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Christopher . Browning is a history professor at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington. His work on holocaust historiography has allowed Browning to contribute to the world's most important compendium of holocaust history at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. The sources used to write Ordinary Men were primary sources only: documentary evidence mainly emerging in the legal trials that ensued. Therefore, the author is well qualified to address the matter of the eserve Police Battalion 101. Browning's experience and background would not have made Ordinary Men: eserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland easy to write, though. The material is summarily grim, troubling, and difficult to digest. However, the holocaust is a significant part of modern history that must be continually remembered in order to never forget.
Ordinary Men is about a group of working class middle-aged German men from Hamburg who are selected to participate…… [Read More]
In the horrifying details regarding a mass execution operation conducted by a series of German platoons, one man recalls that "it was in no way the case that those who did not want to or could not carry out the shooting of human beings with their own hands could not keep themselves out of the task."(Browning, 65). Browning indicates that many Germans felt inclined by responsibility to follow the orders delivered though.
Unfortunately, when one piles up the evidence detailed by Browning's research, it cannot be denied that genocide of this nature is always possible. The situation in Germany did not illustrate a uniquely evil nation with historically inclined desires to behave so unfathomably. Nor was it simply a matter of a ruling class intimidating a far larger population of potential free-thinkers. Rather, it was the unfortunate calling of fate that would land power into the abusive hands of a…… [Read More]
(Browning 168-169) He points to Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiments where some subjects proved so amenable to authority that they were willing to repeatedly shock and possibly kill other people if an authoritative figure ordered them to do so, while refusing if a less authoritative figure gave the same orders. (Browning, 167) Browning suggests that there is an element of calculation and free will here that goes against the notion of the soldier as the mindless vessel of Nazi terrorism.
Browning believed that situational factors be assessed in tandem with psychological factors. (Browning, 186) Though Browning is dismissive of the notion of purely situational factors, he seems to appreciate the significance of situational factors in the gradual transformation of the individual. Whereas the purely situational explanation characterizes these Nazi soldiers as shallow brutes, incapable of the recognizing the larger consequences of their actions, Browning characterizes these soldiers as thoughtful, mature individuals,…… [Read More]
Clearly, the reason lies within fervent nationalism and Hitler's mad scheme known as the "Final Solution."
As to the book's strengths and weaknesses, rowning conveys the true brutal face of World War II via his highly-detailed analysis of attalion 101 and its members; he also very forcefully relates to the reader that the war was fought for many reasons, the most important being the destruction of Hitler's Nazi Germany and its war machine which devastated most of Europe between 1939 and mid-1945. rowning also conveys how "ordinary" men like those of attalion 101 truly represent all of humanity by being manipulated and in a sense brainwashed into believing that their actions are justified, even when those actions involve murder and torture. Thus, Ordinary Men is a very persuasive philosophical work which underscores the depravity of mankind.
Overall, rowning's Ordinary Men serves as an excellent addition to the class lectures and…… [Read More]
Christopher Browning's Ordinary Men
hat was the situation of the Police Battalion 101 that prompted their actions?
"How did a battalion of middle-aged reserve policemen find themselves facing the task of shooting some 1,500 Jews" in a Polish village (Browning 3). This is the central question of Christopher Browning's Ordinary Men. The policemen were not fit for military duty, but they were subjected to the same political and military propaganda as the more famous perpetrators of Hitler's infamous 'Final Solution.' This solution was not introduced gradually. In fact, it was within eleven months from 1942-1943, that the major casualties of the Holocaust occurred (Browning xv). As the Jewish people began to understand that the repatriation to work camps was actually a death march, the Germans encountered more and more resistance and tried to catch the Jews by surprise as they drove them to their mass graves. "Mass killing on such…… [Read More]
Himmler himself came up with an explanation for those who could not obey orders, in spite of their unconditioned obedience, so that their comrades and the rest of the population get a message of a condition in their mental health, rather than a disobedience dictated by their human nature.
