Oligopoly Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Oligopolies Part 1 One Proposed Merger Is

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49069929


Part 1) One proposed merger is Omnicare's bid to purchase Pharmerica (FTC, 2012). The FTC has defined the industry as "long-term care pharmacy" and these are the two largest firms in that industry. The FTC has sued to block this proposed takeover. Pharmerica is the only national competitor for Omnicare. Firms in this industry work with institutions to provide pharmacy services. The industry has some fragmentation, but there are only two national players in Omnicare and Pharmerica. The FTC feels that the combined entity would have such strong bargaining power that consumers would not have adequate choice, prices would rise and suppliers would also suffer from this extreme leverage.

From Omnicare's point-of-view, the merger would give it a dominant position in its industry. Pharmerica is resisting the takeover, as this is a hostile takeover. Pharmerica would likely be absorbed into Omnicare to the detriment of its own operations. Suppliers…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FTC.gov. (2012). FTC sues to block Omnicare's bid to buy rival pharmacy provider Pharmerica. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2012/01/omnicare.shtm 

Investopedia. (2011). Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. Investopedia. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hhi.asp#axzz1lFGk3bQ3 

Sentementes, G. (2011). I, robot, in the pharmacy. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from  http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2011-04-18/business/bs-bz-bronfein-pharmacy-20110418_1_institutional-pharmacy-robots-michael-g-bronfein
View Full Essay

Pricing Strategies

Words: 3056 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53473376

market structures and the pricing strategies which are specifically related to each of them. The introductory section of the paper gives an overview of the four major types of market structures and explains the main features which draw distinguishing lines between them. These major types of market structures are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, and oligopoly. The second section discusses the pricing strategies which are used by competitors in each of these market structures in order to compete with the other competitors or operate in a profitable and competitive fashion. A case study has also been included which gives a real life example of the market structure and pricing strategies of a specific company. The paper concludes by giving summary and key findings from the whole discussion.

Introduction to Market Structures

Market structure refers to the number of competitors operating in a particular industry and the level or intensity of…… [Read More]


Boyes, W.J., & Melvin, M. (2012). Economics, 9th Edition. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning

Gitman, L.J. & McDaniel, C.D. (2009). The Future of Business: the Essentials, 4th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Hall, R.E., & Lieberman, M. (2010). Micro Economics: Principles and Applications, 5th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning

Mankiw, N.G. (2011). Principles of Economics, 6th Edition. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western
View Full Essay

Market Behavior One Industry That Has Seen

Words: 1380 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89428434

Market Behavior

One industry that has seen a shift in the market model is the smartphone industry. During the mid-2000s, this industry was an oligopoly, populated basically by two firms that emerged from the old PDA market. Palm and RIM (Blackberry) operated as a duopoly, catering primarily to business customers with early smartphones. Apple joined the industry with the iPhone, and was quickly followed by a number of other players. The organization of the industry is somewhat unique, as some firms are vertically integrated providers with operating systems and hardware integrated (Blackberry, Apple) and other firms have a number of hardware manufacturers working in conjunction with operating systems makers. Thus in operating systems there remains almost an oligopoly with two or three major firms and a couple of other minor ones, whereas on the hardware side the industry is fully in a state of monopolistic competition.

Short Run and Long…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ha-aburda, H. & Yehezkel, Y. (2011). Platform competition under asymmetric information. NET Institute Working Paper. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from  http://archive.nyu.edu/bitstream/2451/31399/2/11_05.pdf 

Kokovin, S., Parenti, M., Thisse, J-F. & Zhelbodko, E. (2011). Monopolistic competition with big firms. Google Scholar. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from  http://d852eff6-a-62cb3a1a-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/mathieuparenti/home/research/KPTZ.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cpH5Fs5HfC7W-DaU_jYLfshpIWuFjGQCtwDfIlgmj8XZQjc6ooKbOToLXP9dRdEkSMqCS3FwU-WOisyNmvlPGWdewkrOq-OL-nY4y7rJEDKgYcUsXNwq7m3JMiSWKrhtM4Is8Y-uys6Gtdw6GUAnSX_Xs5P4Dk7UKBmzE9KRySQadZg8JhrIirYITG4tkbdGRW7B4m1KuzWLj1MU3t3s4aCiZn7Z3CgXyu5CyRzRvOHGirSCKg%3D&attredirects=0 

Thierer, A. (2012). Bye Blackberry: How long will Apple last? Forbes. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from  http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamthierer/2012/04/01/bye-bye-blackberry-how-long-will-apple-last/
View Full Essay

Market Patterns One Industry That Has Shifted

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70338621

Market Patterns

One industry that has shifted in the past few years in terms of its structure is the smartphone operating system market. A few years ago, most of the early smartphones were based around proprietary operating systems. Palm and Blackberry dominated the market. Apple joined the industry with the introduction of the iPhone, but more recently other firms have entered the market as well, including Google (Android), indows, Symbian and other systems. The market has moved from a stable oligopoly of four firms basically between two firms into a market that is much closer to monopolistic competition. However, there is the risk that as operating systems shake out, the market could return to an oligopoly of just three operating systems (est & Mace, 2007).

In the short-run, firms in this industry will seek to gain market share through differentiation. The products are slightly differentiated from each other -- they…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

West, J. & Mace, M. (2007). Appropriability, proximity, routines and innovation. Druid Summer Conference 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=1675&cf=9%20{^

Seppala, (no date). Monopolistic competition. University of Illinois. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.econ.uiuc.edu/~seppala/econ102/lect15.pdf

Watkins, T. (no date). The transaction cost approach to the theory of the firm. San Jose University. Retrieved February 4, 2012  http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/coase.htm 

Blodget, H. (2011). Android is destroying everyone, especially RIM -- iPhone dead in water. Business Insider. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-04-02/tech/30089528_1_android-phones-google-s-android-smartphone-market
View Full Essay

Firm Concentration Ratios for the Following Industries

Words: 779 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86030459

firm concentration ratios for the following industries are: fluid milk (311511), women's and girl's cut & sew dresses (315233), envelopes (322232), electronic computers (334111). The industries that are characterized by a high level of competition include clothing, which is a dominant industry in this country. The high level of competition and the many small business type clothing stores, in competition with larger chain stores, makes the competition widespread (Case et. Al, 2009).

Another industry that has a high level of competition is that of car sales and auto parts. Again, cars are a modern necessity and not necessarily a luxury item. Transportation is a necessity for many individuals. This means that car sales as well as auto parts are items that are sold often, and thus have a high level of output. Agricultural and farming products are also highly competitive. Food is obviously a necessity for everybody, and there are…… [Read More]


Case, K.E., Fair, R.C., and Oster, S.E. (2009) Principles of Microeconomics (9th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Smith, F. (2008). Examining Financial Concepts and Business. New York: McGraw Hill.

Taylor, K. (2009). Finance and Business: Growing Trends. New Jersey: Pearson
View Full Essay

Five Forces Analysis Porter 1980

Words: 1857 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57406247

Five forces' analysis (Porter 1980)

Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure

Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis of Competitive Structure is a paradigm for competitive position, which states that overall a company's profitability may be determined as a measure of the industry it is competing in and its strategic position within that industry (Strategy4u, 2004). According to the model some industries by nature will have a higher profit potential than others, primarily because they have a stronger competitive position and are placed within a more profitable industry.

