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OCD in Childhood
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common psychological, anxiety disorder that is characterized by repetitive and intrusive thoughts and stereotypic behaviors frequently associated with dread and compulsion (Walitza). These intrusive thoughts can be scary and the behaviors are often disruptive to the development of social relationships and therefore debilitating especially to children and adolescents. OCD affects approximately 3% of the population and an early age of symptoms onset during childhood and adolescence is reported by more than half of adults with OCD (asmussen, 1992). OCD is a highly comorbid disorder with many children meeting diagnostic criteria for other psychological disorders. Given the early onset of the disorder and the high morbidity associated with it, extensive research has been conducted on childhood OCD. Studies have aimed to determine the genetic composition of the disorder and define the associated symptoms for more appropriate qualification and treatment of the disorder.
Previous…… [Read More]
These studies show the importance of confronting feared stimuli for extinguishing anxiety. However, at the same time, other research has found that the cognitive methodology has had equal results to the ERP in OCD treatment. Hackman and Mcean report that they have as positive results with thought-stopping as those found with ERP. Once again, however, the number of studies has been very small (Abromowitz).
It has only been in the past decade that advances have been made in another possible treatment for the future. In the early 1990s, Baxter began looking at changes in cerebral metabolic patterns that occur with obsessive compulsiveness. He was able to specific changes in the cerebral patterns when ODC activity was occurring. These studies are continuing and becoming more refined. Most recently, Baxter joined others in a study that looked at the affect of hording. Compulsive hoarding and saving are common in individuals with OCD,…… [Read More]
Here is what is known for now: Patients who are found to have OCD generally display symptoms along the lines of having compulsions, obsessions, doubting, hyper-vigilance and the need to control their environment. No one is completely certain what it is that causes OCD, although there are two trains of thought on the matter. Some people believe that OCD is a psychological disorder and others believe that it is a problem with abnormalities in the brain. OCD is treated through CBT, pharmacotherapies and/or SSRIs. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a far-reaching mental disorder. It can occur in any culture, race, gender or age group. However, the beliefs and activities performed within a culture may have an effect on the obsessions and/or compulsions that are seen within the patients with OCD from that culture. Also, OCD may occur among both males and females but there are some differences among the two gender. The…… [Read More]
OCD is in many ways a homogeneous disorder. The disorder has a prevalence of around 2% to 3% of the population, and this prevalence is likely underestimated in many different countries / and descriptions of obsessions and compulsions have been remarkably consistent over time and place. Neurobiological studies have consistently found evidence that cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits play a crucial role in mediating the disorder and treatment research has invariably demonstrated that serotonin reuptake inhibitors selectively reduce the symptoms of OCD (Stein, Andersen, & Overo 2007; O'Connor, Todorov, obillard, Borgeat, & Brault 1999).
The most common treatments for OCD are pharmacological and cognitive behavioral interventions. According to the American Psychiatric Association treatment practice guidelines for OCD, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) are considered first-line treatments for OCD. However, SSIs are often associated with delayed onset of therapeutic effect (8 -- 12 weeks), only partial symptom reduction, and response failure or intolerability…… [Read More]
Diagnosis in children is sometimes difficult since they often try to mask symptoms. The following questions are a good indicator that the child needs to be evaluated by a professional:
Do you have worries, thoughts, images, feelings, or ideas that bother you?
Do you have to check things over and over again?
Do you have to wash your hands a lot, more than most kids?
Do you count to a certain number or do things a certain number of times?
Do you collect things that others might throw away (like hair or fingernail clippings)?
Do things have to be "just so"?
Are there things you have to do before you go to bed? (Ben-Joseph, 2009)
At present, there are two solid methods for treating OCD -- behavioral therapy and drugs that help manage serotonin levels in the brain. Depending on the symptoms, a combination of therapies is usually preferred. Cognitive…… [Read More]
The resulting anxiety then is managed by training children to use strategies that help them work with their anxiety in a more effective and less disruptive way.