Almost a century and a half after the official abolition of slavery of the U.S., a comparison comes to mind. The way the human mind works when it is motivated to see a fellow human lacking it's the most basic element: humanity, in conditions of war and peace appear to be the same. Those who accepted and practiced slavery world wide were coming from different backgrounds and many of them were educated people. They used slaves and never stopped to ask themselves what gave them the right to see them as sub-humans. The comparison between the causes of slavery and those…… [Read More]
In the decades that followed World War Two and the unspeakable horrors of The Holocaust, much study has been conducted to both learn the details of all the interlocking forces that enabled these atrocities. Scholars and historians today have much data about how the Germans engaged in and perpetuated The Holocaust. There is a robust comprehension about the motivating factors of how the Holocaust was carried out. There isn’t a tremendous amount of insight regarding the feelings and thoughts of those who perpetuated such horrific evils. Chris Browning’s book, Ordinary Men Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, sheds light onto one of the darker corners of The Holocaust: how the ordinary people, the middle-class Germans whose names have been forgotten by history, were able to gather up millions of Jews and systematically kill them—with bullets, stuffing them in cattle cars destined for gas chambers. Browning’s…… [Read More]
He is the last resource of the dying; he is the instrument of heavenly mercy. Sire, we supplicate you with clasped hands and bended knees, as the Deity is supplicated! Madame Fouquet has no longer any friends, no longer any support; she weeps in her poor deserted house, abandoned by all those who besieged its door in the hour of prosperity; she has neither credit nor hope left. At least, the unhappy wretch upon whom your anger falls receives from you, however culpable he may be, the daily bread which is moistened by his tears. As much afflicted, more destitute than her husband, Madame Fouquet- she who had the honor to receive your Majesty at her table; Madame Fouquet, the wife of the ancient Superintendent of your Majesty's Finances,- Madame Fouquet has no longer bread."
eality v Fiction
There are many ways in which Dumas stretches the reality of not…… [Read More]
He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)
Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…… [Read More]
man's realization of his dream of becoming a United States Army Drill Sergeant. The introductory part provides an initial glimpse of how drill sergeants are commonly seen by ordinary people and the stereotype Hollywood movies have made on this important members of the United States Army. Thereafter, the paper takes the reader to how the person became a drill sergeant and the kind of course taken to earn the title as well as have the privilege of wearing the drill sergeant hat and badge. The paper then progresses into the initial assignment after completing the drill sergeant course and concludes with the more responsible posting as a Senior Drill Sergeant in one of the United States Army's training schools.
Most people have seen and are familiar with the United States Army recruiting slogan "e All You Can e." For over two decades (from 1980 to 2001), these…… [Read More]
Barry's "Machine Man"
Originally published in 2011, Max Barry's futuristic science fiction novel "Machine Man" was first made available to readers as an online serial, before being updated and collected into a full-fledged book. Barry bucked publishing industry protocol and posted excerpts from his "Machine Man" to his personal website, imploring his regular readers to submit criticism and feedback in the hope of collectively shaping his creative vision. As one of the first literary works to be "crowdsourced" in terms of content, the version of "Machine Man" which emerged from this collaborative process is, much like its conflicted protagonist, an amalgamation of various constituent parts which comes together to form a harmonious whole. Barry's thematic thrust with the novel -- which tells the tale of Charles Neumann, a subordinate scientist working for a military research conglomerate known as Better Future -- is humanity's ceaseless pursuit of perfection, and the consequences…… [Read More]
Language of Ordinary People
The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…… [Read More]
This is a journey that requires the utmost steadfastness and the ability of face the truth. In existentialist terms, the world and all experience is essentially absurd and the more one questions the meaning of existence, the more the irrationality and absurdity of existence is revealed. However, this reality must be faced with acceptance and equanimity.
In the case of the protagonist of this short story, he is embedded in ordinary, everyday existence and refuses to acknowledge the absurdity of existence. Ziegler, like most people, is comfortable to hide behind a wall of logic and scientific rationality; the life of non-authentic existence. However, this illusion is destroyed by the alchemist's pellet that that undermines the illusion that the world is rational or structured in an orderly way.