Porter's Model also suggests that profitability is assessed via several factors, including the following: buyers/customers power, supplier's power, and rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants into the market, and the threat of substitute products (Strategy4u, 2004). The company or industry will have a greater profit potential the less influential each of these items are. For example, if a company sells a product for…… [Read More]


Business Insight. "Michael Porter's Five Forces Model." 2003. Available: http://www.businessplansoftware.org/porter.asp

Devine, Donald. "Pols Dare Not Challenge Giveaway to Media Gods." Insight on the News, Vol. 13, May 1997. p. 1

Economics A-Z." Economist.com. Retrieved March 27, 2004. Available:  http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=PROFIT 

Fellner, W. "Competition among the Few: Oligopoly and Similar Market Structures." New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949, pp. 55-59
View Full Essay

Market Model Patterns of Change Sir Madam Answers

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76379430

Market Model Patterns of Change

Sir/Madam, answers attachment page. But write a APA format, citing quotations a APA format. answers fits 3 pages.

The operating system software industry that was dominated by Microsoft was a monopoly till quite some years back when other players came into the market and disrupted the monopoly. These players include Linux with their various operating system software such as edhat and Ubuntu and Apple with their Macintosh operating system.

The general pattern of change in this particular market model was that of monopoly to oligopoly. There are several short-run and long-run behaviors in the monopoly and oligopoly market models. In monopoly, there is only one market player who has full control over the market. However, in oligopoly, there are several market players who hold different market shares depending on their marketing strategies, brand awareness, product specification, product diversification, etc. Soberman & Gatignon, 2005()

The short-run…… [Read More]


Brooks, G.R. (1995). Defining Market Boundaries. Strategic Management Journal, 16(7), 535-549.

Chintagunta, P.K. (1996). Investigating the Effects of a Line Extension or New Brand Introduction on Market Structure. Marketing Letters, 7(4), 319-328.

Soberman, D., & Gatignon, H. (2005). Research Issues at the Boundary of Competitive Dynamics and Market Evolution. Marketing Science, 24(1), 165-174.
View Full Essay

Economics Business' Micro Economics Required Write Assignment

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96886786

Economics usiness' (Micro Economics) required write assignment response question: Compare contrast ' forces' analysis competitive structure S-C-P (Structure Conduct Performance) models perfect competition, monopoly oligopoly.

Five Forces vs. SCP model

The SCP model of market development suggests that there are three basic market structures which exist, that of perfect competition, monopoly and oligopoly. In a model of perfect competition, consumers are extremely powerful. "Perfect competition is characterized by many buyers and sellers, many products that are similar in nature and, as a result, many substitutes. Perfect competition means there are few, if any, barriers to entry for new companies, and prices are determined by supply and demand" (Monopolies, oligopolies, and perfect competition, 2012, Investopedia). It is very easy for new firms to enter the marketplace, and very easy for consumers to shift their purchasing power to other entities that offer them a better deal. There is little advantage to operating…… [Read More]


Monopolies, oligopolies, and perfect competition. 2012. Investopedia. Accessed:


[3 Sept 2012]

Porter's five forces. 2012. Tutor2U. Accessed:
View Full Essay

Funding or Defunding the Arts

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 408152

He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).

Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?

There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…… [Read More]


Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.

McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.
View Full Essay

Maximizing Profits in the Present Day and

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40758425

Maximizing Profits

In the present day and age, several market structures are existent in the global economy. Each and every market structure is distinct in its way of being run and the power that it has over market prices, trend setting and demand. The key element that helps in distinguishing between different market structures is mainly the amount of competition present between several producers of a single type of product. In this paper, the characteristics and means of maximizing profits alongside the barriers to enter the market will be seen and the role of each structure in an economy will be explained.

Markets in which there is a high amount of competition (mostly referred to as competitive markets) are such that no single producer or consumer has the ability to alone influence the price of products in them. This means that if a producer tries to exploit consumers by raising…… [Read More]


Grant, S. (2008). Economics student book. Heinemann Lipsey, R.G. (2007). Economics. Oxford University Press.

Taylor, M.P. (2011). Economics. Cengage Learning EMA.

Titley, B. (1989). Economics. Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Economics the Study Includes an Analysis of

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83223053


The study includes an analysis of market structures. The paper discusses the market type which Amazon operates in and the effects on their business of the market structure. Amazon is operating in an oligopoly market structure which is discussed in the study.

The role that the market plays in an economy is a crucial aspect of how businesses make their strategies and perform. There are different kinds of market structures; there are competitive markets, oligopolies and monopolies. In a competitive market the market has many sellers and buyers who are trading the same products which make the each seller and buyer a price taker. In such competitive markets each seller and buyer has to accept the predetermined price of the good. The cost is determined by the willingness of the buyers to pay for a product and the seller to sell the product. Another significant characteristic of a competitive…… [Read More]


Blinder, Alan S; William J. Baume and Colton L. Gale (June 2001), Microeconomics: Principles and Policy. Thomson South-Western. p. 212.

Perloff, J. Microeconomics Theory & Applications with Calculus. Page 445. Pearson 2008.

Rodman, George. Mass Media in a Changing World. New York (2nd ed.), McGraw Hill, 2008

Robert Spector (2000). amazon.com - Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World. Harper Collins Publishers.
View Full Essay

Sirius Xm Shift From Dynamic

Words: 2650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4103592

It is too early to gauge the results of this initiative, although early results of 1 million downloads in two weeks are positive (Kharif, 2009).

Another competitor is Internet radio. This industry is fragmented, with hundreds if not thousands of operators. It has many of the same content advantages of satellite radio, including the ability to offer a wide range of formats. It is at a content disadvantage, however, because few if any Internet radio stations can afford the high-end talent that satellite radio has established. However, their cost structures are much lower as well, meaning that they can offer their product for free. As of 2006, an estimated 30 million Americans listened to Internet radio each week (Prince, 2006). The industry is at a disadvantage, however, in terms of its ability to measure its listenership. This in turn makes it difficult for Internet radio providers to compete for advertising…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AFP. (2008). Sirius, XM Merger Completed, Creating U.S. Satellite Radio Giant. AFP. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gWpqqvwgW00Q9TWlFXCqFL7ccIxw

Holmes, Robert. (2008). Sirius XM Expects Slower Subscriber Growth. TheStreet.com. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from  http://www.thestreet.com/story/10446392/sirius-xm-expects-slower-subscriber-growth.html 

Moritz, Scott. (2008). Howard Stern may have a Sirius Dilemma. Fortune. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from  http://money.cnn.com/2008/06/26/technology/moritz_sirius.fortune/index.htm 

Guttenberg, Steve & Moskovciak, Matthew. (2005). Satellite Radio. CNet. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from  http://reviews.cnet.com/4520-6466_7-5068442-1.html
View Full Essay

Economics Most Histories Blame the

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47608765

The effect of all of this is to drive away those who actually worked the land because they loved it, replacing them with hired hands running machinery, neither of which is likely to be kind to the land.


