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History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…… [Read More]

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Oral Presentation I Come From

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 89220264

I believe this is one of the smartest moves I have ever made. I learn so much in the first class I took and one of the first things I learned was that my professor would not tolerate me interrupting people while they had the floor. After about two warnings, she told me she would have me removed from the class and I knew she meant business. She did me a favor by shutting me up because it taught me how to listen. At first, I couldn't listed to whomever was speaking because I was too busy concentrating on what I would say. but, a funny thing happened. I learned that when I listened to other's opinions, even if they were different from mine that it opened my mind to new ways of thinking and seeing things.

Throughout my college years, I learned how to be an effective communicator. However,…… [Read More]


Shaw, B., Sheufele, D.A., and Catalano, S. (2007). The role of presence awareness in organizational communication: An exploratory field experiment. Behavior and Information Technology. 26(5), 377-384.
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History of the Media in America Media

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32475062

History Of the Media in America

Media America, a History

Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.

Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."

Less than a…… [Read More]


Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American

Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd

edition, 2010.
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Oral Health A Community Health

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84512470

Moreover, nurses are in a position to identify cases of poor oral health among patients visiting the primary care unit of a healthcare center. For this reason, Kaylor et al. (2011) recommend nurses as an intervention measure in improving oral health in the community, since they can identify women at risk of poor oral health. They identify that nurses can work with low-income women in the community and educate the population on oral health. The review of literature advocates that oral health can be improved in the community by mobilizing community resources like local government, healthcare providers, and primary care providers like nurses in educating the population on the importance of oral health. This is through making contact with at risk populations in the healthcare set up and providing education on oral health. Nurses also can reach out to at risk populations through community-based programs that promote public health. Lastly,…… [Read More]


Formicola, a.J., Ro, M., Marshall, S., Derksen, D., Powell, W., Hartsock, L., & Treadwell, H.M. (2004). Strengthening the Oral Health Safety Net: Delivery Models That Improve Access to Oral Health Care for Uninsured and Underserved Populations. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 702-704.

Kaylor, M., Polivka, B.J., Chaudry, R., Salsberry, P., & Wee, a.G. (2011). Dental Insurance and Dental Service Use by U.S. Women of Childbearing Age. Public Health Nursing, 28(3), 213-222.

Krisberg, K. (2004). Prevention key to rural oral health outreach programs. Nation's Health, 34(4), 11-12.

Zabos, G.P., Northridge, M.E., Ro, M.J., Trinh, C., Vaughan, R., Howard, J., & ... Cohall, a.T. (2008). Lack of Oral Health Care for Adults in Harlem: A Hidden Crisis. American Journal of Public Health, 98, S102-S105.
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History of Women in Law

Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66426936

"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)

The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)

With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…… [Read More]


ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).

BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)

Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City. 

FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).
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Slavery in American History Specifically

Words: 2557 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35859154

33). Slavery was an institution, and as such, it had become outmoded in modern society of the time. Elkins feels slavery could have been viewed less emotionally and more realistically as an institution, rather than an ethical or moral dilemma, and this is one of the most important arguments in his book, which sets the stage for the rest of his writing.

In his arguments for his theses, Elkins continues, "To the Northern reformer, every other concrete fact concerning slavery was dwarfed by its character as a moral evil - as an obscenity condemned of God and universally offensive to humanity" (Elkins, 1959, p. 36). Slavery was a moral evil, and it is still seen as such. Elkins indicates society was becoming disillusioned with it at the time (at least Northern society), and that the institution needed to change or disappear.

Another of the important points Elkins attempts to make…… [Read More]


Elkins, S.M. (1959). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Raboteau, a.B. (1978). Slave religion: The 'invisible institution' in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
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African-Americans History and Culture the False and

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17793718

African-Americans History And Culture

The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.

"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…… [Read More]


Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.

Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
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Knight in History

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22407345

Knight in History by Frances Gies. Specifically, it will explain the author's purpose and main points in writing the book. "The Knight in History" is a detailed look at how knights functioned in society, how they lived, worked, and added to the economy. These larger than life figures have been romanticized in hundreds of films and books, but Gies attempts to show readers what they really were like, and how the reality differed from the romantic notions of gallant knights in armor roaming the countryside on their trusty steeds. The role of knight was vital in medieval history, Gies' book shows the reader exactly why, and why their role in society should not be ignored.

Author Frances Gies, a respected historian, wrote this book as a chronicle of knighthood and chivalry at a time when there were not many resources available on the realities of knights and their role in…… [Read More]


Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.
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Family or a Business History

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34429841

This stated, "Black Kings brothers must join as one to resist the oppression that faces all black youth. With this oath you have found a new family, a brotherhood that will always be with you" (Venhatesh & Levitt, 2000, p. 439).