What the author of this story is attempting to say is that the reality of existence must be faced in the existential journey…… [Read More]
So, we see that women are committing to their partners even if they are older than their male companions, even if they rarely get married to them, they enter and stay in a stabile relationship. We have every reason to believe that women are in it mainly for the psychological comfort. But what about the men? Young men can date women of any age, given the fact that youth is one of the most powerful arousal-factors for all species of mammals. it's slightly unlikely for a younger man to stay in a common-law relationship with an older woman, as it usually happens in an average age-discrepant couple (Boyd&Li, 2003), just for one reason: sex, money, influence, etc. But the subject is open to debate.
How does society reacts to age-discrepant unions? Until now, not quite well. The significant difference in age for a couple, whether it's a young woman with…… [Read More]
Carol Tavris' "The Mismeasure omen" men women define intimacy experience love differently. In ways differences affect nature relationships capacity maintain personal commitments? You refer cultural messages cultural scripts men women expected act.
omen as love's victims:
Conceptualizing women and intimacy in the modern age
Both men and women may be capable of romantic love, but love between a man and a woman has been conceptualized as fundamentally different throughout the ages, according to Carol Tavris in her book The Mismeasure of omen. Tavris notes in classical literature, men have tended to be seen as the more self-sacrificing gender, capable of grand, dramatic gestures for love like Sydney Carton or Lancelot while women have functioned as objects -- often objects unworthy of the love of their lovers and husbands (Tavris 246). Of course, most of these works about great male lovers were authored by men: women were portrayed as cold, indifferent,…… [Read More]
Grandmaster and Gong Er: Wong Kar Wai's Ip Man and the Women of Kung Fu
Wong Kar Wai's Grandmaster begins with a stylish kung fu action sequence set in the rain. Ip Man battles a dozen or so no-names before doing a one-on-one show with another combatant who appears to be at equal skill and strength. Ip Man handily defeats him and walks away unscathed. Thanks to fight choreography by Chinese director and martial arts choreographer Yuen Woo-ping (The Matrix, Kill Bill, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon), the sequence would seem to set up a different sort of movie than what follows, which is a mostly soulful, introspective look at period in the life of Ip Man. Wong Kar Wai gravitates towards dramatic license in many places -- especially with the fictional character of Gong Er, who repeatedly enters and re-enters Ip Man's life in the film (even though no such…… [Read More]
For Santiago, there is nothing that gives him more pleasure than baseball so he uses it to preserve himself and give him the strength he needs to survive one more day. He is not thinking about pleasing Christ when he refuses to resort to despair but his goal is a more earthly one. He wants to be able to make DiMaggio, his baseball hero, proud. Santiago is an ordinary fisherman and for him, a dream of DiMaggio is far more accessible than pleasing Christ. He just wants to be "worthy of the great DiMaggio, who does all things perfectly even with the pain of the bone spur in his heel" (68)
Similar in order to survive, Santiago keeps thinking about baseball. For example when the fish finally surfaces, it conjures up images of baseball in his mind as he muses: "his sword was as long as a baseball bat" (62)…… [Read More]
The hideous ugliness of normalcy is perhaps best demonstrated in the mob scene where Merrick is trapped in an underground station, and cries out that he is not an animal, but a human being. In truth, the so-called normal persons have been acting like a stampede rather than compassionate creatures, unlike Merrick who still retains the individualism, that is humanity's truest birthright. This reversal or world upside down where the persons dehumanized with animal or medical names actually exhibit the values that make human beings distinct from animals validates the suggestion that the way that both popular and medical culture celebrates health, symmetry, and beauty is profoundly misguided.
In her essay, "From The Crooked Timber of Humanity, Beautiful Things Can Be Made," Anita Silvers makes a profound call that the standards of symmetry and wholeness be rewritten as a standard for human health in a way that is sounded like…… [Read More]
Shamanic intervention is also a part of the social fabric of these cultures, and the Shaman is often consulted in terms of political and tribal disputes. The classic Shamanic trance or journey consists of a number of elements:
Leaving the realm of the mundane, that is, the physical world; (2) Traveling to the supernatural; and (3) Returning to the world of the mundane.
