Country Worst Obesity
Three countries: Why obesity rates are so high
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. As noted in its 2015 Fact Sheet on the issue of obesity and overweight worldwide, over-nutrition rather than under-nutrition is linked to a higher percentage of deaths across the globe. Broadly speaking, this phenomenon is associated with an expansion of industrialization and a more Westernized, processed diet, causing a dramatic decrease in caloric expenditure and an increase in easily-consumed calories from processed foods. Obesity is a multi-factorial disease, linked to changes in "health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education" ("Obesity and overweight," 2015).
The United States has one of the highest obesity rates in the world: 30.6% ("Obesity: Countries compared," 2015). This has caused a great deal of understandable shock and consternation in many quarters. How is it…
Berl, R. (2012). Why we're so fat. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
LeBillon, K. (2012). French kids don't get fat. Retrieved from:
Obesity and Diabetes: A Community Health Problem
Many people do not consider obesity to be a deadly non-communicable disease -- and yet research shows that obesity is one of the main causes of death in American communities, and it is growing (Tabish, 2007). The community chosen for this paper is a typical, demographically diverse suburban Middle America community: the city is Pueblo, Colorado. The vulnerable population chosen here is the community's children. Children are especially vulnerable to the risk of obesity and by extension diabetes. This paper will review why this is so and what a community health nurse can do to help address the issue. The purpose of this paper will be to identify strengths, risks and barriers associated with this population's vulnerability to obesity and diabetes and what can be done to actively combat this problem.
Vulnerable Population Overview
Diabetes is a growing threat to communities around the…
Cunningham-Myrie, C., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9): 970-978.
Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's
Dietitian, 10(8): 24.
Goran, M., Ball, G., Cruz, M. (2009). Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical
These studies point to other factors that contribute to obesity and being overweight among children. For some experts, the association with genetics has grown out of changes in human physical activity. Concerns such as obesity did not matter when people were physically active. However, sedentary lifestyles and more time spent in front of video games and televisions have caused the human body to react differently to high-fat, high-carbohydrate diets.
Additionally, the rise of obesity among disadvantaged households also highlights allied social problems. Many of such households are run by single parents. Others are headed by parents who both work in order to support their families. This leaves them little time to supervise their children's diets and activities. Thus, even if the marketing of fast-food items were regulated, there is no guarantee that children will be able to make nutritional choices.
Children who come from a disadvantaged socio-economic background face additional…
Causes of Obesity
Recent attention has been given to the growing number of obese Americans. In a nation notorious for technological advancements, the American population is also becoming popular for its growing girth. The primary cause of obesity in America can be traced to the evolution of technology. Everything we have invented to make our lives easier has also made us lazier. ith the invention of vehicles, we stopped walking so much. Individuals prefer to stay indoors and watch television rather than go outside. Fast food is often selected over preparing meals in the kitchen strictly because of the convenience it provides. In fact, our technological advancements have made it possible to never leave the house for days. Considering these factors, it is no wonder that Americans are becoming fatter and unhealthy. hile many would like to blame their "genes" for this condition, it appears that obesity is a condition…
Ads Add Pound to Our Kids." Atlanta Journal-Constitution Online. http://www.ajc.com/health/content/sharedauto/healthnews/kids/517629.html . February 26, 2004. Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
America the Unhealthy." CBS News Online. February 26, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/02/26/health/main602417.shtml . Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
Shinn, Eileen and Poston, Carlos. "Why We Are Overweight." Detroit News. http://detroitnews.healthology.com/focus_article.asp?f=beyond_dieting&c=envsgenes
Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09 http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/AN APeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Obesity a Disease?
Introduction, Background, and Definition
Persuade the scientists
Persuade the advocacy groups
Persuade the federal agencies
Persuade the insurance companies
Persuade the drug makers
Recommendations & Conclusions
Is Obesity a Disease?
hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.
By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…
Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm .
Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term= .
Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml .
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
obesity in young adults has led to efforts to circumvent the problem. By understanding what may cause obesity and testing out methods that can help obese young adults lose weight, researchers hope to find a viable method that can lead to positive changes in health. Thesis: Young adults experiencing obesity may suffer from mental health problems triggered by lack of healthy habits like excessive sitting, lack of exercise, and unhealthy eating habits. Some offer weight loss solutions through the use of social/mobile technologies. However, no one strategy has been found to be effective in creating successful long-term weight loss.