One of the most interesting facets of Venhatesh and Levitt's (2000) research is their unique access to the financial records of the Black Kings, for four years. This research positions gangs beyond simple criminal actors and instead sees them as outlaw corporatists. Furthermore, credit is given to the complexities of Chicago's street gangs. These are not only the loosely connected groups of hooligans often associated with gangs, but instead these are well-run, highly organized groups that are excellent examples of the changes that were being made in American businesses. Hierarchical administration, rational management procedures, and increased attention to revenues and profit margins shed light on the modern street…… [Read More]


Venkatesh, S. & Leviit, S. (2000). "Are we a family or a business?' History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang." Theory and Society, 29. p. 427-462.
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Galveston a History by David G Mccomb

Words: 834 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37897863

Galveston: A History (1986) by David G. McComb

The book Galveston: A History is both a detailed chronological and thematic analysis, of the four-century-old history, mainly from a technological perspective, of Galveston, Texas. Its author, David G. McComb, "is a professor of history at Colorado State University, and has published numerous books and articles on Texas history" (Texas State Historical Association).The thesis of the book is that, throughout the history of Galveston, including its key natural and technological events, e.g., hurricanes and storms; a yellow fever outbreak, the Civil ar; port construction; the building a medical school, people there have struggled, and struggle today, to live in this idyllic yet dangerous setting. Further, the history of Galveston proves that technology (and humanity) cannot circumvent the awesome power of nature.

Although Galveston, is best-known today as a major port of the Gulf of Mexico and tourist destination (and, in the aftermath…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Darst, Maury. Reviewer comment. [On Galveston: A History, by David McComb].

"Galveston: A History." University of Texas Press. Retrieved October 18, 2005,


'Galveston: A History." University of Texas Press. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from:
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Contemporary History

Words: 3249 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55406124

influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.

Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.

Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.

Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
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Health Care 1875-1900 the History

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7229617

The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.

The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.

1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.

Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)

The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…… [Read More]

References /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001282891

Callahan, D. (1999, July 16). WHAT'S NATURAL?: It's Hard to Say. Commonweal, 126, 7. Retrieved February 18, 2005, from Questia database,
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Oral Composition What Signs of

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94236796

Further, the text illustrate was the Mycenaean population believed from a religious perspective. It shows what was expected of people with religious beliefs and the level of importance that was placed upon adhering to traditions, such as the proper treatment of a dead body in the case of Achilles and his treatment of the body of Hector.

3. To what extent is the world we find in The Iliad historical? Can Homer's Iliad be used to supplement archaeological finds to tell us about the Mycenaean world, to reconstruct a world extant during the Dark Ages or give us some information about Greece in the 8th century BC?

Any piece of writing, whether fictional or not, is an historical artifact of a kind. Historians can uncover pottery or architecture and bones, but that will not be enough to completely understand a society which has long since been out of existence. Literary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryce, T 'Troy's role and status in the near eastern world', The Trojans and Their Neighbours,

Routledge, London, pp. 107-126.

Finley, MI 1977 'Bards and heroes', The World of Odysseus, 2nd ed. Chatto & Windus, London,

pp. 26-50.
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Korean History The Climate and Culture of

Words: 4763 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64026784

Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business

The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.

This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…… [Read More]

Works Cited

North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American

City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( ).

South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals

Inc. February 11, 2003. (
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Circassian People a Brief History

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22483920

Circassian People, a brief history

The Circassians, comprising some 3,000 people concentrated in two northern villages, are Sunni Muslims, although they share neither the Arab origin nor the cultural background of the larger Islamic community. While maintaining a distinct ethnic identity, they participate in Israel's economic and national affairs without assimilating either into Jewish society or into the general Muslim community The Circassians are a Muslim people, whose Russian name is Cherkess and whose native name is Adygey. They are now officially classified as three peoples: the Kabarda, in the Kabardino-alkar Republic; the Circassians or Cherkess, in the Karachevo-Cherkess Republic; and the Adygey, in the Adygey Republic. The term Circassian has sometimes been incorrectly applied to all the mountain peoples of the N. Caucasus. Known in antiquity, they inhabited the western side of the Caucasus and the Crimea and were known to the Greeks as the Zyukhoy. They were Christianized…… [Read More]


Amjad M. Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook (Peoples of the Caucasus) Hardcover - March 2001.

John Colarusso, Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs Princeton University Press, December 2002
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Sexual History Interview

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20880154

Sexual History Interview: Critique and Reactions

This paper concerns an interview that I conducted with a 27-year-old ex-escort. This individual was a college educated female who will be given the name Samantha, as an alias for the purposes of this paper. I was able to make initial contact with Samantha through a range of referrals from friends of some of my colleagues. Samantha was willing to talk to me, though only if I was able to provide her with the utmost privacy and confidentiality. Conducting the interview was fascinating, as I had never met a member of the sex industry. I was worried that perhaps I might say something that she considered naive or that she would be able to see clearly that I was new at the task of interviewing someone about their sexual history. Samantha came from a two-parent middle-class home, and was not raised under any particular…… [Read More]

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Religious History of My Family as I

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71221287

religious history of my family as I know it, and its impact on me.

