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al, 396). The study is also important because it outlines predictors of dispositional behavior. These include among other things the patients emotional well-being, understanding of their illness, general perception of their health and familial support.
Giltay, et. al, (2004) examine the relationship between dispositional optimism and all-cause mortality. Their findings suggest that a protective relationship exists between dispositional optimism and health. The study specifically found that of 941 subjects, the number of deaths among individuals with a higher level of pessimism was much greater than among those with a more optimistic attitude. The results were adjusted fro behavioral factors that might impact mortality, including smoking and alcohol consumption, body mass index and other physiological factors.
Matthews, aikkonen, Sutton-Tyrrell & Kuller (2004) find that optimistic patients are more likely to report a higher quality of life and engage "in more active coping and health promoting behaviors than people with pessimism" (p.…… [Read More]
The study also found that pessimism and is more often associated with neuroticism and negative emotions than and optimism. This study concluded that not being pessimistic was more important than being optimistic.
Sweeney & Sheppard (2010) found that optimism could have its disadvantages when someone must receive bad news. Pessimism allows the person to "brace" themselves for bad news and to develop coping skills to help deal with the event. Optimists may have a disadvantage when it comes to real life negative situations. These authors suggest that pessimism is more of a coping mechanism and that optimism can leave a person without a planned coping strategy. The study aked the question of whether optimism is always best when preparing for the unexpected events, or expectations of negative events in life.
Pessimism puts people in the state of readiness, which Sweeney & Sheppard associate with preparedness. It was found that many…… [Read More]
A soldier who believes that they and their fellows can accomplish amazing goals is far superior to one who whines and complains about his situation and focuses on the possible negatives or challenges that may be difficult to overcome. A smaller force of enthusiastic, optimistic soldiers are far more effective than a greater sized force that has no confidence in their ability to complete their mission.
The smaller force's perpetual optimism is a force multiplier, making them more powerful than their pessimistic, but larger opponents.
Showing pessimism in one's abilities gives the opponent an advantage that could mean the difference between success and defeat.
Again, Napoleon sums it up succinctly. "We should always go before our enemies with confidence, otherwise our apparent uneasiness inspires them with greater boldness" (cited in Moore, 2006). This positive attitude is exactly what Powell is talking about in his explanation of perpetual optimism as a…… [Read More]
optimism continued union success. reference class:
One of the primary reasons for the relatively current state of optimism about union success is the staying power of unions and their rates of enlistment and membership. In spite of the fact that there are discernible problems regarding today's labor force (most palpably the unstable economy and the widespread layoffs and downsizing responsible for them), there are more employees involved in labor unions than there were in the early 1930's, when unions were fairly prominent in the United States, with well over 15 million people as members (Sloane & Whitney 5).
One of the reasons union membership is so popular today among certain types of workers is the fact that there is an intrinsic power in numbers, particularly when it comes to working with management and traditional bourgeois conceptions of employers. The ability to bargain with such employees as a collective appeals to…… [Read More]
I think you have to learn to laugh at yourself to be successful in life, and I think you have to laugh at what life throws you. I think having a good sense of humor helps me look at life more optimistically, and helps me get through tough times. Some of my more pessimistic friends seem to revel in the bad things that happen to them. They mope, they complain, and they definitely do not see humor in the situation. I have a friend who cannot laugh at herself no matter what. She does some pretty silly things, like putting on makeup while she drives. She is really defensive about it, and cannot look at what she does and admit it might be wrong, or funny to others. She does not have much of a sense of humor about herself or others, and I think that may be one reason…… [Read More]
Speech -- Power of Optimism
The Power of Optimism: How Optimism can Help Make for a Better Life
The Power of Optimism: How Optimism can Help Make for a Better Life
What is optimism? Why should we want to make our lives better? What is the power of optimism? How can people become more optimistic? How can people harness the power of optimism to improve their lives? The problem with life is -- it's hard. There is not one person who has, at least once in life, hoped, wished, or desired to change life for the better. Where does positive change begin? It begins with our perspective, disposition, and outlook on life. Problems are solvable. It is feasible to reach our goals. We cannot imagine or accept the best solutions to our problems if we lack the capacity for optimism. Optimism is more than a philosophy…… [Read More]
The pessimist uses minor mishaps as an excuse for bad behavior -- or despair. The optimist tries to learn from mistakes and troubles, and mistakes make the optimist more hardy and capable with dealing with stress.