Anxiety management techniques may include relaxation training, distraction, or imagery. Often, OCD is personified as something that makes the child perform an action. Thus, children learn to assess situations and ask themselves if they really want to do something, as opposed to the perception that the OCD is making them do something. With cognitive behavioral therapy, the initial goals are specific to one or two behaviors. However, as the patient becomes successful in coping with these situations, generalization usually occurs to other symptoms that have not been targeted. Usually, the patient reports an overall reduction in obsessive thoughts, general anxiety, and the need to perform certain actions.
Treatment of OCD in adults has demonstrated that medications are effective, and the existing studies of…… [Read More]
Other manifestations of OCD Udall exhibits include bringing his own plastic cutlery to the restaurant and his difficulty in sustaining personal relationships. These are all valid portrayals of the signs and symptoms of OCD.
Part III -- Application to Social Psychological Concepts
Stereotyping is a generalization about a person or group of persons. Stereotypes are developed when one is unable or unwilling to obtain all of the information needed to make fair judgments about people or situations. Society and the media often innocently create and perpetuate stereotypes. These stereotypes may lead to unfair discrimination and persecution when the stereotype is unfavorable. Stereotyping often leads to prejudice and bigotry.
Attribution is a concept in social psychology referring to how individuals explain behaviors of others. The two main types of attributions are internal and external. Internal attributions assign behavior to a person's personality, attitudes, character, or disposition. External attributions assign behavior to…… [Read More]
psychological disorders have been identified by specialists in the field. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an example that not only intrigues mental health professionals but also the general public. Psychology Today, with its article 'Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder', and its intention of educating the public, defines this phenomenon shedding light on its symptoms, causes, and treatment.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological anxiety condition characterized by repetitive thoughts and actions. The former are obsessions while the latter are compulsions. As with most conditions, the severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder can range from mild to debilitating. Of the two symptoms, obsessions are less externally visible. An obsession is a recurrent thought or feeling that creates anxiety. For example, an individual may repeatedly think that his hands are not clean. As anxiety increases, one attempts to reduce it by performing a repetitive action, called a compulsion or ritual. Using the above example, the recurrent thought of uncleanliness…… [Read More]
dysfunctional behavior that strikes 1 out of 40 or 50 adults and 1 out of 100 children or 2-3% of any population. It can begin at any age, although most commonly in adolescence or early adulthood - from ages 6 to 15 in boys and between 20 and 30 in women -- according to the National Institute for Mental Health. This behavioral affliction is, therefore, more common than schizophrenia or panic disorder and affects people of all ages, gender, race, occupations, religions and socio-economic ranks. Its impact on the mental and emotional states of such numbers in the United States alone has been so strong that it accounts for more than $8 billion worth of social and economic losses - which is 6% of the country's total mental health bill, according to authoritative sources.
As if not depressing enough, these millions afflicted know that something is wrong with how they…… [Read More]
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Phobias
The video provides statistics that state that the lifetime prevalence rate of OCD is three percent with 30 to 50% in children of ages 7 to 11 having the disorder. The treatment includes Prozac and Zoloft, which improves the disorder, if taken regularly for several weeks. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also one of the treatments that can be used for children. Parents have an important role to play on their part in order to not make their children anxious regarding everyday lives, but make them confident enough so the children find no excuse to skip school. The video is very relevant to treating mental disorders as it clearly explains the medication and the time required to take it in order to be better. I would like to learn more about Augmentation and the different strategies that can be used to prevent phobias in children (Nickel,…… [Read More]
This diagnosis will help put the patient on the right path to proper treatment. Given that some individuals with OCD also can benefit from treatment with drugs (including a number of anti-depressants), physicians can often be an important part of the team treating an individual with OCD.
An individual is perhaps somewhat more aware that their problem is psychological -- perhaps because she or he has a relative who has been diagnosed, which is entirely likely given that OCD has a genetic component -- might go to a psychologist or psychiatrist for a diagnosis (Abramowitz, 2009, p. 29). Locally, there are good resources for an individual seeking a diagnosis from a mental health professional. One good option is through the Alberta Mental Health Board. The Grey Nuns Community Hospital in Edmonton offers outpatient psychiatric assessment and treatment, including treatment specifically aimed at individuals with OCD (http://www.albertahealthservices.ca/services.asp?pid=saf&rid=4528
The Centennial Centre in…… [Read More]
Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
1) Describe your first experience with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Experiences you had with the first person you diagnosed/first time you heard your child had obsessive-compulsive disorder/first time you remember your obsessive-compulsive disorder being a problem).