I myself am from Vietnam and am studying in New York. My parents are Vietnamese and living in Hanoi, Vietnam.

We follow a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism, although I think that somewhere way back, my grandparents or great-grandparents - I know little of either side -- may have been pure Buddhists. Actually, I see similarities in both, in that both focus on peace within oneself, and I think that the popular way of how Americans see Buddhist belief of nirvana as believing that we are feted to suffer is wrong.

Thinking of my family's beliefs and how it has shaped our lives and my life in particular, I think it is more Vietnam's beliefs in general; that has impacted us rather than that of my particular family. The two primary beliefs in Vietnam in general,…… [Read More]

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Brief History of Polio

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51453036

History of Polio

Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is a contagious viral illness that produces no symptoms in ninety-five percent of cases. While a plague to the human race for centuries, polio was never the devastating scourge that other diseases, such as bubonic plague and smallpox, were. Then, in the early 20th century, polio came into its own, and the largest outbreak of the disease ever seen began. It is from this large outbreak that our dread of polio largely comes from. From this outbreak, we have gotten the devastating images of children in wheelchairs and iron lungs, paralyzed from the ravages of polio, some never to walk again. And it is this outbreak of polio that led to the tremendous push from Western medicine to eradicate it once and for all.

While polio normally produces no symptoms, in the small percentage of cases that do produce symptoms, the disease…… [Read More]


Black, Katherine. (1996). In the Shadow of Polio: A Personal and Social

History. New York: Addison-Wesley.

James, Walene. (1995). Immunization: The Reality Behind the Myth.

New York: Bergin & Garvey.
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Candomble An Overview the History

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11568491

Most teachings are oral, because of the historical origins of the faith as a transported slave religion, and are passed on from devotee to devotee. The founding ideas are that humans have both a physical and spiritual body, spiritual entities are in constant contact with the mortal world, and that believers can contact the spiritual world through rituals and use the spirits for healing and for help and guidance ("Candomble," New Religious Movements, 2007)

This stress upon ritual means that sacred space is very important to practitioners. The religion "invests relationships with a cosmic dimension, both in mythical times and in life as we know it" (Fernandes, 2007). One interesting aspect of the religion is its color symbolism, which reflects its African roots. Black has a strong positive significance. Other colors of importance are Oxum or gold, Oxossi or forest green, Yemanja or sea blue, Xango or red and white…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Candomble." Sociology 257 Webpage: New Religious Movements. University of Virginia Last modified Mar 1996. 19 Aug 2007. ,

Fernandes, Ruben Cesar. "Candomble." Brazil. 2007. 19 Aug 2007. 

Stirling, Bruce. "Macumba." 6 Feb 1997. 19 Aug 2007.
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Benefit Segmentation in the Oral

Words: 812 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 58784188

4. Specialty toothpastes created for customers with sensitive teeth, gums or other medical conditions, with customer experience being the most critical

5. Lifecycle approach similar to Crest yet focused on the consumer's purchasing lifecycle

Based on this analysis, my top five criterion are as follows:

1. High performance toothpaste capable of delivering preventative protection and has a fresh taste

2. High performance cavity prevention

3. Making dialing brushing less of a chore and more fun and enjoyable

4. Available in a wide variety of flavors

5. High performance, rapid whitening toothpastes that bring quick results to teeth and gums.

Based on these criterion, I have become a loyal Crest Complete Multi-Benefit Whitening + Scope -- Citrus. This toothpaste fits my profile of benefits precisely and has led to my becoming brand-loyal to this specific product based on the benefits it delivers.

2. Select another oral care (e.g., toothbrush) product where…… [Read More]


Greenberg, M., & McDonald, S.S. (1989). Successful Needs/Benefits segmentation: A user's guide. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(3), 29-29.

Miskell, P. (2004). Cavity protection or cosmetic perfection? innovation and marketing of toothpaste brands in the United States and western Europe, 1955-1985. Business History Review, 78(1), 29-60.
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Afghanistan Its History and Its

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49671540

(Cherie Booth, 2001)

MONI BASU (2001) writes, "In every developing nation, the United Nations says, men fare better than women, with the exception of life expectancy (because of biological reasons). In Islamic nations, such as Afghanistan, women not only live in crushing poverty but are subjected to injustices imposed on them in the name of God. The threat of being penniless often forces Muslim women to remain in bad marriages, as it does poor women worldwide."

If the economic conditions improve it can lead to more rights for women in Afghanistan. During the Taliban regime, many professional women were not allowed to participate in economic activity, which deteriorated the economy even further. With economy sliding downwards, women rights also declined continuously, resulting in an extremely oppressed social setup.