Brief Background of young adult obesity in America and in other countries.
Explanation of obesity in young adults from a lifestyle perspective: "High sitting and low activity increased obesity odds among adults. Irrespective of sitting, men with low step counts had increased odds of obesity" (Cleland, Schmidt, Salmon, Dywer, &…
Cleland, V., Schmidt, M., Salmon, J., Dywer, T., & Venn, A. (2014). Combined Associations of Sitting Time and Physical Activity with Obesity in Young Adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11(1), 136-144. doi:10.1123/jpah.2011-0143
Dreber, H., Reynisdottir, S., Angelin, B., Tynelius, P., Rasmussen, F., & Hemmingsson, E. (2017). Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study. Clinical Obesity, 7(1), 1-10. doi:10.1111/cob.12170
Godino, J. G., Merchant, G., Norman, G. J., Donohue, M. C., Marshall, S. J., Fowler, J. H., . . . Patrick, K. (2016). Using social and mobile tools for weight loss in overweight and obese young adults (Project SMART): a 2-year, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 4(9), 747-755. doi:10.1016/s2213-8587(16)30105-x
School's ole In Fighting Obesity
When parents send their children to school, they entrust the school with the care of their child. Thus, the school has a duty to look over the health and safety of the child just as though it were a parent. In today's economy, it often takes both parents to work leaving children sometimes in the care of a third party for much of the day. In an effort to make sure the child is getting the best attention and consideration possible, a school may take small steps to alert parents when over a critical development in the child's well-being becomes manifest. In this context, a school sending a letter to parents discussing a child's BMI is appropriate. This paper will show that schools should be involved in helping decrease the obesity rate in America because they are the last line of defense when it comes…
Butler, J. (2015). Running the 'Gun Violence' Numbers. The Truth About Guns.
Retrieved from http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2015/02/john-butler/running-gun-violence-numbers/
Gortmaker, S., Peterson, K. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Arch Pediatrics Adolescence Med, 153(4): 409-418.
Story, M. (1999). School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity.
One of the functions of the lymphatic system is to be the body's "sewer system," drawing toxins from the cells and dumping them into the blood. The heart powers the blood system. Body movement powers the lymphatic system. Therefore, metabolic waste products cannot be completely cleared unless you are physically active. A second important reason for exercise is perspiration. The skin is a major outlet for waste products; when you perspire, you are disposing of waste products through the skin. A third benefit of an active lifestyle is to retain muscle mass. Muscle cells are where fat is burned. T he more muscle cells a person has and the stronger he/she is, the more fat he/she burns (http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1,2004).
With all facts and figures presented, it can be realized that in order to somewhat prevent more the entire America from burden of obesity thus preventing the American people from…
CDC. (2002). Overweight and Obesity: Obesity Trends among Adults -- 1985-2001. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Crane, Milton G.M.D. 2004.The Massive Problem of Degenerative Diseases. 2002.Get Healthy Get Smart, http://www.gethealthygetsmart.com/articles/degenerative_diseases.asp
Middleton, J. 2006. "Extreme obesity in women and associated risks." JAMA. 5;296(1):79-86.
Seven Key Factors that Determine Health or Illness. 2004. Connecticut Center for Health. http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
Fast Food and Child Obesity
This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…
Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.
Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.
Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.
The purpose of this historiography is to use secondary sources that will make for a greater understanding of my topic and how it relates to American body culture. In the last six decades obese people have faced discrimination in American society because of their physical appearance. Typically, society has categorized obese people as unhealthy individuals; their appearance causes discomfort; they are viewed pessimistically by employers and their career opportunities as a result have been limited. While more than 27% of the American population is obese, the federal government does nothing to prevent employment discrimination against obese or overweight people. The focus of this paper will be to analyze the issue of cultural discrimination against obese and overweight individuals and provide recommendations for changes with regard to the treatment of obese people in society so that they might be more accepted socially and enabled to fit more seamlessly into mainstream American…
While these measures are effective in certain ways, this line of thinking is very dangerous for the American public because it influences the general health risks imposed by obesity. More and more, America is become a drug reliant nation because of the growing number of problems associated with obesity.