According to Mash and Wolfe (2015) obsessive-compulsive disorder involves disturbing and unwanted images, thoughts, or urges that will interfere with a child's mind causing a great deal of discomfort. Mark was having issues with dirt, which forced him to constantly keep washing his hands and cleaning his surroundings. This was quite strange for a child who was only 7 years old. When Mark visited a new place, he had trouble settling down as he feared there was too much dirt and germs. This would at time result in him starting to clean some spots.
2) How did you have to alter your everyday routine/routine of your child/suggestions you gave your patient…… [Read More]
Thus, though Melvin is not a picture of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, it is clear that James L. Brooks, the movie's producer, has intended to describe him as a sufferer of this disorder.
eflection of the Positive, Negative, and Correct Portrayal egarding Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the Mental Health Profession
In general as Good as it Gets, is an uplifting movie about how even those with mental disorders and those who are down on their luck, like Carol, can find happiness. Although he suffers from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Melvin is characterized as remotely successful. He is a popular author of several novels, as is exemplified by the fact that, on the way out of his publisher's office, he is met by an adoring fan, even though he treats her with contempt. In addition, Melvin is not only a popular novelist, but the movie suggests that he is also quite well off…… [Read More]
Communicating Effectively With a Person Diagnosed With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder affects roughly 2.5% of the population every year (APA, 2005). Patients with OCD often have difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating with those around them. Fortunately there are a number of effective treatment strategies that can improve communication with patients diagnosed with OCD. This study examines the methods caregivers and family members can adopt to facilitate effective communication with patients diagnosed with OCD.
Each year thousands of individuals are diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) a biologically and psychologically-based mental disorder that can disrupt a patient's social and emotional state. OCD often impairs a patient's ability to not only engage in routine social behavior but also impairs a patient's ability to communicate effectively with those in the world around them. Patients with OCD often engage in ritualistic behaviors that isolate them from friends, family members and…… [Read More]
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]
Personal Details of Student
Family Name: ooney
Given Name (s) Bridget
Student Number (SID): 312165250
Email (University email only) [email protected]
Assignment number (if applicable): #1
Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders
Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .
I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).
I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).
3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]
Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications
The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…… [Read More]
Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…… [Read More]
ABC/123 Version X
Week Five eview Worksheet
Week Five eview Worksheet
Choose two categories of psychological disorders and outline the main symptoms associated with the disorders.
The old classification system for psychological disorders only had two kinds, neurosis and psychosis with people suffering from neurosis experiencing anxiety and people with psychosis suffering from hallucinations. Now psychological disorders are categorized even further. The two selected are from the category of anxiety disorders. The first is PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder. The second is OCD or obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are other classifications, the somatoform disorders and dissociative disorders. The three main symptoms of PTSD revolve around re-experiencing the traumatic scenario. The afflicted person will experience nightmares, upsetting memories, flashbacks, including feels of distress (Barlow, 2001). The person will also experience intense physical reactions like nausea, sweating, and pounding heart. They will also try to avoid any remind of the trauma.…… [Read More]
Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]
I don't understand it, it happens all the time -- a half-way decent looking girl gets a vision of a bald shiny statuette, and it's off with the lip gloss and suddenly she's making like Angelina Jolie in some sweaty country on a bad hair day.
More info on the secret room tomorrow, but I'm getting a way important IM right now, so I'll wrap it up.
