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This was good for those that felt OPEC was getting too strong because these changes would have been very difficult to make had the embargo and the oil prices not become such an issue (Reid, 2004).
Many countries begin to look for alternatives to the supplies that they were getting from Arab nations and in the years immediately following the embargo many efforts would be directed at the promotion of production and exploration in areas such as Alaska and the North Sea (Reid, 2004). The energy information administration indicated that the world oil production share that was generally provided by OPEC declined by approximately 25% between the years 1973 and 1985 (Reid, 2004). In the United States, the consumption of gasoline increased between 1970 and 1973 by 15.2 billion gallons (Reid, 2004). One estimate indicated that over 90% of Americans were taking vacations in their cars and averaging over 2100…
Abdalla, Hussein (1979). The Market Structure for International Oil with Special Reference to OPEC. New York: Arno Press.
Abraham, Kurt (2000). If OPEC members are cheating, why have oil prices been rising? World Oil 221 (4) April.
Adelman, M.A. (1982a). OPEC as a Cartel. In J. Griffin and D. Teece et al., eds., OPEC Behavior and World Oil Prices. London: Allen and Unwin.
Adelman, M.A. (1982b). Coping with Supply Insecurity. The Energy Journal 3(2): 1-17.
Throughout the United States, schools and offices often closed down to save on heating oil, and factories were forced to cut production and lay off workers (1973 pp).
A national speed limit of 55 miles per hour was imposed to help reduce consumption, a law that was not completely reversed until 1995 (1973 pp). Year-round Daylight Saving Time was implemented, and at 2:00AM local time on January 6, '974, clocks were advanced one hour across the nation (1973 pp). However, this move sparked much criticism because it forced many children to commute to school before sunrise (1973 pp). Thus, the clocks were turned back on the last Sunday in October as originally scheduled, and in 1975 clocks were set forward one hour at 2:00 AM on February 23 to accommodate the children (1973 pp). The pre-existing daylight-saving rules, calling for the clocks to be advanced one hour on the last…
1973 oil crisis." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_energy_crisis century of dodging meteorites." National Petroleum News. 2/1/2000.
Reid, Keith. "1973 Oil crisis: the embargo shows both OPEC power and weakness." National Petroleum News. 8/1/2004.
Much oil is also used for heating, especially during winter. Therefore, new commitments toward researching, developing, and making available, on a large scale, alternative sources of heating must be made, and this time kept, as well.
To try seriously, however, to identify and describe one core "solution" to oil dependency; that is both untested and would nevertheless work, in this author's opinion, is (and especially given even the current extent of research and understanding into the gnarly depth of the problem and its myriad continuing causes) not only a fruitless exercise, but extremely naive. Instead, the answer lies in not one solution but combinations of many: starting with will; and continuing (perhaps indefinitely) with persistence, patience, personal and public sacrifice; and a loss of national hedonism; self-centeredness; arrogance, and a sense of personal and national entitlement. All of this, in combination, albeit gradually, could still, if the will were…
Bush, George W. State of the Union Speech, January 31, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:
eBXy3XnVdAMJ: www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/+bush%27s+oil+ dependency+speech&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.html>
Gulf War." Wikipedia. December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: .
Hybrid Vehicle." November 28, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle.html
These funds are now removed from the banking system. Keep in mind that banks use every dollar on deposit to create many more dollars worth of loans, the hit to the banking system and by extension, to the money supply is something approaching 25 to 30 billion dollars. This was a global phenomenon, as the crisis arises interest rates are slashed. So hence, by 2008-2009 the Federal Reserve, Bank of England to many others have pushed interest rates close to zero. He also explains how major players like Mr. Bernake and the Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson affected the crisis and how the steps and how they have left their mark on this financial crisis. He also contends that all crisis have an ebb and flow in their severity and rarely hit once and subside. He vilifies our toxic waste method of having recourse to non-recourse government loans and in the…
Similarly, while the arrangements made by the British lasted a relatively short timeframe, the dividing up of land necessary to mark off territory for such constitutional authorities had a more permanent effect. In Iraq, for example, the grouping of ethnic Kurds with Sunni and Shi'a Arabs within the same monarchy territory proved disastrous, as continuing ethnic strife led to the eventual dissolution of the state and the rise of events leading to the wars of the last decades of the 1900s and the first decade of 2000. The establishment of Palestine, and the subsequent favoring of Jewish immigration to the region, leading to the establishment of a Jewish state following WWII and the Holocaust, placed people of distinctly different belief systems and ethnic grudges in close proximity together (Grenville, 428-429, 431-437). This pattern of drawing up of territorial arrangements that suited the British interests rather than accounted for Arab differences…
Grenville, J.A.S. (2005). History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century (First Edition). London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
High Oil Prices and Effect on the Economy
Global oil prices have maintained a creeping trend since 2004, following the 2001 initial oil crisis (Pahl & ichter, 2009). The increase in oil prices and the expected further increase in the future pose a serious threat to the stability of the global economy. This study looks at how high oil prices affect the economies of both developed and third nations, which makes them remain vulnerable following an unstable period of fluctuating oil prices. It draws and contributes to the existing literature carried out by researchers globally. This study is based on the most recent dynamics of high oil prices and the effect on the global economy. Oil is a significant factor of production in many countries; the fluctuation of its price to a high level has a significant negative effect in the growth of global economy.
High oil prices and effect…
Pahl, N., & Richter, A. (2009). Oil Price Developments - Drivers, Economic Consequences and Policy Responses. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Ye-pez-Garcia, R.A., & Dana, J. (2012). Mitigating vulnerability to high and volatile oil prices: Power sector experience in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
United Nations (2008). World economic situation and prospects 2008. New York: United Nations.
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Resulting from the devaluation of China's currency was an exacerbation of problems throughout Asia.