Perhaps the most familiar form of business except for perfect competition, monopoly situations result when there are many potential buyers for a product or service, but only one seller.

In the Grapes of rath, a monopoly situation is created as the banks decide to remove tenant farmers, preferring to sell the land to a single large conglomerate of landowners or even a single corporation.

Steinbeck could hardly have painted a harsher picture of this monopoly-in-progress, with scenes of huge bulldozers razing all evidence of the tenant farmers from the land. However, he also notes that the 'monopolization' of the Great Plains was seemingly an event bigger even than those landowners who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassuto, David. "Turning Wine into Water: Water as Privileged Signifier in 'The Grapes of Wrath'.." Papers on Language & Literature 29.1 (1993): 67+. Questia. 19 July 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Viking Penguin, 1939.
View Full Essay

Intra-Industry International Trade Case Study

Words: 2269 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89372418

intra-industry international trade within the standard international trade classification SITC6, which represents manufactured foods classified chiefly by material. The scope of this paper is limited to processed foods, and includes analytical frameworks from the gravity model, and classic approaches to product differentiation, product commoditization, pricing, and market structure.

eferences to market structures in the literature typically oversimplify the dynamics influencing the development of market types -- perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly -- and this tendency is exacerbated when the focus is on intra-industry trade. Further, the distinctions become considerably more obfuscated when companies that are in the same trade do business in both domestic and international markets. A global manufacturing strategy is the goal of most multinational companies, and rationalizing manufacturing strategies is an objective for nations, as well (Lee, 1984). For instance, assume that a country has the industrial infrastructure to produce canned beverages, but there are…… [Read More]


Anderson, J.E. (2011). The gravity model. Annual Review of Economics, 3. Boston College.

Arribas, I., Perez, F., and Tortosa-Ausina, E. (2009). Measuring globalization of international trade: Theory and evidence. World Development, 37(1), 127-145. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.03.009

Baier, S.I., and Bergstrand, J.H., (2009). Bonus vetus OLS: A simple method for approximating international trade-cost effects using the gravity equation. Journal of International Economics. Retrieved  http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022199608001062 

Berstrand, J.H. (1985). The gravity equation in international trade: Some micro-economics foundations and empirical evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics, 67(3), 474-481. Doi: 10.2307.1925976
View Full Essay

Market Structure and Pricing Strategies

Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49191873

market structures in detail and analyses the pricing strategies that the firms have to undertake when they operate in different regimes. The case study on Toyota is considered next, which indicates that firms competing in various structures does not only have to focus on price and quantity ceteris paribus, they also have to consider external and internal variables that have a bearing on these decisions.

Introduction to Market Structures

Market structures are important parts of economic theory as they model market behavior that can help economists explain activities in industry with ease. Market structures, hence are basically models that define market behavior with respect to certain criteria so that it becomes simpler to compare events in real life to the postulated scenario as described in theory in order to be able to determine casualties and to define optimal strategies that firms operating in different market structures can use.

There are…… [Read More]


Bennett, D., Hagiwara, Y., & Kitamura, M. (2011, September 5). Toyota Bets on Japan. Bloomberg Businessweek, pp. 70-73,. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=fbe40510-c02e-4a4c-afc8-b21dbb1445c3%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=60477158

Cusumano, M.A. (2011). Technology Strategy and Management Reflections on the Toyota Debacle. Communications of the ACM, 54 (1), 33-35.

John Petersen (2011). Bernstein and Ricardo Report: Cheap Will Beat Cool in Vehicle Electrification. Retrieved from http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2011/11/bernstein_and_ricardo_report_cheap_will_beat_cool_in_vehicle_electrification.html

Lipsey, R.G., & Chrystal, K.A. (2007). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from  http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HgXWV8JMC10C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Economics+lipsey&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qPIuT9DdPM7wrQeQ_LzYDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Economics%20lipsey&f=false
View Full Essay

Larson Outputs the First Potential

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13887007

e. In Spain or Italy) Larson's products will be cheaper on global markets. Under this scenario, Larson would be forced to finance its operations entirely from ongoing cash flow. It would also see a slump in the strength of the battery industry. If the industry slumps, this may bring about the oligopoly scenario from Milestone 2. At present, however, a credit crunch would simply limit the amount of R&D that Larson could conduct, and would prohibit the offshoring of production in order to cut costs. Larson would still be able to follow the core cost leadership strategy, which was always the most reasonable option on the table given the industry characteristics.

Larson is faced with an uncertain future in that each of these three different scenarios delivers slightly different characteristics with regards to the nature of competition and the opportunities that exist in the marketplace. Some of the options presented…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Online Antitrust Issues Antitrust Law Is a

Words: 955 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22167160

Online AntiTrust Issues

Antitrust law is a United States legal code that helps to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competition actions by organizations. The Sherman Act of 1890 was one of the first attempts to restrict large companies who fixed price, output and then manipulated demand to maximize their products. Standard Oil was one of the prime early examples of a company that controlled markets to the point that the government felt was detrimental to the entry of other competitors (Bork, 1993). In our current example, companies like Facebook and Google are being investigated, similar to Microsoft and AT&T, for controlling the Internet search process and/or network effects. This does not stop with Facebook and Google, but moves into many of the giant e-tailers (Amazon, EBay, etc.) that often use predatory or collusive practices to force customers into either advertising on their site, pricing to their scale, or in the…… [Read More]


Is Microsoft a Monopoly? If so, why does it matter? (2009). Thisnation.com. Retrieved from:


Monopoly. (January 20, 2005). The Linux Project. Retrieved from:

View Full Essay

Google's Antitrust Behavior and the Benefits of Imperfect Competition

Words: 842 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90090383

Antitrust Practices and Market Power: Google Antitrust Behavior

Economic theory expresses that competition contributes substantially to the efficient operations of markets, and hence to the improvement of a nation's wealth status. Antitrust laws seek to foster competition in the marketplace and to consequently ensure that the welfare of consumers is maximized through the provision of low-priced high-quality products. This the laws do by preventing the emergence of cartels and monopolies, which impede on competition by creating barriers to entry, with the help of which they are able to obtain market power and consequently drive market prices to favor them. Although monopolies may result from either government action or natural reasons, in which case they are referred to as government and natural monopolies respectively, most monopolies are formed through exclusivity contract arrangements, mergers, acquisitions, and collusion. Antitrust laws work at limiting these.

The Costs of Antitrust Behavior

A number of companies…… [Read More]


Antitrust Laws. (2014). Antitrust Law Examples: Are they Helpful to the Free Marketplace? Antitrust.org. Retrieved 19 March 2014 from  http://www.antitrustlaws.org/Antitrust-Law-Examples.html 


Marrs, M. (2012). 30 Facts about the Google Antitrust Case. The Word Stream Blog. Retrieved 19 March 2014 from  http://www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2012/12/06/google-antitrust-case 

Marrs, M. (2012). 30 Facts about the Google Antitrust Case. The Word stream Blog. Retrieved 19 March 2014 from
View Full Essay

Economics & the Smart Phone

Words: 1380 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42676189

When unemployment is high, companies may decide to delay the release of their new updated phone as a means to maximize profit. By withholding the release of the phone, not only does demand build but the ability of more consumers to enter into the market to purchase the phone does occur. At this point, the profit maximization curve peaks earlier and is likely to have a prolonged parabola at the top of the curve which is a short-term profit maximization curve.