In order to facilitate this vital function the Shaman often uses psychoactive plants such as Peyote to aid his perception of the spiritual world. "The transition between the world of the mundane and the supernatural world is frequently facilitated by inducing trance states using psychoactive plants."
The use of Peyote and the origins of the Peyote cult are buried in antiquity. An early Spanish chronicler, Fray ernardino de Sahagun, "estimated on the basis of several historical events recorded in Indian chronology that Peyote was known to…… [Read More]
This sense of leading a purposeful life sustained Frankl in the concentration camps during orld ar II. There he witnessed other Jews finding meaning in their lives. Some men found that their love for their wives made life meaningful while others found meaning in religious faith. Finding meaning in the world helped them cope with what would otherwise be unbearable sorrow and travails.
Frankl believed that the super-meaning of life, the ultimate purpose of human existence could only be understood or put into words by ordinary people. The super-meaning of life was infinite, but the human capacity to understand the world beyond our own narrow terms and limits was finite (Hanes 2001). Still, human beings must try to make limited meaning out of their lives to be psychologically healthy and to make the most of human existence.
Hanes, Martin. (2001). "Man's Search for Meaning." orld Religions. Retrieved 27…… [Read More]
By gradually introducing the participants, and then showing how they work and debate together during the Convention, they become easier to understand and follow, and their actions seem to fit their personalities and ideals.
Clearly, the author spent a great amount of time researching this book. His comprehensive list of notes and sources spans nearly 50 pages, and he includes additional reading sources, as well. The author uses a variety of primary and secondary sources, from a lengthy list of online primary documents, such as the Constitution itself and other historical documents, to journal articles, memoirs, letters, books, and just about any historical document available related to his subject and to the men who created the Constitution. For many of the most intimate details about these men, he refers to short passages in letters which describe everything from their eye color to their disposition and even the diseases from which…… [Read More]
A capitalistic society that provides open and free competition did not bring about Enron and similar debacles. It was the second part of Friedman's statement: "without deception or fraud" that led to such situations. It was the greed of several individuals who misreported their profits to get a larger part of the pot. Unfortunately, there will always be individuals like this -- it is human nature. That does not make the whole system corrupt. One can say that the competition inherent in the capitalistic enterprise encourages such behavior. Hoarding by one of the cave dwellers would never work. The hope is that lessons are learned from situations such as these -- that nothing works perfectly.
ichard E. Hattwick, professor at Western Illinois University and co-founder of the American National Business Hall of Fame concludes:
competitive market situations encourage the reasonably high standard of business ethics called the ethic of justice.…… [Read More]
Being of nature, a supposedly passive entity does not necessarily stime the female poet, it can also, in Bishop's construcion, empower her as a speaker.
Yet, there is one caveat -- for Bishop's poem remains tantalizingly silent about her own gender as a female. Thus, even as late as Bishop, the idea of an openly female speaker within a poem associating herself with nature, and seeing herself reflected in nature remains tenuous. Thus, although not Byronic in its imposition of meaning upon the natural world, nor Barrett Browning like in its denial of it, Bishop does not comlpetely deny the cultural assumptions of associating women with nature that still haunt female poets today. Unlike men, women must grapple with this association as authors, of passivitity and feminine voicelessness as mere subjects of the poetic experience -- while men can chose to view nature as neutrals, rather than as conciously gendered…… [Read More]
hen confronted by a man who claims that Jesus Christ -- because he was human -- could not also be from God and of God, what should the response be? This paper delves into that topic.
hat is the biblical basis for Jesus' humanity? On page 239 of Christology the author explains that Christ was "sinless and also utterly different from other men"; and his "true humanity is specifically witnessed to as if it might be called in question." He was the Son of God but he also was human, and to show his humanity he was invited to dinner with Levi, "…along with many tax collectors and other disreputable sinners" (Mark 2:15). His humanity had been prophesized in various passages in the Old Testament. "I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came…… [Read More]
For any person diagnosed with ADS, having to wait for drugs could effectively be a death sentence, which gives this study all of the greatest purpose so that there is a better understanding to the problem and hopefully, there will be possible solutions (HV and African-Americans)
According to (Gray, 2004, p. 59), everyone is labeled by sex, race, and religion, an outline of a theory of values-based labeling as a social movement argues that it is motivated by the need tore-embed the agro-food economy in the larger social economy. A review of some basic premises of embeddedness theories derived from the work of Karl Polanyi reveals their connection to particular values-based labeling efforts. From this perspective, values-based labeling presents itself as primarily an ethical and moral effort to counter unsustainable trends within presently existing capitalism. These labels distinguish themselves from ordinary commercial labels by a focus on process and on…… [Read More]
..There is reason for concern, therefore, when aggressive acts are presented in a humorous context in the media" (622).