Of course, optimism can be taken to a ridiculous extreme. It is silly to say that it is always 'for the best in the best of all possible worlds,' like Professor Pangloss from Candide. hen a loved one passes away from cancer, this is not 'for the best,' and the optimist still feels pain. However, the optimist says that no experience is purely for the worst, and at least powerful lessons can be learned form the experience about always living life to the fullest, and the positive outlook that their loved one was able to have, even at the end. A pessimist simply looks at the sky and wails 'why me, why must terrible…… [Read More]
" (Greene, 7) The introduction is fitting and indicates to the reader that Pinkie is not simply a man not to be trusted but that, indeed even beyond that, he is a creature to be feared.
This is only further reinforced in the tense first meeting between Hale and Pinkie, neither of them a man of the greatest particular integrity. Hale insists that the boy have a drink with him, and upon his acceptance of the invitation, Pinkie is described as having "watched Hale all the time closely and with wonder: you might expect a hunter searching through the jungle for some half-fabulous beast to look like that -- at the spotted lion or the pygmy elephant -- before the kill." (Greene, 7)
Quite to this point, we may say that it was probable Hale knew what was coming to him almost from the moment he laid eyes on Pinkie.…… [Read More]
Optimism and Pessimism Relates to Stress and Coping with Cancer
An increasing amount of research links negative and positive emotional states to wellness or ill health. The negative or pessimistic emotions seem to have a negative effect on the immune system and on general health. Pessimism has been shown to be unhealthy and have adverse effects on health, including increasing the risk of cancer and preventing recovery from the disease. On the other hand, positive or optimistic emotions have been shown to strengthen immune function and bring good health. (Gillman, 1989)
There is a wealth of research that suggests optimism has a positive association with better mental and physical health, as well as coping with stress. Pessimism has been linked to a higher risk of death before the age of 65, while positive emotions, like optimism, are linked to lowered production of the stress hormone cortisol, better immune function, and…… [Read More]
While on the one hand many are concerned that scientific discoveries like the atomic bomb could mean the end of civilization, others like the inventor ay Kurzweil argue that, "to relinquish technologies because they could be used for ill means giving up their good uses -- and it also means totalitarian control." (Creating a More Intelligent Future) in other words if we focus on the many creative aspects of modern technology this opens up a very positive picture of the future.
There are many aspects that could be considered here. One of the many advances in modern technology is the fascinating creation of "interfaces" or a more intelligent interaction between technology, like computers, and human beings. This would mean that technology would no longer be "alien" or a threat to humanity but would become more acceptable and adjusted to the human environment. As some experts argue, "...it becomes possible to…… [Read More]
Voltaire's "Candide" is several novels rolled into one. (Homer and Hull, 1978), he returns to the life of a commoner. His life has gone full circle. From flights of fancy, he derives pleasure from one of the most basic occupations -- farming. Voltaire's epic works at several levels. His disdain for philosophies at the cost of realism is evident. Pangloss, the "metaphysico-theologo-cosmonolonigolo" ic tutor is not particularly equipped when confronted with life's harsh realities. In the long run, there is a reversal of roles: from Candide's starry eyed wonderment of Pangloss' learning, to Pangloss' life at the pleasure of Candide.
The essay will argue that in keeping with the alternative title for Candide -- Optimism -- throughout the narrative, Candide always looks ahead to the future. His travails would have put paid to most people. ut his optimism and will to survive enables him to use all his abilities to…… [Read More]
Once I put my mind to doing something I find that I am totally committed to do it. I have learned that if I am not totally committed, not only does it make whatever I am doing very annoying, it often does not turn out well in the end.