Technology has many links to the current problem of obesity. On a macroeconomic level it can be seen that technology influences our socio-economic status which permits us to eat more and workout less because we do not have labor intensive jobs nor do we have financial problems. On a sociological level, social interactions are no longer dependent upon the concepts traditionally associated with obesity and therefore individuals no longer have to worry about their appearance nearly as much as they use to. Furthermore, these changes in social interactivity means that physical exercise is now an entirely leisure based activity rather than…
Rand CSW. Obesity: Definition, diagnostic criteria, and associated health problems. in:
Alexander-Mott L, Lumsden DB. Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Piervosa, and Obesity. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1994:221-41.
Schwartz H. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies, and Fat. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.
Optimal Health and Obesity for Older Adults
In older adults, obesity can aggravate physical function deterioration that comes with age, and result in frailty. However, appropriate obesity treatment in older adults is controversial, owing to decrease of corresponding health risks in relation to increased body mass index (MI) and concerns that loss of weight could potentially have harmful impacts on older individuals. Thus, it is especially vital to take into account therapies for weight loss, and alter one's lifestyle to nutritious food for improving obese older adults' physical function, as well as potentially improving or preventing medical complications linked to obesity. Health promotion strategy at individual and societal levels would enable older adults to adopt a changed and positive lifestyle, in addition to creating awareness among individuals of different age groups to urge older persons to keep up a healthy, nutritional lifestyle.
At present, 7% of global population is…
Corzine, J., & Jacobs, F. (2006). The New Jersey Obesity Prevention Action Plan. New Jersey:
The Department of Health and Senior Services. Retrieved from:
Feeney, M.J. (2010). Optimal Health Throughout the Life Span. Health Connections, 1.
Government Health Initiatives:
Obesity and public health
Given the rise in obesity rates in the United States, prioritizing reducing the prevalence of this illness has become a critical cornerstone of many federal, state, and local health agencies. Because the federal government encompasses the USDA and the FDA which set health and safety standards for the foods consumed in the U.S. As well as offer nutritional guidelines, the federal government can exert a profound influence upon consumption habits. The government has also overseen a number of anti-obesity campaigns. First Lady Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" initiative is perhaps the most notable of these: it focuses on increasing physical activity and improving the diet of America's children. "esearch indicated that kids needed less sugar, salt and fat in their diets, so we revamped school lunch menus accordingly. When data showed that the lack of nearby grocery stores negatively affected people's eating habits, we…
Conflict of interest in USDA nutrition guidelines, doctors say. (2011). IBTimes
Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/conflict-interest-usda-nutrition-guidelines-doctors-say-364426
Lohr, K. (2014). Controversy swirls around harsh anti-obesity ads. NPR.
Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/01/09/144799538/controversy-swirls-around-harsh-anti-obesity-ads
WHY ARE WE SO FAT?
Whole books have been written (and movies made) about why Americans are becoming the obesity leaders of the Western world. Some people point to biology. Others blame the restaurants, particularly the fast-food ones. Yet others suggest that we are fat, and lazy, and unmotivated to take control of our weight. Each of these arguments has its merits, and there is probably a lot of truth to each one. But perhaps the problem is not quite so obvious. That could help explain why otherwise intelligent people don't notice that when they stuff their faces, they're stuffing their jeans as well.
Two very recent events have focused media attention on this issue. The first was the production of the movie "Supersize Me," where a man deliberately stuffed himself full of high-calorie food from McDonald's for a month, gaining 25 pounds in 30 days. The other was…
Obesity Prevention Program: Project Planning
Childhood obesity-prevention demonstration projects
The ANGELO process
ocio-cultural contextual analyses
Action plan formulation
The Trans-theoretical model
The evaluation plan
Obesity prevention is best carried out through community-based arrangements. This paper provides a guide on the setting of priorities, with regard to the prevention of childhood obesity among the culturally and socially diverse populations of Pinole, Laurel Park and Marina Bay. The literature offers a report on the processes involved in planning and developing efficient projects aimed at preventing obesity among children and young adults. It combines relevant workshops with the processes of stakeholder-involvement to come up with plans of action for six obesity-prevention projects within the named areas. The target population is; children below the age of 12 and adolescents between the ages of thirteen and twenty-one. Analyses of the various…
(Source: University of Kansas, 2013)
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…
Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.
Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.
Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
Program Design on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a very serious epidemic today, it is estimated that about 16.3% of children all over the world are obese.in the past four decades the rate of obesity for children that are aged between 6 and 11 years has gone up by more than four times.it is a serious pandemic since obese children are likely to suffer health consequences not only in their childhood and adolescence but also throughout their lives as adults. They are at risk for problems of joints and bones, sleep apnea, psychological and social problems, health diseases, type II diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Childhood obesity is an epidemic that cuts across the lines of ethnicity, family income, and race however, there are certain populations that are at a higher risk as compared to others. Some of the populations that are at risk include Latinos, African Americas, Native…
Digate, N.(2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/preventing-childhood-obesity
Segal, E. (2009). Fighting Obesity: What Works, What's Promising. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.sparkpe.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Fighting-Obesity-Report.pdf
Pekruhn, C. (2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity a School Health Policy Guide. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/web-assets/2009/01/preventing-childhood-obesity -
WHO. (2014). What can be Done to Fight the Childhood Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_what_can_be_done/en/
Healthy Food Prevent Obesity?
Now more than ever obesity has become an immense issue in the United States. What used to be a growing concern has now become a topic of constant discussion and debate. It has received great media attention, with as far as getting celebrities and athletes to sponsor healthier food and more exercise. The President and First Lady of the United States have even made it a personal concern of theirs to get America healthier. Children are at an all time high for getting Diabetes from the unhealthy food that they are eating and that are being marketed to them. Adults are getting high cholesterol levels, Diabetes, and high blood pressure, from all the unhealthy fat and high amounts of salt and sugar in the foods that they are eating. In today's society, being healthy has become not only a way of living, but also a trend.…
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This work will further propose nursing strategies to address the problem. This work will use two bills currently in Congress. Two pieces of legislation have been introduced to address the problem of childhood obesity are those of H.. 3144 and H.. 3092. This work in writing conducts a policy analysis of these two bills presently before the U.S. Congress.
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This…
Dahlkemper, Kathy (2009) Healthcare: House Bills 3092, 3144 aim to cut obesity rate and related illnesses. The Hill 16 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thehill.com/special-reports/healthcare-july-2009/55607-healthcare-house-bills-3092-3144-aim-to-cut-obesity-rate-and-related-illnesses
Hellmich, Nancy (2009) Obesity a Key Link to Soaring Health Tag as Costs Double. Health Affairs -- USA Today. 28 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-07-27-costofobesity_N.htm
Whelan, Ellen-Marie, Russell, Lesley, and Sekhar, Sonia (2010) Confronting America's Childhood Obesity Epidemic: How the Health Care Reform Law Will Help Prevent and Reduce Obesity. May 2010. The Center for American Progress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/05/pdf/childhood_obesity.pdf
H.R. 3144 -- Healthy Communities Act of 2009. Bill Summary & Status 111th Congress (2009-2010) CRS Summary. The Library of Congress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/D-d111:60:./temp/~bdI0gM:@@@D&summ2=m&
Corporate Social Action of McDonald's and the Problem of Obesity
Corporate Social Responsibility
This paper proposes a corporate social action to McDonald's to address the issue of obesity among general consumers which is caused by high-calorie and spicy fast foods. The paper starts by highlight some research studies which explain how fast foods cause obesity among children and adults, and proceeds by discussing why McDonald's should take an initiative to remove this criticism by the local and international community. The paper also highlights the strategies to implement this action plan, the intended outcomes and affected stakeholders, the constituent parts of the plan, and unintended consequences or weaknesses of this initiative by the company.
The Social Problem:
Obesity is one of the major issues in health care. It gives rise to various heart diseases, diabetes, and other health related consequences (orld Heart Federation). A number of research studies have been conducted…
Benloulou, Jonathan. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit," 2005. Print.