Although it is intended to refer to society and its misdemeanor, satire cannot be considered to be offensive, since there is a small probability that it will produce any resentment in people. A good example of the American society giving birth to something that is funny and enjoyable, despite its satirical character, is Charlie Chaplin. In times when movies were something new to the American public, the English actor succeeded in making it addicted to him and to his movies. His merit is also largely owed to the scriptwriters and to the movie directors that invested hard work in making the respective movies. Even with his obvious success among the American public, there still are a number of critics believing that the characters played by Charlie Chaplin had been too vulgar…… [Read More]
intimidation and the choices that successful women have in finding their partners.
There was a time when women were thought of as a second class citizen. Only men worked in offices, fought in wars, ruled countries etc., men were responsible for providing the basic needs of the family. On the other hand women did all the work at home such as laundry, cleaning dishes, cooking food etc. omen were not allowed to have a corporate career. However as the time passed, the concept of equal rights picked up. Feminists' movements and human rights activist have allowed women to redefine the purpose of living. The term "It's a Man's orld" does not apply any more in the estern countries. Standards have changed along with the changing society.
The immediate questions that comes to mind after discussing the transformation of the society is that how have men responded to that change? Are…… [Read More]
"The upper lip and gum and teeth were gone. The man's head was cocked at a wrong angle..." (O'rien 126).
At the same time, the author juxtaposes the image of war and horror with symbols and images of beauty.
The young man's head was wrenched sideways, not quite facing the flowers" (O'rien 128) the author also couples " sunlight " with " ammunition belt" (O'rien 128).
These contrasts reflect on the gentle life that the dead soldier once led and his reluctance to be a part of the war. However, he was obliged to become involved because of the pressure for his family and society. This again refers to themes in the other works discussed, where the social views of 'glory' and patriotism are sharply and ironically contrasted with the gruesome realities of war.
In this story, the writer uses descriptive images to achieve his critique of war. This is…… [Read More]
First, the old pawnbroker may be viewed an evil person who is actually harming society by her vile and cynical grasp on the poor citizens who come to her for pawning. According to Hegel, any harmful segment of society should be removed. Therefore, Raskolnikov reasoned that by murdering the old pawnbroker, he would be removing a harmful thing from society.
Next, Hegel believed that the ends justified the means, i.e., if the ends are noble, then the means may be justified. Using this rationale, the old pawnbroker has a lot of money which will be wasted upon useless masses and requiem services after her death. With this money, Raskolnikov would be able to complete his education without being cramped and the may devote himself to the service of humanity.
Lastly, Hegel argued that one small crime may be wiped out by thousands of good deeds. Raskolnikov could use the money…… [Read More]
( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.
The world…… [Read More]
1857 Indian Rebellion been elusive to characterize as "The first war of Indian independence?"
Lack of Strategy
Shortage of Military Skills
Unity in Communities
The first war of Indian independence in 1857 is also characterized in terms of mutiny and the movement of civil disobedience. A brief about the historic events taking place during 1957 revile that the movement started with a notion to refuse using the cartridges used by the ritish Military. The greased cartridges were provided to the native soldiers of the military. The solider MangalPanday of arrackpur in engal refused to use these cartridges on 28th April 1957 and he also shot two of his superior officers of ritish military. He was caught and hanged for instigating a single-handed revolt on 8th April, 1957. He is also named as the first martyr of freedom movement. [2: .RaghunathRai. Themes in Indian History (New Delhi: VK Publications,…… [Read More]
Faustus, who sees his time also coming to a close, becomes a kind of Hamlet-figure and doubts that he can be forgiven. Faustus' problem is more than a life of misdeeds -- it is a problem of lack of faith. The faith of Everyman may have been lukewarm, but it was not corrupt. The faith in the time of Everyman has been polluted by Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines.
