51 results for “Oppositional Defiant Disorder”.
Lonely and distressed adolescents are easy prey to alcohol abuse and drug use causing crime, as well. Substance abuse causes a number of problems for the users as well as the attached parties. It distorts the adolescent's decision making processes and makes them more rigid in what they believe other than what should be done (Turkum, 2011, pg 130).
There are a number of reasons behind substance abuse, including; to gain self-confidence, heightened power, and more energy as many believe to be the case. Peer pressure also accounts for the better part of victims of substance abuse. Teenagers will go to the extent of abusing drugs just to impress their audience.
Issues involving substance abuse are hard to resolve within families at times due to parent involvement in using the drugs. There is the need to notify Human Service professional of such cases. There are specific treatment settings set for…
Bares, C.B., Delva, J., Grogan-Kaylor, a., & Andrade, F. (2011). Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Social Work Research, 35(4), 227-240.
Bazargan, M.; Stein, J.; Bazargan-Hejazi, S.; Hindman, D. (2010). Using the Information-Motivation Behavior to predict Sexual Behavior Among undeserved Minority Youth. Journal of School Health June 2010, Vol. 80 Issue 6, p287-295.
Brassai, L., Piko, B.F., & Steger, M.F. (2012). Existential Attitudes and Eastern European Adolescents' Problem and Health Behaviors: Highlighting the Role of the Search for Meaning in Life. Psychological Record, 62(4), 719-733.
Danielson, C., McCart, M.R., Walsh, K., de Arellano, M.A., White, D., & Resnick, H.S. (2012). Reducing substance use risk and mental health problems among sexual assault adolescent victims: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(4), 628-635. doi:10.1037/a0028862
e., respect) to the teacher.
First, it would seem that the karate training in the Palermo article is a terrific idea especially when dealing with young boys, who have a lot of energy and usually respond well to athletic activities. Tightly organized basketball games, or soccer, could also be used in this same context. This is a great idea and a program worth sharing with teachers and school administrators. Secondly, the ideas presented by the first author, Ravenel, that administering behavior altering drugs, as an automatic reaction to ODD problems is wrong, have a lot of merit. And thirdly, the study using index cards in the desks of problem boys has a tremendous appeal when one assumes that these behavioral problems are not necessarily neurological or biological, but rather they are learned in their home and social environments.
Dunn, Susanne E., Lochman, John E., & Colder, Craig…
Dunn, Susanne E., Lochman, John E., & Colder, Craig R. (1997). Social Problem-
Solving Skills in Boys With Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders. Aggressive Behavior, Volume 23, 457-469.
Mottram, Lisa M., Bray, Melissa a., Kehle, Thomas J., Broudy, Matthew, & Jenson,
William R. (2002). A Classroom-Based Intervention to Reduce Disruptive Behaviors.
Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The challenges of adolescence have always loomed large for young people and for families -- for as long as adolescence has been a recognized stage in human development. A constellation of skills is needed by young people to bridge the transition from childhood dependency to adult independency (Smith, Cowie, & Blades, 1998). For some young people, the transition is especially difficult and skill development does not progress smoothly or without incidence. One of the areas in which adolescents may particularly experience difficulties is that of originating, developing, and directing purposeful goal-directed action (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). The umbrella term that covers these behaviors is personal agency (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). When these behaviors result in positive outcomes in line with an individual's intention, the behavior is deemed effective (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). Having confidence in one's ability to achieve according to one's…
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY W.H. Freeman and Company.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G.V., and Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206-1222.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder as identified by the DSM have changed from DSM-4 to DSM-5. However, there has been some criticism of the new manual by physicians and psychologists, who lament the fact that Big Pharma played a substantial role in producing the manual. This point will be discussed later in the paper. For now, the symptoms as described in DSM-4 were: a demonstrated pattern (6 months or more) of negative and defiant behavior, including at least 4 of the following activities: frequent loss of temper, arguing with elders, refusal to conform to rules of elders, deliberately annoying, places blame for faults on others, testy, full of disrespect and scorn, full of spite and a desire to "get even." Furthermore, this behavior should impair the individual's ability to function socially, academically and/or occupationally, and these behaviors should be exhibited in ordinary situations -- not just…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, Fourth Edition. Retrieved from http://behavenet.com/node/21490
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV -- TR to DSM-5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf
Cosgrove, L. (2010). Diagnosing Conflict-of-Interest Disorder. AAUP. Retrieved from http://www.aaup.org/article/diagnosing-conflict-interest-disorder#.Vb9nRflViko
One work specifically isolates a type of treatment that is helpful for ODD or milder CD:
In this book our focus is on supportive-expressive play psychotherapy for a particular kind of patient: the school-aged child who meets the criteria for oppositional defiant disorders and mild or moderately severe conduct disorders (DSM-III-). There are, however, important qualifications. First, the child must demonstrate some capacity for genuine guilt, remorse, or shame about his stealing, lying, or hurting others. Further, he must manifest during the diagnostic evaluation some potential for engaging in a therapeutic alliance; the therapist can best make this judgment by reflecting on the child's willingness to come and interact with her at some level, albeit a negative one. Finally, parental and school cooperation with the treatment plan should be available. We have conceptualized SEPP for children in the spectrum of conduct disorders. This specific approach has not been tried systematically…
Avila, C., Cuenca, I., Felix, V., Parcet, M., & Miranda, a. (2004). Measuring Impulsivity in School-Aged Boys and Examining Its Relationship with ADHD and ODD Ratings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(3), 295.
Dick, D.M., Viken, R.J., Kaprio, J., Pulkkinen, L., & Rose, R.J. (2005). Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(2), 219.
Kernberg, P.F., & Chazan, S.E. (1991). Children with Conduct Disorders: A Psychotherapy Manual. New York: Basic Books.
Loney, B.R., & Lima, E.N. (2003). Chapter 1 Classification and Assessment. In Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Treatment, Essau, C.A. (Ed.) (pp. 3-26). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Oppositional defiant disorder falls within a new classification of disorders known as "Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders" in the DSM-V (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, p. 15). In prior editions of the DSM, including its most recent predecessor the DSM-IV-T, many of the disorders in this category, including oppositional defiant disorder, were classified as "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence." Problems with self-control are the primary characteristic linking together the Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders. Moreover, the DSM-V updated the criteria for oppositional defiant disorder so that symptoms are grouped into three types including angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013). Therefore, both mood-related and observable behaviors are part of the diagnostic criteria.
Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms "occur commonly in normally developing children and adolescents," warranting scrutiny on the part of clinical professionals for misdiagnosis (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, p. 15). For example, the child…
American Psychiatric Publishing (2013). Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-V. Retrieved online: http://www.dsm5.org/documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf
Lubit, R.H. (2015). Oppositional defiant disorder. Retrieved online: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/918095-overview#a2
Nock, M.K., Kazdin, A.E., Hiripi, E. & Kessler, R.C. (2007). Lifetime prevalence, correlates, and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48(7): 703-713.