A person who possesses initiative and optimism is always ready to seize opportunities that present themselves. These people pursue goals beyond what is expected or them and are always utilizing unusual and enterprising effort to accomplish things (Goleman, 2000). People who possess initiative have the drive to want to make things happen. These people almost always have optimism at the same time which allows them to believe that they can make whatever they want to happen. I find myself always wanting to get things done but not always having the optimism to follow through.
According to Cherry (2011) there are three…… [Read More]
Voltaire and Dostoyevsky
Dostoyevsky's Notes from Underground and Voltaire's Candide are precisely similar works: in attempting to construct a narrative critique of a philosophical system, they slip from harsh satire into a form of sentimentality. I would suggest that comparing the two works' differing approaches to the philosophical problems of optimism, adversity, and violence are indicative of a different attitude altogether toward the philosophical problems presented. Dostoyevsky is passionate but ultimately sees no alternative between traditional religious morality and nihilism; Voltaire, by contrast, sees traditional religious morality as banal and proposes his own alternative. But in my conclusion, I will compare and contrast the role played by comedy in both works -- although each takes a broadly satirical approach toward the philosophical fashions of the present-day, only Candide is the genuinely comic work.
In comparing the role played by optimism in both works, it is important to recall that this…… [Read More]
Do you disagree with any of Pope's opinions or pronouncements in the Heroic Couplets or "An Essay on Man"?
Pope is critical of individuals who "cry, if man's unhappy, God's unjust," suggesting that the unhappiest people are people who blame God, rather than themselves for all of their troubles, or who curse God because their lives are imperfect. The need to accept life's imperfections while still working to enact positive changes within the limitations of humanity is a positive message still relevant for people today.
Based on what you have read of "The Rape of the Lock," what do you think the poem's theme or central message is? What or who are the objects of his satire? Does the epic, "The Rape of the Lock" apply in any way to society today? Identify two passages that could serve as satiric commentaries on people's behavior today. Your answer should discuss both…… [Read More]
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…… [Read More]
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…… [Read More]
In the long run, Machan & Chesher's argument makes sense -- care for the health and safety of company employees and see the company grow more profitable! Care for one's own health and one will be a better employee! However, management does not always take the long-term vision that, 'if I allow my employee to take a day off for the flu, he or she will be more productive upon his or her return, and not infect other employees.' Employees may be told to come in to the office when they are sick or else they will be fired. Thus, they risk their own health or the health of others, to make a quick return on the corporation's investment in an employee. Also, an adolescent or even a twenty-year-old on his or her first job may have a sense of invincibility, and do imprudent things, like speed to deliver pizzas,…… [Read More]
Health Care -- PHI
A Primary Health Care Initiative (PHI) is a fundamental, affordable health care mode clearly illustrated the Declaration of Alma-Ata. Michelle Obama's "Let's Move!" adheres to the PHI format and uses the Health Belief Model as its guide. Unfortunately, several problems with both the Model and the initiative hamper its success. Several measures can be taken to significantly enhance the initiative's impact.
Identify PHI (20%)
A PHI is a fundamental and affordable mode of health care that is grounded in realistic, well-established and culturally agreeable science and practices, and is made accessible to all members of a community (HO, 1978, pp. 2-3). It relies on continuous financial and ideological support from the immediate and larger communities, as well as the wholehearted participation of community members, who are deemed partners in their own health care (HO, 1978, pp. 2-3). Though the initiative works with individuals in their local…… [Read More]
For that reason, a logistic related PE in Hong Kong in our case may find it challenging to align itself with certain standards embraced either in the United States or Western Europe in regard to due diligence.
It is also important to note that for the logistic related PE, general partner returns variability is yet another risk factor. It can be noted that for the eight years preceding 2005, Asia's fund returns variance was relatively higher in comparison to the U.S. And Western Europe variance (INSEAD 2010). While the variance in the U.S. And Europe stood at 15% and 13% respectively, Asia's fund returns variability was registered as 23%. Though this could be driven partly by manager-selection skills, such a selection could turn out to be an uphill task for such a logistic related PE given the nature of the market.