Environmental Action, "Marching against McDonalds," ProQuest Central, 1993: 25 (3). p-10.
Lu-sted, Marcia, Amidon. Obesity & food policing, 1st Edition. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. Co., 2008. Print.
McBride, Sarah. "Currents: Exiling the Happy Meal; Los Angeles Lawmakers Want to Escalate the War on Obesity (and Fast Food)." Wall Street Journal, 22nd July, 2008: A.14. ProQuest. Web. May 11th, 2013.
Obesity and Fast Food
Obesity in America is one of the fastest-growing health concerns facing the nation. Many people blame the fast food industry, along with American's frenzied lifestyles, as major contributors to obesity in the country. When fast food was first introduced in the 1950s, the concept was appealing for a number of reasons. The food was quickly prepared, it was tasty, and it was cheap. These attributes still apply to fast food in the country, but there is a major difference between the 1950s and today. Then, fast food was seen as a "treat," or even a night outing with the family. Today, fast food is an everyday occurrence for most families, and some people even eat most of their meals in fast food restaurants. In fact, fast food often permeates every facet of American's lives, from school cafeterias to office snacks and lunches grabbed on the run.…
Manning, Cyril. "Clear Link Between Fast Food, Obesity." Harvard University. 2004. 18 May 2004. http://web1.tch.harvard.edu/chnews/01-2004/obesity.html
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
Mex Am / Hispanic Am. Hlth Care
Sub- cultural Scholarly Paper: Hispanic-American Health
Due to the rising cost of health care and lack of communication and cultural attitudes towards health many Hispanics are faced with poor health, obesity, and in most cases serious illness. This paper provides insight into health concerns, dilemmas of the subculture, and the specifics revealed in the interview process as relates to the individual, the family and ultimately, the community and the culture's collective society.
Subcultural Scholarly Paper: Hispanic-American Health
The theoretical framework used to evaluate this subculture is Purnell's Model. This is a subculture study of Hispanic-Americans in relation to their lack of knowledge concerning their personal healthcare.
Description of Subculture:
One way to address the challenges of providing health care to differing cultures is through advances in the development of competence among cultural providers in the healthcare field as per the minority which…
Basiotis, P.P., Carlson, A., Gerrior, S.A., Juan, W., and Lino, M. (2004). "The Healthy Eating Index, 1999-2000: Charting Dietary Patterns of Americans." Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Vol. 16, Number 1, p. 39.
"Healthy People 2010: Objectives Draft for Public Comment." National Alliance for Hispanic Health. Available: http://www.hispanichealth.org/pdf/hp2010.pdf Accessed November 27, 2004.
'Hispanic Health Data." (n.a.) National Council of La Raza. Available: http://www.nclr.org/content/programs/detail/25670 . Accessed November 27, 2004.
National Alliance for Hispanic Health. Available: www.hispanichealth.org. Accessed November
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…
Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm
How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml
Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S
Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml
Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.
Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…
Boehmer, T., Lovegreen, S., Haire-Joshu, D., & Brownson, R. (2006). What Constitutes an Obesogenic Environment in Rural Communities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 411-421.
Casey, a., Elliott, M., Glanz, K., Haire-Joshu, D., Lovegreen, S., Saelens, B., et al. (2008). Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Preventive Medicine, 600-604.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/
Centers for Disease Control. (2010). U.S. Obesity Trends. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control:
socioeconomic status and obesity are related. Indeed, there have been major strides on bringing down the number of obese children. However, the one group that always seems to lag behind the others are racial minorities and the poor and those two are quite often one and the same. Tackling obesity for people of all racial and income levels is important because it brings down the average healthcare costs for everyone as it prevents (or at least slows) conditions like diabetes, heart disease and cancer. This report will only cite articles and studies that appear in academic-level journals and that are stored on EBSCO Host. No internet sources or other material shall be used. While entirely stomping out obesity will not likely happen in our lifetime, there are people that are very much at risk and that would be those with lower socioeconomic status and thus the inability to afford quality…
Albaladejo, R., Villanueva, R., Navalpotro, L., Ortega, P., Astasio, P., & Regidor, E.