Considering the form of the narrative, this is not surprising: Faustus is obsessed with fame and renown. Everyman has no name proper -- and neither does his author. That the author of the medieval morality play should be anonymous is nothing out of the ordinary, and indeed seems all the more fitting when one considers that the second most printed book after the ible was The Imitation of Christ, a work whose author never put his name on the original (and which…… [Read More]
orld ar II: Historical book review. Kladstrup, Donald & Peter Kladstrup. ine and ar.
Sometimes by focusing on a relatively minute or specific detail about a nation, a historian can reveal a great deal about a nation's history -- and about the larger panorama of world history against which the minor, personal dramas of individuals were played out. So it is in ine and ar. By focusing on the experience of French winegrowers during the Second orld ar, the authors Donald and Peter Kladstrup are able to illuminate the greater struggle about the non-Nazi identified French farmers to retain their unique identity, even in the shadow of the German Vichy governance and domination over their traditional modes of life.
Ironically, despite the Nazi assertions of the German cultural superiority in all matters, this assertion did not extend to wine -- thus requiring French wine producers to protect their stores, as…… [Read More]
Even if the decision might not be popular, wrote the court, "from the very beginning, our state and national constitutions and laws have laid great emphasis on procedural and substantive safeguards designed to assure fair trials before impartial tribunals in which every defendant stands equal before the law," and because these procedures are often very complicated to understand, "this noble ideal cannot be realized if the poor man charged with crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to assist him," when he or she is striving to make a credible defense before a judge or jury. ("Gideon v. ainwright," 1963)
Justice, and the work of the nine men (today, eight men and one women) on the court, is not always about the will of the majority of the American people, it is often about the rights of the individual. A case that demonstrates this principle even more vehemently…… [Read More]
Ho Chi Minh was highly educated and attended various universities around the world according to the literature from numerous sources including the Eastern Worker's University and Lenin School in Moscow. He was trained in Moscow involving revolutionary tactics (Columbia Encyclopedia 2008).
Minh had a strong desire to make Vietnam an independent country and spent his whole life in pursuit of this dream. In southern China, Minh trained the exiles in techniques involving revolutionary tactics. According to by 1925 he had organized the exiles into the Viet Nam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (Revolutionary Youth League) and the inner group within the Revolutionary League, the Thanh Nien Cong San Doan, or Communist Youth League (CYL) (Wars and Battles 2010 the Revolutionary). Years of oppression and hardship drove the Vietnamese people to join Minh in his ideals. The seemingly ordinary man was highly educated according to all sources referred and…… [Read More]
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…… [Read More]
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]
As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)
Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…… [Read More]
Ibn Sina (or Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abadllah and also known as Avicenna) of Hamadan, Persia (now Iran) believed himself to be a master of all the sciences, i.e., logic, the natural sciences and mathematics, and that all the gates of knowledge were opened to him (p 1 par 4). He is said to have mastered the Qu'ran at 10 and all the sciences at 18. His one all-consuming life obsession was learning and mastering knowledge: "I ... warned my father that I should not engage in any other occupation but learning." (p 1 par 2). The most important things in his life were, consequently, learning and reading on which it depended.
A precocious learner at an early age, it naturally disturbed him badly when he could not comprehend the Greek philosopher Aristotle's "Metaphysics." When he finally did after reading Abu Nasr al-Farabi's "On the Objects of Metaphysics" (which he…… [Read More]
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…… [Read More]
Travelling and Tourism contributes to U.S. Economy
How travelling and tourism contribute to U.S. economy
United States Department of Commerce
Commerce Department Data Show U.S. Travel and Tourism Exports Contributed $87.1 Billion to U.S. Economy in First Six Months of 2013
The official website of the U.S. Department of Commerce takes keen interest in finding who enters the country for the purpose of traveling and tourism and what is the impact of traveling on the economy of the country. The department oversees International Trade Administration. It is found that the international investors contribute multibillions to the economy of country every year. During the month of June this year, the international investors contribute about $14.6 billion. The contribution is increasing every year and from June 2012 to June 2013, the investment increased about 5%. The role of international travelers and tourists is positive on the economy of USA. Only…… [Read More]
Using Barthes theory myth- a type speech defined presenting a transforming, order meaning- analyze comment important myth themes found Henry V. Cite Barthes essay points.