It may also be prudent to note that according…… [Read More]
People's Car Tata Nano
Financial, political and marketing/business commentators alike seem to agree that the Tata Nano, the planet's cheapest car, was a perfect match between an idea and a need when it was introduced -- or at least as a manufacturing idea. Making the smallest of small cars could happen because the timing was right for pairing just such an idea with the quickly emerging appreciation of frugal engineering innovations, or using sophisticated technologies and motivations to make a product that is affordable and helpful to the global economy and ecology. [1: "Stuck in low gear." The Economist. Aug. 20, 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/21526374 accessed January 15, 2012. ] [2: Sadanad Dhume. "Unloved at any speed." Foreign Policy. October 7, 2011. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/10/07/tata_nano_unloved_at_any_speed accessed January 15, 2012. ]
It was for this reason that the project came to life as quickly as it did. It seemed to be the perfect mix of…… [Read More]
Godard believed that cinema should be an extension of criticism, a concept that he is able to achieve in Le Mepris through his criticism of traditional Hollywood cinema and the restrictions imposed on directors who were struggling to define their style and voice their interpretation of stories set before them. Godard is able to inject his personal interpretation of Moravia's novel by writing the script of the film and by incorporating aspects of his relationship with Karina into the film. Godard does not compromise his authorial interpretation of Moravia's novel, yet is able to stay within the parameters set before him by the producers of the film.
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," Bordwell argues that ambiguity helps to unify realism and authorial expressivity; however, Godard does not employ ambiguity and allows the film to end conclusively. Godard believes, "A story should have a beginning,…… [Read More]
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…… [Read More]
, 2010). It is perfectly conceivable that this nurse leader would welcome more collaborative or shared leadership responsibilities, particularly since the setting for empirical clinical research on this very issue was, in fact, an ICU (osengren, Bondas, Nordholm, et al., 2010).
Finally, it appears from this interview subject's input into this project that she is a competent and effective nursing leader, largely by virtue of her description of her supervisory and administrative style and inclination. However, her input lacked any substantial data on the basis of which a reviewer could evaluate her effectiveness as a clinical leader more specifically. Those particular skill sets may occur in combination but they undoubtedly also occur individually within different leaders (Stanley & Sherratt, 2010). A review of historical literature (such as in connection with Florence Nightingale) clearly demonstrates that good nursing leaders may or may not necessarily also be equally good clinical leaders (Stanley…… [Read More]
old, living away from home for the first time in an apartment in San Diego when I decided to attend college and maintain myself in an apartment without taking any financial assistance from my parents. Since I was not a California resident I had the additional expense of paying out-of-state tuition. I had a football scholarship that would pay fifty-percent of my tuition but I needed a job to pay my living expenses and the remaining tuition.
Although the time required for school and football was a fulltime job in itself, my financial needs said I needed to work between thirty and thirty five hours per week to make ends meet. With that as my motivation, I took a job at Federal Express as a package handler on the graveyard shift.
The summer before starting my sophomore year of college, just two weeks before the beginning of football camp in…… [Read More]
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…… [Read More]
Palm IPO Case
Discuss whether any biases apply in regard to the Palm IPO to the analysts, investors, management.
Yes, biases on multiple fronts were present with all stakeholders involved. I believe it is important to look at these biases in regards to the prevailing market sentiments at the time. During the period directly prior to the IPO, the markets were experiencing excessive optimism in regards to technology stock. Technology stocks during this period were valued very high relative to their intrinsic worth. In fact, many companies during this period were trading at thousands of times their prior year earnings. In many respects, some companies commanded high prices with no earnings what so ever. This mass euphoria created irrational values on most companies in the market. The Palm IPO was a direct response to this mass euphoria surrounding technology stocks. Individual investors believing that stock prices could not come down…… [Read More]
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… [Read More]
An African-American individual and a drunken cowboy actually form a great team as they push back numerous gunslingers and as they manage to get the townsfolk to overcome their racist ideas in order to fight for their homes. When regarding matters from a more dramatic point-of-view, it seems perfectly normal to acknowledge that suffering unites people regardless of their skin color and background.