VII. 1995-96 -MINI-RECESSION, DET PROLEM, ACCUMULATION
In the summer of 1995, the reversal of the chronic weakness of the dollar resulted in the depreciation of the Japanese yen, which had been approaching an acute deflationary crisis with a steep fall in the stock market. (Makin, 2000; paraphrased)
VIII. 1996-97 - DET / FOREIGN EXCHANGE, RESERVE RATIONS DETERIORATE
The work of Williamson (1999) entitled: "Implications of the East Asian Crisis for Debt Management" relate that a countries debt can be viewed from four different external perspectives in terms of debt composition which include: (1) FDI; (2) Portfolio Equity; (3) Long-term loans; and (4) short-term loans. This is the ideal composition of a countries debts however the debt profile of countries in East Asia are known to profoundly differ from the foregoing profile in that they had too…
Banking System Developments in the Four Asian Tigers (1997) Economic Research and Data. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 8 Aug 1997. Online FRBSF Economic Letter. Available at http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/el97-22.html
Barro, Robert J. (1998) the East Asian Tigers Have Plenty to Roar About. Economic Viewpoint Business Week 27 Apr 1998. Online available at http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro/files/bw98_04_27.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. 1999 February Online available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/1999/wp2499.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. CSGR Working Paper No. 24/99. February 1999. Online available at
I think that people think what they do does not make a difference. However, if enough people do it, then it could make a difference, and make people more aware of alternatives at the same time.
I feel the current political policies, for the most part, are critically flawed and need to be radically reformed. In fact, I think many politicians have their heads in the sand over this issue, and need their attitudes totally readjusted. I just read an article online that the Nevada Legislature wants to rescind a law giving "green" builders tax breaks, because it could cost the state too much money (Bellisle). This seems extremely short sighted and backward to me. It is a time when we should be encouraging the use of alternative power and building methods, rather than rescinding tax incentives. That is just one reason I feel the current political policies are fatally…
Bellisle, Martha. "Gibbons Threatens to Veto 'green tax break' Suspension." RenoGazetteJournal.com. 4 May 2007. 4 May 2007.
Heinberg, Richard. The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2003.
crisis, risk, and security all play a role and are linked within an organizational context. It is also important to examine the role gaming and simulation play within this phenomena. In the past, risk was established as an idea that generated academic interest not just in social sciences but in pure sciences. It also has become subject to overzealous social and political controversy. isk management has then become the main source of debate as well as theory development (Borodzicz, 2005) As risk can appear within anything from public safety, to transportation, and health, businesses must learn an effective way to manage it. Security management however, has less developed theories and debates but still plays a vital role is lessening risk and increase proper risk management. It is then crucial to understand how both play roles in the stability and safety of any organization.
In John Adam's isk at the beginning…
Adams, J. (1995). Risk (1st ed.). London [England]: UCL Press.
Borodzicz, E. (2005). Risk, crisis and security management (1st ed.). West Sussex, England: J. Wiley & Sons.
Button, M. (2008). Doing security (1st ed.). Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cavanagh, T., & Whiting, M. (2003). Corporate security management (1st ed.). New York: Conference Board.
structure o the global oil industry b. The structure of the global gas industry.
The integrated oil and gas companies (IOCs) are vertical, tall, or centralized structures where producers refined 100% of their production and then marketed refined products through their retail outlets. Production and distribution was downward. Today many of these IOCs combine verticality with a certain horizontalness with many spreading their tasks over various fields and involved in various simultaneous activities. They operate in many segments, whilst also buying and selling oil and gas to and from other firms. The companies are therefore centralized around a certain core management with specialists in each field clustered in tiers underneath.
The vertical structure denotes uses a hierarchical structure with downward directives and management span of control where underneath tiers are controlled by and responsible to upper levels of management. Again, each of the firms demonstrate this vertical structure in diverse…
Charon Advantages & Disadvantages of the Vertical Functional Organizational Structure
Inkpen, A The Global Oil and Gas Industry -- 2010. Thunderbird.
price of oil has fallen from around $120 per barrel about a year and half ago to around $50 per barrel. This has resulted in a sharp fall in revenues for all oil companies and specially the smaller companies that have a limited cash or revenue reserve. IN this condition this paper studies the possible strategies that can adopted by smaller oil companies to tide over the situation.
For this study we take the case of BNK Petroleum. The study reveals that the company expended more than three forth of its revenue of exploration which was one of the major causes of losses. It was recommended that the company should reduce its exploration expenses and look to venture into new markets of South America and Africa. To enable financing of marketing expenses in these markets, it has also been recommended that the company dilute some of its equity. To further…
Bhar, R. and Nikolova, B. (2010). GLOBAL OIL PRICES, OIL INDUSTRY AND EQUITY RETURNS: RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 57(2), pp.169-186.
Bnkpetroleum.com, (2015). Frequently Asked Questions -- BNK Petroleum Inc. -- TSE: BKX. [online] Available at: http://www.bnkpetroleum.com/about-us/faqs?view=category&id=17 [Accessed 17 Nov. 2015].
Fine, L. (2009). The SWOT analysis. [Place of publication not identified]: Kick It.
Grant, R. and Grant, R. (2005). Contemporary strategy analysis. Malden: Blackwell.
Lewis' the Crisis of Islam
On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…
Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).
Other signs that clearly point to…
About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx .
Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.
Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423& ;
Argenti raises many sound points regarding the proper protocol during crisis management. The bulk of chapter ten demonstrates a sound understanding of how crises unfold, and how every crisis is different. While this is true, there are still strong areas of overlap among crises. "Few circumstances test a company's reputation or competency as severely as a crisis. Whether the impact is immediate or sustained over months and years, a crisis affects stakeholders within and outside of a company" (Weiner, 2006). In such a case, clients cancel orders and cancel subscriptions. Employees start asking questions or worse, quitting. Competitors start circling like sharks and government agencies and other regulators often start knocking, with attorneys at their heel (Weiner, 2006). Given all the aggravated circumstances connected to a crisis and the variety of ways that any potential crisis could be handled, Argenti makes a continually strong and pervasive argument about…
Argenti. (2007). Strategic Corporate Communication. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Friedman, K. (2013). Dealing with the Media During a Crisis. Retrieved from bernsteincrisismanagement.com:
Korean Financial Crisis in the Late 1990s: Lesson for Current Euro Area
The objective of this study is to examine what is unique or different about the Korean financial crisis as compared to other Asian financial crises and to determine the primary causes of the financial crisis in Korea. This work will further examine the government response to the crisis and what it is that can be learned from the Korean financial crisis and applied in Korea to the Euro Area.
The major components of the Korean financial system in the 1960s and 1970s are stated in reports to have been nationalized with "lending targeted toward favored sectors and firms including the exports and heavy industries. (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Regional banks came on in 1967 and could only operate in their own provinces, which provided encouragement for development that was regionally-based. In the early 1980s, plans were made for…
Athens University of Economics and Business. Cyprus Economic Policy Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 89-96 (2010) 1450-4561
Causes, Policy Response, and Lessons. Presentation at The High-Level Seminar on Crisis Prevention in Emerging Markets Organized by The International Monetary Fund and The Government of Singapore. Singapore July 10-11, 2006.