With a low employment rate, the likelihood of the smart phone market to do very well is limited by the low employment rate and is subject to constraints when considering the smart phone market and the consumer's ability to pay.

Supply & Demand

Law of demand and substitutes how the demand of these phones are very high. Which again ties back to scarcity but how substitutes are so readily…… [Read More]


The Economist. Science and technology. Babbage Mobile phones. Good night phone. May 30th 2011, 19:33 by G.F. | SEATTLE
View Full Essay

Mcdonald's Market Structure Mcdonald's 2010 Is One

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93276133

McDonald's Market Structure

McDonald's (2010) is one of the most recognizable brands around the world. It is the world's largest food chain and has more than 32,000 locations in more than 110 countries. Operating it's own brand, McDonald's franchises its brand to local business people; approximately 70% of McDonald's restaurants are franchised. As of 2009, 80% of McDonald's restaurants were franchised business with the remaining 20% being were company-operated. McDonald's serves more than 47 million customers on a daily basis and employs upwards of 1.5 million people. The chain has adapted to cultural regions and offers items such as the Teriyaki Mac in Japan, substitutes lamb for beef in India, and offers variants of the Filet-O-Fish in China ("Fast Food Market Share," 2011).

McDonald's functions as an oligopoly in the burger themed fast food franchise industry. An oligopoly occurs when few firms dominate the market. For example, in the Spanish…… [Read More]


Humphries, J. (2011). Fast Food Market Share. Retrieved from Next Generation Food:


McDonalds (MCD). (n.d.) Retrieved from Wikinvest:

View Full Essay

Shell Global

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19828574

Shell Global

Shell's Global Positioning

Shell's Global Positioning

Shell is one of the world leading energy and petrochemical company that operates in more than 90 different countries (shell.com, 2010). Shell's main business strategy is to reinforce their position as a leader in the gas and oil market, to maintain a competitive edge and increase shareholder wealth. The company is also interested in meeting the global demand for energy in a responsible and safe manner. Shell's mission is "to enhance profitability through innovative management strategies while ensuring cost effectiveness and harnessing creative ideas" (Shell.com, 2010). Shell shares the values of safety and protecting the environment. The organization continues to invest money into making their product safer for the environment and everyone involved with the product. In 2010 Shell invested $1 billion in investment and research, to create a better product. The main value of the organization is to "be the market…… [Read More]


Shell (2010). About Shell. Retrieved from  http://www.shell.com/home/content/aboutshell/ 

Wang, Z. (2009). Strategy in Oligopoly Pricing: Evidence from Gasoline Price Cycles before and under a Timing Regulation. Journal of Political Economy. 117 (6) 987-1030
View Full Essay

Mcdonalds Lifting Prices in Working-Class

Words: 3261 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67971876

As such, there are relatively few substitute goods (other types of foods are more expensive and, as a result, cannot be considered as substitute goods), the level of necessity is high (fast food is, for many of the poorer communities, the only source of food and, because of this, people are willing to pay a higher price without changing their volume of consumption), but also because of habits: people who consume fast food will simply grow too attached to it to give it up even if the price is slightly increased.

There is also another important element to be mentioned: the price hikes were reasonably low. For a $5 ig Mac (the price is actually lower, but as a reference), the 3.3% increase in its price represents $0.165. The amount is significantly low, too low to be noticeable by the consumer when completing his individual purchase. Added over time and…… [Read More]


1. AUSTRALIAN FAIR PAY COMMISSION SUBMISSION -- R&CA 2009. On the Internet at http://www.fairpay.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D222581A-7A06-47C8-8584-6A65198823CB/0/RandCA_submission_2009.pdf. Last retrieved on July 28, 2010

2. The Allen Consulting Group. August 2007. Evaluation of the Restaurant and Catering Industry Action Agenda.

3. Nijs, Vincent; Pauwels, Koen. 2009. Rational Retail Pricing. Kellog Insight. On the Internet at  http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/index.php/Kellogg/article/rational_retail_pricing . Last retrieved on July 27, 2010

4. Burke, Kelly. February 2009. Poorer pay more for Maccas. The Sydney Morning Herald. On the Internet at  http://www.smh.com.au/national/poorer-pay-more-for-maccas-20090226-8ikt.html . Last retrieved on July 27, 2010
View Full Essay

Market Model Patterns of Change

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25248307

Over the last few years, the government has exerted more control on the insurance industry by controlling premium rates meaning the industry has become less competitive on pricing. In addition to this, through Obamacare, the government has set requirements for healthcare insurers which have significantly reduced their medical loss ratio Dinan 396.

The second factor that affects the degree of competitiveness of the industry is the number of companies operating in the industry. This has been the major reason for the hundreds of mergers in the industry since this is the major driving factor for changes in market share. The last factor is government-provided health insurance. The government provides insurance plans which create significant competition for the private companies Vanness and olfe 101()

The productivity measures that can be developed are the number of health insurance consumers, average cost of providing medical cover and price of health insurance premiums. The…… [Read More]

Works cited

Austin, D. Andrew, and Thomas L. Hungerford. The Market Structure of the Health Insurance Industry. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2009. Print.

Baughman, Reagan. "Differential Impacts of Public Health Insurance Expansions at the Local Level." International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 7.1 (2007): 1-22. Print.

Dinan, John. "Shaping Health Reform: State Government Influence in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act." Publius 41.3 (2011): 395-420. Print.

Dossche, Maarten, Freddy Heylen, and Dirk Van den Poel. "The Kinked Demand Curve and Price Rigidity: Evidence from Scanner Data." The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 112.4 (2010): 723-52. Print.
View Full Essay

Government-Fostered Ownership the Media in

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94172098

For the government and the companies involved, the resultant lack of competition is easily controlled in terms of what is broadcast. The government can then more easily dictate what the public is to receive via the airwaves. For the companies involved, increased growth means increased revenue and success.

For the public, the most obvious disadvantage of the lack of competition means a probably lack of objectivity in broadcasting. This has implications for the ideals of freedom of the press and the public right for accurate information. On the other hand, an advantage is an increase of choice in terms of products offered by the large broadcast networks. Some for example have begun to offer Internet broadcasting stations, providing users with a wider variety of listening choices.

