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Fast Food Restaurant: McDonalds
For this study, the researchers went to a McDonald's fast food restaurant to observe operations during a standard high-traffic weekday lunch hour (11am-2pm). The goal of the study was to observe different operational aspects of the business. These operational aspects included: role differentiation; coordination mechanisms; technology; and stakeholders. The observation yielded surprising information about fast food workers. They were far more efficient than we had previously assumed, with an error rate that was lower than we would have guessed. In addition, the workers were not treated very well by some of the customers, though management seemed to treat them well.
Introduction and Overview
For this project, we engaged in an observation at a local McDonald's fast food restaurant. The observation occurred during a weekday lunch hour, from 11am until 2pm. We chose this time after asking the McDonald's manager to tell us the highest-traffic times for…
Community Group Meeting Observation for Hepatitis B
One of the major ways of promoting personal involvement in health policy issues is through involvement in community group meeting. Personal involvement in health policy issues regarding Hepatitis B is also facilitated through participation and observation in a community group meeting. While they are not professional meetings, community group meetings influence policy formulation through discussions on various issues relating to the community in relation to the disease, treatment measures, and effectiveness of the treatment measures in the community. Through discussing various issues relating to a specific health issue, community group meetings develop certain goals that influence health planning and/or policy development. An example of the impact of a community group meeting in policy development for Hepatitis B is a Hepatitis B community meeting that was sponsored by Korean Community Services in New York.
Hepatitis B Program
Hepatitis B meeting was held on April…
"Background and Rationale for Hepatitis B" (2010, January). New York State. Retrieved from Department of Health -- New York State website: https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/hepatitis/strategic/background_rationale_hepatitis_b.htm
"Involving and Communicating with the Community." (2005, November 30). Public Health
Assessment Guidance Manual. Retrieved from Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/PHAManual/ch4.html
Kaye, G. (2014). Conducting Effective Meetings. Retrieved from University of Kansas website:
Observed Lowe, and Motely plan for the Unit 1 Poetry Segment
Through observation it has become apparent that the Ms. Lowe has numerous responsibilities throughout the day. She was often planning lessons, teaching students in an imaginative fashion and partnering with Ms. Smith on instruction material
The team of English teachers is also very collaborative. They utilize ideas, thoughts and concepts to their advantage, particularly when designing classroom assignments. The team, in regards to responsibilities also delegates tasks in an efficient manner.
The teachers were also responsible for creating quiz content that reinforced student knowledge of the material. This surprisingly, was a daunting tasks as the team wanted to create an evaluation that wasn't too strenuous, but also would demonstrate understanding. Elements of standardized testing also came into the discussion when designing quiz material.
Another responsibility was creating an environment conducive for learning. Teachers wanted to allow student…
Reference: Page 169 "The majority of teachers' task-presentation statements are neutral, and many are negative." (This quote is used to prove that differentiated instruction is needed to move from a neutral statement to one that is positive for students."
Public qualitative observation: WOW Fitness Center
WOW Fitness Center is a part of a chain of gyms which offers a wide variety of weight machines, cardio machines, and fitness classes. There is also a juice bar located within WOW. WOW charges monthly membership fees that are relatively low in cost and thus it attracts a wide representation of persons from the larger community of varying levels of fitness. It often offers trial membership subscriptions to lure new people to the gym and free weekly passes for those people who wish to try out WOW. To do my observation, I obtained a one week free weekly pass. The gym is large and sprawling, with several rooms boasting various types of equipment. Although some rooms have more cardiovascular equipment or more weight machines than others, there is no specific room devoted to one or the other.
Televisions hang above many of the…
Janesick, V. (2011). Stretching exercises for qualitative researchers. Sage.
Unobtrusive observation on the word "fuck" with friends and family:
Fuck was often used by the males of the family when expressing disappointment or disregard for authority. It was often used in an informal and casual setting with light emphasis on the word when it came to disappointment and strong emphasis when it came to anger. I noticed early on that the males of the family would curse more with each other than in the presence of females. When with women and girls, they not only changed their speaking tone and mannerisms, they also became quieter in conversation.
The males also demonstrated similar behavior amongst friends. Age was not a dependent factor on using "fuck" as they would use to speak of intercourse, not caring, or showing remorse or disbelief. Examples would include: "I fucking feel so bad for him." "I fucked her pretty good." "Fuck yeah buddy." The last…
She agreed. The first twenty minutes of the observation is complete at this stage. At this time the strongest support for my hypothesis is the non-verbal behavior and the final sentences of the conversation.
The hypothesis was tested and confirmed during the second twenty minutes of the conversation. The male and female continued to display non-verbal behavior that supported the hypothesis regarding their developing feelings for each other. They frequently touched hands and looked into each other's eyes. They also smiled more frequently at each other than at me and gave more attention to each other than to me. When speaking to each other, both the female and male leaned forward slightly and focused their attention on the other.