Global Economic Review: Perspectives on East Asian Economies and Industries. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rger20
Jeon, BN (2012) From the 1997-98 Asian Financial crisis to the 2008-09 global economic crisis: lessons from Korea's experience. 1 Feb 2012.
Crisis and Disaster
The running of any Government, Community, Society or even an Organization for that matter is, no doubt, a very complicated matter. The main reason for this complication is the many arrays of problems and situations that can arise and each one of them demands special attention to cater to. This makes the smooth running of any setup, then, a big challenge for the concerned authorities. However, this smooth running turn into more of a challenge in the face of a disaster or a crisis, which can completely turn the entire setup upside down.
Before an analysis of the Frontline Documentary "The Spill" can be presented, it is important that we understand the background of the event presented and the difference between crisis and disaster and how it ties up to the incident in question.
Merriam ebster defines Crisis as "A situation that has reached a critical phase"…
BBC News. (2006, November 1st). BP 'knew of Texas safety worries'. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6100938.stm
Boin, A. (2009). The New World of Crises and Crisis Management: Implications for Policymaking and Research. Review of Policy Research, 26, 367-377.
Bolton, C.A. (2006, October). The Difference between Crisis and Disaster is a Plan. Retrieved December 16th, 2011, from Public Relations Society of America: http://media.prsa.org/article_download.cfm?article_id=929
Broder, J.M. (2010, March 31st). Obama to Open Offshore Areas to Oil Drilling for First Time. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/science/earth/31energy.html
9 times greater" than the daily average imported in 1973 (www.ecologicinvestor.com). The importation of oil is the "largest single component" in the U.S. annual trade deficit; the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, quoted by Ecologic Investor, points to the trade deficit for the first 8 months of 2008 -- $281.14 billion. That translates to $4.21 billion annually (estimated).
Saudi Arabia needless to say generates a majority of its revenue from the exporting of petroleum; and while the U.S. trade deficit grows based on oil imports, Saudi Arabia accumulates a surplus, based on oil exports. And meantime Saudi Arabia and fellow members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been attempting to "promote higher levels of trade between themselves by removing barriers to the free exchange of goods, services and capital," but their efforts are being challenged by the lack of a "common external tariff" (Nations Encyclopedia). That goes to indicate…
Bundy, William P. "Elements of Power." Foreign Affairs, 56.1 (1977): 1-26.
Ecologic Investor. "35th Anniversary of 1973 Oil Embargo." Retrieved May 3, 2009,
From http://www.ecologicinvestor.com (2008).
Hakes, Jay. "35 Years After the Arab Oil Embargo." Journal of Energy Security.
However, this calmness did not translate into crisis management success. Although BP seemed to not be significantly affected by the situation, Hayward stated that the company was overwhelmed by the media attention. The former CEO blames the press for the image that the public has formed on the company in response to its handling of the situation.
The control that the company was supposed to reveal did not match the intensity of the crisis. BP did not show that it fully controlled the situation. The fact that the company tried to share the blame with the rig owner and the drilling company reveals the fact that the company was not in control of the situation. The numerous attempts and strategies that the company developed and implemented in order to stop or reduce the oil spill also prove the lack of control from BP.
The lack of control showed by BP…
1. Fitzgerald, a. (2010). BP Had Prepared for Oil Spill 10 Times Golf Disaster, Permit Plans Say. Bloomberg. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-05-31/bp-told-u-s-it-could-handle-oil-spill-10-times-larger-than-gulf-disaster.html .
2. Raines, B. (2010). BP Told Feds it Could Handle Oil Spill 60 Times Larger Than Deepwater Horizon. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from http://blog.al.com/live/2010/05/bp_told_feds_it_could_handle_o.html .
3. BP Ex-Chief Admits Company Was Ill-Prepared to Handle Oil Spill (2010). Empowered News. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from http://empowerednews.net/bp-ex-chief-admits-company-was-ill-prepared-to-handle-oil-spill/183629/ .
4. Moore, K. (2010). Integrated Marketing Communications. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Integrated_Marketing_Communications_-_5_Primary_Communication_Tools.html .
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…
'Boards of Directors Need to Oversee Corporate Sustainability more Effectively', 2010, PR Newswire, Available from Proquest. [19 June 2010] http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2054701491&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1276983049&clientId=45065
'BP Engineer Called Deepwater Horizon Nightmare Well Days Before Blast', 2010, Huffington Post, Available from: [21 June 2010].
'BP Establishes a $20 Billion Claims Fund', 2010, BP, Available from: . [21 June 2010].
'Estimating Cleanup Costs for Oil Spills', 1999, Cutter Information Corporation, Available from: . [19 June 2010].
In addition to energy crisis, an effect of U.S. dependence of foreign oil that many believe has already been exploited is the political affect. According to Feldstein, "the political leaders in the Middle East know that our dependence on their oil gives them leverage over our policies." Some believe that many of the United States' interventions in the Middle East have been in the name of oil. Many of these also believe that oil has been the cause of American deaths, domestic, and foreign policy concerning both oil and the Middle East. Further dependence on foreign oil, which is projected, can only further increase the effects of said dependence on United States politics, both foreign and domestic.
Finally, a third effect of the United States' dependence on foreign oil is economic volatility. Although gas prices have begun to go down, high prices during the summer of 2008, and in other…
Feldstein, Martin. "Oil Dependence and National Security: A Market-based System for Reducing U.S. Vulnerability." National Bureau of Economic Research. October 2001. 02 December 2008. http://www.nber.org/feldstein/oil.html
Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence." National Resources Defense Counsel. 3 October 2001.
02 December 2008. http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/fensec.asp
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
Pacific Oil Startegic Plan
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN-OGANIZATIONAL STATEGY
ISK Management PLAN
esponding of isk management Process
Evolution of isk Management
Policies and Procedures
152011 Identified isks
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
This paper presents a strategic plan or Pacific Oil. The paper starts with organizational background consisting of business mission, vision and the corporate values. The nature of the business of Pacific Oil has been clearly identified with some highlights on the business divisions operating in the oil industry. An environmental scan has been performed in order to have a clear insight into the circumstances in which the Pacific Oil is operating. This environmental scan for Pacific Oil is accompanied by a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats) Analysis. Strengths and weaknesses of Pacific Oil relate to internal organizational environment while opportunities and threats relate to external environment of…
Canales, James E.; Kibble, Barbara D.; Terk, Natasha, 2008. "One Step Beyond Strategic Planning." Foundation News & Commentary, Vol.41 Issue.