According to ret a. Fausett (2003), the FCC's new directive towards FM radio during the 1960s stimulated healthy competition and experimentation. New audiences were…… [Read More]


Fausett, Bret a. (2003, Jan. 13). Radio, Radio. Dr. Dobb's Portal.  http://www.ddj.com/architect/184411623 

Noam, Eli M. Media Concentration in the United States: Industry Trends and Regulatory Responses.  http://www.vii.org/papers/medconc.htm
View Full Essay

Strategic Assessment of the Microeconomic

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64184758

March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

4. Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004

5. MINERAL RESOURCE SITUATION of HUNGARY. Hungarian Geological Survey - 2002. On the Internet at http://www.mgsz.hu/english/mineral/mineral_3.html.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

Alcoa's Hungary operation ships first order of turbine airfoils. 2006. On the Internet at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Alcoa's+Hungary+operation+ships+first+order+of+turbine+airfoils-a0153762888.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

Alcoa's Hungary Operation Ships First Order of Turbine Airfoils. usiness Wire. August 29, 2006. On the Internet at http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/news/news_detail.asp?newsYear=2006&pageID=20060829005060en.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

Siemens to supply turbomachinery equipment for the oil and gas industry. March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004

MINERAL…… [Read More]


1. Alcoa's Hungary operation ships first order of turbine airfoils. 2006. On the Internet at  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Alcoa 's+Hungary+operation+ships+first+order+of+turbine+airfoils-a0153762888.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

2. Alcoa's Hungary Operation Ships First Order of Turbine Airfoils. Business Wire. August 29, 2006. On the Internet at  http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/news/news_detail.asp?newsYear=2006&pageID=20060829005060en.Last  retrieved on February 5, 2007

3. Siemens to supply turbomachinery equipment for the oil and gas industry. March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007

4. Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004
View Full Essay

Merger From the Perspective of the Firm

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48174227


From the perspective of the firm, Pfizer and Wyeth can combine their diverse strengths and capabilities, and merge their talents and skills thus enabling them to become more profitable and lucrative. Doing so, they will be able to reach more clients, solidify their already existent client base, and, possibly, expand into other areas whilst establishing themselves in other states and/or in other parts of the globe.

More specifically, advantages to the firm include the fact that:

Quality staff, or additional skills, non-existent in one's own firm, can be acquired

That additional knowledge of the industry or sector can be gained;

That the business intelligence of other firm (or each particular company) can add to current experiences and knowledge;

That there is enhanced access to asses for new products and business development;

That the larger company can now gain a wider customer base, therefore increasing market share;

That there is…… [Read More]

Allocative efficiency. Economics. Help www.economicshelp.org/dictionary/a/allocative-efficiency.html

Merging with or acquiring another business Just Start Ups.com  http://www.juststartups.com/ 

NY Times Pfizer agrees to pay $68 billion for rival drug maker Wyeth www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/business/26drug.html
View Full Essay

Intra-Industry International Trade

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84900433

Trade Theory

Intra-Industry International Trade

Standard trade theory and its deviations

The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).

This common wisdom remained relatively consistent…… [Read More]


Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:


Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.

Retrieved from: http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
View Full Essay

Microeconomic Study the Market for

Words: 3293 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26362478

However the restaurants collectively are considered to be a luxury good to those within the market. We feel that our brand is a normal good in this market as our cuisine is specific to the taste of the clientele represented by the demographic. Additionally, our decor and quality distinguish our establishment from what are deemed to be the lower quality establishments in the area that would normally represent the 'competition'.

The additional features of our establishment also yield a luxury restaurant as the market deems the bathroom as an important feature in distinguishing a market friendly and luxurious restaurant experience. In many countries it is that way, the food itself does not distinguish the restaurant, as one can ostensibly obtain a great, world-class meal from many restaurants. Indeed, the restroom experience is what qualifies a restaurant as being luxurious or not luxurious.

The market structure that best characterizes the industry…… [Read More]


Cadbury Schweppes Announces Intention to Sell Europe Beverages. United States, New York: PR Newswire Association LLC, 2005. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 15 July 2011.

Country Forecast Switzerland September 20092009,, The Economist Intelligence Unit, United States, New York.

John Bohannon Contributor to The Christian, Science Monitor 2004, The best food I've tasted - but never seen, United States, Boston, Mass.

Micheloud & Cie (2011) Cost of living in Switzerland: beverages. Switzerland.isyours.com  http://www.isyours.com/e/guide/costoflife/groceries.beverages.html
View Full Essay

Managing a New Product Launch Contemporary Marketing

Words: 1953 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16184690

Managing a New Product Launch

Contemporary Marketing

This paper discusses Keurig at home gourmet single-serve coffee product launch. Keurig is an established business attempting to break into the at-home single-serve product industry. It attempts to distinguish itself as a key player by offering gourmet coffee services. Coffee continues to be a booming product, with many opportunities. While coffee consumption continues to grow, there are many potential obstacles that Keurig may face. For example, there have always been many competitors in the market. There are two-serve and even single-serve vendors already in the market. The manner in which Keurig at home single-serve will attempt to distinguish its product successful is by promoting itself as an upscale provider to young, primarily male coffee drinkers interested in buying a high quality product with lots of variety. The odds are the company will do well if it markets its product to vendors that already…… [Read More]


Anderson, E.T. 2005 Feb, 28 "Keurig at home: Managing a new product launch.," Harvard

Business School.

Jordan, B.D., Ross, S.A. & Westerfield., R.W. 2003. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. 6th

Ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
View Full Essay

Managerial Econ FedEx Is a Logistics Company

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77425761

Managerial Econ

FedEx is a logistics company that "provides customers and businesses worldwide with a broad portfolio of transportation, e-commerce and business services." The company offers "integrated business applications through operating companies competing collectively and managed collaboratively" (FedEx.com, 2013). The company has a number of different units, including Express, Ground, Office, Customs Critical and other smaller businesses related to its core delivery businesses. The company has experienced a long-term rising trend in its revenues, mostly tied to the business cycle, but its net income has been more volatile over the past five years (MSN Moneycentral, 2013). FedEx has long been considered to be a bellwether firm for the economy, since it has a diversified corporate customer base and its stock price closely tracks industrial output (Goldstein, 2013).

Pattern of Change

FedEx has a relatively slow pace of change. The core technologies of the logistics business are transportation equipment, which has…… [Read More]


Doss, N. & Credeur, M. (2011). DHL reboots in U.S. after $9.6 billion bleed. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-14/dhl-reboots-in-u-s-after-9-6-billion-bleed-freight-markets.html 

FedEx.com. (2013). Company information. About FedEx. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from  http://about.van.FedEx.com/company-information 

Goldstein, S. (2013). Why FedEx is called a bellwether. MarketWatch. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from http://blogs.marketwatch.com/capitolreport/2013/09/18/why-FedEx-is-called-a-bellwether/

MSN Moneycentral. (2013). FedEx Corp. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from  http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-income-statement/?symbol=fdx
View Full Essay

Food Prices Over the Past

Words: 5030 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86265982

In developing countries, consumers are more affected for two reasons. One is that consumers are more likely to buy raw ingredients. ithout manufacturing entities to absorb some of the commodity price increases, consumers are left to absorb almost all of the increase (Ibid.). As a result, food prices have increased more in the developing world than in the developed world. Additionally, consumers in these countries already expend a significantly higher percentage of their income on food than do consumers in estern nations. Thus, demand for food in the developing world is price elastic and consumers suffer because they are unable to meet their food needs.

In the developed world, increased food prices suppress demand in other sectors of the economy, which can cause minor shocks in employment and investment in some businesses and industries. In the developing world, food price shocks can result in starvation and civil unrest. The recent…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/ 

Wiewel, Wim & Persky, Joseph. (2002) Suburban Sprawl M.E. Sharpe, Armonk NY, 2002.