In terms of conversation, the subject of the conversation continued to revolve around college life and how this contrasted with their lives at home. They appeared to agree that they were…
It is a quantitative instrument, that has been statistically validated, and probably most appropriate as an instrument to ensure adherence to certain state and/or national standards.
MCC -- Dialogue approach to rating a teacher's performance. Both qualitative and quantitative in nature, does encourage robust dialogue between teacher and observer, and more self-analysis from the instructor. Essentially an evolving template that can be used in multiple grades, classrooms, and subject areas. ubric is clear, concise, and well-developed. Allows for all types of rating structures, as well as localized adherence to district and/or state standards. Allows for video taping, and is robust in terms of classroom layout and management.
PEP -- ather short, quantitative instrument, that is designed to primarily assess math and science in the K-8 level. It is appropriate for regular observation, more valuable as an indicator of whether a certain lesson met standard than the overall competence level of…
Reinke, W.M., et.al. (2008). The Classroom Check-up: A Classwide Teacher Consultation Model for Increasing Praise and Decreasing Disruptive Behavior.
School Psychology Review. 37 (3): 315-21.
Saginor, N. (2008). Diagnostic Classroom Observation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wragg, E. (1999). An Introduction to Classroom Observation. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Kitchen: The Second Observation
Upon entering my kitchen for a second observation, the first feature I notice is the bright orange walls that remind me of summer. My eyes are then drawn to the wide window with light pouring in. The window has a deep ledge and on this ledge sits a small potted cactus that my brother purchased several days ago. As I look around I notice the large stainless steel appliances and how they compliment the wide expanse of granite countertops. The double-door refrigerator consists of a cold water dispenser and an ice maker. It is five feet tall and four feet wide, but it is built in so it does not overpower the kitchen. It also consists of cheery wood panels that blend well with the rest of the cabinetry. Other major appliances include a microwave sitting above a convection oven, a dishwasher, a wine refrigerator, and…
The students were animated and worked diligently; at times, it was necessary to tone down the volume of voice. The 45 minutes went by quickly.
This more flexible and nontraditional method of teaching worked in most cases. However, there were times, depending on the students, when someone asked for help and could not find anyone free or asked for help and was helped to quickly and did not truly understand the rationale for the answer.
STUDENTS WENT to LUNCH
While this class went to lunch and the play ground, the observer went to the special needs room. This area was for about a dozen students maximum at a time. The students there ranged from ADD to a child who was incapable of acquiring any more learning. There was one teacher and the students all in one row along a long table. The teacher sat on the opposite side of…
The observation took place at a local playground in a nearby park, because I felt that this would be the most comfortable, and therefore the most conducive environment for gathering the information I needed unobtrusively. I also chose this venue because according to renowned Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, playing is a critical part of the development process -- it enhances social exchanges, teaches a child patience such as how to wait their turn and inspires creative thinking and problems solving (Piaget, 1963).
I sat on a bench and my attention almost immediately went to a young girl with short brown hair who seemed to be about 4 years old. She had just arrived with a woman I assumed to be her mother, and she was quick to get into the action. I decided to name her "Lydia" for this purpose of this observation report. "Lydia's" attention turned quickly…
Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole.
Maslow, A., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row
Piaget, J. (1963). Psychological intelligence. Patterson, N.J. Littlefield Adams Publishers.
At the third session, the same member expressed sympathy for the same woman and both of them shed some tears. By the third session I observed it became apparent that the group was solidly within the third stage, developing the cohesiveness necessary to meet the group goals. When any group member exhibited resistance or antagonism, another member would point it out before a leader had to say anything. I also noticed that the leaders intervened less during the third session than at either of the first two. Group members seemed to have gotten into a rhythm within the format of the group so that strong leadership was not as necessary as it might have been during the first two stages. When leaders did intervene they did so sensitively and carefully, not patronizing the members but assuming they knew why they were in the group and also how the group would…
Interview #1 with myself and Mrs. Evans.
Myself: Hello I am a student and I am interested in observing your classroom for one hour of play if that is possible?
Mrs. Evans: Sure, we have playtime at 10:00 AM and at 1:00pm.
Myself: Great, I just need to observe one student. I will be there tomorrow at 12:30.
Mrs. Evans: Your welcome, I will speak to you again when you arrive. Make sure to come prepared to learn and take some good notes.
Myself: Thanks again for this opportunity and I appreciate your time.
Interview #2 with myself and Mrs. Evans
Mrs. Evans: A good student for your observation today would be Billy.
Myself: Thanks, I was going to ask if there is a student you recommend I observe.
Mrs. Evans. Billy is one of the smartest kids in the class and really teaches the other…
Interview 1 with Mrs. Evans
Interview 2 with Mrs. Evans.