The world is now watching closely as Afghanistan went to polls recently. People want to see how America-led government can bring reforms…… [Read More]


1) Larry P. Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban, University of Washington Press: June 2001

2) Afghanistan: "The Biggest Prison for Women in the World." Vol. 27, Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 03-01-1997, pp 12-3.

3) CIA- The World Fact book, 2003 

4) Basics of Afghanistan economy:
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Current Teaching Practices of High School History Classrooms

Words: 2748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72564637

Technology in History Classes]

Since the beginning of education in the U.S., the classroom setting has remained the same: Students have sat quietly in their seats with just a pencil, textbook and lined paper to practice their "readin', riting and 'rithmetic." However, the advent of new technologies is heralding a change. In a growing number of schools, technological innovations are beginning to significantly change the way that information is conveyed and students learn. Depending on the creativity of the teacher, the advent of computers, CD-ROMs, videodiscs, multimedia, and cable networks is expanding the breadth of the curriculum -- from mathematics to the social sciences. For example, teachers have found multiple ways to restructure technology into high school history that have made an often very dry topic come to life.

In 1983 Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, introduced his theory of "multiple intelligences" (MI). His book Intelligence Reframed showed that…… [Read More]

Loewen, J. (1995) Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: New Press.

Norton, P. (1999) Teaching with Technology. New York: Hartcourt Brace.

Warren, W. (1999) "Using the World Wide Web for primary source research in high school history classes." Journal of the Association for History and Computing.Vol. 2, No. 2.
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Pentacostal Movement History of the Pentecostal Movement

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87360936

Pentacostal Movement

History of the Pentecostal Movement

The Pentecostal Movement, also known as Classical Pentecostalism, is a Christian-based faith that emphasizes a direct personal experience with God through Baptism, Prayer, and evangelism. There is not one version of Pentecostalism, but all are based on the name derived from the Jewish Feasts of Weeks, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the followers of Christ, described in Acts II: "When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place… all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them" (Acts 2).

Pentecostalism is an evangelical sect, which focuses on the belief that the scriptures are 100% true, accurate and vital in contemporary life. Pentecostals accept Christ as a personal lord and savior and also that baptism with the Holy Spirit is separate from conversion. It is…… [Read More]


Anderson, A. (2009). Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa. Centre for Missiology and World Christianity -- University of Birmingham. Retrieved from:

Cox, H. (1995). Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality. New York: DaCapo Press.

Kalu, O. (2008). African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pentecostal World Fellowship. (2013). Leadership and Ministries. Retrieved from:
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E-Mail in Business Communication E-Mail History Relation

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21246394

E-Mail in Business Communication

E-mail: History, elation, and Impact on effective Business Communication

Email in Business Communication

Electronic Mail

Impact of Email to Business Communication

Implications of Emails as Business Communication Tools

Email is an important form of communication in today's organization that is increasingly seeing a geographical dispersal of the workforce. To communication tool has replaced traditional business letters and memos in preference for email memos. The research carried out a review of literature on email and business communication and found the tool is used in 100% of businesses today. However, despite the wide acceptance, the tool lacks in social and visual cues which lender the messages toneless. The lack of tone and physical gestures leads to misinterpretation, ill will, disconnectedness, loss of intellectual capital and integrity for the business. The research finds that the informal history of emails, heterogeneity among users, technological limitations in social-emotions, and lack of…… [Read More]


Agnew, D.S., & Hill, K. (2009). Email etiquette recommendation for today's business student. Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict. Proceedings, 14(2), 1-5.

Barrett, M. & Davidson, M.J. (2006). Gender and Communication at Work. Burlington, USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

David, D. & Mullen, J. (2009). Email Marketing: An Hour a Day. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Dufrene, D.D. & Lehman, C.M. (2010). Business Communication. 16th ed., Mason, OH: South-Wester, Cengage Learning.
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Ritalin The Case History of a Drug

Words: 2711 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67912597

Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug

One of the most noticeable and prevalent disorders occurring in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is commonly diagnosed when the child begins to attend school or kindergarten, and occurs in 3 to 5% of the population. A chronic condition, it normally carries over into adolescence and perhaps into maturity as well. ADHD children can be hyperactive, inattentive, distractible, aggressive and impulsive, and as a result tend to do poorly in school and present behavioral problems both in academic, social and familial settings. ADHD adolescents, in addition to the above-mentioned difficulties, may be disposed toward delinquency and involvement in car accidents and substance abuse. Co-occurring disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety and depression tend to exacerbate both the symptoms and the difficulty of treating ADHD. (Hyman, 2000)

Unfortunately there is no single diagnostic test to establish ADHD, and the etiology of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Chemical Society press release, March 22, 1999. "Improved Ritalin offers smaller doses and fewer side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 11, 2003 at 

Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center. "Ritalin effects and ADD ADHD medicine side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 4, 2003 at

Cantwell, D.P. "ADHD through the life span: the role of buproprion in treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 Suppl 4: 92-4.