Barnier, Michael. (2008) "Europe is Key to Solving Food Crisis" Tehran Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=184060 

Clayton, Mark. (2008) "As Global Food Costs Rise, are Biofuels to Blame?" Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0128/p03s03-usec.html
View Full Essay

Microeconomics Over the Last Few Years it

Words: 2027 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52668040


Over the last few years, it is evident that the airline industry in the U.S. has been experiencing long standing as well as novel challenges (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012). These includes the increase in the price of fuel, slowing demand for air travel and pressures to expand globally. Consolidation among various airlines across the country is the most common remedy that most of the airline firms are applying.

In April 2012, the U.S. Airways made an announcement to move and take over the American Airlines. American airline is the fourth largest airline in the United States while U.S. Airways is the fifth (Plane Buzz, 2013). This merger, therefore, will make the U.S. Airways- American the largest in the United States with a combined share of more than 21% (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012).

The merger is worth 11 billion U.S. dollars and will turn America into the largest…… [Read More]


Carlton, D.W., Landes, W.M. & Posner, R.A 1980 'Benefits and Costs of airline mergers, The

Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-83

Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3003401?uid=2134&uid=2&suid=70&uid=4&sid=21101927848577 

Raper, K.C, Love, A.H. & Shumway, R.C 2007, Distinguishing the Source of Market Power, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Feb., 2007), pp. 78-90 Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4123564?uid=3738336&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101942783417
View Full Essay

How Government Influence Sunnydale

Words: 1204 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25998272

Role of Government in Healthcare/How Government Influence Sunnydale

Similarities between Monopoly, Perfect Competition and Oligopoly

Importance of Government Involvement with Health Care Entities at the Local, State, and Federal Levels

Structure, Conduct, and Performance Paradigm As It Relates o Health Care

Implications of the Sherman Antitrust Act on Sunnydale Care

Overview of the Structure and Operation of Medicare and Medicaid

Services hat Each Cover

Coverage Establishment

Funding Differences

Benefits and challenges of government involvement at Sunnydale Care

Similarities between Monopoly, Perfect Competition and Oligopoly

Monopoly and perfect competition

Both perfect competition firms and monopolies face similar production and cost factors. Both also are in the business of maximizing profit. Both have the potential of earning super-profits but in the long-term they would only achieve normal profits (Boundless, 2015).

Perfect Competition and Oligopoly

In both these is more than one firm in the market competing with the others and no single…… [Read More]

Tang N.I., Eisenberg J.M., & Meyer, G.S. (2004). The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety. National Center for Biotechnology Information. USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2015 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14738036 

U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1994). Local Government Responsibilities in Health Care. U.S. Washington: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.

West Group. (2015). Anti-Trust Law Web Page. The New York Technology. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2015 from  http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://iris.nyit.edu/~shartman/mba0101/manufacture.doc
View Full Essay

Monopolies vs Competition in a

Words: 1154 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19799611

Instead, IM began to falter after a series of product failures. As a result, many companies gained market share against IM with some even over taking it; an efficient market took care of the issue.

Yet, another example of why government should not interfere with market structures is the airline industry. After 1978, the airline industry was quickly transformed into an oligopoly market structure where only a half dozen or so companies controlled 90% of U.S. travel. Airlines such as American mostly enjoyed high profits until 2000, taking advantage of limited competition and their ability to price discriminate to increase profit margins for those customers who were willing and able to pay higher prices. eginning in 2000, everything came crashing down for the airlines (pardon the pun). American airlines lost money from 2000 until it finally reaped a small net profit in 2005. The oligopoly market structure that once fueled…… [Read More]


America's Airlines, Flying on Empty (2005, September 6). The Economist. 6 Sept. 2005.

Conigliaro, A., Elman, J., Schreiber, J. And Small, T. "The Danger of Corporate Monopolies." http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/Projects/corporate-monopolies/index.html

Micro. http://library.thinkquest.org/C004323/low/micro2.html

Conigliaro, A., Elman, J., Schreiber, J. And Small, T. "The Danger of Corporate Monopolies." http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/Projects/corporate-monopolies/index.html
View Full Essay

Oneworld There Will Be a Few Different

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28443966


There will be a few different consequences of a few large airlines or networks dominating global air service -- some good for consumers and some bad. Some of the advantages that have emerged thus far include better coordination of connections to improve service, and different tactics to improve marketing such as code-sharing. These changes are generally beneficial to both the customers and to the airlines as well. The reason these changes are beneficial is in part because the formation of these networks has been driven by competitive demands. The airline industry is in a state of monopolistic competition, but with a commoditized base service. Airlines are seeking ways to differentiate without competing on price or altering the base service. For the foreseeable future, these networks are likely to result in improved operating profits for airlines and improved services for consumers, as the airlines are still in a state of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Satisfy the Requirements of the

Words: 1667 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47181131

With the news of an office supply chain merger of historical proportions making headlines every day, Staples' CEO on Sargent has been forced to publically clarify the company's resource management strategy (Detar, 2003). Combing through his public statements since news of the merger's pending approval was first publicized, it may be possible to refine and improve the firm's future adaptations to such shifting market conditions.

In order to anticipate the multitude to probable threats posed by a merger between its two main competitors, Sargent and the executive management of Staples must engage in a proactive process of risk management. The likelihood of a combined Office Depot/OfficeMax entity slashing prices to force Staples into counterproductive economic strategies should be considered of paramount importance. Adjusting to the market conditions of an oligopoly, as imposed by the planned merger, will require a comprehensive risk management appraisal that includes the formulation of multiple contingencies.…… [Read More]


Baye, M.R. (2010). Managerial economics and business strategy. 7th ed. New York:


Detar, J. (2013, March 06). Staples profit beats estimates, shares dip on outlook read more at investor's business daily: http://news.investors.com/business/030613-646944-staples- beat-profit-estimates-but-sees-weakness.htm

Hirschey, M. (2009). Managerial economics. 12th ed. Mason: South-Western College.
View Full Essay

Managerial Decision Making and Market Structure

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94174272

Market Structure and Managerial Decision Making

The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept game theory in the competitive market environment where there are two or more firms competing against one another. The paper cites the examples of Nash equilibrium, prisoner dilemma, and dominant strategy. Moreover, the paper discusses the theory of perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic market and theory of oligopoly. (Bhat, and au, 2008).

Game Theory

The game theory is a type of situation where the rewards or payoff given to any player depends on the action of the other players. The interdependence between two or more firms is referred as a game theory, and the rewards earned by a firm is known as a payoff, and the payoff matrix assists in analyzing the interdependence between firms. A duopoly is an interdependence between two players that may result in a game theory. However, a relationship between two…… [Read More]


Bhat, M.S., and Rau, A.V. (2008). Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, Hyderabad, IND BS Publications, ProQuest ebrary. Web. Retrieved April 20, 2016, Chapter 4: Market Structures, pp. 85-107.

Krugman, P. & Wells, R. (2012). Economics and Microeconomics (Third Edition). Worth Publisher.