Interpersonal Non-Verbal Communication Observation
The importance of Non-Verbal Communication is evident in the fact that it constitutes the bulk of human communication. The fact that non-verbal communication is more important than any other form of communication is due to the emotional information it conveys, which is otherwise usually controlled or concealed. Thus, human beings base their feelings and emotional responses not so much on what another person says, but upon what another person does. In fact, it is estimated that the impact of non-verbal communication on a message's meaning can be as high as 93%. It is, therefore, obvious that learning to interpret nonverbal communication is critical in order to effectively decode meaning and underlying motivations in messages. But, first, it would be necessary to define the concept itself: "Non verbal communication is a process whereby people, through intentional or unintentional manipulation of normative actions and expectations express experiences, feelings,…
Collier, G & DiCarlo, D. "Emotional Expression." Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Dunn, L.J. "Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body language." Missouri Western State College. Accessed Apr. 29, 2004: http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/70.asp
Harris, T.E. "Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives,
Animal Observation Lab
All ethological research must begin with accurate observation of the subjects at hand. One of the most important aspects of accurate observation is that the observer be able to isolate and distinguish one type of behavior from another. For example, when a primate scratches itself, is it engaging in ritual grooming behavior or is it simply scratching an insect bite? esearchers must be able to distinguish and catalogue such differences if they are to acquire a complete picture of the range of meaningful behaviors of an animal (Shanor & Kanwal, 2009).
In my observations of two species of animals at the Bronx Zoo I was able to observe (and record) a number of distinct behaviors. In observing a group of monkeys (some orange in color, others dark brown) I was very much aware of the fact that the different individual monkeys displayed very distinctive behavior: I…
Shanor, K. & Kanwal, J. (2009). Bats Sing, Mice Giggle: Revealing the Secret Lives of Animals. London: Icon.
Criminal Court Observation
As I wandered into the courtroom (after a considerable amount of time waiting in line to clear the metal detector in the main hall of the courthouse), I hardly felt comfortable. The room was stuffy from the people who had arrived before me, and I could not help but wonder if I was sitting next to family members of the defendant (who would turn out to be a young white male dressed in an orange jumpsuit.
Interestingly, what I recall most strongly was the sight of the man, one Wayne Thomson, as he was led shuffling into the room in handcuffs and shackles. I wondered how he felt -- scared, humiliated, angry? From looking at his face briefly before he sat down, he looked absolutely blank.
Although it seems silly, I actually felt frightened myself after the judge railed angrily at another person sitting on the bench…
The setting I have chosen is the first floor of the public library. The first floor is at street level. People can walk in and go to the elevator, which is on the right-hand side. They can also go straight ahead to the staircase. To get to the main reading room and circulation area, where I am situated, they take a left. There is no security check to get through; patrons simply walk in and out without having to wait in line or have their belongings checked.
The main reading room and circulation area is a single, large, high-ceilinged room, giving the feeling of spaciousness. The layout is simple. There are bookcases along all three walls, as would be expected, except for one wall where there are windows. Underneath the windows there are carts of books waiting to be shelved. These carts are somewhat messy, with uneven piles…
The television program Criminal Minds is a modern police procedural which deals with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) criminal profiling unit, the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU). Throughout the episodes of the program, the situation is set up so it is "us vs. them" with the FBI representing law and order and their opposition representing criminality. There are two sets of characterizations, those in law enforcement and the perpetrators of crime. From an aesthetic perspective, the characters are designed to look like they belong to one of these two factions. Either they are part of the professional world of the FBI, or they are part of the outside world where they might dress similar to the investigators but exhibit their differences from the law-abiding via their personalities. This is not only limited to the good guy vs. bad guy dynamic, but also found within the collection of FBI…
As a "guardian of care," a nurse leader fulfills one of the most important roles in healthcare. All aspiring nurses and nurse leaders need to learn by observation and critical analysis of what a nurse leader does and how nurse leaders make their decisions. Observing a nurse leader entails documenting details of the day, with a goal of recognizing themes. The following is a plan of observation of a nurse leader who is actively engaged in their role.
The plan of observation is to serve as participant-observer, in a classic ethnographic role. This means that as an observer, I will not simply stand aside and watch but also actively participate in the target research environment, even interacting with the nurse leader when necessary. A participant-observer role allows for naturalistic observations as a qualitative research method.
Expected Roles and Behaviors as a Participant-Observer
As a nurse who is aspiring to…
School Observation: Springfield Gardens Middle School
The focus of this school observation is PS 59, Springfield Gardens Middle School in New York City. The observation was conducted in three separate settings: a math class, the cafeteria, and the school's main office. The goal of the observation was to gain insight on the relationships between different stakeholders in the school community, including teachers, students, staff, administration, and parents, and how these relationships influence the connectedness of the school environment. The assumption is that school connectedness as summarized by Blum (2004), can be measured by the presence or absence of factors such as positive student-faculty rapport, high academic expectations, and publically displayed efforts to strengthen school culture and safety. The observations of the school, thus, considered school connectedness as evidenced by student-teacher rapport, exhibition of student work, teaching methods, and classroom comportment, and interaction between staff members. In addition, student body and…
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (2004). School "Connectedness: Improving Student's Lives." Baltimore, Maryland. Blum, R.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Progress Report, 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Progress_Report_Overview_2010_EMS_Q059.pdf . 24, Feb. 2011.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Learning Environment Survey Report: 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Survey_2010_Q059.pdf . 24,Feb. 2011.