Reynolds, C.R. & Kamphaus, R.W. (n.d.). Oppositional defiant disorder. Pearson. Retrieved online: http://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/assets/basc-3/basc3resources/DSM5_DiagnosticCriteria_OppositionalDefiantDisorder.pdf
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a childhood disorder characterized by chronic irritability that interferes with academic and social functioning. Frequent outbursts and temper tantrums, at a frequency of about three times per week, are the most obvious behavior externalizations of DMDD, but to be diagnosed with the disorder, the child must also exhibit poor mood or irritability in between outbursts, too (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). To differentiate DMDD from pediatric bipolar disorder, it is also essential that the child does not exhibit sustained mood elevation or nonepisodic mania (Beweka, Mayes, Hameed, et al, 2016). Moreover, the symptoms of DMDD persist in spite of changes to the child’s environment, evident at home and also in school. Symptoms must also not be temporary, but in place for a year or more. While on the surface DMDD appears no different from any other psychiatric illness, it is in fact a nebulous…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder that is mostly found in children. According to one research almost 7.5% of school-aged children are suffering from some kind of ADHD related behavioral problem in the United States. In some cases, untreated symptoms can persist in the adulthood too, which can create numerous problems in the patient's social and emotional life. ADHD is rarely found in isolation as the child may also develop some other behavioral problems. The existence of more than one behavioral disorder is known as co-morbidity, which usually complicates the case because the child cannot be treated for one specific condition. It was once believed that ADHD patients outgrow the symptoms with age but this theory is no longer supported by latest research, which indicates that without treatment, ADHD's symptoms can easily persist in one's adult life. A newspaper article, which appeared in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1994), author…
1) CLAUDIA WALLIS, With Hannah Bloch/New York, Wendy Cole/Chicago and James Willwerth/Irvine, LIFE IN OVERDRIVE Doctors say huge numbers of kids and adults have attention deficit disorder. Is it for real?, Time, 07-18-1994, pp 42
2) Robin Seaton Jefferson; MODERN STRESSES WORSEN ATTENTION DEFICIT PROBLEMS, DOCTOR SAYS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 06-19-2002, pp 2.
3) Arthur Allen, The Trouble With ADHD; As growing numbers of children are being medicated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, some doctors and parents wonder whether the drugs have become a too-convenient w., The Washington Post, 03-18-2001, pp W08
4) Marianne Szegedy-Maszak;; Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, The Mind Maze., U.S. News & World Report, 05-06-2002, pp 52.
Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.
Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/default.htm .
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm .
Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005 http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506 .
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
The teacher must also be willing to use more conventional cognitive and behavior reinforcement tactics to encourage that the student will be able to function effectively in the modern workforce.
A discussion of how the topic is related to teaching-that is, what instructional strategies does the topic promote that support student learning and how are instructional decisions made based on the topic?
It may sound both crazy and controversial, but it may be most educationally empowering to the child and the teacher alike, rather than regarding individuals who learn or comport themselves 'differently' in the classroom as burdensome, to see ADHD as a potential if difficult gift for the classroom. The ADHD way of viewing learning can provide teachers with a new way of approaching the world and the rules of the teacher-student dialogue.
Yes, of course, distracted and hyperactive behavior must conform to respectable standards within the classroom. A…
Attention Deficit Disorders: What Teachers Should Know." (1994) U.S. Department of Education. Classroom Strategies for a Class with Students with ADD. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/add_adhd/add-school1.html#anchor131686
ADHD -- Symptoms." (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100386.htm
ADHD -- What is it?" (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100391.htm?z=1623_86000_0000_rl_02
The Medical Treatment of ADHD." (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100397.htm
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…
ADHD. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=adhd_guest_consumers&s=2
The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)
Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…
Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. December 2001. Retrieved at http://www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc30.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, Disorder: Neurological Basis and Treatment Alternatives. Journal of Neurotherapy. Volume: 1; No: 1; p: 1. Retrieved at ( http://www.snr-jnt.org/JournalNT/JNT (1-1)1.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Bedard, Anne-Claude; Ickowicz, Abel; Logan, Gordon D; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell; Tannock, Rosemary. Selective Inhibition in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Off and on Stimulant Medication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. June, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 90-93
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…
Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189
Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.
Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.
Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…
Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (1999). Ethnicity and special education research: Identifying questions and methods. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 66-73.
Oswald, D.P., Coutinho, M.J., Best, A.M & Singh, N. (1999). Ethnic representation in special education: The influence of economic demographic variables. Journal of Special Education, 32, 194-196.
Murtagh, Damien (2003) Investigating the Overrepresentation of Ethnic Minorities in Special Education. Graduate Studies. Online available at: www.lynchburg.edu/documents/GraduateStudies/Journal/MurtaghD.doc
U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: Author.