Barthes theory of myth: Henry V
Shakespeare's history play Henry V functions as a drama of nation-building as well as a drama of a king's self-mythologizing. In the play, the formerly profligate hero Henry V shows himself to be an upstanding leader as he emerges victorious over the effete French. The play establishes an image of the English as hardy, rough-hewn souls. The army unites Britons of all different nationalities and ethnicities under the banner of Henry, who is able to lead, because of his history, with a common touch. This underlines the greatness of the English monarchy. Henry's inclusive spirit and his victory come to symbolize the greatness of England and English values. Over the course of the play, there is also…… [Read More]
"After shots of soldiers' dog tags nailed to rough wooden grave markers, we see survivors smiling wearily, but the voice-over undercuts the relaxed moment: 'Many among those you see alive here have since joined the ranks of their brothers-in-arms who fell at San Pietro.... Ahead lay ... more San Pietros, greater or lesser, a thousand more.'" the shot of the dog tags as grave markets could be interpreted, in their raw form, as a poignant statement about the soldier's sacrifice, but Huston's statement that these dog tags once represented living human beings with camera shots of real soldier's faces is used to remind us that many American soldiers will never again smile or set foot on their native soil. The question as to whether their sacrifice is worthwhile and worthy is left for the viewer to ask him or herself (Schoenherr 2005).
The images of ordinary civilians, poor, dirty, and…… [Read More]
On several occasions he is tempted by the opportunity to return to the working world. After a time, he feels that he has become enriched by the "adventures of the flesh and the spirit" that the Mountain has presented him, and would have much to contribute were he to return (Mann, 994). The first signs of tuberculosis provide him the pretext to remain, initially, and spend his days dreaming of Clawdia. However, upon the first anniversary of his visit he is unequivocally branded fit for departure; this fact, Castorp refuses to accept. Castorp's uncle also comes to rescue him from the appeal of the Mountain, but finds that he must leave before he too succumbs to its charms.
Still, these interruptions of Castorp's dream-like existence are menial by comparison to the definitively external event that eventually lands him on a battlefield in Flanders -- the outbreak of war. Again, despite…… [Read More]
Confucianism, Catholicism and Islam between 1450 and 1750.
Three major religions, located at diverse axes of the world, Catholicism, Confucianism, and Islam, were faced with similar problems and challenges in the years between 1450 and 1750. Catholicism encountered a militant Protestant Reformation in the shape of Martin Luther King that espoused religion whilst criticizing the Pope. Confucianism, in the shape of the renowned philosopher and politician Wang Vangming, grappled with a future that threatened to challenge its traditional learning and way of life whilst Wahhabism introduced fundamentalist religion into an Islam that had gradually become more secular and detached from the Koran-simulated way of life. The following essay elaborates on their individual problems and challenges.
Luther's Protestantism effectively ended the many years of sole religious monopoly that the Catholic Church had on Europe. At the same time, Catholicism was also threatened by the new Humanism that tentatively insisted, first…… [Read More]
Othello Is a Tragic Hero
Othello is an Aristotelian tragedy
This paper will show that Othello can be correctly labeled a "tragic hero" and that the play fits the form and function of the Aristotelian tragedy according to the model as it is understood and interpreted by critical scholars.