Colacot, T.J. "An overview on the applications of Doyle catalysts in asymmetric cyclopropanation and CH insertion reactions," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) June 2000. Vol. 112, No. 3: 197-207.
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Cultures and Histories of People

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42394004

Interactivity With One's Culture

The concepts of literature and history as identified in the excerpt from the Potiki that is referenced in this assignment is one of continuous interaction. Moreover, they underscore the degree of continuity that these people have with their past, which is quite at variance with conventional Western perceptions of the past. These facts are demonstrated throughout the manuscript that this excerpt stems from. Still, they are indicated perhaps most poignantly in the subsequent quotation "But our main book was the wharenui which is itself a story, a history, a gallery, a study, a design structure and a taonga. And we were part of that book along with family past and family yet to come."

What this particular section means is that the indigenous people have a deep rooted connection to the wharenui and to their background that transcends mere heirlooms and symbols (which is typically how…… [Read More]


Calleja, P.F. (2000). An interview with Patricia Grace. Atlantis. 25(1), 109-120.

Stanford, J. A. (1996). Responding to Literature (2nd. Ed.), pp. 12-13. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
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Marketing Products by Embracing an Incorporating Company History

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19302086

Corporations and History

Corporations have used their history to demonstrate to consumers their underlying principles in product production and quality. History is vital because it allows consumers to relate to a product and understand that the product is manufactured using the same quality materials. In the marketing of the products, the corporations will use their well-known history to demonstrate to the consumers that they have maintained and will always employ the same principles. The three corporations analyzed in this essay are Coca-Cola, Colgate-Palmolive, and Deere & company. These corporations have used their well-known history to market their products, and they employ the same principles employed since the corporations were launched. Coca-Cola creates the world's favorite soft drink, and the drink was created in order to offer a sweet quenching drink that evokes happiness (Pendergrast, 2013). The corporation has always aimed at associating its Coca-Cola drink with happiness, and this has…… [Read More]


Coca-Cola. (2012). The Coca-Cola History. from 

Colgate-Palmolive, C. (2014). Welcome to Our History. from 

Deere & Company. (2013). John Deere Timeline. from 

Pendergrast, M. (2013). For God, country, and Coca-Cola: The definitive history of the great American soft drink and the company that makes it. New York, NY: Basic Books.
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Origin and History of Rap

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55146271


Related to the above is the view that the origins and history of the development of Rap music are strongly related to the resistance to various forms of colonialism and oppression that Black people have experienced and which has shaped the style and form of Rap music. This also refers to ideological and colonial hegemonies and perceived racial and cultural prejudice that has been a major motivating force in this form of artistic expression.

This can be linked to theories of ideological hegemony that are seen as pivotal aspect in the development of Black consciousness and consequently in the musical expression of that consciousness. According to theorists like Gramsci, ideological hegemony functions by control and domination not only through force but also through cultural forms of persuasion. In other words, the best way to achieve control over a subordinate group is by "...means of cultural domination among all sectors…… [Read More]

Works Cited

KEYES C.L. (2002) Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.


Kopano, Baruti N. "Rap Music as an Extension of the Black Rhetorical Tradition: "Keepin' it Real." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.4 (2002): 204+. Questia. 31 Mar. 2008 /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001926756" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Creation Narrative Analysis of Genesis Myth or History or Myth and History

Words: 15782 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9755140

Creation Myth Analysis

Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives

What Is Myth?

What Is History?




Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?

Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?

Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?

An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record

God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]


Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.

Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:

Macmillan Co., 1905.

Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
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Children Around the World History Social

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81953233

d. Compare/Contrast with their own lives.

e. Work on an artistic representation of that country's culture.

f. Individually, present to small group; or group present to class with each member providing information on a specific part of the child's life in another country.

4. As a take-home activity, write a reflective essay (2-6 paragraphs, depending on level) about what you learned from this assignment, how you think the child's life differs from yours, how it is similar, and what you might change about your own life based on this assignment.

Analysis - Background -- Differentiated Instruction recognizes that students have varying background knowledge, language, preferences in learning, and interests. DI is a process designed to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class -- in the same lesson.

Differentiated Access -- each student will have access to a variety of written and kinesthetic materials that…… [Read More]


Children Around the World. (2010). Discovery Education. Retrieved from: 

Benjamin, a. (2003). Differentiated Instruction: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers. Larchmont, MY: Eye on Education Publishers.

Williams, J. (2011). A Rich World of Thinking: National Standards for English Language Arts. Retrieved from:
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Women's Health the History of

Words: 2733 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84753228

Baer, 2002, p. xx)

Medical issues surrounding OCs:

Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:

nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…… [Read More]


Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.

Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.

Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
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Edward Ball Chronicles His Family's Slave-Owning History

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91658536

Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…… [Read More]

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Texas History

Words: 3692 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43630442

German Influences on Texas Culture

If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.

Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…… [Read More]


Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: 

Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: 

Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available

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Chippewa's Aboriginal Homeland

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96366973

Chippewas of ama First Nation


Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.

This paper will study the Chippewa people of ama First Nation. The paper will provide a larger context within North American history and Chippewa history to reflect upon this tribe's cultural traditions and heritage. The paper will focus upon several key aspects to the culture such as the interaction with Europeans, reputation within the aboriginal tribes of Canada, and the rich oral history/tradition of the Chippewas of ama First Nation. The paper serves to be informative and comprehensives.

A Brief Examination of the Chippewas of ama First Nation

The Chippewas of ama First Nation are one of numerous tribes that compose the First Nations. The First Nations is a collective term that refers to the aboriginal tribes of Canada, not including those who are Inuit and/or Metis. North American aboriginal tribes have…… [Read More]


"Chippewas of Rama First Nation." 2012 January 2012

"Mnjikaning History." 2012 January 16

"M'njikaning First Nation." 2012 January 16

"Ojibway People." 2012 January 16 < >
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World War II Happen The

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15911546

" Military History. [online]


Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.


Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.

Carr, p. 117.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available:

Hickman, p. 1.

Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.

Corum, p. 4.

Corum, p. 5.

Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…… [Read More]


Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great

War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic

Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
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Alessandro Portelli the Death of Luigi Trastulli

Words: 1631 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4747798

Alessandro Portelli, the Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History.

This paper begins by situating Alessandro Portelli's oral history in the context of the postwar reaction in Italy against the historical theories of the influential Neapolitan philosopher enedetto Croce. It then proceeds to a discussion of Portelli's methodology by reference above all to the essay The Death of Luigi Trastulli, whose starting point is the death at the hands of the police of a young Terni steelworker in 1949. Portelli's essay is not concerned with verifying, in the mode of the documentary historian, the precise circumstances in which Trastulli was killed, however. His concern was rather to account for the diverse memories, which have grown up around the Trastulli event. Portelli's oral history methodology was inspired by his pathbreaking discovery that erroneous memories possess historical value. The paper concludes by raising some possible criticisms…… [Read More]


Overview of the Prison Notebooks." 27 March, 2002

Portelli, Alessandro. The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral

History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.

Roberts, David D. "Croce in America: Influence, Misunderstanding, and Neglect." Humanitas 8
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Controversial Than a Person Could Ever Imagine

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99532861

controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)

In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…… [Read More]


Attwood, B. 1996. 'Teaching Historiography.' Australian Historical Association Bulletin, No.

82, pp. 43-46.

Cathcart, M. 1985. 'Symposium: Why History?' Australian Book Review, pp. 16-18.

Reynolds, H. 1984. 'The Breaking of the Great Australian Silence: Aborigines in Australian
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Anxieties of White Mississippians Concerning the Institution of Slavery

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95207939

Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery

In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.

Antebellum Slavery

The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.
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Terry Wallace Bloods Black Veterans

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 41767378

"Used, manipulated," and "violated" was one veteran's assessment of his experience in being drafted and serving in the military (erry 55). However, others became career soldiers, such as Sergeant Major Edgar Huff. Still others felt a sense of energy and purpose serving in Vietnam, and one of them, Manny Holloman even remembers his days as a soldier fondly, and misses his life in Vietnam. Manny even learned Vietnamese and married a Vietnamese woman, although he was forced to leave her behind after the Americans left Vietnam.

he fact that so few whites were willing to serve in the armed forces, and so many more African-Americans served in disproportionate numbers has one unintentionally positive effect -- more African-Americans rose to higher ranks in the service, as well as became politically mobilized for their fellow veterans upon returning home, such as one veteran who became active in the veteran's rights movement after…… [Read More]

The book's outreach spans enlisted men, noncommissioned officers, and commissioned officers, soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who served between the years of 1963-1973. Although some men felt more patriotic about their service than others, most of their experiences underline the fact that the Vietnam conflict was fought in disproportionate numbers by individuals without the political and social influence to 'skirt' the draft, a fact that has become well-publicized only now. "Used, manipulated," and "violated" was one veteran's assessment of his experience in being drafted and serving in the military (Terry 55). However, others became career soldiers, such as Sergeant Major Edgar Huff. Still others felt a sense of energy and purpose serving in Vietnam, and one of them, Manny Holloman even remembers his days as a soldier fondly, and misses his life in Vietnam. Manny even learned Vietnamese and married a Vietnamese woman, although he was forced to leave her behind after the Americans left Vietnam.

The fact that so few whites were willing to serve in the armed forces, and so many more African-Americans served in disproportionate numbers has one unintentionally positive effect -- more African-Americans rose to higher ranks in the service, as well as became politically mobilized for their fellow veterans upon returning home, such as one veteran who became active in the veteran's rights movement after the war. The experience of service gave many men a desire to become part of something larger than themselves, even if they resented the institutionalized racism of the military.