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.
(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)
Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)
The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…
Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.
Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html
Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1
Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
Case Story Bipolar Disorder
A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah
I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.
Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…
Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.
Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86
Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S
Parents whose own children were ADHD or ODD would respond differently either in one direction or the other with respect to the positive and negative aspects of their communications than parents whose own children were neither ADHD, ODD, or CD.
Diagnostic Process and Testing Procedures
The ADHD, ODD, and CD diagnoses were established by a standard rating scale assessment of questionnaires filled out by one parent in each couple as well as by their child's teacher. Diagnosis was made pursuant to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for those disorders. These criteria were used both to identify parents of ADHD, ODD, and CD children and also as the basis for the specific disruptive behaviors displayed by the confederate children during the experiment.
The testing procedures consisted of instructing parent pairs to interact with the confederate children in several capacities: first, they supervised and assisted…
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…
journal and literature review that all centers on the same single test case of a patient situation that is known to the author. Indeed, the case in question is one the author of this report is aware of from an internship as a social work intern. The specific case is that of a seven-year-old Hispanic male that has been diagnosed with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). The boy in question comes from lower socioeconomic status and, obviously, is of a racial minority group at the same time. The author will cycle through five different book excerpts and journal articles that pertain in whole or in part to the plight and diagnosis faced by the boy mentioned above and the learning gleaned from each source will be applied to his case. While the boy in question has a comorbid diagnosis and faces some societal roadblocks…
Corcoran, J. (2003). Clinical applications of evidence-based family interventions.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drake, K., & Ginsburg, G. (2012). Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Child And Family Psychology
Review, 15(2), 144-162. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0109-0
journey as a public school counselor by receiving my bachelors of science degree in counseling. Then I pursued a master's degree in school counseling. Before I received my license, I had to finish a set number of supervised hours while training and complete a test called the Praxis test. My specialty is school counseling and I am affiliated with the American School Counselor Association. My role as a school counselor within a public school is to assess and identify potential avenues for students interested in going to a good high school. I work with middle school aged children.
I have a good working relationship with clients in the sense that they can communicate effectively with me. I would say building rapport begins with asking open-ended questions and really getting a sense of what the client wants and or their personality. By letting clients speak more in the beginning, it lets…
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse
Does mental illness cause substance abuse addiction or does substance abuse addiction cause a mental illness diagnosis? Does it go both ways?
A complex relationship exists between substance abuse and mental illness. Those suffering from depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses may use alcohol and drugs as self-medication. Unfortunately, though such options may appear to work temporarily, substance abuse is no treatment for any condition; in fact, it often aggravates the problem during severe intoxication as well as in the course of substance withdrawal (NAMI, 2010).
Furthermore, alcohol and drugs can initiate mental illness in persons who are otherwise mentally healthy, while worsening problems in those who are already mentally ill. Active substance users will tend to not follow-through properly with therapy, and are more vulnerable to serious health complications and even premature death. Those having dual diagnosis will also be more prone to violent…
Anderson P, & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Anderson, M. L., Ziedonis, D. M., & Najavits, L. M. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and substance Use Disorder Comorbidity among Individuals with Physical Disabilities: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(2), 182-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21894
Book SW, & Randall CL. (2002). Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health; 26:130-5.
Cerda M, Sagdeo A, Galea S. (2008). Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions. Epidemiol Rev; 30:155_177.
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…
AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,
2014 from http://www.aacap.org /AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx
CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
Depression in Children and Adolescents
Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…
APA, & AACAP. (n.d.). The Use of Medication in Treating Childhood and Adolescent Depression: Information for Patients and Families. Parents Medical Guide Workgroup, 1-6.
Egger HL, Angold A. (2006).Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry;47:313-337.
Gibb, B. (2014). Depression in Children. 383.
Gray, P. (2011). The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Play, 459.