Hay, Robert D., 2009. Strategic management in organizations, Westport: Greenwood Press.
llison, Michael & Kaye, Jude, 2010. "Why Plan?" Strategic Planning for Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Polyack, Jolene, 2009. " Organizations Need Marketing Strategies To Meet Goals." Business Journal -- Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley, Issue 322490.
(Drawing the Line on Energy) the newly emerging economies are also trying to find more and more oil for their economies to advance rapidly.
There is a lot of difference among the countries in terms of the amount they produce and in terms of the quantities they export. In terms of production the order is Saudi Arabia, United States, ussia, Iran, Mexico, China, Norway, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, United Kingdom, Kuwait and Nigeria. In terms of exports, the order is Saudi Arabia, ussia, Norway, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Kuwait, Nigeria, Mexico, Algeria and Libya. It is clear that USA does not export as it consumes all the quantities that it produces. The need is for USA is to ensure that it gets all the oil it needs and that was probably the reason to attack Iraq. One of the persons contributing to that view was the Vice President…
Petroleum. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum#Future_of_oilAccessed on 6 May, 2005
Brooke, James. Drawing the Line on Energy. New York Times. 29 March 2005. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/naha.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Romero, Simon. Spanish Seek Oil Off Cuba, as Americans Watch Silently. New York Times. 6 July 2004. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/romero.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Sachs, Jeffrey. America's disastrous energy plan. Financial Times. 22 December 2003. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/energy/costs.htm . Accessed on 6 May, 2005
Cuban Missile Crisis
The reports of the arrival of missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba. These warheads are capable of reaching almost any part of the continental United States. The presence of these warheads represents an escalation of the conflict with the Soviet Union and its allies, and it represents an existential threat to the United States. For the first time since the arms buildup between the U.S. And USS began, we are in a situation where mutually-assured destruction is a legitimate possibility. The response of the United States to this conflict represents the most significant challenge faced by President Kennedy to this point in his career, and it is imperative that he authorize the right course of action.
May (2011) posits that Kennedy was aware of and had permitted the arrival of defensive missiles from the U.S.S.. To Cuba, and in fact…
Chomsky, N. (2012). Cuban missile crisis: How the U.S. played Russian roulette with nuclear war. The Guardian. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette
LOC. (2010). Cold war: Cuban missile crisis Library of Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html
May, E. (2011). John F. Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis BBC History. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/kennedy_cuban_missile_01.shtml
Schwarz, B. (2013). The real Cuban missile crisis. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/01/the-real-cuban-missile-crisis/309190/
The simple fact is this that the initiation of offshore oil drilling can be used effectively as a threat to lower the overall importing prices of oil from the Middle East States. The actual drilling, if looking at its impact internally, might or might not result in the actual decrease in gas prices or increase of alternative fuel and energy production. But in the recent times, the real reason for such a high debate on the offshore drilling aspect has been to use it merely as a strategy and a negotiation tool.
This approach and application of this strategy is something that neither I, nor people like who think that offshore drilling has more negative effects then positive, have a problem with. I do have a problem however with how offshore drilling is portrayed as the savior for the American dependency on foreign oil. Its like love is cast off…
Daniels, B. Offshore Drilling: Pros and Cons. 2008.Taken from: http://www.411mania.com/politics/columns/81832
Gertz, E. Can Offshore Drilling Really Make the U.S. Oil Independent? Even if U.S. energy policy goes "drill baby drill," there will be no escape from the vicissitudes of the global oil market. Scientific American. 2008.
Gross, D. Drilling for Answers: Will we find the oil we need offshore? Newsweek, 18-06-2008.
Parsley, J. Wellington chamber weighs pros, cons of offshore drilling. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. 2008.
It was from this lesson that legislators began to understand the need to put away large percentages of their oil profits and to not depend so much on spending that cash flow.
After the recession of the 1980s, Norway drastically re-examined its oil policy from both a fiscal and regulatory perspective. Up into the late 1980s, "foreign oil policy followed what was called a 'purely commercial line.' That is, it was not desirable to declare officially that political evaluation were included in its design," (Austvik 1989, p.1). This lead Norway to be established as a "free rider" within the global oil market. According to research, "As a 'free rider' in the market, Norway was then also in the best possible position; she could increase her production and at the same time reap the price benefits deriving from other counties' production reductions," (Austvik 1989, p.1). The recession of the 1980s lead…
Austvik, Ole Gunnar. 1989, "Norwegian oil and foreign policy." Norwegian Foreign Policy Studies. No. 68. Retrieved July 28, 2009 at http://www.kaldor.no/energy/norwoil1989intro.htm .
Davis, Jerome D. 2006, the Changing World of Oil: An Analysis of Corporate change and Adoption. Ashgate Publishing.
Engebretsen, Marit. 2007, "The Norwegian energy sector and Europe." Norway: Official Site. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at http://www.eu-norway.org/policyareas/energy/.
Erikson, Tore. 2006, "The Norwegian petroleum sector and the Government Pension Fund -- global." Ministry of Finance. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FIN/Statens%20pensjonsfond/The_Norwegian_Petroleum_Sector_te.pdf .
All these factors have added too many variables to the Middle East, an important region for crude oil production" (Xuequan, 2008).
The improved standards of living have contributed significantly to an increase in the population's demands. And to satisfy these demands, with the ultimate scope of registering higher profits, the American corporations have abused the natural resources and are now moving towards the resources in other countries. Two such vital resources are crude oil and natural gas. The situation of gas is quite stable, but that of oil is critical. Based on limited natural resources, a weakening American dollar, speculative operations on the international market, but also the regulations implemented by OPEC and the conflicts in the Middle East, the price of oil has sky rocked - and it is likely to continue its ascendant trajectory.
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May…
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May 30, 2008
Wallace, E., May 13, 2008, the Reason for High Oil Prices, Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2008/bw20080513_720178.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStorieslast accessed on May 30, 2008
Xuequan, M., April 18, 2008, Weak Dollar Not Sole Reason for High Oil Prices, Xinhua News Agency, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/18/content_7999121.html . Ast accessed on May 30, 2008
2004, Why are Oil Prices so High?, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3708951.stmlast accessed on May 30, 2008
S. provided important intelligence from a spy plane (SR-71 Blackbird). Thanks to the spy plane pinpointing where the enemy forces were gathering, Israel could pound those forces from the air and in time -- thanks also to U.S. military equipment being shipped to Israel -- the war was won by Israel.