Letter 1: Main Character to Secondary Character
What's up with the new look (should I call it that)? I understand that you're trying to seriously pursue your acting art, but acting like someone who doesn't know the difference between Juicy Couture and Juicy tracksuits is no way to go! Can't you concentrate your energies on something that's really important, like finding the key to the secret room before Skye has taken up residence there for good? She'll…… [Read More]
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a personality disorder connected with anxiety which is characterized by repeated thoughts and behavior. epeated thoughts, feelings compose the obsessive part of the disorder while actual drive to do those actions repeatedly falls under the compulsive category. A person suffering from this condition would succumb to the drive and engage repeatedly in those actions just to get rid of the feeling but it only helps him temporarily. Failure to engage in the actions can result in serious anxiety attack.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Like most personality disorders, the causes of OCD are unknown. Several theories have surfaced regarding the causes but none is universally accepted or agreed upon. Some studies have connected the disorder with brain abnormalities but only further research can confirm this. It is known that those who eventually display OCD usually start developing symptoms by the age of 30.…… [Read More]
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]
Compulsive hoarding is a disorder that is characterized by an inability discarding items that to most people appear to have little or no value. This inability to throw things away results in an accumulation of clutter that often leads to an inability to use living areas and workspaces for their intended functions. Moreover, the clutter can lead to potential serious health conditions and to safety risks of the hoarder or others.
In order for a person to meet criteria to qualify for a diagnosis of compulsive hoarding the person must experience significant personal distress and/or impairment in their functioning due to their hoarding behaviors. More often it is the impairment in functioning that qualifies someone for a diagnosis as the hoarding behavior serves to reduce anxiety in the person associated with discarding items. Several types of functional impairment seen in hoarders include: health or fire hazards due to clutter or…… [Read More]
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…… [Read More]
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…… [Read More]
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…… [Read More]
Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.
Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…… [Read More]
The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)
Conclusions of the research
The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…… [Read More]
Internet Addictive Disorder or IAD is defined in this paper as a "maladaptive behavior surrounding the use of the Internet," and it was established earlier that this kind of disorder is not yet formally recognized, most especially among the scientific community. IAD is significant and poses a crucial problem for every individual who gets acquainted with Internet use, and even though IAD may be difficult to define and determine accurately, the problems it poses to an individual and the society around him/her can be considered serious and critical.
This paper also discussed some behavioral patterns in which one can observed an individual or even one's self if they are afflicted with this kind of disorder. Primarily, IAD is considered to be type of an obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Another theory says that IAD is only a "phasic" behavior, which can be rationally explained because of the overwhelming effect of Information Technology,…… [Read More]
Grand Canyon University (GCU) presents an inclusive doctorate course adaptable to every doctorate program. DNA represents a metaphor that denotes distinctive artifacts personalized by GCU’s doctorate course for simplifying pupils’ academic journey. The course is grounded in curricular and content development, research guidance, competences and acquaintance, and a detailed dissertation procedure (Gcumedia.com, 2017). The aim is: creation of an effectual, engaging, and stimulating academic experience for doctorate level pupils.
The campus provides corporate leadership and educational courses concentrating on cultivating accountability and knowledge with regard to the development and inspiration of superior- performance entities. The institution also offers other doctoral courses like philosophy in nursing practice, general phycology, and business administration. This course is grounded in the DNA system utilized for instilling economic, leadership and business capabilities among directors and educators. It is based on in- depth scientific, practical and abstract research. Learners imbibe skills that facilitate the application of…… [Read More]
autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.
By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…… [Read More]
The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)
Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…… [Read More]
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]
adults become susceptible to avoidant personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder results in social constraint, feeling of insecurity and susceptibility towards criticism. Even if one want to socialize with others he is most often scared to. Being embarrassed in front of others horrifies individuals suffering from Avoidant Personality Disorders. As a result they usually withdraw themselves from social gatherings to avoid any sort of discomfort. John G. Gunderson in his article Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A etrospective Study outlines the risk factors and primordial exhibition of Avoidant Personality Disorders by investigating present perspective reports of social functioning and antagonistic childhood encountering.
Primitive social operative and pathological childhood experiences were investigated through a childhood experience questionnaire. It was shocking to find out that around 146 adults out of 376 patients suffered from Avoidant Personality Disorder.
Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement…… [Read More]
Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).
Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]
, 2011). Since hoarders are less likely to be married, it is possible that help for a hoarder who has fallen or otherwise become injured may be severely delayed. Sometimes, it can be too late. Fire is another danger faced by a hoarder. Such a large number of items can make a house more flammable, and also make it highly difficult to escape if a fire does get started (Saxena, et al., 2011). That is something that should be taken into consideration.
Impairment and Insight
The levels of impairment and insight vary with hoarders. Some of them see that they have a serious problem for which they need to get help, and some of them do not see what is wrong with the way they are living (Steketee, et al., 2010). They are generally very reluctant to part with any of their things, and they can become resentful of family…… [Read More]
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…… [Read More]
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]
She felt as if no one understood her conditions or why she was the way she was and because it took her longer to accept herself for who she was, she could not have a full understanding of having Tourette's and OCD meant to her or anyone else. It was until she fully accepted her condition that she would be able to come to grips with it and learn how to live with it.
Wilensky associated drinking with a loss of control, but also realized that drinking would help lessen the tics, or at least make it seem like it. The OCD part of Wilensky connected her personal rules as a means for controlling the things her body did that she felt were negative. By drinking with friends, even if it felt good, she was breaking her own rules. She didn't feel like she could be normal like the other…… [Read More]
psychological basis of mental illness is certainly only half of the story. Though mental illness is genetic, the actual symptoms and condition being presented is based on a careful marriage between biological and environmental factors. In particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a mental illness in which "people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations or obsession, or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions)" (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011). This mental illness, like many others is multi-faceted, in that there is a physiological process associated with it, a set of symptoms that manifest, certain diagnostic criterion and then a set of treatment options.
Foremost, the physiological process of mental illness is mainly concerned with the brain and certain regions of it. The physiological process is a process that evaluates the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior. esearch examining the brain has found that "a selective…… [Read More]
Clinical Case Study: Bess
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) would be an appropriate intervention to assist Bess in overcoming her OCD by targeting the psychological foundation of the disorder. Bess's neurosis is related to a strong, overbearing impact from her mother in her childhood, now verging on agoraphobia, which is having a negative effect on her social and psychological life. Her symptoms do not appear to have a strong biological basis, thus CBT should be an effective intervention.
The rationale for selecting CBT is that it provides a goal-oriented strategy for overcoming negative behaviors and replacing them with positive ones. Because Bess is a goal-driven person, who has been highly motivated in the past to accomplish tasks, this strategy should be helpful in re-orienting her with a more positive focus. Her confused sexual experience followed by the forced abortion on her mother's orders have substantially deprived Bess of any ability to…… [Read More]
EP for Gifted Student
Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also…… [Read More]
Limiting as Well as the Creative Capacity of Mental Illness in Literature
Anne Tyler's the Accidental Tourist and John Cheever's "The Swimmer"
Mental illness in many works of fictional and non-fictional literature is often portrayed as a kind of wellspring of creativity for the sufferer of the illness. However, even in many works of literature, mental illness is also shown as potentially crippling to the sufferer and those whom are close to the sufferer. This eviscerating honesty is seen in Anne Tyler's The Accidental Tourist as well as depiction of the central character of John Cheever's "The Swimmer." Both illustrate this principle that mental illness is an illness, not a 'gift' as it is sentimentally portrayed. Rather than experiencing glorious and creative highs of mania, or experiencing a form suffering that gives the soul an additional insight into the human condition, both Tyler's and Cheever's protagonists' life experiences are ultimately…… [Read More]
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…… [Read More]
In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.
According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…… [Read More]
A diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder is usually determined through the observation and evaluation of the person's own self-reported experiences. No form of testing, including laboratory tests can determine if a person has this kind of disorder. It is only through analysis of the person's behavior and communication can a psychiatrist identify the disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder tends to exhist in people who have had depression for quite some time or have had recurring depression. Although it is difficult to identify it can be determined and identified. Treatment usually involves cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Mood- Incongruent psychotic features is a term used to describe the characteristics of psychosis. The psychosis usually consists of delusions and hallucinations. They tend to be consistent with an elevated mood such as experienced in Bi-Polar disorder or in depression such as Major Depressive Disorder.