It provides a marker for conducting and easily recording observations of complex learning. This is in a paperless format, highly efficient and engaging strategy." (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
This is illustrating how technology is critical to reaching out to students and offering them with further explanations about what is occurring. When this happens, they will be able to more effectively relate to key ideas and have a grasp of the way they can be utilized in the future. It is this point, when everyone will have a more hands on feel for these ideas and can easily remember them. (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
Moreover, Johnson (1994) found that having individuals work with each other in small groups is more effective than requiring them to sit and listen to someone presenting the material. Evidence of this can be seen with Johnson saying, "The ability of all students to learn to work…
Haberman, M. (1995). Star Teachers for Children and Youth in Urban Poverty. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (10),
pp. 777 -- 781.
Howard, G. (2007). As Diversity Grows So Must We. Responding to Changing Demographics, 6 (62),
pp. 16 -- 22.
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Ryon is a twelve-month-old, blond-haired, blue-eyed, White toddler. He is fair-skinned with almond-shaped eyes. I met him at a friend’s suburban residence, on 1st November, 2017, where her mom provides daycare services. I spent time between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. at her place. I discovered Ryon seated on the living room floor. Though equipped with only a TV set and a couple of couches, the setting seemed rather comfortable and safe (Lake, 2017).
The boy seems to find no difficulty sitting up. It appears he is confident of his ability to maintain balance. He is seated feet-outwards, with legs wide out. The boy is able to lean forward till his tummy reaches the floor, though he requires a certain amount of effort in order for sitting back up. When he crawls, his hands are spread flat across the floor, with fingers made wide and feet pointed nearly…
He also checked his watch regularly and he seemed to check for messages of some sort several times because he used his cell phone to dial a number and then pressed buttons and listened briefly to the phone before hanging up.
When the bartender approached to ask whether he wanted another drink, he responded politely by shaking his head and putting up his hand; once the bartender left to attend to other customers, the subject moved his almost empty glass a little bit closer to himself and also slightly repositioned the napkin next to the empty stool to his left. Shortly afterwards, several more people approached the bar near him and one of them asked him whether the empty stool was occupied. He seemed to respond more apologetically than necessary because he continued explaining long after the individual who asked about it began nodding and indicating with his hand gestures…
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot
Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot…
AMR Research (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
AMR Research-1 (2003) - the Aha Moment Arrives Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
CapGemini (2003) - TRANSFORMING the SHOPPING EXPERIENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY, a Study in European Consumer Buying Behaviour. Accessed from the Internet on November 6, 2007 from location: http://www.no.capgemini.com/m/no/tl/pdf_Transforming_The_Shopping_Experience_Through_Technology__A_Study_in_European_Consumer_Buying_Behaviour_.pdf
Inaccurate and selective observations are common problems in all realms of research. In fact, they are basic perceptual fallacies that can lead to problems like stereotyping. Selective observation and inaccurate observations often occur unnoticed, and it take a lot of effort to recognize when such problems occur. However, researchers must remain aware of such errors, by being vigilant about their own work and by peer reviewing the work of others.
Schutt (2010) defines selective observation as "choosing to look only at things that are in accordance with our preferences or beliefs," (p. 4). Selective observation can be a major impediment to criminological research and law enforcement. One example of selective observation is racial profiling. As Dantzker & Hunter (2011) point out, selective observation "is when one sees only those things that one wants to see" and that "racial and ethnic stereotyping" are among the most common forms of the…
Dantzker, M.K. & Hunter, R. (2011). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Jones & Bartlett.
Schutt, R.K. (2010). The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Sage.
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Additionally, many were on their cell phones; it seemed like they were purposely trying to find ways to keep them from interacting with each other. This showed a clear disconnect between the different subgroups that are in such close proximity of one another. Only a few actually spoke to each other, and when this was observed it was typically using only brief statements. Social manners say a lot about a society's culture. Watching what interactions that did take place showed the clear signs of what is acceptable within this society. People would ask each other questions with polite statements ending in "please" and "thank you." This signifies a sense of manners, but also a sense of coldness that only is present within interactions between strangers. The interactions between these individuals were very formal, showing a use of language that separated the individuals from other members of society who might otherwise…
Eichberg, Henning. (2010). How to study body culture: Observing human practice. International Society of Eastern Sports & P.E. Web. http://www.isdy.net/pdf/eng/national_04.pdf
Engel, Claudia a. & Ebron, Paulla a. (2004). Mapping key concepts in cultural anthropology. Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Web. http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-029.pdft
O'Neil, Dennis. (2006). What is culture? Palomar University. Web. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_1.htm
Artifact: "Fieldwork Observation Report"
INTASC Standard: COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, non-verbal and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom.
In this artifact, the writer considered and analyzed what he observed during about 20 hours in a high school classroom. He noted both strengths and weaknesses in the teaching he saw. He noted that many students were actively engaged in the discussions. He reported that the teacher drew relevant examples from the novel being studied, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, and today, and extended that lesson into an assignment for the students. He observed students who were able to summarize the lessons well and enthusiastic desire to respond in many students.