But the OPEC nations knew how much the U.S. depended on Arab oil supplies; as Rudiger Graf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Diplomatic History, the use of an embargo to punish America and the Netherlands was "…watershed in history, signifying the growing dependency of industrialized nations on foreign oil and a power shift in the global economy" (Graf, 2012, 185). The "oil weapon" had never been used by Muslim nations against the est, and the point was to for America and other "…economically powerful countries to comply with their political demands" (Graf, 185).
Meanwhile the embargo caused gasoline prices…
Graf, Rudiger. "Making Use of the 'Oil Weapon': Western Industrialized Countries and Arab
Petropolitics in 1973-1974." Diplomatic History, 36.1 (2012): 185-208.
History Learning Site. "The Yom Kippur War of 1973." Retrieved April 26, 2013, from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk . 2013.
Souder, Elizabeth. "Fueling the Frustration: Get used to higher gas prices, experts say, but don't expect long-term shortages." Dallas Morning News. 2005.
All these were achieved with immense marketing budgets.
In the current situation when the United States and the world are threatened by an economic crisis, the giant shoemaker continues to sustain an increased marketing budget. A specification that must be made however is that changes in the structure of the budget have occurred. In this order of ideas, the marketing specialists at Nike are more centred on interactive and innovative marketing, rather than traditional marketing operations. In a time of financial difficulties then, the number one shoemaker of the globe is trying to approach the audience using less conventional means. Nike officials argued that they were not in the business of keeping the media companies alive, but that their primary interest was that of best communicating with the audience. In this order of ideas then, the multinational organization drastically reduced marketing budgets for television advertisements and other traditional means and…
Chandler, T., Nike Gets Engaged, Shrinks Traditional Ad Spending. Here's How Copywriters Can Benefit, the Copywriter Underground, 2007, http://copywriterunderground.com/2007/10/22/nike-gets-engaged-shrinks-traditional-ad-spending-heres-how-copywriters-can-benefit/last accessed on October 16, 2008
Lovell, C., Marketing Budgets Cut at Record Rate as Economic Crisis Deepends, Brand Republic, 2008, http://www.brandrepublic.com/Campaign/News/852748/Marketing-budgets-cut-record-rate-economic-crisis-deepens/last accessed on October 16, 2008
McNamara, C., All About Marketing, Free Management Library, 2008, http://www.managementhelp.org/mrktng/mrktng.html . Ast accessed on October 16, 2008
Ford's Product Facing a Deepening Financial Crisis, Daily Times, 2006, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006 57story_7-5-2006_pg5_30last accessed on October 16, 2008
Nevertheless, more crucial remained the truth that the dollar itself oscillated severely as against the yen that is another vital currency for carrying out business for the affected nations. The fading of the dollar within the decadal period from 1985 to 1995 made a huge boon in the trade surplus for the affected nations. Thereafter, the acute turnaround began in 1995 wiped their enormous edge in price and damaged their current account situation, which in its effect spoiled the trust in the market created an appropriate climate for the crisis. To put it differently, it was not the system of linking the dollar in its own which is responsible. The cause was the non-observance of the basic instability in the economies of the nations and the uncontrolled oscillation of the exchange rate of dollar-yen. The dilemma was the outcome of the huge quantity of unstable capital and the blind follower…
Akyuz, Yilmaz. Causes and sources of the Asian Financial Crisis. Paper presented at the Host Country Event: Symposium on Economic and Financial Recovery in Asia. UNCTAD X, Bangkok. 17 February 2000. Retrieved at http://www.unctad-10.org/pdfs/hi_akyuz.en.pdf. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Chakravarthi Raghavan. G -24 calls for international regulation of financial markets. Retrieved at http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/g24-cn.htm . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Fischer, Stanley. Reforming the International Monetary System. November 9, 1998.
Retrieved at http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/1998/110998.htm . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Strategic Management of Qantas in the Light of Global Financial Crisis
The Global Economic/Financial Crisis, also known as GFC has influenced the performance of all organizations negatively in the current business environment. Besides increasing the costs of operations, GFC threatens the use of human resources in different organizations. With such a premise, this study analyzes the influence of the crisis on the performance, sustainability, and competitiveness of most of the airline companies. In specific, it analyzes the effects of the crisis on the performance of the Qantas Airlines, an Australian carrier known globally for its high quality services. As such, adopting the stated recommendations in the analysis will help reduce the threats facing the Qantas Airlines significantly because of the Global Financial Crisis.
The worldwide economic crisis has influenced the performance of all sectors of the economy negatively in the current global business environment. Among the highly…
Baum, J.A.C., & Lampel, J. (2010). The globalization of strategy research. Bingley:
Berlatsky, N. (2010). The global financial crisis. Detroit, Mich.: Greenhaven Press.
Glaesser, D. (2006). Crisis management in the tourism industry (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
As Taibbi shows, it is not easy: "I'm going to say something radical about the Tea Partiers. They're not all crazy. They're not even always wrong. hat they are, and they don't realize it, is an anachronism. They're fighting a 1960s battle in a world run by twenty-first-century crooks" (Griftopia 16-17). Taibbi makes clear that the Tea Party is not even homogenous: it is made up of a broad spectrum of individuals (some of whom do not even want to be called Tea Partiers) who are angry and looking for someway to focus their anger.
In conclusion, recouping the losses is not an easy thing to do. hen a company like Lehman Brothers can be allowed to collapse while their competition (Goldman Sachs) can be bailed out by tax payer dollars, citizens are going to start wondering how their country got to such a point in the first place. Taibbi…
AP/HuffPost. Charles Ferguson's Oscar Speech Rips Wall Street: 'Inside Job' Director
Levels Criticism During Acceptance. HuffPost Business. Web. 8 Apr 2011.
Campbell, Andrea Louise. "Is the Economic Crisis Driving Wedges Between Young and Old? Rich and Poor?" Generations 33.3, Fall 2009: 47-53. Print.
Espo, David. "Deadline nears: Shutdown looms without agreement." Yahoo! News, 8
Economic Crisis 2008-2009
This report focuses on the events that took place in the Great crash of 2008-2009. It aims to highlight the events that took place and what the basic factors and events were that eventually led to the economy crashing. It is also a point of focus to determine what effects came about and how different parties were to be blamed for the deregulation that led to the catastrophic events of the crash. It is linked with the policies present at that time i.e. The Monetary Policies outlining the control of money supply and interest rates as well as the Fiscal Policy that focus on the government spending and taxation policies.