Something such as Schizophrenia is a Mood-Incongruent Disorder. Mood- Incongruent psychotic features tend…… [Read More]
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…… [Read More]
And the movements which typify chronic movement disorder are probably subserved by the same structures within the basal ganglia as those which underpin compulsive behaviors and complex tics" (p. 470).
In addition to the other disorders associated with Tourettes, there are (not surprisingly) many emotional and social problems that affect its sufferers. Many sufferers of Tourettes are afraid to go out in public for fear of embarrassment, and many have very low self-esteem. There are also noted problems of aggression in Tourettes sufferers, not only because the tics themselves can manifest themselves aggressively, but also because the victims are angry that they were 'cursed' with this debilitating and often humiliating disorder. Making matters even worse is the fact that feelings of anger and stress can actually increase the symptoms of Tourettes (Prestia, 2003).
While there is no known cure for Tourettes, there are ways of reducing the emotional and social…… [Read More]
There is disagreement as to whether CSB is an addiction, a psychosexual developmental disorder, an impulse control disorder, a mood disorder, or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, however most scientists dispute the idea that someone can become addicted to sex in the same way they become addicted to alcohol, thus abstinence as a treatment is viewed as an oversimplification of the problem (Compulsive).
Samantha Jones might be the first to admit that she has CSB, or not. But as long as it does not harm anyone, then "ho cares what you are just enjoy it."
Compulsive Sexual Behavior. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.uc.edu/psc/sh/SH_Compul_Sexual_Behav.htm
Quotes: Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotes/by/character/samantha_jones/
Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://www.hbo.com/city/cast/character/samantha_jones.shtml
Stein, Daniel J. "Sexual Addiction: An Integrated Approach." Retrieved November 07, 2005 at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/51/1/123
Vukadinovic, Zoran. "Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model." The…… [Read More]
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]
Naturally, almost all human beings are concerned about adding excess weight. However, in some individuals the fear becomes obsessive, resulting in a condition called Anorexia Nervosa. Anorexia is an eating disorder that could lead to serious weight-loss. The extreme fear concentrates on bodyweight and the food eaten. Anorexia is serious and possibly debilitating life threatening mental sickness (Lloyd et al. 2014). People with Anorexia have not made a 'lifestyle choice'; they are very sick and need help. The reasons for the onset of Anorexia differ from individual to individual; known causes include previous traumatic experiences, environmental, biological aspects. For some individuals, reducing their weight and food can be a way of managing life areas that feel out of their management and their whole body image can come to determine their entire feeling of self-worth. It can be an expression of feelings related to complications like pain, stress, or…… [Read More]
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]
Client Information: Alexandria Wright, 37 years old, female
Description Alexandria Wright is a 37-year-old female who came to Dr. Hidlan for therapy. She is married and has two children, both boys. Alexandria also has three sisters: one older and two younger.
The client mentioned that she had counseling a year ago, but has no history of psychiatric evaluation. Although the client has no official history of diagnosis, she has had some issues relating to her family members. She gets along well with one of her sisters, but not as well with the others. Her sisters view Alexandria as being a "perfectionist" and overly obsessed with organizing things.
Client Mental State
Cognition: Alexandria's thoughts are generally clear and she has a good deal of self-awareness. However, she might be in denial about the extent to which her hyper-organizing is a sign or symptom of an underlying problem. Her thoughts are…… [Read More]
One of the earliest theorists of personality development was Sigmund Freud. Freud defined the development of the individual's personality primarily in terms of struggle, loss, and repression -- namely the individual's family romance with the mother that was finally supplanted through a series of phases or traumas. Eventually, the individual's personality achieved a stasis or a maturity whereby the superego checked the impulses of the id and the ego. Jung expanded upon this notion to include the notion of a collective unconscious that all individuals participated in, as personalities whose forms could be generalized into shapes common to all cultures called archetypes. However, humanistic psychologists such as Piaget and Maslow offered developmental views of the personality that were not necessarily traumatic, but based in developing cognitive structures within the brain. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is perhaps most persuasive, suggesting that an individual's personality is based upon satisfying basic needs,…… [Read More]