However, he also noted that students for whom English was not their first language seemed less engaged and markedly less likely to participate, and he did not observe…
In any culture, the way someone dresses will have an impact in identifying who they are and the traditions which are embraced. The Indian civilization has their own form of dress that is holding onto various social customs in the form of the sari. To fully understand how this is impacting society requires carefully examining the cultural context of the dress ensemble, providing a description of it and discussing various influences (such as: somatotypes). Together, these elements will highlight the impact of these styles on different segments of society. (Katiyar, 2009)
Briefly describe the cultural context of the dress practice or ensemble.
The Indian sari is a strip of indistinct cloth which is worn by women. It is from four to nine yards in length and is draped over the body in various styles. The outfit is worn based upon historical traditions which are dating back to the…
The Classification System of Dress. (2013).
The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from: http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm
Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self: Global Perspectives on Dress, Culture, and Society. New York, NY: Fairchild Books.
Katiyar, V. (2009). Indian Saris. New Delhi: Wisdom Tree.
It is easy to assume that a comprehensive decision making theory gives a reliable basis for an observation scheme for a classroom. However, it is apparent that even though the practical and theoretical ventures overlap in many respects the core of the theoretical tenets are fundamentally variant. They are broader in some respects and narrow in others. The deterrents of real time implementation are significant and thus the scheme of analysis is fundamentally different from the theory frames that led to (Schoenfeld, 2013.
At the onset, I believed that teaching was about spending 8 hours teaching and having a great time with children. Indeed, teaching seemed the easiest career choice for me. However, having interacted with many a student from across the age spectrum and educational levels, there is a side of the world that can only be viewed from the inside of a class. I changed my mind…
High school student leader English Language Arts (ELA) observations report
• Incorporates major content components and aids pupils in applying higher order thinking skills within learning.
• Displays the capability of relating current content to prior experiences, future learning, practical application and other disciplines.
• Displays correct knowledge regarding the topic taught.
• Displays abilities that are pertinent to the lesson.
• Centers teaching on objectives which echo superior expectations and a grasp of the discipline.
• Undertakes realistic time-planning in the areas of pacing, transition and subject mastery.
• Undertakes efficient differentiated instruction planning.
• Ensures pupils' involvement and dynamic learning.
• Builds on pupils' current skills and knowledge.
• Makes use of instructional technology for improving pupils' learning.
• Communicates explicitly and confirms student understanding.
• Applies various valid evaluation tools and approaches relevant to the pupil population and content.
• Employs evaluation tools for summative as…
This makes it possible for the general public to comprehend that a community that seems to be strong can easily be divided by people's personal beliefs and by their backgrounds. It is very likely for individuals to express interest in detaching themselves from a group that they are associated with as a consequence of feeling that they do not actually belong to the respective community (Verdery, 232).
Jewish groups in Palestine considered that they were exposed to a series of threats as a result of the fact that they lived in mixed neighborhoods. They believe that they would be stronger if they had the opportunity to unite in a community that would no longer accept to be persecuted. Even with this, many Jews were hesitant about getting involved in a group that would act against Ottoman principles and feared that they would suffer if they adopted a nationalist attitude. The…
Baumgarten, Elias, "Zionism, Nationalism, and Morality," Retrieved December 19, 2011, from the Web Environment Website: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elias/zionism.htm
Campos, Michelle U. "BETW EEN "BELOVED OTTOMANIA" AND
"THE LAND OF ISRAEL": THE STRUGGLE
OVER OTTOMANISM AND ZIONISM AMONG
Being a Muslim is an overriding cultural feature that cuts across a large number of races and nationalities, but many have the same common traits of gender segregation, emphasis on cleanliness and the same schedule of life.
During the ritual I observed at the mosque, I was able to notice how the ritual impacts society. The first distinction is that there was a clear line created between those who are members of the in-group and those who are not. While I was welcome to be there, I was clearly in the latter group. I was welcome to observe, but not to participate in, the rituals. The performance of the rituals allows on to become a member of the society.
It was interesting to see that elements of modern life have crept into the rituals, however. One example is that I observed younger members of the mosque texting outside…
Diversity Health Care
OBSERVATION OF DIVERSITY IN THE WORKPLACE:
Does the healthcare workforce reflect the faces of the community they serve?
The health care workforce is now beginning to reflect the faces of the communities in which they serve. Natural demographic changes in the United States make it necessary for the communities to reflect the changes in the underlying demographics. Hispanics are now the fastest growing population within the United States with nearly 37% of these individuals under the age of 18. The communities, in which the healthcare workforce interacts with, will undoubtedly change to reflect this demographic. Asian-Americans and African-American are also growing at a rapid interval. However, the changes have occurred in upper level management which reflects the changes in demographic composition. In addition, many of the lower level positions reflect the changes occurring in the broad macro level environment.
Is there diversity in the management team?
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
However, in general the author relies on strong nouns and verbs to tell the story.
1. Verb choices are particularly strong and vibrant: the author uses words like "prompted," "wrapped," and "poured," which makes for a compelling and dramatic narrative and corresponds with the suspenseful atmosphere.
2. The author uses many complex sentences consisting of both dependent and independent clauses, but the author uses varied sentence structure to create rhythm.
3. The author uses subtle repetition: "not just my feet but my hands and my head as well," (John 13: 9).
4. The author uses parallelism also to create rhythm. For example, "he got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist," (John 13:4).
5. Foreshadowing is one of the hallmarks of this passage. For example, "Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and…
infant (birth-12 months old).
The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.
The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.
The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…
Participant observation can, for purposes of simplicity, "be placed on a continuum with 'passive' participant observation at one end of the continuum, and 'active' participant observation at the other" (Burgess, 2003, p.69). These two forms of observer participation give rise to four strategies; complete participant, complete observer, participant-as-observer, and observer-as-participant, which have been better-explained through the scenarios below (Burgess, 2003).
Observations of professional conduct in the classroom by the student author of a course evaluation guide
The complete participant strategy works best in this case; the observer ought to act like a full member of the group and not reveal his research intentions because any suspicions by members of the observed group could lead them to display bias in an attempt to make the evaluation go a certain way.
Observation of retail shoppers by a researcher who is interested in determining customer purchase time by type of goods purchased
Biggemann, S. (2010). Modeling the Structure of Business to Business Relationships. In Woodside, A.G. (Ed.), Organization Culture, Business to Business Relationships, and Interfirm Networks. (pp. 27-178). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Company.
Burgess, R. (2003). Some Role Problems in Field Research. In Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual (pp. 68-74). New York: Routledge.
It appears that the experimental hypothesis was confirmed by the data. The fact that no checkpoint agents permitted building access to strangers regardless of attractiveness established that if the phenomenon does exist at all, it is limited to situations where the checkpoint agent perceives no actual security risk (i.e. where the cohort is recognized by the agent as a building employee). The fact that male cohorts were denied access in every trial strongly implies that physical attractiveness in general does not influence the specific behavior being studied. Similarly, the fact that highly attractive female cohorts were denied access by female checkpoint agents in every instance strongly suggests that female attractiveness is not, generally associated with influence over the behavior being studied, but that female attractiveness does strongly influence
In hundreds of trials, no males and no average looking females were permitted unauthorized access. No female agents permitted any cohort…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon. Hockenbury, DH, Hockenbury, S.E. (2007). Discovering Psychology. New York: Worth.
LeVay, S. (1994). The Sexual Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Zuk, M. (2002). Sexual Selection. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California Press.
Sacramento Zoo Observations
Chimpanzee (Pan troglodystes) and Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelli)
When I was at the Sacramento Zoo, I observed many animals, including primates. At this time, I chose to further expand on my observations of the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodystes) and Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelli).
At this time of observation; I can only see four of the five chimpanzees, two females and two males. Of the five chimpanzees, it seems that the extra female chimpanzee is missing from my observations. According to the Sacramento Zoo, there are a total of five chimpanzees- with three females and two males. Although it is difficult to tell from the distance that we were at, the females are slightly smaller than the males. I would assume that the males would also be heavier since they are larger. Unfortunately, there are no blatantly obvious characteristics that distinguished the males from the females and…
The teacher explained that the use of a commercial science-teaching program that emphasized hands-on participation and active inquiry in its design had helped her achieve high levels of genuine interest among her students. The materials for this module consisted of individual sets for each group that were easily assembled into experimental designs utilizing different types of soil, inclined planes, and water dispensed through variable means to closely simulate natural erosion processes (Huber & Moore, 2001).
According to the teacher, the use of the materials dramatically increased student interest and also subject matter retention of the same Earth Science concepts that are typically the subject of passive learning via textbook reading assignments and lectures by teachers (Huber & Moore, 2001). The teacher credited the hands-on involvement as well as the design of the lessons to emphasize critical thinking and inquiry-based analyses with the ability to sustain the high level of student…
Gardner H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century.
New York: Basic Books.
Huber RA and Moore CJ. "A model for extending hands-on science to be inquiry based" School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1, (2001): 32.
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.
Worth Publishers, 2004.
In many instances, there are also cultural components in the way that different groups relate to others and in the values held by those groups. I recognize that as an educator, it can be difficult, or at least a potentially sensitive matter, to make judgment and offer advice based on apparent external behaviour. Since, in many cases, the types of themes that are important to me are aspects of culturally-learned behaviors, criticizing others for aspects of those behaviors that violate objective principles could suggest to others that my judgments reflect a cultural or racial or ethnic bias. Therefore, as an educator, I realize that even purely objective criticisms must be carefully expressed so as not to communicate prejudices or ethnic perspective on my part instead of genuinely well-intentioned advice based on principles.
I hope that as an educator, I will be able to communicate my philosophical views about what types…
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
What types of behavior did you notice? In hindsight -- by focusing on what you did -- what types of behaviors might you have failed to notice?
The noticeable trait observed during the course of a formal interaction was that all students and teachers are engaged in teaching and learning. The young ELLs were both attentive as well as inquisitive in the classroom setting where the assistant teacher had the role of providing each student with a personal attention. Simultaneously, the head instructor worked hand-in-hand with others who experienced different challenges with understanding some concepts.
Why do you think certain aspects of the setting stood out for you?
All through my observation, several aspects stood out impressively. Some of the aspects that got me enthralled; understood how young leaders could be able to work in harmony with one another and by so doing become responsible for their learning…
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Educational.
Montoya, D. (2016, January 24). How to Avoid Researcher Bias While Doing a Research Paper. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_7776012_avoid-bias-doing-research-paper.html
His neck, a mechanical part of him, has become so overwrought by the pressures and complexity of technology that it has stopped working. Whole segments of the American nation have become powerless by the overwhelming pomposity of the new inventions that, unable to keep up with the new dialect, they have surrendered to the more youthful marchers and have become trodden underfoot. The old American not only becomes defunct; worse still, he becomes extinct.
The pre-electric era was relatively benign to the present and future potential terrors. Those "earlier stages of progress" were "simple and easy [for humans] to absorb" 7 and beneficial in that they helped him do his work without overwhelming him and attaching his esteem.
as the mind of man enlarged its range, it enlarged the field of complexity, and must continue to do so, even into chaos, until the reservoirs of sensuous or supersensuous…
At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.
Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…
Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
Personal Social Media Audit
Most used websites
Time of the day using a specific website
The usage of social media depends on the personal interests and priorities. There are various websites, blogs, content communities, and gaming zones categorized as internet-based social media. The users of social media often do not realize their patterns and number of hours spent in using social media. In order to understand the usage information a seven days diary was maintained. The analysis of diary entries provided an in-depth understanding of the situation. The reflection of observations, assessment of the findings and active experimentation is presented below.
Social media comprises of electronic tools, applications, websites, and various community-based blogs that attract the users. The users also utilize their email and contact numbers to share their profile information with contacts. It is also a medium that has…
Kaplan, AM&Haenlein, M2010, Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, Business horizons, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 59-68.
It also made me realize how relatively easy I have it in this world when there are so many hungry people and children. I saw mothers with babies coming in by the dozens to shop at the food bank store, and owners of small food pantries picking up their daily and weekly supplies, and massive trailer trucks bringing dozens of pallets of donated food from grocery warehouses and distribution centers.
It all impacted my feeling about volunteering and helping others in need. It is hard to realize how many need such assistance until you see the huge amounts of people, and enormous amount of food necessary to feel those who can't afford to feed themselves.
What I Learned
One person really can make a difference. A small group of dedicated, generous, hard-working people can change a community. And all of us working together could change the world. I helped one…
The student's observations about race in discussion 1 prompted me to think about the way our society uses affirmative action to deal with racial inequalities in the workplace. The student states early in the discussion that he had never been personally affected by race or racism -- and yet, after some reflection, he realizes that he had been. He tells the story of going for an interview at Target and being asked if he was Mexican because his name was Hernandez. He informed the interviewer that he was not Mexican and the interviewer immediately lost interest in him as a person. It seems the interviewer was only interested in hiring a particular race -- a Latino -- most likely to fill some sort of affirmative action quota.
This recollection by the student made me irritated because I began to consider how hypocritical our own society is about race. On…
formed on properly executed observations does make out efficient teachers as well as practices itself. Teachers' accomplishes on the classroom surveillance mechanism of appraisal system dependably envisage the attainment increases undertaken by their students. The outcome upholds the notion that teacher assessment systems require not be founded on test scores only for the purpose of providing constructive in sequence as per which teachers are for the most part effectual in elevating student success.
Teachers Evaluation System (TES) has been seen as an exceptional instance of sky-scraping quality assessment program founded on classroom observations. At a bare minimum, it is a structure to which the quarter has dedicated substantial resources and this prove that teaching excellence is valued and recognized by the university.
Focusing on the TES it is without doubt that the presence of appropriate resource as well as technical support is felt this is because the TES which is…
counting or documenting observations," according to authors Maxfield and Babbie. The descriptive study in this paper relates to a controversy in a small town near my home, in which a barbed wire fence has been erected to keep people out of a forest of pine trees. The problem emerged when The Nature Conservancy purchased an 800-acre easement on 1,400 acres of woodlands. People in the community had used trails in the property (it has always been private property) to get downtown, or to the high school. Suddenly a 6-strand barbed wire fence blocked the trails citizens had used for 80 years or more.
hat is the purpose of this research? The research is to document and explain how neighbors and other people in the community responded to the erection of a 6-strand barbed wire fence (with barbed wire wrapped around the top of the gates that were installed).