The financial crisis refers to a situation whereby there is a contraction of money supply and the amount of wealth in the economy. This is also known as a "credit crunch" whereby participants of the economy lose…
Minkiw, Mc Gregory. (2009). The Financial Crisis and the Economic Downturn of 2008 and
2009. Macro Economics (7th Edition).
Ryan (2008). The 2008-2009 Financial Crisis-Causes and Effects. Cash, Money, Life.
Increased oil prices and environmental concerns have increased the interest in nuclear power. However, building nuclear plants is not such an easy thing to achieve. For example, in order to build nuclear plants the United States government must reach a certain level of progress regarding nuclear waste management, creating a suitable regulatory framework for licensing nuclear plants that present a low or acceptable safety risk (Council on Foreign elations, 2006).
Given the above mentioned information, it is expected that the United States dependence on foreign oil to continue to manifest for the following decades. Even more, the country's oil consumption will slowly increase each year. It is not possible for any nation to completely reduce its dependence on oil. However, this foreign oil dependence can be reduced by implementing a series of government policies directed towards developing alternative energy sources, and by influencing individual consumption towards such sources.
United States (2008). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html .
Bowman, Michael (2003). U.S. Foreign Oil Dependency on Increase, say Experts. VOA, Washington. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/2003/10-16-3.htm .
Dye, Lee (2004). U.S.: Foreign Oil Dependency: Stuck Between a Rock and Hard Place. Energy Bulletin. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.energybulletin.net/node/1253.
Feldstein, Martin (2001). Oil Dependence and National Security: A Market-based System for Reducing U.S. Vulnerability. Retrieved November 1, 2008 at http://www.nber.org/feldstein/oil.html .
International Crisis on Businesses.
In this paper, I will assume the task of a consultant at McKinsey and Co. It is my duty to analyze the effects on international and local businesses of the problems which are erupted in Middle Eastern/Northern African countries particularly Egypt, Tunisia and others. This paper will be produced for the clients of McKinsey and Co in order to assist them in their respective strategies for the region. The main four topics which would be addressed in this paper are as follows, the local impact on business, the global impact on businesses and industries, the impact on shareholder value and wealth of the most affected companies and finally the short, medium and long-term political influences which might affect businesses.
Local Impact on Businesses
During the times of severe political or social unrest which is now seen in countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Syria and others, the overall…
Stiles, Kendall. (2002). Civil Society by Design. Connecticut: Praeger.
Hironaka, Ann. (2005). Never-ending Wars. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Madison, G. (1998). Political Economy of Civil Society and Human Rights. London: Routledge.
Cardenas, Gilberto. (2004). La Causa. Houston: Arte Publico.
Rawl confessed that it was "bad judgement involved in even putting a person with a critical skill back in that kind of work...It is pretty clear we have to tighten those things up" (Loeb pp).
hen asked what advice he had for other CEOs, Rawl stated that they had better prethink which way they are going to jump from a public affairs standpoint before they have any kind of a problem, and cautioned that they should always have a public affairs plan, no matter how hard it is to think in terms of disasters (Loeb pp).
Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm
Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005…
Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm
Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Roth, Alan T. (2003 April 08). Managing Risk Issues vs. Managing Risk:
Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.
President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.
Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…
Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354
Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356 .
DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550 .
"But we did kill a lot of resources," said Beck. That having been said, Beck does believe that some habitat losses -- and some that occurred prior to the oil spill -- can be "re-engineered" if the marshes receive the attention they deserve to receive.
Meanwhile, the assertion that the oil has dissipated and there is "very little" oil that is recoverable goes against the tone of a story in USA Today (Jervis, 2010, p. 3A) on October 19. Jervis writes that "Swaths of fresh oil flatten miles of march grass and cane weeds" in Bay Jimmy in Louisiana. Indeed, although BP has pulled back workers, more than 32,000 gallons of oil were removed (sucked out by industrial vacuum cleaners operated by workers in hazardous materials suits) during a recent 10-day period in Bay Jimmy (Jervis).
"People think it's over," said P.J. Hahn, the coastal zone director for Plaquemines Parish.…
Bates, Theunis. "BP Unloads Assets So It Can Pay for Gulf Oil Spill." AOL News. 18 Oct.
2010: retrieved Oct. 19, 2010, from http://www.aolnews.com .
Drake, Nadia. "UC Santa Cruz scientist finds the silver lining in the Gulf oil spill disaster."
The Mercury News 18 Oct. 2010: retrieved Oct. 19, 2010, from http://www.mercurynews.com .
In Sinclair's novel, the whole vision is altered because it focuses mainly on Bunny's perception of his father and of the broader social concerns of the day. Here the father is less of an individual and more of a representative of the emergent and destructive force of the cruel capitalism. It is not the beastly, inhuman character of a man that is brought into focus, but the inhuman force of capitalism. Even from the first pages, everything is rendered through the yet unripe but keen eyes of the son: "Sometimes you liked to put your hand up, and feel the cold impact; sometimes you would peer around the side of the shield, and let the torrent hit your forehead, and toss your hair about. But for the most part you sat about and dignified because that was Dad's way and Dad's way constituted the ethics of motoring."(Sinclair, 5) the wider…
Global Financial Crisis and the Challenges for Developing Countries
Global financial crisis is known to generally hit the developed economies and cause a slowdown in the economy and even negative growth. This is primarily due to the slack demand in the local market and he surrounding markets. For the developing countries the impact of a global financial meltdown is directly related to the importance of exports and the dependence on capital inflow of foreign funds for local industries and to the economy.
For example in the countries of South Asian countries, for example more than 22% of the Gross Domestic Products is formed by exports of goods and services. The percentages of such exports of the GDP is 26% in the Latin America and the Caribbean countries, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 40% in central Asia while it is nearly half of the GDP in countries of…
de Paiva Abreu, M., Agarwal, M., Kadochnikov, S., Mikic, M., Whalley, J., & Yongding, Y. The Effect of the World Financial Crisis on Developing Countries: An Initial Assessment. Centre for International Governance Innovation. Retrieved from https://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/task_force_1.pdf
Kaeksal, B., & Orhan, M. Market Risk of Developed and Developing Countries During the Global Financial Crisis. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2026781
Kaeksal, B., & Orhan, M. Market Risk of Developed and Developing Countries During the Global Financial Crisis. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2026781
McCulloch, N., & Sumner, A. (2009). Introduction: The Global Financial Crisis, Developing Countries and Policy Responses. IDS Bulletin, 40(5), 1-13. doi:10.1111/j.1759-5436.2009.00069.x
This does not build trust" (Dupre, 2007).