Richard Donner's film also emphasizes the importance of humor in the face of adversity. Jack rown, the central character in the film, is an African-American individual who is humiliated on a constant basis by his white patrons and who is even related to as being a toy. Donner practically produced an outrageous account, taking into consideration that he made a film about a white man buying and African-American for his son. However, the humorous nature of the motion picture is actually intended to emphasize that it would…… [Read More]
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]
This is significant because it shows how some critics of contrarian investing will often point to the various instances of speculation and assume that it is contrarian investing. In some cases the psychology of consumers can become so extreme, that the definition of what is speculative expands greatly. As a result, using contrarian investing in conjunction with other indicators / tools can help prudent investors and traders, be able to identify when the market condition are becoming more extreme.
Contrarian Indicators and Tools
When using the different contrarian indicators / tools in conjunction with one another, you can begin to see how this strategy can be used, to effectively determine if the market conditions are overbought or oversold. There are number of different tools that can be utilized to indentify major changes that are occurring in the trend of a stock or the market averages. These would include: headlines…… [Read More]
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]
The first point addressed by Clark's review determines that a fundamental change in medical perspective had begun to transpire with the assumption of varying clinical research investigations on the subject.
This would contribute to what Clark identifies as a major shift in the way that physicians had begun to perceive and treat terminal illness. As opposed to a cut and dry preparation of the patient for the certainty of death, Clark points to a juncture in the mid to late 20th century at which medical professionals had begun to adopt "an active rather than a passive approach to the care of dying people was promoted in which the fatalistic resignation of the doctor ('there is nothing more we can do') was supplanted by a determination to find new and imaginative ways to continue caring up to the end of life." (Clark, 2002) In addition to serving as a fundamental motivation…… [Read More]
Conflicting Educational Association Groups
The article critiqued in this document was Lareau and Munoz's "You're not going to call the shots: Structural conflicts between the principal and the PTO at a suburban public elementary school." This article contained original qualitative research in which the authors utilized the interactions between a Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) and the principal of an elementary school to analyze the source of structural conflict between the two. Their research consisted of interviews and observations at the school. Interview subjects included the principal, school board members, and parents involved in the PTO. The authors believed the source of conflict stemmed from the structure of the PTO and the principal.
The authors' key points largely revolved around the thematic issues that emerged via their observation and interviews. Specifically, the authors (2012) were able to denote that the sources of conflict seemed to come from different priorities between the…… [Read More]
The Illusion of Validity.
In this chapter, Kahneman pursues the further implications of two principles described earlier in the book. One is WYSIATI, or What You See Is All There Is: this is the tendency to tell a coherent story based on the immediate visible evidence, without consideration that there might be significant additional evidence. The second is Confidence by Coherence: in Kahneman's account, a story that feels coherent gives a person an unwarranted sense of confidence. Confidence in a judgment usually means that an individual has constructed a coherent story about available evidence, not that the story is true. And feeling confident about one's judgments creates the illusion of validity and the illusion of skill in making those judgments, even when it is contradicted by the evidence. The average stock-trader on Wall Street actually performs a worse job than if the stocks were traded randomly -- what happens…… [Read More]
Heward reference is a book review of Nancy Close's book Listening to Children: Talking With Children About Difficult Issues -- It is improper to reference a book review-unless of course you are also reviewing the book. I have included the proper reference
Perhaps the one of the worst fears of new parents is that their child may develop a serious disability such as mental retardation or other developmental disability. Arguably the most important influences on the development of any young child would be the child's parents and the sociocultural environment in which the child grows up (Skinner & Weisner, 2007). This socio-cultural environment includes the family environment, community environment, and geographic locale including all shared beliefs and assumptions about child development and about disabilities. However, one can argue that the most important aspect of the sociocultural environment that a child with a disability grows up in is the influence of…… [Read More]
The ability to help a person or a patient is often a complex affair that involves care on a much deeper level than simply treating symptoms. "Overcoming" is a concept that was chosen by the authors; this concept is multifaceted and includes many different aspects, but can be thought as roughly being able to overcome a personal challenge to meet a desired outcome (Brush, Kirk, Gultekin, & Baiardi, 2011). The concept of overcoming is interesting to me and I feel that I have had overcome many things in my life; although these challenges were on a different scale than the case studies provided. However, understanding what it takes to "overcome" could be a valuable concept to many people.
The significance of the concept in the profession can be largely thought of in terms of expanding the lexicon to include terms that might be more relevant…… [Read More]
Optimism, and the dispositional moods highlighted by Peterson leads to individual perseverance and success, and to experience better physical health. Peterson's main emphasis on within the subject of subjective well-being is that society often has a negative influence on our well-being. This is because as a group, it is much harder to accomplish tasks and achieve goals, therefore it is taken for granted that we live within an overly pessimistic culture. Cultural forces thus impact our ability to be optimistic and thus our ability to be happy. Personal happiness can only improve if we can change our disposition towards a state of optimism, and create a barrier between our interpretation of events and the actual occurrence of events themselves. Peterson's analysis of subjective well-being appears to be very logical, he applies many examples to demonstrate the theoretical and conceptual understanding of disposition.
Peterson makes clear through his textbook that positive…… [Read More]
You would definitely agree that optimism and positive attitude are the keys to the personal success and personal growth. Optimist is an enthusiastic person with a positive attitude in every situation and who is able to exploit situation for the most benefit at least to satisfy his consciousness.
When you meet an optimistic person you notice the stream of positive energy that surrounds him like an oriole and which often changes people who surround optimist for better. Most of you know that the first thing a person has to do in order to achieve something is believe in him. Courage ad self-confidence are quite essential and surely none of you would be able to imagine an optimist who does not possess these features. Person who is unconfident will never be optimistic as he doesn't have positive attitude towards different situations where he has to show his will on…… [Read More]
Helplessness and Depression
The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."
The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…… [Read More]
Coca-Cola's mission, vision and values are analyzed, against the literature outlining what the best practices for these things are. Coca-Cola's mission statement has three parts, only one of which says something meaningful; the other two state the obvious. The vision statement contains no vision, does not meet the criteria of a high quality vision statement, and needs to be replaced in its entirety. The values statements are superficial; taken at face value they express nothing wrong, but they also add no real value because of their superficiality. Recommendations for improving or replacing these three statements are given at the end of the analysis.
When used properly, a mission statement can be a powerful strategic tool (Mullane, 2002). A poorly constructed mission statement might have limited strategic value, but a good one can clearly define why the organization exists, and what it hopes to accomplish by way…… [Read More]
" (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of:
(1) assessing the impact of six dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors -- contribution and affect -- on citizenship behavior; and (2) to test the mediating impact of the LMX on the transformational leadership behaviors-citizenship relationship." (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
It is reported that the subjects of the study were full-time employees and managers working in the educational organization in the country of Iran. This survey included 220 respondents. Data is reported as having been collected "...on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of transformational leadership behaviors, LMX, and organizational citizenship behaviors. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested through statistical analysis of the data." (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Results are stated to indicate that "...dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors are more likely to…… [Read More]
The reason that the subject lends itself to natural resources or real estate is that there will be some information available in those areas, making the valuation less difficult than in innovative areas.
The pessimistic approach is characterized by the divest/shrink option. When a firm is divesting or shrinking it can first scale down, which means that it can "shrink or shut down a project part way through if new information changes the expected payoffs;" this option lends itself to capital intensive industries or industries dealing with financial services (Mauboussin, 1999). ather than shutting down a project, a company can also choose to switch down, which involves switching "to more cost-effective and flexible assets as new information is obtained," and might be used in smaller companies, where the wholesale shut-down of a project could end a business (Mauboussin, 1999). The scope-down option is the mirror image of the above-mentioned scope-up…… [Read More]
Voltaire wrote Candide, he wrote a masterpiece of satiric literature in which he explored many philosophical questions of the day. Many of those issues intersected with each other, so putting them together in one treatise was a useful way to look at them as they interacted in a fictional story. This paper will look at five of those issues: fate, evil, personal choice, religion, and optimism.
To tell this tale, Voltaire used two main characters: Candide and Pangloss. Neither name seems to be an accident. Candide wants to discover the true nature of the philosophical issues he is grappling with. Pangloss is optimistic to a level of caricature, which suggests his name, glossing over everything, no matter how unpleasant or even evil it seems.
In Chapter 20 (third paragraph from the end), this conversation takes place about fate:
You see," said Candide to Martin, "that vice is sometimes punished.…… [Read More]
Seligman's Authentic Happiness
Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive
Psychology to Realize your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment
Martin Seligman is a pioneer in the movement of "Positive Psychology." This new branch of research examines our ability to cultivate happiness. This ability is what Seligman calls "learned optimism" and is the basis for his bestselling book, Authentic Happiness. Seligman says that by focusing on our strengths and positive emotions as opposed to negative ones, we can bring about positive results in our lives. The traditional focus of psychology has been on pathologies and psychiatric illnesses. "For the last half century psychology has been consumed with a single topic only - mental illness."(p.xi). This focus has neglected the potential of human beings to create happiness and fulfillment in their lives. Seligman hopes that by introducing people to his "positive psychology," they may learn to appreciate and find contentment in their…… [Read More]
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]
Self-Justification and Organizational Project Commitment
Self-justification is an underlying motive for decision makers who remain committed to failing projects. However, as Steinkuhler et al. (2014) indirect, it may also be described as an indirect cause of escalation of commitment. The way in which justification is manifested in the decision making process requires the medium of new cognitive constructs that assist the decision maker in the process of renewing commitment. These constructs can consist of selective perception, sunk cost effect, and over-optimism. In many cases, these are not isolated constructs but work in tandem to help bring about the justification which the decision maker wishes to evince regarding the project. This paper will summarize the study by Steinkuhler et al. (2014) and show how the construct of selective perception has been utilized by the international organization known as the SSPX -- a fraternal priestly Society within the Catholic Church -- as…… [Read More]
UNIT 1 SEMINAR
The first time I ended a serious relationship, I felt a lot of regret about it in the days after the breakup. I thought that I had hurt the other person (we had been together for a few years) and I worried that I had made the wrong decision. I kept thinking about all the different ways in which perhaps it could have worked out. I had to remind myself that I had very good reasons for ending the relationship and that my emotions were only telling one side of the story.
I believe this situation interrelates with the concept of death anxiety with respect to what Barnett, Anderson and Marsden (2018) showed in their study of the relationship between pessimism and death anxiety. They found that optimistic or pessimistic attitudes will change the extent to which one suffers from death anxiety. Pessimism tends to be…… [Read More]
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…… [Read More]
" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…… [Read More]
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…… [Read More]
(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52)
The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…… [Read More]
American economy goes through temporary periods of expansions and subsequent periods of decline. In many instances, the results of this over optimism or severe pessimism are due primarily to human emotion. It is human nature to become worrisome or risk averse during periods of extreme pessimism. Likewise, it is human nature to become over excited about future prospects during periods of extreme optimism. At some point however, both the extreme optimism and extreme pessimism must correct itself. It has done so for the past 200 years. Below is a chart depicting U.S. GDP figures during the past 80 years. As is depicted from the chart GDP, or the goods and services bought sold and produced in the United States has increases every decade without fail. If history is any indication of the future this trend will continue (1).
Now, as many are well aware of, our nation is currently in…… [Read More]
However, Carr is not advocating that we adopt an amoral set of principles when dealing with international politics. Rather, he does present a clear case for including underlying moral tones in how international relations are constructed and executed. Yet, these only have a certain part to play. Exaggerating that portion through unrealistic utopian ideology proves to lead to the failure of the peace attempts during the twenty years Carr describes in crisis.
In this, he is also criticizing the other end of the spectrum in terms of utopian ideology. Carr aims to discredit some of the misconceptions brought about by a more extreme realistic approach that was also failing to provide progressive results. Political philosophies are often in order to gain power over other nations. Thus, they can be very easily molded into oppressive or aggressive strategies if not restrained by some sort of moral guidance. Carr believed that strategies…… [Read More]
The administrative support staff who is dealing with frustrated doctors who cannot adjust to the new computer tablets they are using as an alternative to paper files may require a transactional leader who can provide the organizational support needed to move through an uncomfortable transition. A single leader cannot always be everything to everyone. By learning one's leadership strengths and weaknesses and understanding the leadership skills needed to achieve the organizational objectives, the leader can begin to develop and foster his or her leadership team with people who offer complimentary skills and leadership styles.
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring).…… [Read More]
The process was also significant for me because it showed that it was possible to spread wealth from a highly centralized location (the corporation) to a more widespread and evenly distributed location (my financially struggling high school).
Tell us about a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is important to you. What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud, and how does it relate to the person you are?
I believe that my greatest quality is perseverance. History is often told to us as the chronicle of great people doing great things, and while these stories are important, the majority of us experience life through smaller moments. It is the small choices and the small decisions that add up over time to create our life as a patchwork of these choices. Our choices and decisions define who we become, and ultimately it is the sum of all…… [Read More]
These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences. Unlike before, Germany is now a stabilizing factor and sets the standard for the integration of the continent, unlike its radical past. It is the opinion of this author that the future can be considered bright (save with conservative optimism). With true irony, the solution to the German problem has been to unleash their accountants and not their soldiers. The accountants seem to be producing a truly revolutionary, if peaceful economic miracle that continues well into the 21st century. Entrepreneurship will thrive, intellectual property protection will foster the development of new goods and services and their unique multinational partnerships between companies that has been developed and will continue to be the hallmark of the EU. These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences.
Beesley, a June 29, 2010 "EU…… [Read More]
Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.
Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of orld ar II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…… [Read More]
e learn that our way of life can change practically overnight. e learn that suffering on a massive scale can happen from just a few high-level missteps. But perhaps most importantly, we learn that the American spirit has an amazing capacity for resourcefulness and resilience -- a lesson that might comfort us in our own times of worry.
"Always Lending a Helping Hand: Sevier County Remembers the Great Depression." New Deal Network. eb. Retrieved 19 Sept 2011 from http://newdeal.feri.org/sevier/index.htm
Downing, David. The Great Depression. Chicago: Reed Educational Publishing, 2001.
Horowitz, Irving Lewis. "A Child's View of the Great Depression." Antioch Review. Fall 2009, Vol. 67, Issue 4. p 678-681.
McNeese, Tim. The Great Depression, 1929-1938. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010.
Schultz, Stanley. The Great Depression: A Primary Source History. New York: Gareth Stevens, 2005.
"Always Lending a Helping Hand: Sevier County Remembers the Great Depression." New…… [Read More]
elieving Cassandra: An Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World is a book about the environment, its blunderings, and the sustainability of our world. This is a book for people trying to understand our intricate world and how it is failing and succeeding. I found the approach this book takes to the environment to be entertaining and worthwhile, for not just the information it provides, but the fresh perspective it offers on environmental issues. The author restores the reader's optimism in the world and explains how we can do even better for our future. The people who have predicted the end of the world, AtKisson says, "have been proven wrong, and have served to relegate all environmentally concerned comments to the fate of Cassandra's mutterings: They are ignored. And so they should be." (p. 12) He says, the earth is not a lost cause. And that's why he's written the…… [Read More]
Globalism," puts forward a particularly unique argument regarding the nature of Globalization, and specifically, how it has failed as an ideology. The fundamental failure, according to Saul, of globalism is associated with the promises it made for the future of global economics as well as politics. Namely, globalization of the world's economy was supposed to bring about the eventual downfall of nationalism, more evenly distribute wealth worldwide and between the classes, and grant governments a debt-free existence. In short, none of these consequences have come to be realized. Saul equates the fervor with which the concept of globalization was introduced to Christian idealism: it was a beautiful concept that promised to do so much while we were required to do so little. In other words, globalization was supposed to regulate itself. Essentially, Saul believes that globalism's failure to achieve its goals spells the end for it as a realistic form…… [Read More]