Mjmfoodie. (2011). Episode 29 Monopolistic Competition [Video File]. Retrieved from  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3F1Vt3IyNc 

Links to Government Regulation of Monopoly
View Full Essay

Financial Analysis - Filippo Fochi

Words: 3784 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21925845

For both debt ratios, the lower their values are the more conservative the company is, choosing to finance its operations/investments from internal sources. However, such a company may miss out on growth and investment opportunities.

It is recommended for companies not to finance more than 50% of their capital via external debt. The debt-to-equity is superior to the recommended values, indication a much higher proportion of equity financing via external debt. The debt-to-asset is also higher to the recommended values, but much closer indicating that the assets are around 80%financed by external debt.

The two indicators suggest that the group is heavily financing its capital/assets from external debt, which is explained by the group's expansion strategy. However, FFS's values are not as justified because the company didn't expand as fast as the group, yet the debts were proportional to those of the group. At both levels, group and company, the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Collusion Has No Place in

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48601325

Collusion, therefore, has the impact of delivering higher prices to consumers than they would otherwise experience. In the long-run, this keeps all firms in the industry in business but in the short-run it is detrimental to consumers, so most forms of collusion are not allowed by regulators. The irony is that regulators are needed to maintain the "free" nature of the market -- to keep prices competitive. This is necessary when barriers to entry are high, as few new firms will enter an oligopolistic industry that is engaging in dangerous price wars.

There are examples of collusion in the world, however. OPEC is probably the biggest one. The cartel sets its output (around 1/3 of global oil output) in order to manage the level of total global output. This has the effect of managing the prices, as long as non-OPEC nations do not change their output levels to counterbalance OPEC's…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sunrise Medical Market Growth in Wheelchairs Is

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14459745

Sunrise Medical

Market growth in wheelchairs is favorable for a few reasons. The growth in the industry is concentrated in higher-priced segments, with 12-15% each. This means that the relevance of the standard wheelchair is declining, despite that segment remaining the highest volume wheelchair at around 208,000 units or 61.3% by volume and 31.4% of dollar sales. Projecting current growth rates out five years, the industry will looks as follows:

1998 Wheelchair Market

1998 unit share

1998 $ share






Standard wheelchairs are going to lose unit share and are going to decline significantly in dollar share as well. The other three categories are going to increase in importance, so it is important for firms to capture a share of these markets. ight now, the power market is not served by Sunrise, so the company is essentially competing for what will be 38-39% of the total…… [Read More]


QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from  http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml 

Blank, S. (2010). Here's why the first-mover advantage is extremely overrated. Business Insider. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://articles.businessinsider.com/2010-10-19/tech/30027432_1_market-bad-idea-failure-rate

McGahan, A. (1993). Sunrise Medical's wheelchair products. Harvard Business School 9-794-069

Nationmaster. (2012) Age distribution tables: United States. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from  http://www.nationmaster.com/country/us/Age_distribution
View Full Essay

Adidas Market Entry

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41746013

Company Background

Adidas was formed in Herzogenaurach, a town in Mittelfranken, north of Nürnberg, not far from Erlangen, and remains headquartered there today. The company was founded by Adi and Rudolf Dassler. The brothers eventually had a falling out, with Rudolph founding Puma. Adidas has grown to become one of the leading designers and marketers of sports apparel, footballs, and other related items. The company operates globally, has revenues of nearly €20 billion, and profits of €0.72 billion in 2015 (Adidas 2015 Annual Report).

Adidas competes against Nike, Reebok, Puma, and several other brands in this space. Major product lines include footwear, apparel, and footballs. Adidas sponsors a lot of athletes and athletic clubs as part of its marketing. Ultimately, this industry is characterized by incremental changes to basic product designs, a strategic emphasis on marketing spending, and distribution, and companies that utilize a global strategy, selling the same way…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Premium Aerotec How Can Premium

Words: 19753 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29815830

2.0 Strategic Situation Analysis

In order to understand the nature of aircraft manufacture at Boeing, it is important to have a clear vision of how outsourcing plays into the manufacture of aircraft. Let us use the example of Boeing's Dreamliner. The following illustration explains how outsourcing plays a key role in Boeing's business strategy. These represent TIER 1 suppliers.

Figure 1.

Source http://seekingalpha.com/article/17727-boeing-s-outsourcing-for-the-787-dreamliner

From here, the parts go to the plant in Everett and are assembled by TIER 2 suppliers as follows:

Source: http://seekingalpha.com/article/17727-boeing-s-outsourcing-for-the-787-dreamliner

These two illustrations clearly help to develop an understanding of the relationship between TIER 1 and TIER 2 suppliers at Boeing.

2.1 SOT Analysis:

SOT analysis is a planning method used to evaluate a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In a business analysis, all of these factors are analyzed for the company under study and their competitors. This analysis allows the researcher to see both…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Airbus. "Welcome to the world of Airbus." 2011. <  http://www.airbus.com/company  / ..

Accessed February 17, 2011.

BA. "Boeings Outsourcing for the 787 "Dreamliner",." September, 28, 2006 <

 http://seekingalpha.com/article/ 17727-boeing-s-outsourcing-for-the-787-dreamliner" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Airline Industry Has Become Increasingly

Words: 17068 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69548589

By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).

By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…… [Read More]

Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:

View Full Essay

Procter and Gamble Is One

Words: 2679 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33606514

The company is permanently spending considerable amounts on &D to innovate its products and on advertising to maintain the brands awareness high. Shareholders are more satisfied than ever after Procter's recovery in the late 1990s, early 2000. But they did not encourage much the recovery process because it took almost two years and they were expecting a fast recovery process.


Currently there are over 100 Pantene products. Pantene shampoo has 25 products in the supermarket shelves to cover all types of customer needs. In terms of sales, the brand has had a "blockbuster" evolution. It was introduced in the market about 10 years ago and it has been reinvented since maintaining a top market share. Pantene, the shampoo is actually the leader in this market, followed by Elseve from L'oreal. Overall, Elseve product line is better positioned in the market, having a larger market share for all hair care…… [Read More]

Reference List

Colgate-Palmolive corporate website:


Mediapost (2007),  http://publications.mediapost.com 

Procter and Gamble corporate website:
View Full Essay

Industry Is Accused of Being

Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5206999


In assessing which of these models of a market would be most beneficial to the interest of a business, the most obvious choice is a pure monopoly. Although this model does not necessarily provide the best option for operations in terms of many aspects regarding society as a whole, in terms of business sense, it is the most beneficial and profitable model for a firm to operate in. As a business owner, if the product or service provided by a firm does not face competition from any other firm, the costs of providing the product can be lowered, supply can be determined at the full discretion of the firm, and pricing can also be fully left up to the firm.

Additionally, in some industries, a pure monopoly serves the purpose of providing stability and uniform standards. The Microsoft case is one in which this is a strong argument, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloch, David (1996) "The Salt Monopoly in France," published online at http://salt.org.il/frame_econ.html. Accessed 5/20/06.

Boardman, Anthony E., and Aidan R. Vining (1989) "Ownership and Performance in Competitive Environments." Journal of Law and Economics 32 (April 1989): 1-34.

Cusumano, Michael, and Richard W. Selby (1995). Microsoft Secrets: How the World's Most Powerful Software Company Creates Technology, Shapes Markets and Manages People. Free Press.

Mankiw, Gregory (2003). Principles of Economics 3rd edition. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.
View Full Essay

Collapse of the Big Three America Was

Words: 3475 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23261159

Collapse of the Big Three

America was once the leader and pioneer in the auto industry, a title that the country had for decades and a title that was so dear to America's heart that it was unfathomable to think that title might ever be lost. It's commonly misconstrued that America invented the automobile, when in reality that honor goes to German Karl Benz in 1885 (ozema, 2010). "Americans did, however, industrialize the love of the automobile. America loves big, fast cars, and for many decades American car companies shared the biggest slice of the auto industry pie" (ozema, 2010). America made having a car and the business of making cars firmly entrenched in American culture. This was a fact which kept the economy stimulated and which provided a consistent level of financial stability for the nation and the civilians within it. However the decade of the eighties marked the…… [Read More]


Anderson, P. (2008, November 11). Expert Examines Impact Of Big Three's Collapse. Retrieved from Npr.org:  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=96875257 

Dunbar, W., & May, G. (1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing.

Gatesman, A. (2005). Why are Foreign Manufactured Cars Gaining Market Share in the U.S. market? . Retrieved from Iwu.edu:  http://www.iwu.edu/economics/PPE13/gatesman.pdf 

Gordon, E. (2005, May 4). The Decline of the 'Big Three' U.S. Auto Makers. Retrieved from npr.org:  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4630187
View Full Essay

International Energy Law

Words: 5741 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80982703

International Energy Law

International Energy Arbitration

This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.

The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…… [Read More]


Bishop, R.D. (2000). International arbitration of petroleum disputes: The development of a "Lex Petrolea. The Journal, [Website] The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP).

Brower, C.N. And Sharpe, J.K. (2003, July). International arbitration and the Islamic World: The third phase. The American Journal of International Law, 97 (3).

Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, (1958, 10 June). 330 United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 38.

Dundas, H. (2004, July). Dispute resolution in the oil and gas industry: An oilman's perspective. Oil, Gas, & Energy Law Intelligence, 2 (3).
View Full Essay

Management Economies of Scale Reflects a Situation

Words: 2348 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12305651


Economies of scale reflects a situation where the cost of something declines when more is produced. With larger quantities, bargaining power increase, and there are opportunities for greater systems efficiency. Economies of scope reflects a cost saving when a company produces two or more goods (The Economist, 2008). For example, if McDonalds only produced Big Macs, it would be inefficient because there is not enough demand for those to keep the restaurant busy. By adding other products, the restaurant can become more efficient because it is working closer to capacity and there are always customers.

Transaction costs are the costs associated with a transaction. In some cases, there are fees and commissions that have to be paid in order to do something. Those costs do not add any value in themselves, but they are costs that are necessary to doing the transaction.

Economic Value Added (EVA) is basically the…… [Read More]


IFM (2015). Porter's generic competitive strategies. University of Cambridge. Retrieved July 10, 2015 from  http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/dstools/porters-generic-competitive-strategies/ 

Porter, M. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved July10, 2015 from  https://hbr.org/2008/01/the-five-competitive-forces-that-shape-strategy 

The Economist (2008). Economies of scale and scope. The Economist. Retrieved July 10, 2015 from  http://www.economist.com/node/12446567 

Subramaniam, N. (1999). The European automotive industry. Tripod. Retrieved July 10, 2015 from  http://cometonada.tripod.com/segmentation.htm
View Full Essay

Economic Society and New World

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40030140

(Zinn 8)

Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)

To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…… [Read More]

3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.

4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial

5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Commodity or Resource Such as

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75074477

Additionally, another imbalance is generated by the reduced bargaining power of the employees, who are no longer able to switch jobs. Additionally, when a monopoly is formed, the employees are rarely presented with the opportunity / possibility of forming or joining unions.

In an oligopoly situation, the situation is similar to a monopoly, with the specification that the employees are better able to negotiate terms and conditions as they have the ability to switch employers. An oligopoly is formed when the employment power -- or the demand for labor force -- is held by two or more organizations which joined forces on the market and an example is offered by the American automobile industry. Here however, other forces include the disequilibrium, such as more and more popular outsourcing operations or the search for hi-tech technicians. The annexed table reveals the market equilibrium for the auto industry in various contexts.

Finally,…… [Read More]


Whole Foods Market Website,  http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com  / last accessed on June 16, 2010
View Full Essay

Game Theory Does Explains Market

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66523588

c) Mutual Interdependence: This assumption is based on the relationship between two or more individuals where one person depends upon the other for economic interest or benefit. When making a decision one has to consider the effect of his or her decision to the partner. This is common in the Perfect competition -- pure market phenomenon.

With the assumptions above the game theory helps in developing a perfect competition among the consumers.

Goal theory in perfect competition market

It tends to describe market structure based on assumptions which are non-existent, most market systems are imperfect, however the long run and short run situations can help in holding the assumption to be true based on the equilibrium, price and output.

Basic assumptions required for conditions of pure competition to exist as below;

Many small firms: Each producer producing a significant percentage in the total output in the market hence has no…… [Read More]


David K.L., (2011). Economic and Game Theory, what is Game Theory. Retrieved April

21, 2011 from http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm

Geoff R., (2006). Perfect Competition. Retrieved April 21, 2011 from  http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-perfect-competition.htm 

Theodore L.T. & Bernhard S., (2001). Game Theory. Texas a&M University, London School of Economics, DAM Research Report LSE-CDAM-2001-09 Retrieved April 21, 2011 from  http://www.cdam.lse.ac.uk/Reports/Files/cdam-2001-09.pdf
View Full Essay

Monopolies of the Four Major

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25293551

Both of these moves broke the monopoly. The Canadian government broke Bayer's monopoly and the second company moved into the market, creating a temporary oligopoly. The influx of Cipro from Mexico represented a substitute product, thereby breaking Cipro's American monopoly. This lowered the price of the drug until demand subsided -- note that it was demand that subsided and not supply. This despite the fact that the monopoly-granting patent protection was affirmed in U.S. courts (Bayer, 2002).

Eventually, the market for Cipro returned to equilibrium once the crises was over. By seeing how the market changed when introduced to different stimuli, we can better understand the characteristics of this market.

The market for Cipro -- and in general all patent-protected medicines -- began as a monopoly in equilibrium. Bayer enjoyed substantial pricing power and demand stayed at or near the demand floor as a result. hen demand began to price,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Characteristics of monopolies. Investopedia. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.investopedia.com/study-guide/cfa-exam/level-1/microeconomics/cfa16.asp 

Spurgeon, D. (2001). Canada forced to honour Bayer's patent on ciprofloxacin. British Medical Journal. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1172996/ 

Bayer. (2002). Bayer's Cipro patent affirmed by U.S. courts. Bayer. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.investor.bayer.com/user_upload/1320/ 

No author. (2009). Monopoly, marginal revenue and demand elasticity. AmosWeb. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl?s=wpd&c=dsp&k=monopoly,+marginal+revenue+and+demand+elasticity