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
children in the U.S. has a learning disability and nearly 3 million have ADHD. Most of them are between the ages of 5 and 21, males whose mothers have less than 12 years of education, of poor health and socio-economically disadvantaged. One in every 25 or 30 school children in one classroom will have a learning disability. Learning disabilities also persist for a lifetime. At present, these affected children and adults can only be helped to make the best use of their skills and themselves through stimulants and psychotherapy as well as the combined support of their families, school, community and public services.
Learning disabilities in children and adults have yet to be thoroughly understood and adequately contained.
A learning disability generally refers to one of specific kinds of learning problems, such as the difficulty in learning and using certain skills (NICHCY 2002). These trouble areas are often reading, writing,…
1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838
2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT
3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html
4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm
Academic Outcomes of Children With ADHD
ADHD Literature eview
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition recognizable by attention deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that manifest across multiple settings. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) describes ADHD as consisting of inattention, and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, severe enough to interfere with day-to-day functioning and development. Common symptoms of inattention include poor listening skills, frequent mistakes, disorganized, avoidance of mentally challenging tasks, distracted, and forgetful. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms include fidgeting, inappropriate physical activity, excessive talking, interrupting others, and an inability to play quietly. Children suffering from ADHD would therefore have a difficult time succeeding academically.
If ADHD were rare this would not be a significant…
CDC. (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data & statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html .
CDC. (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html .
Dang, M.T., Warrington, D., Tung, T., Baker, D., & Pan, R.J. (2007). A school-based approach to early identification and management of students with ADHD. Journal of School Nursing, 23(1), 2-12.
DuPaul, G., & Power, T.J. (2008). Improving school outcomes for students with ADHD: Using the right strategies in the context of the right relationships. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(5), 519-21.
Program-Evaluation -- Evidence-Based Practice: Case Study eview
There is growing recognition that the used of evidence-based practices promotes improved clinical outcomes and can help guide clinicians in their respective disciplines. This paper draws on the Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions to provide a description of a salient case study and the identification of the critical elements that require the review of published research to guide professional practice. In addition, a summary of a research study by Spengler, P. M., White, M. J., Egisdottir (2009) that informs evidence-based counseling practice related to the selected case study as it would occur in a specialization area is followed by a discussion concerning relevant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that apply to the case and research article selected. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the need for evidence-based practices to guide professional practice today are…
Dodson, W. W. (2007, April). Make ADHD treatment as effective as possible. Current Psychiatry, 6(4), 82-85.
Elik, N. & Corkum, P. (2015, January 1). Overcoming the barriers to teachers' utilization of evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(1), 40-45.
Holland, K. & Higuera, V. (2015, February 26). The history of ADHD: A timeline. Healthline. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/history#Overview1 .
Norcross, J., Hogan, T., & Koocher, G. (2008). Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices: Mental health and the addictions. New York, NY: Oxford Press.
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…
Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
Therapist Name: Case Name/#:
Reason for Referral:
The client is an eight-year-old female who may not have be making adequate academic progress consistent with her age and grade level. She is currently in the third grade. The client was assessed over two sessions.
Clinical concerns: Difficulty in school/with academic progress.
Clinical concerns: Possible learning disability.
Clinical concerns: Reading difficulties.
Clinical concerns: Client potentially not motivated to perform in class.
Clinical concerns: Rule out depression and/or anxiety.
Jailah was born on September 11, 2007. Jailah is the third child and a sibship of five. According to her mother Jailah is of Hispanic and African-American descent. Her native language is English.
With respect to her family Jailah has three sisters ages 16 years old, 14 years old, and five years old. She also has a younger brother age seven years old. The children the family have three different fathers.…
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…
Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.
Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.
Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
eason for eferral:
The client is a 15-year-old male who has issues with anger management. The client is also a gang member and given his age and background he is considered to be at risk for a number of antisocial behaviors.
Clinical concerns: Anger management/acting out.
Clinical concerns: Interpersonal isolation/relationship issues.
Clinical concerns: Underage cigarette smoking.
Client is a high potential risk for substance abuse.
Clinical concerns: Client is at a high potential risk for depressive symptoms.
The client has been in counseling with another counselor for four months before being transferred to this counselor's caseload. According to the reports from his previous counselor this client had made very little progress and was uncooperative.
He was uncooperative during the initial assessments and did not wish to discuss his feelings or acknowledge that he has difficulties with managing his anger. He tends to…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-
analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 63 -- 74.
Boxer, P. & Goldstein, S.E. (2012). Treating juvenile offenders: Best practices and emerging critical issues. In Grigorenko, E.L. (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile forensic psychology and psychiatry (pp. 323-340). New Haven, CT: Springer.
In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.
In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…
Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the Making . Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications Inc. .
Adolescent Substance Abuse and Delinquent Behavior
The incidence of adolescent substance abuse is a significant public health issue. More and more, statistics show that substance abuse in the United States is not only widespread but growing. It has been reported that approximately 15% of all teenagers have experimented with drugs by the time they have graduated from high school (National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and this survey data is most likely low, since this study does not include individuals who were not currently in school or children who are institutionalized. The use of drugs themselves are not only a health hazard because of the substances themselves, but because of the significant relationship between even casual drug use in teens and increased incidents of delinquency, premature sexual activity, psychological problems and even an increased risk of criminal behavior continuing into adulthood. Teens who use drugs are also more likely to…
Johnston LP, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2002. NIH Publication No. 03-5374. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2003
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume 1. Summary of National Findings. NHSDA Series H-17, DHHS Publication No. SMA 02-3758. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, 2002.
Barnes G, Welte J, Hoffman J. Relationship of alcohol use to delinquency and illicit drug use in adolescents: gender, age, and racial/ethnic difference. J Drug Issues 2002; 2(1): 153-178
Diagnosing Children and Adolescents
Diagnosis: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Inattentive Type
In essence, ADHD symptoms could be grouped into either hyperactivity and impulsiveness or inattentiveness. In the present case, the symptoms Jamel presents are consistent with the latter.
It is important to note that Jamel meets the criteria for the diagnosis above on the basis of DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. To begin with, the boy’s mother points out that to get him to do anything, she has to yell and repeat instructions. In addition to appearing as if not to listen when directly spoken to, children with ADHD – inattention type routinely fail to follow instructions (Centers for Disease and Prevention – CDC, 2017). Secondly, Jamel’s teachers report that he has difficulties focusing on a single activity for a period exceeding two or three minutes. Children with ADHD – inattention type often have “trouble holding attention on tasks…” (CDC,…
These persons do experience a very high level of anxiety coupled with low avoidance. Therefore they get preoccupied and do feel on a constant basis, a sense of unlovabililty along with that of unworthiness that is combined with an affirmative evaluation of others. The preoccupied style is usually formed whenever a primary care giver is inconsistent in their manner of parenting. This is marked with being loving while being responsive. This is however true only when they are able to manage but not in their response to the child's signals as pointed out by Cassidy (2000).
Several adults have been shown to be exhibiting this style and they are known to be in a constant quest to be accepted by others through the gaining of acceptance of other individuals in the community.
Fearful avoidant style
This is the last type of avoidance styles It comprises of highly negative…
Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 147-178.
Crnic, L.S., Reite, M.L., & Shucard, D.W. (1982). Animal models of human behavior: Their application to the study of attachment. In R.N. Emde & R.J. Harmon (Eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems (pp. 31-42). New York: Plenum.
Fonagy, P. (2001) Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.
Discuss the relevant information about the student's behaviors. What factors early on contribute to how she is today?
Liz, a 15-year-old high school Freshman, has been exhibiting certain behaviors lately and in the past that have been affecting her today. Liz has been functioning below grade level academically. She cannot work independently, "hates" school, and rebels against all authority. She is defensive and uses abusive language. She tends to blame others for her carelessness and seldom takes responsibility. According to Liz's parents, Liz seldom slept enough when she was younger, so as to give them a break from her behaviors. As Liz grew older, she began to react impulsively. She has been caught distributing drugs and refuses to get tested, psychologically.