Tehran's main revenue still comes from oil, and a realist would suggest hitting Iran where it could 'hurt' it, economically. This would mean threatening to isolate Iran from the international community by seeking other sources of oil on the part of the United States, unless Iran abides by the non-proliferation treaty, and that the U.S. should pressure Iran's major oil 'clients' to find other sources, with incentive packages offered to those states, such as India. Ultimately, "Iranian authorities know that there is no other alternative than Iran's integration in the international society and becoming a key constructive player in the region," and that it cannot become a rogue state like North Korea because it is dependant upon the commerce of oil with other nations (Dupre, 2007). Other nations that might be damaged by its nuclear capacity with economic and political leverage must capitalize…
Dupre, Bruno. "Iran Nuclear Crisis: The Right Approach." Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Feb 2007. [11 Feb 2007] http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=print&id=19002
Idealism." IR Theory. [11 Feb 2007]
It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem
Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:
The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.
At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the…
Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.
BBC How many people can live on planet earth?
Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
Cousins issued right rudder commands to result in the desired course change and took the ship off autopilot. While such efforts did not result in turning swiftly Cousins ordered further right rudder with increasing urgency. The bumpy ride and six very sharp jolts occurred at 12:04 AM. The vessel grounded towards southwest balanced across its middle on a pinnacle of Bligh eef. Eight of the eleven oil tanks punctured flooding about 5.8 million gallons out of the tanker in the first three and quarter hours. The confessions at NTSB indicated that Cousins may have been awake and normally at work for up to 18 hours preceding the accident. There is the evidence of direct impact of fatigue on human performance error and recognized that about 80% or more of marine accidents are attributable to human error. (Details about the Accident)
The circumstantial factors like prolonged duty hours, poor working conditions,…
Details about the Accident" Retrieved at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html . Accessed 3 October, 2005
1989: Exxon Valdez creates oil slick disaster" (24 March, 1989) Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/24/newsid_4231000/4231971.stm . Accessed 3 October, 2005
Exxon Valdez disaster: 15 years of lies" (24 March, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.greenpeace.org/international/news/exxon-valdez-disaster-15-yearAccessed 3 October, 2005
Keeble, John. "Out of the Channel: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Prince William Sound"
In the wake of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, about thirty percent of the oil, and "the most volatile fraction" of it, evaporated in a period of about ten hours (Handwerk, 2011). This was the primary aerosol emanation Another ten to twenty percent evaporated over the course of the next few days, and those turned into a wide plume of aerosol that was later identified as being comprised of intermediate or semi-volatile organic compounds (Xie, 2011). This secondary aerosol was composed of both light and heavy types of hydrocarbons, which have contributed to air pollution over a wide area (Handwerk, 2011). Ironically, the pattern of aerosol evaporation from the oil spill has advanced scientific understanding of how secondary aerosols form after the initial chemical conversion from their most volatile compounds (Xie, 2011). According to the EPA (2014), in addition to volatile organic compounds, the oil spill…
Handwerk, B. (2011). Gulf oil spill helps explain air pollution mystery. National Geographic News. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110310-gulf-oil-spill-air-pollution-science-nation/
National Wildlife Federation (2014). How Does the BP Oil Spill Impact Wildlife and Habitat? Retrieved online: http://www.nwf.org/What-We-Do/Protect-Habitat/Gulf-Restoration/Oil-Spill/Effects-on-Wildlife.aspx
Radermacher, M. (n.d.). Bioremediation of marine oil spills. Retrieved online: http://home.eng.iastate.edu/~tge/ce421-521/matt-r.pdf
Stewart, R.R. (2005). Atmospheric structure and pollution sources. Retrieved online: Atmospheric Structure and Pollution Sources. Retrieved online: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/atmosphere.html
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…
Climate Change -- Science. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 21st, 2006. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/pastcc.html .
Correspondents in London "Asia in spotlight over global warming" the Australian. April 25, 2007.
National Research Council (NRC), Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 2006. http://www.newton.nap.edu/html/climatechange/.
Talhelm, Jennifer. "McCain warns of twin threats of energy dependence, global warming." Associated Press. 11:12 A.M. April 23, 2007.
One of the most famous crises that was based on misinterpretation and a zero-sum game was the 1960's Cuban Missile Crisis when misperceptions or fake induced information could have led from a crisis to a conflict and a war.
Conflict in the international arena is often lead by perceptions and power politics games that often are not based on realistic evidence. Conflict is nonetheless a measurable phenomena as many conflicts are also based on other issues than misperceptions, power needs or behavioral changes in a country's leadership. These are different economic interests over material goods, like oil or gas, positional goods like political influence or territorial.
More and more, international relations theorists and analyzers have looked within countries and systems to understand the international arena. The internal struggles for power, equilibrium and social welfare are as important in the development of world politics as the aforementioned types of causes. From…
Jacoby, T. (2008) Understanding Conflict and Violence. New York: Routledge
Waltz, K. (2001) Man, the State, and the War. New York: Columbia University Press
Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."
There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).
Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…
Austin, Anthony. (1971). The President's War. Lippincott.
Cohen, Jeff. Solomon, Norman. (July 27, 1994). 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War. Media Beat. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fair.org/media-beat/940727.html .
Department of State Bulletin. (August 24, 1964) The Tonkin Gulf Incident: President Johnson's Message to Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/tonkin.htm.
Ford, Ronnie. (August, 1997). New Light On Gulf Of Tonkin. Vietnam Magazine, pp. 165-172.
I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.
The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important
Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)
You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…
Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled
Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-
271. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19390459.2014.941177 ?
Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational
Because the cost associated with fueling the cars will increase, individuals might come up with ways of reducing the consumption of fuel, they will thus use public transportation. When a rise in the prices of gas results into an increase in transportation ridership, the revenues from fare are likely to rise, and the extra costs of fuel for the transport operator will be offset partly. Numerous news reports in the United States are indicating that transportation ridership has gone up with the increase in the prices of the gases; however, little research has been done to prove this association. When there is an effect on ridership, it will be fascinating to notice whether the result is short-lived or a long lived phenom-enon. Therefore, a rapid price increase is capable of resulting into a jump in transport ridership. To become accustomed to the high prices of gas, transporters might buy additional…
American Drycleaner (2006). Rising gas prices may be due to speculation. Rising gas prices may be due to speculation. American Drycleaner, 00028258, Apr2006, Vol. 73, Issue 1
Bradley Jr.,RL (2006) Market Forces Only Cure for Oil Prices. Available online at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6418
British Broadcasting Corporation (2008,September). Oil prices rise on hurricane fear.Available
online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7603685.stm
program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of energy in general and alternative energy resources in particular. This study will serve to provide benchmarks concerning current energy usage patterns across the country to identify opportunity to introduce alternative energy resources such as hydrogen, geothermal, wind turbine farms, increased hydroelectric applications, biomass facilities, as well as solar and tidal energy resources.
Although predictions of peak oil vary, all signs currently indicate that the United States will be running out of cheap sources of fossil fuels in the foreseeable future and alternative energy resources must be brought online before that point is reached in order to satisfy the growing demand and avoid disruption of the nation's economy.
Purpose of the Study
The overarching purposes of the proposed study are to:
Provide evidence in support of the deployment of alternative energy resources in urban and rural settings;…
Deffeyes, Kenneth S. Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2001.
Karimov, F.P., M. Brengman and L. Van Hove. (2011). "The effect of Website design dimensions on initial trust: a synthesis of the empirical literature." Journal of Electronic
Commerce Research, 12(4): 272-273.
This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in the society. Social disparity results in an increase in the crime rate as people are frustrated by lack of opportunities and consider crime as the only means which can provide them with their basic necessities. Economic disparity deprives people to meet their basic needs as the prices increase when economy grows. But this growth is limited to the elites in the society and there is no regard for the middle and lower class communities. Both the factors are unhealthy for the prosperity of a society as a whole.
acism is another issue portrayed in the movie. Although there have been stringent regulations regarding racist remarks but research has shown that almost 51% Americans engage in abusive comments towards the black community…
Brazile, D. (2012). Brazile: Racism's tenacious hold on U.S. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/01/opinion/brazile-race-sununu
Economist. (2010). Social Mobility and Inequality. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/node/15908469
Forbes. (2012). How Income Inequality is Damaging the U.S. [online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/10/02/how-income-inequality-is-damaging-the-u-s/
Kramer, R.M., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2012). Restoring trust in organizations and leaders: Enduring challenges and emerging answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
BP Organizational Behavior
BP PLC Organizational Behavior
Imagine going to work for BP as an engineer to drill oil in the gulf. What would happen if a disaster occurred? Could the company hold up under pressure? How would management react to the situation? One will study the oil disaster in the gulf and how it pertains to human resources, structure, politics and symbolism.
Management signed a five-year contract with Exult Inc. To help transform human resources. They will have capabilities to use the "latest web-enabled technologies and processes" (BP, 1999). This is a first for the organization because it will become a worldwide effort. Each employee/manager will have access to information work as well as life information needed to do their job in an effective manner (BP, 1999).
"e-H services delivery model will assume management, ownership and accountability for BP Amoco's global H administrative and transactional processes" (BP, 1999). One…
Bethge, P. (2011). BP's oil disaster: the dangers and difficulties of bottom kill. Retrieved April 24, 2011, from Spiegel:
BP. (1999, December 9). BP amoco sign $600 million contract with exult inc. For hr services delivery transformation through e-enabled hr. Retrieved April 24, 2011,
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
conflicts that we are always hearing about in the media and reading about in the newspapers is the Chechen Conflict. At times bloody war, now insidious terrorist actions on behalf of Chechen nationalist, the conflict has never been as recent as we may thing. For centuries the relation between Chechnya and its larger neighbor Russia have been full of turmoil.
If we have a look at the history of the region, the Chechens were recognized as a distinct people in the area as far back as the 17th century. During the 19th century, however, Tsar Nicholas I attempted to conquer the region and met fierce resistance. However, the Islamist fighters had to recognize defeat in 1858 and the Caucasus area was incorporated into the Russian Empire. A brief period of independence from 1917 to 1923 was followed by the region's invasion by the olshevik troops that created the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous…
1. Shah, Anup. Crisis in Chechnya. May 2004. On the Internet at http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp #AComparisonwithKosovo' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
They are therefore no different to any other derivative that comes from plant or mineral and has been altered to provide some useful medicinal diagnosis. Laypeople react with revulsion since they are unaware of the scientific steps that have gone into the procedure and resulted in a totally modified entity. Were they aware of this, ethical concerns may be obliterated.
Issue 20 -- Should the world continue to rely on oil as a major source of energy?
Issue Synopsis and Opinion
Energy researchers have developed a model called Hubbert's Curve that seems to indicate that oil is running out. As oil recovery technology has been introduced, this curve has lengthened leading some to say that we can continue relying on resources of oil. However, the curve is still there and contraction in oil supply has an enormous effect on the way that America functions in many aspects of its life.…
(Southwest Airlines Corporation)
The employees are always put first at Southwest Airlines, and according to the CEO Herb Kelleher, who was responsible for founding the company Southwest Airlines, the philosophy that employees come first is deeply embedded in the psyche of the company, and if the employees of the company are happy and contented and fully satisfied with their work, then they will most definitely take better care of the customers of the company, and this is exactly what happens at Southwest Airlines. When the customers are happy at the treatment that they receive at Southwest Airlines, they, quite naturally keep coming back for more, and this in turn makes the shareholders extremely happy and satisfied. The employees at Southwest Airlines are some of the best and most highly paid employees of any airline, and in general, all the walls of the company are always filled with several pictures of…
Abenes, Fiorello B. "Marketing Study of Southwest Airlines" Retrieved at http://www.csupomona.edu/~lbabenes/MBA/SouthwestMarketingStrategies.doc. Accessed 30 August, 2005
Aviation Accident Brief" (2002) Retrieved at http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2002/AAB0204.htm . Accessed 30 August, 2005
100 Best Corporate Citizens for the year 2005" (Spring 2005) Business Ethics Magazine.
Retrieved at http://www.business-ethics.com/whats_new/100best.html . Accessed 29 August, 2005
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…
The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Infoplease.com. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html
Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drug_war.html
Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1970s." The History of Film. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html
Halber, Deborah. Seventies oil crisis was a 'perfect storm' for U.S. MIT. March 23, 2007. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/jacobs.html
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge