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Shortly after the towers fell, Americans witnessed the horror and tragedy of those that had lost loved ones first hand. News spread quickly and within days, the event had reached the folkloric status of the assassination of JFK (McAlister, par. 3). As one recalls these horrific tales, the "ar on Terror" appears to be a logical step. This is the perspective of one category of "oral account" of the events of September 11, 2001.
Shortly after the announcement of the U.S. response to the events of September 11, 2001, Vice President Richard Cheney stated, "It [the war] is different than the Gulf ar was, in the sense that it may never end. At least, not in our lifetime. This statement could be interpreted in a number of ways. Interpretation of this statement has changed over the years, especially considering that the war continues to drag on without an end in…
Appleby, R. Scott, "History in the Fundamentalist Imagination." The Journal of American History 89.2 (2002): 35 pars. Available from http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/89.2/appleby.html . Internet; Accessed July 26, 2007.
Clark, Mary Marshall, "The September 11, 2001, Oral History Narrative and Memory Project: A First Report." The Journal of American History 89.2 (2002): 33 pars. Available from http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/89.2/clark.html . Internet; Accessed July 26, 2007.
Cullather, Nick, "Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State." The Journal of American History 89.2 (2002): 51 pars. Available from http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/89.2/cullather.html . Internet; Accessed July 26, 2007.
Dillon, Pattie, "Teaching the Past through Oral History." The Journal of American History 87.2 (2000): 10 pars. Available at
historians know about slave experience?
African slavery in America is one of the most controversial subjects that still spark a debate among the people. The historians over the years have interpreted different stories but a lot of the viewpoints of the writers have not been successful as they have not considered the systematic documented records of the people of that time. The historians mostly have taken into consideration the opinions and views of different people but they have neglected the testimonies provided by the victims. Narratives of the slaves are one important source of writing history that has been underestimated by the historians over the years. Many former slaves have written their autobiographies and recorded their narratives which have been an important source for the historians (Gibson 2015).
What difficulties exist for historians in recreating the slave past?
In American history, the act of freeing more than four million slaves…
Ebron, Paulla A. Beyond the Written Document: Looking for Africa in African-American Culture. n.d. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/freedom/1609-1865/essays/aaculture.htm (accessed september 30, 2015).
Gibson, Robert A. Slave Narratives: Black Autobiography in Nineteenth-Century America. 2015. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1985/5/85.05.02.x.html (accessed September 30, 2015).
James, Davidson West, and Hamilton Lytle Mark. The View From the Bottom Rail. n.d.
Making Sense of Oral History. n.d. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/oral/what.html (accessed September 30, 2015).
Original transcripts from the Flint Sit-Down Strike were used to write this essay. The benefits of using transcripts from the Flint Sit-Down Strike are the pure honesty that the workers spoke with. Most of the interviews took place in the 1970s and 1980s, but the strike took place in 1936 and 1937. Hearing and reading about the strike worker's experiences in their own words was very interesting.
The drawbacks of using such transcripts are that they weren't always audible, so important information may have been missed during transcription. The transcripts are not edited, so the information is presented to the reader exactly how it was spoken, which can sometimes be difficult to follow (and understand what the speaker was trying to say).
Most of the history that's discussed by the men and women who worked at the GM plant are memories of personal experiences. There are a lot of negative…
1. James Spohn. "Flint Sit-Down Strike Transcript." Flint Sit-Down Strike. Michael Van Dyke. June 30, 1980. http://www.historicalvoices.org/flint/transcript_browser.html
2. Arthur Smith. "Flint Sit-Down Strike Transcript." Flint Sit-Down Strike. Michael Van Dyke. 2002.
Race and Gender
Many of the course issues we've looked at were addressed in the interview that I engaged in with a woman named Anne Demars, an African-American woman who grew up on the Southside of Chicago. Born in 1970, Demars had just missed the bulk of the civil rights era, and was entering a world that her parents had hoped would afford her greater opportunities and a greater shot at equality. Unfortunately this interview revealed that racism has left a true legacy in the United States, one which will take hundreds of years to fully undo. Much of the interview with Demars was spent trying to pinpoint the unique experience and perspective that Demars has had in the world as a result of the fact that she's both a woman and an ethnic minority. However, as Demars consistently reminded me, she can't comment upon how her experience has been…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. website. December 2013.
Davis, Angela. Racism, Birth Control and Reproductive Rights. 1982. website. December 2013.
Lorde, Audrey. History is a Weapon. 1979. website. December 2013.
McIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. 1990. website. December 2013.
Svetlana and Suny
Svetlana Alexievich provides the reader of Secondhand Time with a personal, intimate glimpse into the real life experiences of a Russian during the Soviet Era and during the post-Soviet Era. The glimpses are often chaotic and disordered, but they have the feeling of being authentic and of showing an unfiltered, raw side of life that does not come across in more staid and structured productions, such as Suny’s The Soviet Experiment, which reads more like a text book or a typical history book—dry, free of emotion, sentiment, personality and intimacy. While undoubtedly equally authentic in its approach, Suny’s Experiment wields a more sophisticated air and exudes a scholarly perspective that does not always deliver to the reader the kind of immediate sensations that people in the 21st century are used to having. In the Digital Era, senses have become used to instant gratification, to jumping from tidbit…
I grew up on the edge of the city. It's hard to imagine today, but across the road was all farmland. Our block was the last one with houses, at least for a few years. But those were the years when I was first allowed to go out exploring. There was this large pond. It's a church now, but when I was little it was a pond, and my brother Martin and I would go down there to catch tadpoles. He showed me how to catch them, and once I got the hang of it, I think I must have spent an entire summer at that pond catching tadpoles.
My younger brother still lives in that house, and when I go out there now I'm amazed at how far you have to drive to get to the farms. The built this highway when I was in high school, and you…
Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.
The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.
Jordan believes if there had…
I believe this is one of the smartest moves I have ever made. I learn so much in the first class I took and one of the first things I learned was that my professor would not tolerate me interrupting people while they had the floor. After about two warnings, she told me she would have me removed from the class and I knew she meant business. She did me a favor by shutting me up because it taught me how to listen. At first, I couldn't listed to whomever was speaking because I was too busy concentrating on what I would say. but, a funny thing happened. I learned that when I listened to other's opinions, even if they were different from mine that it opened my mind to new ways of thinking and seeing things.
Throughout my college years, I learned how to be an effective communicator. However,…
Shaw, B., Sheufele, D.A., and Catalano, S. (2007). The role of presence awareness in organizational communication: An exploratory field experiment. Behavior and Information Technology. 26(5), 377-384.
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
Moreover, nurses are in a position to identify cases of poor oral health among patients visiting the primary care unit of a healthcare center. For this reason, Kaylor et al. (2011) recommend nurses as an intervention measure in improving oral health in the community, since they can identify women at risk of poor oral health. They identify that nurses can work with low-income women in the community and educate the population on oral health. The review of literature advocates that oral health can be improved in the community by mobilizing community resources like local government, healthcare providers, and primary care providers like nurses in educating the population on the importance of oral health. This is through making contact with at risk populations in the healthcare set up and providing education on oral health. Nurses also can reach out to at risk populations through community-based programs that promote public health. Lastly,…
Formicola, a.J., Ro, M., Marshall, S., Derksen, D., Powell, W., Hartsock, L., & Treadwell, H.M. (2004). Strengthening the Oral Health Safety Net: Delivery Models That Improve Access to Oral Health Care for Uninsured and Underserved Populations. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 702-704.
Kaylor, M., Polivka, B.J., Chaudry, R., Salsberry, P., & Wee, a.G. (2011). Dental Insurance and Dental Service Use by U.S. Women of Childbearing Age. Public Health Nursing, 28(3), 213-222.
Krisberg, K. (2004). Prevention key to rural oral health outreach programs. Nation's Health, 34(4), 11-12.
Zabos, G.P., Northridge, M.E., Ro, M.J., Trinh, C., Vaughan, R., Howard, J., & ... Cohall, a.T. (2008). Lack of Oral Health Care for Adults in Harlem: A Hidden Crisis. American Journal of Public Health, 98, S102-S105.
"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)
The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)
With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…
ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).
BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)
Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City. http://www.dailygate.com/articles/2004/11/17/news/news2.txt
FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).
33). Slavery was an institution, and as such, it had become outmoded in modern society of the time. Elkins feels slavery could have been viewed less emotionally and more realistically as an institution, rather than an ethical or moral dilemma, and this is one of the most important arguments in his book, which sets the stage for the rest of his writing.
In his arguments for his theses, Elkins continues, "To the Northern reformer, every other concrete fact concerning slavery was dwarfed by its character as a moral evil - as an obscenity condemned of God and universally offensive to humanity" (Elkins, 1959, p. 36). Slavery was a moral evil, and it is still seen as such. Elkins indicates society was becoming disillusioned with it at the time (at least Northern society), and that the institution needed to change or disappear.
Another of the important points Elkins attempts to make…
Elkins, S.M. (1959). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Raboteau, a.B. (1978). Slave religion: The 'invisible institution' in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
African-Americans History And Culture
The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.
"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.
Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
Knight in History by Frances Gies. Specifically, it will explain the author's purpose and main points in writing the book. "The Knight in History" is a detailed look at how knights functioned in society, how they lived, worked, and added to the economy. These larger than life figures have been romanticized in hundreds of films and books, but Gies attempts to show readers what they really were like, and how the reality differed from the romantic notions of gallant knights in armor roaming the countryside on their trusty steeds. The role of knight was vital in medieval history, Gies' book shows the reader exactly why, and why their role in society should not be ignored.
Author Frances Gies, a respected historian, wrote this book as a chronicle of knighthood and chivalry at a time when there were not many resources available on the realities of knights and their role in…
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.
This stated, "Black Kings brothers must join as one to resist the oppression that faces all black youth. With this oath you have found a new family, a brotherhood that will always be with you" (Venhatesh & Levitt, 2000, p. 439).
One of the most interesting facets of Venhatesh and Levitt's (2000) research is their unique access to the financial records of the Black Kings, for four years. This research positions gangs beyond simple criminal actors and instead sees them as outlaw corporatists. Furthermore, credit is given to the complexities of Chicago's street gangs. These are not only the loosely connected groups of hooligans often associated with gangs, but instead these are well-run, highly organized groups that are excellent examples of the changes that were being made in American businesses. Hierarchical administration, rational management procedures, and increased attention to revenues and profit margins shed light on the modern street…
Venkatesh, S. & Leviit, S. (2000). "Are we a family or a business?' History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang." Theory and Society, 29. p. 427-462.
Galveston: A History (1986) by David G. McComb
The book Galveston: A History is both a detailed chronological and thematic analysis, of the four-century-old history, mainly from a technological perspective, of Galveston, Texas. Its author, David G. McComb, "is a professor of history at Colorado State University, and has published numerous books and articles on Texas history" (Texas State Historical Association).The thesis of the book is that, throughout the history of Galveston, including its key natural and technological events, e.g., hurricanes and storms; a yellow fever outbreak, the Civil ar; port construction; the building a medical school, people there have struggled, and struggle today, to live in this idyllic yet dangerous setting. Further, the history of Galveston proves that technology (and humanity) cannot circumvent the awesome power of nature.
Although Galveston, is best-known today as a major port of the Gulf of Mexico and tourist destination (and, in the aftermath…
Darst, Maury. Reviewer comment. [On Galveston: A History, by David McComb].
"Galveston: A History." University of Texas Press. Retrieved October 18, 2005,
'Galveston: A History." University of Texas Press. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from:
influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…
Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.
Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.
Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.
The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.
1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.
Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)
The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…
Callahan, D. (1999, July 16). WHAT'S NATURAL?: It's Hard to Say. Commonweal, 126, 7. Retrieved February 18, 2005, from Questia database,
Further, the text illustrate was the Mycenaean population believed from a religious perspective. It shows what was expected of people with religious beliefs and the level of importance that was placed upon adhering to traditions, such as the proper treatment of a dead body in the case of Achilles and his treatment of the body of Hector.
3. To what extent is the world we find in The Iliad historical? Can Homer's Iliad be used to supplement archaeological finds to tell us about the Mycenaean world, to reconstruct a world extant during the Dark Ages or give us some information about Greece in the 8th century BC?
Any piece of writing, whether fictional or not, is an historical artifact of a kind. Historians can uncover pottery or architecture and bones, but that will not be enough to completely understand a society which has long since been out of existence. Literary…
Bryce, T 'Troy's role and status in the near eastern world', The Trojans and Their Neighbours,
Routledge, London, pp. 107-126.
Finley, MI 1977 'Bards and heroes', The World of Odysseus, 2nd ed. Chatto & Windus, London,
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…
North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American
City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( http://tampabay.bizjournals.com ).
South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals
Inc. February 11, 2003. (
Circassian People, a brief history
The Circassians, comprising some 3,000 people concentrated in two northern villages, are Sunni Muslims, although they share neither the Arab origin nor the cultural background of the larger Islamic community. While maintaining a distinct ethnic identity, they participate in Israel's economic and national affairs without assimilating either into Jewish society or into the general Muslim community The Circassians are a Muslim people, whose Russian name is Cherkess and whose native name is Adygey. They are now officially classified as three peoples: the Kabarda, in the Kabardino-alkar Republic; the Circassians or Cherkess, in the Karachevo-Cherkess Republic; and the Adygey, in the Adygey Republic. The term Circassian has sometimes been incorrectly applied to all the mountain peoples of the N. Caucasus. Known in antiquity, they inhabited the western side of the Caucasus and the Crimea and were known to the Greeks as the Zyukhoy. They were Christianized…
Amjad M. Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook (Peoples of the Caucasus) Hardcover - March 2001.
John Colarusso, Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs Princeton University Press, December 2002
Sexual History Interview: Critique and Reactions
This paper concerns an interview that I conducted with a 27-year-old ex-escort. This individual was a college educated female who will be given the name Samantha, as an alias for the purposes of this paper. I was able to make initial contact with Samantha through a range of referrals from friends of some of my colleagues. Samantha was willing to talk to me, though only if I was able to provide her with the utmost privacy and confidentiality. Conducting the interview was fascinating, as I had never met a member of the sex industry. I was worried that perhaps I might say something that she considered naive or that she would be able to see clearly that I was new at the task of interviewing someone about their sexual history. Samantha came from a two-parent middle-class home, and was not raised under any particular…
religious history of my family as I know it, and its impact on me.
I myself am from Vietnam and am studying in New York. My parents are Vietnamese and living in Hanoi, Vietnam.
We follow a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism, although I think that somewhere way back, my grandparents or great-grandparents - I know little of either side -- may have been pure Buddhists. Actually, I see similarities in both, in that both focus on peace within oneself, and I think that the popular way of how Americans see Buddhist belief of nirvana as believing that we are feted to suffer is wrong.
Thinking of my family's beliefs and how it has shaped our lives and my life in particular, I think it is more Vietnam's beliefs in general; that has impacted us rather than that of my particular family. The two primary beliefs in Vietnam in general,…
History of Polio
Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is a contagious viral illness that produces no symptoms in ninety-five percent of cases. While a plague to the human race for centuries, polio was never the devastating scourge that other diseases, such as bubonic plague and smallpox, were. Then, in the early 20th century, polio came into its own, and the largest outbreak of the disease ever seen began. It is from this large outbreak that our dread of polio largely comes from. From this outbreak, we have gotten the devastating images of children in wheelchairs and iron lungs, paralyzed from the ravages of polio, some never to walk again. And it is this outbreak of polio that led to the tremendous push from Western medicine to eradicate it once and for all.
While polio normally produces no symptoms, in the small percentage of cases that do produce symptoms, the disease…
Black, Katherine. (1996). In the Shadow of Polio: A Personal and Social
History. New York: Addison-Wesley.
James, Walene. (1995). Immunization: The Reality Behind the Myth.
New York: Bergin & Garvey.
Most teachings are oral, because of the historical origins of the faith as a transported slave religion, and are passed on from devotee to devotee. The founding ideas are that humans have both a physical and spiritual body, spiritual entities are in constant contact with the mortal world, and that believers can contact the spiritual world through rituals and use the spirits for healing and for help and guidance ("Candomble," New Religious Movements, 2007)
This stress upon ritual means that sacred space is very important to practitioners. The religion "invests relationships with a cosmic dimension, both in mythical times and in life as we know it" (Fernandes, 2007). One interesting aspect of the religion is its color symbolism, which reflects its African roots. Black has a strong positive significance. Other colors of importance are Oxum or gold, Oxossi or forest green, Yemanja or sea blue, Xango or red and white…
Candomble." Sociology 257 Webpage: New Religious Movements. University of Virginia Last modified Mar 1996. 19 Aug 2007. http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/macu.html/10/01Fernandes ,
Fernandes, Ruben Cesar. "Candomble." Brazil. 2007. 19 Aug 2007. http://www.mre.gov.br/cdbrasil/itamaraty/web/ingles/artecult/religiao/candomb/
Stirling, Bruce. "Macumba." 6 Feb 1997. 19 Aug 2007. http://www.stirlinglaw.com/ea/macumba.htm
4. Specialty toothpastes created for customers with sensitive teeth, gums or other medical conditions, with customer experience being the most critical
5. Lifecycle approach similar to Crest yet focused on the consumer's purchasing lifecycle
Based on this analysis, my top five criterion are as follows:
1. High performance toothpaste capable of delivering preventative protection and has a fresh taste
2. High performance cavity prevention
3. Making dialing brushing less of a chore and more fun and enjoyable
4. Available in a wide variety of flavors
5. High performance, rapid whitening toothpastes that bring quick results to teeth and gums.
Based on these criterion, I have become a loyal Crest Complete Multi-Benefit Whitening + Scope -- Citrus. This toothpaste fits my profile of benefits precisely and has led to my becoming brand-loyal to this specific product based on the benefits it delivers.
2. Select another oral care (e.g., toothbrush) product where…
Greenberg, M., & McDonald, S.S. (1989). Successful Needs/Benefits segmentation: A user's guide. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(3), 29-29.
Miskell, P. (2004). Cavity protection or cosmetic perfection? innovation and marketing of toothpaste brands in the United States and western Europe, 1955-1985. Business History Review, 78(1), 29-60.
Technology in History Classes]
Since the beginning of education in the U.S., the classroom setting has remained the same: Students have sat quietly in their seats with just a pencil, textbook and lined paper to practice their "readin', riting and 'rithmetic." However, the advent of new technologies is heralding a change. In a growing number of schools, technological innovations are beginning to significantly change the way that information is conveyed and students learn. Depending on the creativity of the teacher, the advent of computers, CD-ROMs, videodiscs, multimedia, and cable networks is expanding the breadth of the curriculum -- from mathematics to the social sciences. For example, teachers have found multiple ways to restructure technology into high school history that have made an often very dry topic come to life.
In 1983 Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, introduced his theory of "multiple intelligences" (MI). His book Intelligence Reframed showed that…
Loewen, J. (1995) Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: New Press.
Norton, P. (1999) Teaching with Technology. New York: Hartcourt Brace.
Warren, W. (1999) "Using the World Wide Web for primary source research in high school history classes." Journal of the Association for History and Computing.Vol. 2, No. 2.
History of the Pentecostal Movement
The Pentecostal Movement, also known as Classical Pentecostalism, is a Christian-based faith that emphasizes a direct personal experience with God through Baptism, Prayer, and evangelism. There is not one version of Pentecostalism, but all are based on the name derived from the Jewish Feasts of Weeks, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the followers of Christ, described in Acts II: "When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place… all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them" (Acts 2).
Pentecostalism is an evangelical sect, which focuses on the belief that the scriptures are 100% true, accurate and vital in contemporary life. Pentecostals accept Christ as a personal lord and savior and also that baptism with the Holy Spirit is separate from conversion. It is…
Anderson, A. (2009). Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa. Centre for Missiology and World Christianity -- University of Birmingham. Retrieved from: http://artsweb.bham.ac.uk/aanderson/Publications/evangelism_and_the_growth_of_pen.htm
Cox, H. (1995). Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality. New York: DaCapo Press.
Kalu, O. (2008). African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pentecostal World Fellowship. (2013). Leadership and Ministries. Retrieved from: http://www.pentecostalworldfellowship.org/
E-Mail in Business Communication
E-mail: History, elation, and Impact on effective Business Communication
Email in Business Communication
Impact of Email to Business Communication
Implications of Emails as Business Communication Tools
Email is an important form of communication in today's organization that is increasingly seeing a geographical dispersal of the workforce. To communication tool has replaced traditional business letters and memos in preference for email memos. The research carried out a review of literature on email and business communication and found the tool is used in 100% of businesses today. However, despite the wide acceptance, the tool lacks in social and visual cues which lender the messages toneless. The lack of tone and physical gestures leads to misinterpretation, ill will, disconnectedness, loss of intellectual capital and integrity for the business. The research finds that the informal history of emails, heterogeneity among users, technological limitations in social-emotions, and lack of…
Agnew, D.S., & Hill, K. (2009). Email etiquette recommendation for today's business student. Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict. Proceedings, 14(2), 1-5.
Barrett, M. & Davidson, M.J. (2006). Gender and Communication at Work. Burlington, USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
David, D. & Mullen, J. (2009). Email Marketing: An Hour a Day. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Dufrene, D.D. & Lehman, C.M. (2010). Business Communication. 16th ed., Mason, OH: South-Wester, Cengage Learning.
Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug
One of the most noticeable and prevalent disorders occurring in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is commonly diagnosed when the child begins to attend school or kindergarten, and occurs in 3 to 5% of the population. A chronic condition, it normally carries over into adolescence and perhaps into maturity as well. ADHD children can be hyperactive, inattentive, distractible, aggressive and impulsive, and as a result tend to do poorly in school and present behavioral problems both in academic, social and familial settings. ADHD adolescents, in addition to the above-mentioned difficulties, may be disposed toward delinquency and involvement in car accidents and substance abuse. Co-occurring disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety and depression tend to exacerbate both the symptoms and the difficulty of treating ADHD. (Hyman, 2000)
Unfortunately there is no single diagnostic test to establish ADHD, and the etiology of…
American Chemical Society press release, March 22, 1999. "Improved Ritalin offers smaller doses and fewer side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 11, 2003 at http://www.hypsos.ch/presse/improvedmph.htm
Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center. "Ritalin effects and ADD ADHD medicine side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 4, 2003 at http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm
Cantwell, D.P. "ADHD through the life span: the role of buproprion in treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 Suppl 4: 92-4.
Colacot, T.J. "An overview on the applications of Doyle catalysts in asymmetric cyclopropanation and CH insertion reactions," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) June 2000. Vol. 112, No. 3: 197-207.
Interactivity With One's Culture
The concepts of literature and history as identified in the excerpt from the Potiki that is referenced in this assignment is one of continuous interaction. Moreover, they underscore the degree of continuity that these people have with their past, which is quite at variance with conventional Western perceptions of the past. These facts are demonstrated throughout the manuscript that this excerpt stems from. Still, they are indicated perhaps most poignantly in the subsequent quotation "But our main book was the wharenui which is itself a story, a history, a gallery, a study, a design structure and a taonga. And we were part of that book along with family past and family yet to come."
What this particular section means is that the indigenous people have a deep rooted connection to the wharenui and to their background that transcends mere heirlooms and symbols (which is typically how…
Calleja, P.F. (2000). An interview with Patricia Grace. Atlantis. 25(1), 109-120.
Stanford, J. A. (1996). Responding to Literature (2nd. Ed.), pp. 12-13. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Corporations and History
Corporations have used their history to demonstrate to consumers their underlying principles in product production and quality. History is vital because it allows consumers to relate to a product and understand that the product is manufactured using the same quality materials. In the marketing of the products, the corporations will use their well-known history to demonstrate to the consumers that they have maintained and will always employ the same principles. The three corporations analyzed in this essay are Coca-Cola, Colgate-Palmolive, and Deere & company. These corporations have used their well-known history to market their products, and they employ the same principles employed since the corporations were launched. Coca-Cola creates the world's favorite soft drink, and the drink was created in order to offer a sweet quenching drink that evokes happiness (Pendergrast, 2013). The corporation has always aimed at associating its Coca-Cola drink with happiness, and this has…
Coca-Cola. (2012). The Coca-Cola History. from http://www.worldofcoca-cola.com/about-us/coca-cola-history/
Colgate-Palmolive, C. (2014). Welcome to Our History. from http://www.colgate.com/app/Colgate/U.S./Corp/History/1806.cvsp
Deere & Company. (2013). John Deere Timeline. from https://www.deere.com/en_US/corporate/our_company/about_us/history/timeline/timeline.page
Pendergrast, M. (2013). For God, country, and Coca-Cola: The definitive history of the great American soft drink and the company that makes it. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Related to the above is the view that the origins and history of the development of Rap music are strongly related to the resistance to various forms of colonialism and oppression that Black people have experienced and which has shaped the style and form of Rap music. This also refers to ideological and colonial hegemonies and perceived racial and cultural prejudice that has been a major motivating force in this form of artistic expression.
This can be linked to theories of ideological hegemony that are seen as pivotal aspect in the development of Black consciousness and consequently in the musical expression of that consciousness. According to theorists like Gramsci, ideological hegemony functions by control and domination not only through force but also through cultural forms of persuasion. In other words, the best way to achieve control over a subordinate group is by "...means of cultural domination among all sectors…
KEYES C.L. (2002) Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kopano, Baruti N. "Rap Music as an Extension of the Black Rhetorical Tradition: "Keepin' it Real." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.4 (2002): 204+. Questia. 31 Mar. 2008
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
d. Compare/Contrast with their own lives.
e. Work on an artistic representation of that country's culture.
f. Individually, present to small group; or group present to class with each member providing information on a specific part of the child's life in another country.
4. As a take-home activity, write a reflective essay (2-6 paragraphs, depending on level) about what you learned from this assignment, how you think the child's life differs from yours, how it is similar, and what you might change about your own life based on this assignment.
Analysis - Background -- Differentiated Instruction recognizes that students have varying background knowledge, language, preferences in learning, and interests. DI is a process designed to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class -- in the same lesson.
Differentiated Access -- each student will have access to a variety of written and kinesthetic materials that…
Children Around the World. (2010). Discovery Education. Retrieved from:
Benjamin, a. (2003). Differentiated Instruction: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers. Larchmont, MY: Eye on Education Publishers.
Williams, J. (2011). A Rich World of Thinking: National Standards for English Language Arts. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/magazine/article/National_Standards_English_Language/
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…
Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm
Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp
Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available
Chippewas of ama First Nation
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
This paper will study the Chippewa people of ama First Nation. The paper will provide a larger context within North American history and Chippewa history to reflect upon this tribe's cultural traditions and heritage. The paper will focus upon several key aspects to the culture such as the interaction with Europeans, reputation within the aboriginal tribes of Canada, and the rich oral history/tradition of the Chippewas of ama First Nation. The paper serves to be informative and comprehensives.
A Brief Examination of the Chippewas of ama First Nation
The Chippewas of ama First Nation are one of numerous tribes that compose the First Nations. The First Nations is a collective term that refers to the aboriginal tribes of Canada, not including those who are Inuit and/or Metis. North American aboriginal tribes have…
"Chippewas of Rama First Nation." 2012 January 2012
"Mnjikaning History." 2012 January 16
"M'njikaning First Nation." 2012 January 16
"Ojibway People." 2012 January 16 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations >
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Alessandro Portelli, the Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History.
This paper begins by situating Alessandro Portelli's oral history in the context of the postwar reaction in Italy against the historical theories of the influential Neapolitan philosopher enedetto Croce. It then proceeds to a discussion of Portelli's methodology by reference above all to the essay The Death of Luigi Trastulli, whose starting point is the death at the hands of the police of a young Terni steelworker in 1949. Portelli's essay is not concerned with verifying, in the mode of the documentary historian, the precise circumstances in which Trastulli was killed, however. His concern was rather to account for the diverse memories, which have grown up around the Trastulli event. Portelli's oral history methodology was inspired by his pathbreaking discovery that erroneous memories possess historical value. The paper concludes by raising some possible criticisms…
Overview of the Prison Notebooks." 27 March, 2002 http://www.charm.net/~vacirca/PNoverv.html
Portelli, Alessandro. The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral
History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Roberts, David D. "Croce in America: Influence, Misunderstanding, and Neglect." Humanitas 8
controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)
In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…
Attwood, B. 1996. 'Teaching Historiography.' Australian Historical Association Bulletin, No.
82, pp. 43-46.
Cathcart, M. 1985. 'Symposium: Why History?' Australian Book Review, pp. 16-18.
Reynolds, H. 1984. 'The Breaking of the Great Australian Silence: Aborigines in Australian
Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery
In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.
The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…
Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.
"Used, manipulated," and "violated" was one veteran's assessment of his experience in being drafted and serving in the military (erry 55). However, others became career soldiers, such as Sergeant Major Edgar Huff. Still others felt a sense of energy and purpose serving in Vietnam, and one of them, Manny Holloman even remembers his days as a soldier fondly, and misses his life in Vietnam. Manny even learned Vietnamese and married a Vietnamese woman, although he was forced to leave her behind after the Americans left Vietnam.
he fact that so few whites were willing to serve in the armed forces, and so many more African-Americans served in disproportionate numbers has one unintentionally positive effect -- more African-Americans rose to higher ranks in the service, as well as became politically mobilized for their fellow veterans upon returning home, such as one veteran who became active in the veteran's rights movement after…
The book's outreach spans enlisted men, noncommissioned officers, and commissioned officers, soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who served between the years of 1963-1973. Although some men felt more patriotic about their service than others, most of their experiences underline the fact that the Vietnam conflict was fought in disproportionate numbers by individuals without the political and social influence to 'skirt' the draft, a fact that has become well-publicized only now. "Used, manipulated," and "violated" was one veteran's assessment of his experience in being drafted and serving in the military (Terry 55). However, others became career soldiers, such as Sergeant Major Edgar Huff. Still others felt a sense of energy and purpose serving in Vietnam, and one of them, Manny Holloman even remembers his days as a soldier fondly, and misses his life in Vietnam. Manny even learned Vietnamese and married a Vietnamese woman, although he was forced to leave her behind after the Americans left Vietnam.
The fact that so few whites were willing to serve in the armed forces, and so many more African-Americans served in disproportionate numbers has one unintentionally positive effect -- more African-Americans rose to higher ranks in the service, as well as became politically mobilized for their fellow veterans upon returning home, such as one veteran who became active in the veteran's rights movement after the war. The experience of service gave many men a desire to become part of something larger than themselves, even if they resented the institutionalized racism of the military.
The book gets its title, Bloods, from the name many African-Americans called one another -- blood brothers -- because of the racism they faced from white soldiers within the American armed services. No matter what their background, African-Americans did share a common struggle because of the racism that was inflicted upon them as they gave their lives in such great numbers for their country abroad, even while they were denied their rights at home. However, this common experience of racism and the triumph of overcoming it must be honored by showing the unique ways black men dealt with their struggles, not by reducing their experience into a tale defined solely by race.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…
Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American
Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.
Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,
Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
interview of a single survivor available in the Visual History Archive of the USC Shoah Foundation Institute. The survivor in the film was Mordecai Topel from Poland.
Due to the length of the interview, we will focus upon the first 30-60 minutes of the interview, specifically to analyze the initial foundational issues of Polish anti-semitism, the initial German occupation of Poland and life in the ghetto and slave labor in a steel factory under guard of the Ukrainian guards in and out of Ostrowiec, Poland. However, we will flip to the end of the interview where he relates details of his family before the war where we get a look at the Polish Jewish world that the Nazis destroyed in orld ar 2.Certainly, Mr. Topel's experiences in the Auschwitz were quite typical of the time in the history of the Shoah, so much so that he brushes off describing the…
Topel, Mordechai, perf. nterview with Holocaust Survivor Mordecai Topel. USC Shoah Foundation Institute, 1995. Film. .
hen Cheney is seen, it is because he is usually attending a Republican fundraiser and attacking Democrats who criticize Bush's war in Iraq. Gore was seen as a very open vice president whose work achieved very high visibility; Cheney works behind the scenes, and is believed to be very influential in the Bush administration in matters of fighting terrorism and war strategy in Iraq.
Bush is very much aware of one of his main political constituencies, the conservative Christian movement; this movement is anti-abortion and very negative about gay people. In fact, Bush has supported a constitutional amendment (which makes his conservative Christian supporters happy) that would ban gay marriage. Clinton, meanwhile, reached out to the gay community and initiated the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy toward gays in the military. Many gays were being pushed out of the military based on old suspicions and values.
Clinton was involved in…
Miller Center University of Virginia. "Governing American in a Global Era: Presidential Oral
History / Bill Clinton." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://millercenter.virginia.edu.
Wikipedia. "George W. Bush." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W_bush .
Particularly post war era women entered the workforce in huge numbers but there were many hindrances in their way as they tried to secure their credit. They had to found for the ownership of property as well as equal right to employment opportunities and salary. The idea of women being spender in the house also strengthened. As a result of reforms in the society women became powerful economically and socially.
eligious leaders were of the opinion that "religious principles should be broadened so as to include 'all useful social theories' lest Christianity be left behind in the onward march of society." (Charles Howard Hopkins, 1940. P.32)
As envisaged by the Christian religious leaders, the office of deaconess declared that women can a deaconess, with the provision that she holds right spirit and the appropriate training (Golder, 1908) yet the best role for her lies under the institution of marriage.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Chatman, S.. "Discourse: Non-narrated stories. In S. Chatman (Ed.), Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film" (pp. 146-195). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1978
Christian Golder, "History of the Deaconess Movement in the Christian Church" Cincinnati, OH: Jennings and Pye, 1908. pp. 527-528.
The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…
Davis, Dick. "Introduction." The Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. Trans. Dick Davis. Korea: Mage, 2004. 7-15.
Doostkhah, Jalil. "Shahnameh and the Oral Epic Traditions: A Brief Note." Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001): 157-162.
Gay, David Elton. "The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry, and: Sunset of Empire: Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. Vol. 3." Journal of American Folklore 119.472 (2006): 243-245.
Karaomerlioglu, Asim. "The Peasants in Early Turkish Literature." East European Quarterly 36.2 (2002): 127-154.
Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.
However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.
Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…
Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice
Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.
Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New
York, pp. 232-262.
Jewish Women in America: preserving Jewish Tradition.
Women play an important role in the preservation of the Jewish identity within families and larger communities. Women hold many positions in society that aid this role including more traditional roles for women, such as mother or teacher, as well as contemporary roles, such as writer, politician, or other professional. Jewish women in America face the challenge of facing a rapidly changing contemporary society while continuing to uphold and pass down, to new generations, ancient traditions rich in symbolism and meaning. This essay will briefly introduce three prominent American Jewish Women who have played a contemporary role in upholding and preserving Jewish Tradition in the broadest sense.
The Jerusalem Post printed a special piece, in celebration of Shavuot, on "The Fifty Most Influential Jews in the World." The list included seven women, two of which are Americans: the first one uth Ginsburg, Associate…
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Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.
Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.
The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…
Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.
Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.
New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
Authenticity in Multicultural Narratives of experience and language -- the problem of Rigoberta Menchu's I, Rigoberta Menchu
On the surface, there is no 'problem,' one might say, given the astounding achievement of native Guatemalan opposition leader and community activist Rigoberta Menchu. Rigoberta Menchu won the Nobel Prize, even after she was forced to go into hiding in her beloved Guatemala, and then flee her native land to Mexico, far from the land and community she loved. She remains a forceful and vigorous voice for the rights of disenfranchised Guatemalans to this day. Her resulting book, called in English, I, Rigoberta Menchu, tells of her experiences as a native Guatemalan woman, and then as the Representation of the Guatemalan Opposition (RUOG). But because of its translated quality and the subject's own perception of herself as a community spokeswoman as well as a lone sufferer of oppression -- indeed, what it means…
Hooks, Margaret, ed. Guatemalan Women Speak. Introduction by Rigoberta Menchu. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1991.
Manchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta. 1984.
Perera, Victor. Unfinished Conquest. The Guatemalan Tragedy. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: Univ. Of California Press, 1993.
Sommer, Doris. "No Secrets: Rigoberta's Guarded Truth." Women's Studies 20 (1991): 51 -- 72.
As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)
Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise: the Female American Historian. University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
The History of Zulu Baskets
The Creation of Zulu Baskets
Price of Baskets
There are many traditional crafts in Africa, drawing on the rich heritage, and skills passed down through the generations (Gleimius, Mthimunye, and Subanyoni, 2003). One of the traditional crafts has included basket making, with Zulu Baskets benefiting from a revival with and production increasing due to the tourist market and fashion for local craftwork (Nettleton, 2010; Gleimius et al., 2003). This paper looks at the tradition, starting with the history of Zulu baskets, looking at how they are made, the materials used, the prices, sizes and designs.
The History of Zulu Baskets
Basketry is an indigenous craft across much of Africa, with the Zulu people, the largest ethnic group in South Africa creating baskets from times before written histories were present in the area (African Crafts Market, 2015; Meskel, 2008, Krige, 1950).…
African Crafts Market, (2015), Zulu People Traditions & Culture, retrieved 4th May 2015 from http://www.africancraftsmarket.com/Zuu_people.htm
Baskets of Africa, (2015), South Africa, Zululand, retrieved 4th May 2015 from http://basketsofafrica.com/zululand-ilala/zululand-ilala-baskets.html
Gleimius, N, Mthimunye, E, Subanyoni, V, (2003), The Zulu of Africa, Lerner Publications
Jolles, F, (2005), The origins of the twentieth century Zulu beer vessel styles, Southern African Humanities, 17, 101-151
The Greenwood neighborhood was literally, an ash heap. ut rebuild they did. The tightness of the community returned -- most say it never left -- and their religious faith kept them going. They returned as well to all of the values, traditions, and morals they held before the riot. With the support of each for their neighbor, slowly, it happened.
It became the "New Orleans" of Oklahoma during the 1920's with its jazz and blues music pumping out of saloons all along the Greenwood thoroughfare. y the 1960s, however, much of the population had moved away and the area became distressed. Urban renewal in the 1970s replaced part of the area with a highway loop. Several blocks of the old neighborhood were saved and became the Greenwood Historical District. A park and cultural center honor the Tulsa Race Riot, and the Chamber of Commerce plans a larger museum to…
Childs, R.E. "Black Wall Street." logicalthinker.tripod.com. http://logicalthinker.tripod.com/blackwall1.html (accessed September 7, 2009).
Davis, Kenneth C. Don't Know Much About History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Ellsworth, S. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa race riot of 1921. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1992.
Gates, Eddie Faye. "Oral History Accounts of the Tulsa Riot of 1921 by Black Survivors." Tulsa Reparations. http://www.tulsareparations.org/Vignettes.htm (accessed September 6, 2009).