The book gets its title, Bloods, from the name many African-Americans called one another -- blood brothers -- because of the racism they faced from white soldiers within the American armed services. No matter what their background, African-Americans did share a common struggle because of the racism that was inflicted upon them as they gave their lives in such great numbers for their country abroad, even while they were denied their rights at home. However, this common experience of racism and the triumph of overcoming it must be honored by showing the unique ways black men dealt with their struggles, not by reducing their experience into a tale defined solely by race.
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War Studs Terkel's The Good War in

Words: 2608 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91148360


"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar

In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.

A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.

"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from 

Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice

Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
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Standard Joke About America in the 1960s

Words: 3939 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52676921

standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…… [Read More]


Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?

New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.

Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
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Internment of Japanese Americans in WWII

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92346889

Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II

hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American

Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.

Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,

Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
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Holocaust Survivor

Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54400486

interview of a single survivor available in the Visual History Archive of the USC Shoah Foundation Institute. The survivor in the film was Mordecai Topel from Poland.

Due to the length of the interview, we will focus upon the first 30-60 minutes of the interview, specifically to analyze the initial foundational issues of Polish anti-semitism, the initial German occupation of Poland and life in the ghetto and slave labor in a steel factory under guard of the Ukrainian guards in and out of Ostrowiec, Poland. However, we will flip to the end of the interview where he relates details of his family before the war where we get a look at the Polish Jewish world that the Nazis destroyed in orld ar 2.Certainly, Mr. Topel's experiences in the Auschwitz were quite typical of the time in the history of the Shoah, so much so that he brushes off describing the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Topel, Mordechai, perf. nterview with Holocaust Survivor Mordecai Topel. USC Shoah Foundation Institute, 1995. Film. .
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Ethnic Diversity Over the Past

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76372785

95). While many nationalities have such established support systems already in place, many such immigrant support networks remain weak today (amirez, 2002).

Furthermore, these elderly citizens will likely be accustomed to a level of respect and honor that may be missing from the cultural setting upon their arrival in the United States, further contributing to the potential for "culture shock." According to Haskins (1999), culture shock is "a feeling of impotence that results from the inability to deal with the environment because of unfamiliarity with cognitive aspects and role-playing skills; we usually think of culture shock when we imagine immigrant groups visiting or moving to a new country" (p. 122). There are opportunities for culture shock across all measures for new immigrant, many of them unperceived and unexpected from the host nation's perspective. For example, Stanger (1999) notes that despite the ready availability of a modern metro subway system, most…… [Read More]


Aroian, K.J., Chiang, L., & Norris, a.E. (2003). Gender differences in psychological distress among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 39.

Cross, S.E. (1995). Self-construals, coping, and stress in cross-cultural adaptation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(6), 673-97.

Haskins, D. (1999). Culture Shock. College Teaching, 47(4), 122.

Inose, M., & Yeh, C. (2002). Difficulties and Coping Strategies of Chinese, Japanese and Korean Immigrant Students. Adolescence, 37(145), 69.
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Bush & Clinton Leadership Styles

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66940286

hen Cheney is seen, it is because he is usually attending a Republican fundraiser and attacking Democrats who criticize Bush's war in Iraq. Gore was seen as a very open vice president whose work achieved very high visibility; Cheney works behind the scenes, and is believed to be very influential in the Bush administration in matters of fighting terrorism and war strategy in Iraq.

Bush is very much aware of one of his main political constituencies, the conservative Christian movement; this movement is anti-abortion and very negative about gay people. In fact, Bush has supported a constitutional amendment (which makes his conservative Christian supporters happy) that would ban gay marriage. Clinton, meanwhile, reached out to the gay community and initiated the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy toward gays in the military. Many gays were being pushed out of the military based on old suspicions and values.

Clinton was involved in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Miller Center University of Virginia. "Governing American in a Global Era: Presidential Oral

History / Bill Clinton." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at

Wikipedia. "George W. Bush." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at .
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Difficult and Not Totally Secure

Words: 2033 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41734246

Particularly post war era women entered the workforce in huge numbers but there were many hindrances in their way as they tried to secure their credit. They had to found for the ownership of property as well as equal right to employment opportunities and salary. The idea of women being spender in the house also strengthened. As a result of reforms in the society women became powerful economically and socially.

eligious leaders were of the opinion that "religious principles should be broadened so as to include 'all useful social theories' lest Christianity be left behind in the onward march of society." (Charles Howard Hopkins, 1940. P.32)

As envisaged by the Christian religious leaders, the office of deaconess declared that women can a deaconess, with the provision that she holds right spirit and the appropriate training (Golder, 1908) yet the best role for her lies under the institution of marriage.

During…… [Read More]


Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.

Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.