There are certain factors, from the past, that may have contributed to how Liz is today. First of all, Liz seemed to be deprived of sleep, early on,…
Children With Conduct Disorder
It has been suggested that the following three treatments are the most conducive for helping children who have behavior related problems:
This treatment is focused towards the changes that have to be made in the family system, such as improving family interaction with the child. Peer group therapy?
In this therapy we will work to develop the social and interpersonal skills of the child. Cognitive therapy?
This therapy will help the child in improving his communication skills, and problem solving skills. Along with that it provides anger management training to the child, along with impulsive control training. I would like o conduct an experimental study that will evaluate differences in each of these groups and see whether one intervention is preferable to the other.
I would randomly select children and randomly divide them amongst three groups. The children would all come from the…
Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2003). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press. Pro.ed CDS: Conduct Disorder Scale (10355)?
What statistical analysis should I use? http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/whatstat/whatstat.htm ?
This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.
A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.
No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…
Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).
Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.
Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When
juvenile justice interventions to parental intervention and readiness for change. The study evaluates Parenting with Love Limits (PLL) group therapy program to determine its effect on adolescent behavior and its effect on parent factors as well as parent adolescent relationship and readiness for change.
The methods and procedures used in conducting this study are descriptive and experimental. It also involves statistical analysis of data. It also reviews previous studies that relates to it. It is descriptive in the sense that it gives a reader an insight into what terminologies like recidivism, re-adjudication, and community based intervention mean with regard to reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders. The design was experimental in the sense that it used The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to measure behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by their parents. The parents are reported to have completed the CBCL by themselves. The CBCL integrates 118…
Sells, S.P., Early, K.W. & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing Adolescent Oppositional and Conduct
Disorders: An Experimental Design Using the Parenting with Love and Limits Model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice 6(3&4), 9-30.
Warr, M. (2005). Making delinquent friends: Adult supervision and children's affiliations.
Criminology, 43(1), 77 -- 106.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
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Kennedy, aged 46, was traveling in a convoy when he was shot. He was in a limousine with an open top, passing the Book Depository of Texas School Building, in downtown Dallas at around 12:30 P.M. Kennedy's wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, the governor of Texas John Connally (1917-1993), and John's wife Nellie were riding with President Kennedy that day. John Connally also got shot and sustained serious injuries. Kennedy is said to have died 30 minutes after the shot. He had been rushed to the Parkland Hospital of Dallas.
Less than 60 minutes after the shooting, Oswald, who was formerly a Marine, murdered a police officer who interrogated him while on a street close to his rooming house in Dallas. Oswald had just begun his job at the Book of Depository of Texas School Building. After half an hour, he was apprehended while at the movie theatre. The police had been…
It seems sound to recommend that Adam stop taking Concerta, because it might aggravate underlying bipolar symptoms.
Strattera not stimulating, but it can have side effects, like prolonged erections, and it is also a fairly new drug. It should be prescribed with caution. It is still uncertain whether Adam's conduct disorders are due to his unstable home environment, and not due to any biological factors. Prescribing Strattera seems like a normal course of therapeutic action, but should not be regarded as a panacea.
If you were the clinician, counselor, or therapist, what would be the primary issue you would want to address?
To be diagnosed with ADHD, the individual should exhibit the symptoms in two environments, and Adam's behavior seems to primarily assert itself in the home. With support, he seems functional in school, and he is substantially less functional at home than at school or with his peers.…
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Kennedy, aged 46, was traveling in a convoy when he was shot. He was in a limousine with an open top, passing the Book Depository of Texas School Building,…Read Full Paper ❯
It seems sound to recommend that Adam stop taking Concerta, because it might aggravate underlying bipolar symptoms. Strattera not stimulating, but it can have side effects, like prolonged erections,…Read Full Paper ❯