Maxfield, Michael G., and Babbie, Earl R. (2011). Basics of Research Methods for Criminal
Justice and Criminology. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
This possibility has had a profound impact on the needs that I think the community -- especially these school children -- possesses. Being a tutor implies a certain type of behavior and activity; tutors instruct their students in academic areas and help them solve specific issues and/or problems one at a time. I think that what this particular segment of the community needs is more accurately described as a mentor. In addition to extra assistance with academic instruction and learning, the children I observed during my time as their tutor really need a regular influence in their life to help them build confidence and self-esteem along with helping them improve their skills. Becoming dejected about their perceived shortcomings will only make their problems worse, and the more discouraged they become about their reading the less likely they will be to progress even with the help of a tutor. Someone who…
Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.
The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
Throughout the week I was forced to face a number of moral decisions in my daily life, from not telling the truth to obeying traffic laws. Until this assignment, I never really observed my own moral decision making process, and doing so enabled me to discover many personal traits. While this examination has given me plenty to think about, this essay will examine in detail three particular moral decisions I was forced to make, the thought processes behind them, and how they impacted my view of myself.
One of the moral decisions I am forced to make on a daily basis is whether or not to tell the truth. I lied to my boss and called in sick to work on a day when I just wanted to stay home. Another is whether to help those in need. I saw a homeless person on the street and when…
Personal Observations: Class Size vs. Quality Instruction
I am not able to neatly separate my preparation and reading in the area of educational quality from my personal experience. The two sources of knowledge dovetail and flow back and forth in a highly influential manner. I certainly agree that class size is a factor in student success, and a variable that can enable or hinder the ease with which a teacher provides quality educational opportunities for her students. My teacher preparation coursework and my reading on education policy lead me to believe that them most important variables -- next to the influences of home and community -- are those under the aegis of teachers.
Teacher qualifications are a critical variable for student success. Naturally, the amount of resources available to a school, district, region, or state impact the level of quality that is provided to students through educational systems. One has…
stood still by a large fountain in a public square and did nothing for ten minutes. I used as many senses as possible to intake information from the world around me as objectively as possible, letting go the temptation to judge or analyze what was going on. The sounds were the first thing I noticed: the occasional cry of a baby or high-pitched voice of a child; the subtle murmurs of intimate conversations; the constant hum of city noise from traffic; and natural sounds like the wind as it hit objects, blew leaves on the trees, and set aloft pieces of trash.
Turning my attention toward the sights around me, the whole square seemed alive and pulsing. There were pigeons and crows going about their daily business, the pigeons seemingly doing nothing but waddling around and flying away when a person would get too close, and the crows pecking at…
McGrane, B.(1994).Un-occupied, Un-employed:Don't Just Do Something, Stand There!In The Un-TV and the 10 MPH Car (pp.20-57). Fort Bragg, CA:The Small Press
Self-Help Group Observation
The purpose of the group (diabetic group) is basically to educate patients on how to sustain a healthy lifestyle in case they are diabetic. The main aim for patient education is for individuals suffering from diabetes to enhance their knowledge, confidence and skills, allowing them to have increased control of their condition and incorporate effectual self-management into their day-to-day lives. High quality structured education could have an intense impact on health outcomes and considerably enhance the quality of life (Tidy, 2014). Some of the potential benefits that patient education could have on individuals suffering from diabetes are:
Enhancing health, knowledge, beliefs, and lifestyle changes
Enhancing patient outcomes, for instance, smoking, weight, and psychosocial changes like depression levels and quality of life
Enhancing physical activity levels
Minimizing the need for, and potentially better targeting of drugs together with other items like blood testing strips.
Educational events, like community…
Mensing, C. R., & Norris, S. L. (2003). Group education in diabetes: effectiveness and implementation. Diabetes Spectrum, 16(2), 96-103.
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., ... & Vivian, E. (2015). Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Diabetes Educator, 41(4), 417-430.
Tang, T. S., Funnell, M. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2006). Group education strategies for diabetes self-management. Diabetes Spectrum, 19(2), 99-105.
Team Care Approach for Diabetes Management (n.d.). Retrieved 25 February 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/pdfs/ppod-guide-team-care-approach.pdf
NIn spite of touch being very significant as a communication means, very little is known on why and when touch takes place and what can be deduced when it takes place in opposite-gender or same-gender interactions. Studies focusing on this topic concerning gender and touch have had a focus on touch occurrences that are observed, those that are reported, the beliefs people hold on touch meanings, the perceptions of observers on the interactions taking place and the empirical assessments made on the responses registered for those acts of touch. elevant methods and questions are few and the literature is also small given the vastness of touch variety. But the relevant literature is actually bigger than the amount that researchers in the field seem to be aware of. They always allude to the same studies over and over again (Stier & Hall, 2004). A study that was semi-structured did an investigation…
Ostrov, J., Woods, K., Jansen, E., Casas, J., & Crick, N. (2004). An observational study of delivered and received aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment in preschool: "This White Crayon Doesn't Work . . ." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(1), 355-371.
Stier, D., & Hall, J. (2004). Gender Differences in Touch: An Empirical and Theoretical Review. Journal of Fenoiulity and Social Psychology, 47(2), 440-459.