(2014). Risk behaviors and sports facilities do not explain socioeconomic
differences in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public
Health, 14(1), 1-18. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1181
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is on the rise in America and across the world. Obesity presents physical, social, and emotional complications for all sufferers. However, childhood obesity is especially concerning because the chronic conditions associated with obesity such as type II diabetes and heart disease are increasingly difficult to manage over time and today's generation of obese children is more likely to become a generation of overweight adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 17% children and adolescents aged 2 -- 19 are obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014). Obesity in children is significantly correlated with poverty and certain specific minority statuses. "In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics (22.4%) and non-Hispanic black youth (20.2%) than non-Hispanic white youth (14.1%). The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth (8.6%) than in youth who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic" obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014).…
Bray, G. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4): 537-543
Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/537.full
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Childhood and Adult Obesity
The problem of obesity is serious across the globe. Indeed, it has been cited as the second most common cause of preventable deaths and a great public health concern in the U.S.A. The past twenty years have seen a tremendous increase in obesity cases. Although imbalance in energy is a common case of obesity, medical conditions including genetic ailments and medication also play a significant role (Williams, 2011 p. 5-7).
The Effect of Being Obese
There has been a marked increase in the attention that is directed towards obesity. The condition is also widely associated to several other chronic ailments, including hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome sleep apnoea, sleep apnoea and some forms of cancer. Health expenses are relatively higher for individuals with obesity. It has been estimated that the cost of medical care for people suffering from obesity…
Bhattacharya, J., Bundorf, K., Pace, N. & Sood, N. (2009). Does Health Insurance Make You Fat? NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w15163.pdf
Daily Downey. (2012). The Election, The Uninsured and Obesity. The Downey Obesity Report. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.downeyobesityreport.com/tag/uninsured/
George Town University. (2002). Childhood Obesity: A Lifelong Threat to Health. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/obesity/obesity.html
Koplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T. & Kraak, V. I. (Ed.) (2005). Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.). Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83819/
Obesity prevalence is alarmingly high in the United States, especially among young people. About 20% of American youth are obese (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014). Being overweight or obese in childhood has been shown in empirical studies to lead to premature death and physical morbidity in adulthood (eilly & Kelly, 2011). Therefore, it is critical to prepare a health plan of lifelong learning for this population. A health care intervention program targeting young people in America will include schools and other stakeholders, who can participate in broad public awareness and intervention campaigns. This is because schools play an integral role in the lives of children, and can help parents and communities make choices that support health and a lifetime of learning about healthy eating and lifestyle factors.
The risk factors associated with childhood obesity include parental obesity, early body mass index rebound, more than eight hours per week…
"Guidelines for School Health Programs to Promote Lifelong Healthy Eating," (1996). CDC. June 14, 1996.
Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K. & Flegal, K.M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association 311(8): 806-814.
Reilly, J.J., Armstrong, J., Dorosty, A.R., Emmett, P.M., Ness, A, Rogers, I, Steer, C & Sheriff, A. (2005). Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study. BMJ 2005(330): 1357.
Reilly, J.J. & Kelly, J. (2011). Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, 891 -- 898.
Policy-Priority Issue on "Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is considered to a global epidemic demanding prioritizing in policy and health care reform. This is a disorder that has a lot of effects on long-term and acute health, as well as increasing the risk for other illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and particular kinds of cancer. This essay brings up my personal interest in the disorder of childhood obesity, also, the significance to nursing, problem sources, and prioritizing the level of action to best achieve the objective of eliminating obesity in childhood.
Why it is important to me
This paper was important to write because there are quite a few family members of mine that have an extended history of Type II Diabetes. I want to diminish any chances of my children getting any of these conditions down the road. Furthermore, I live in Atlanta, Georgia, which is considered to…
Brownson RC, C.J. (2013). Understanding evidence-based public health policy. Am J. Public Health, 23(6), 45-47.
Brownson RC, J.E. (2012). Bridging the gap: translating research into policy and practice. Prev Med, 49(4), 313-5.
Hawe P, S.A. (2013). Theorising interventions as events in systems. American Journal Community Psychology, 12(7), 34-89.
Jilcott S, A.A. (2013). Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change. Ann Behav Med, 34(2), 105-14.