Chatman, S.. "Discourse: Non-narrated stories. In S. Chatman (Ed.), Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film" (pp. 146-195). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1978

Christian Golder, "History of the Deaconess Movement in the Christian Church" Cincinnati, OH: Jennings and Pye, 1908. pp. 527-528.
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Turkish Literature Compare Shahnameh With

Words: 2367 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93908330

The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, Dick. "Introduction." The Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. Trans. Dick Davis. Korea: Mage, 2004. 7-15.

Doostkhah, Jalil. "Shahnameh and the Oral Epic Traditions: A Brief Note." Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001): 157-162.

Gay, David Elton. "The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry, and: Sunset of Empire: Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. Vol. 3." Journal of American Folklore 119.472 (2006): 243-245.

Karaomerlioglu, Asim. "The Peasants in Early Turkish Literature." East European Quarterly 36.2 (2002): 127-154.
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Religious Reasons Why Purity and

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34481879

Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.

However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.

Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…… [Read More]


Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.

Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New

York, pp. 232-262.
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Jewish Women in America Preserving Jewish Tradition

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22854225

Jewish Women in America: preserving Jewish Tradition.

Women play an important role in the preservation of the Jewish identity within families and larger communities. Women hold many positions in society that aid this role including more traditional roles for women, such as mother or teacher, as well as contemporary roles, such as writer, politician, or other professional. Jewish women in America face the challenge of facing a rapidly changing contemporary society while continuing to uphold and pass down, to new generations, ancient traditions rich in symbolism and meaning. This essay will briefly introduce three prominent American Jewish Women who have played a contemporary role in upholding and preserving Jewish Tradition in the broadest sense.

The Jerusalem Post printed a special piece, in celebration of Shavuot, on "The Fifty Most Influential Jews in the World." The list included seven women, two of which are Americans: the first one uth Ginsburg, Associate…… [Read More]

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Article: "The Fifty Most Influential Jews in the World"
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Traditional Cultures Before Widespread Westernization

Words: 1886 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77541348

Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.

Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.

The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…… [Read More]

Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.

Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.

New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.
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Creoles Professionals Involved in Therapy and Counseling

Words: 4095 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95784591


Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…… [Read More]


Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.

Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.

Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.

Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
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Authenticity in Multicultural Narratives of Experience and

Words: 1994 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38260395

Authenticity in Multicultural Narratives of experience and language -- the problem of Rigoberta Menchu's I, Rigoberta Menchu

On the surface, there is no 'problem,' one might say, given the astounding achievement of native Guatemalan opposition leader and community activist Rigoberta Menchu. Rigoberta Menchu won the Nobel Prize, even after she was forced to go into hiding in her beloved Guatemala, and then flee her native land to Mexico, far from the land and community she loved. She remains a forceful and vigorous voice for the rights of disenfranchised Guatemalans to this day. Her resulting book, called in English, I, Rigoberta Menchu, tells of her experiences as a native Guatemalan woman, and then as the Representation of the Guatemalan Opposition (RUOG). But because of its translated quality and the subject's own perception of herself as a community spokeswoman as well as a lone sufferer of oppression -- indeed, what it means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooks, Margaret, ed. Guatemalan Women Speak. Introduction by Rigoberta Menchu. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1991.

Manchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta. 1984.

Perera, Victor. Unfinished Conquest. The Guatemalan Tragedy. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: Univ. Of California Press, 1993.

Sommer, Doris. "No Secrets: Rigoberta's Guarded Truth." Women's Studies 20 (1991): 51 -- 72.
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Women and the Historical Enterprise

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19091258

As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)

Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise: the Female American Historian. University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
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Basket Making Tradition of the Zulus

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44365317

Zulu Baskets

The History of Zulu Baskets

The Creation of Zulu Baskets


Price of Baskets

Space Needed

There are many traditional crafts in Africa, drawing on the rich heritage, and skills passed down through the generations (Gleimius, Mthimunye, and Subanyoni, 2003). One of the traditional crafts has included basket making, with Zulu Baskets benefiting from a revival with and production increasing due to the tourist market and fashion for local craftwork (Nettleton, 2010; Gleimius et al., 2003). This paper looks at the tradition, starting with the history of Zulu baskets, looking at how they are made, the materials used, the prices, sizes and designs.

The History of Zulu Baskets

Basketry is an indigenous craft across much of Africa, with the Zulu people, the largest ethnic group in South Africa creating baskets from times before written histories were present in the area (African Crafts Market, 2015; Meskel, 2008, Krige, 1950).…… [Read More]


African Crafts Market, (2015), Zulu People Traditions & Culture, retrieved 4th May 2015 from

Baskets of Africa, (2015), South Africa, Zululand, retrieved 4th May 2015 from 

Gleimius, N, Mthimunye, E, Subanyoni, V, (2003), The Zulu of Africa, Lerner Publications

Jolles, F, (2005), The origins of the twentieth century Zulu beer vessel styles, Southern African Humanities, 17, 101-151