Defining the tragic hero and the Aristotelian tragedy
The tragic hero is good, valorous, true to life and consistent
The Aristotelian tragedy is complete, an imitation of an action and produces a cathartic effect through fear and pity
Othello is a Tragic Hero
He is Good
The senate loves him because he is strong
Desdemona loves him because he is brave
His men love him because he is a leader
He has Manly Valor
He is viewed as a moral man
He is unafraid of meeting a challenge
c. He is true to life
He has faults and weaknesses
He falls…… [Read More]
Goldhagen and Browning: How the Holocaust Could Have Happened
The Jewish Holocaust has inspired countless theories on how such an atrocity could take place in a seemingly humane and otherwise "normal" society, as Germany was in the 20th century. In other words, it was not really any different from any other society or culture in the modern era -- and yet understanding how the Holocaust could have happened, how human beings of the modern era could take part in such a mass killing, has been the debate of historians. This paper will compare and contrast the arguments of Daniel J. Goldhagen and Christopher R. Browning -- both of whom give a distinct take on how such an atrocity could happen.
The main substance of Goldhagen's argument is that Germans were able to take part in the killings of the Jews because under Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker's Party,…… [Read More]
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]
So while the new changes are definitely a good sign, they still need to go a long way in ensuring that they are truly serving the purpose for which they were first initiated. Public voice is a major issue and government needs to check if the changes in governance practices are fostering or obliterating these voices.
Lake esearch Partners/Topos Partnership. 2009. Transparency Poll Data Memo. Available at http://www.pogo.org/pogo-files/alerts/economic-recovery/er-s-20090204.html
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2003. "On Liberty, the ight to Know, and Public Discourse: The ole
of Transparency in Public Life." In Globalizing ights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures
1999, ed. Matthew Gibney. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sunstein, Cass . 2003. Why Societies Need Dissent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Obama, Barack. 2007. "Connecting and Empowering All Americans Through
Technology and Innovation." Available at http://cairns.typepad.com/blog/files/fact_sheet_innovation_and_technology_plan_final.pdf
-. 2009. "Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies:
Freedom of Information Act." Jan.…… [Read More]
un for Your Wife
ay Cooney's un for Your Wife through Philosophical Inquiry
un for Your Wife is a British farce written by ay Cooney who also played the main protagonist, John Smith, in the play in theater performances in Britain in the 1980s. The play explores numerous issues ranging from ethics, polygamy, and faithfulness to the aesthetics of British culture in the 1950s. The whole play, however, is a farce and sometimes acts in the play seem to be mindless, performed just for the sake of humor although some forms of humor used in the play also seem to be bland. One way to make sense of the play is to explore it through branches of philosophy such as metaphysics and epistemology. Both of these branches of knowledge ultimately suggest that there is subjectivity and relativity in our ways of knowing. This may be useful in understanding un for…… [Read More]
Tarleton was known for cruelty and slaughter. When his troops took Marion's nephew Gabriel prisoner during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Georgetown, Tarleton followed up by murdering Gabriel in cold blood. But Marion did not engage in any similar brutality or seek revenge by killing British prisoners of war. it's a testament to his moral character and to "a scrupulous piety that was part of his Huguenot background" (Smith, 1976, p. 1437). By his own upright behavior he set a standard for those who served him, and the men under him made it their standard too (American evolution - General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox web site).
Marion got his nickname "The Swamp Fox" from the enemy. Colonel Banastre ("Bannister") Tarleton called him that because of his elusive tactics (the Swamp Fox web site). Cornwallis was determined to put an end to Marion's daring exploits and had sent Tarleton to…… [Read More]
He was twenty-five when he died." ("ilfred Own," 2005)
One figure, however, besides the more aristocratic poets, who is entirely fictional is a working class man named Billy Prior, a who had risen through the ranks to become an officer, but is now mute. This character is used, not for historical accuracy, but as a symbolic state of the working class during this period, and as a contrast to the highly articulate, and also upper-class experiences of Sassoon and Owen. The film thus transposes reality, when it is visually or verbally suitable for conveying its theme, with occasionally flights of fictional 'poetic' reality. In other words, it would have been dishonest to only show the experience of psychotherapist, poets, and the upper classes of a war that was fought by large numbers of ordinary working class men, many of whom became officers like Prior, as more of the aristocratic 'officer…… [Read More]
Review of Unmasking Administrative Evil
In Understanding Administrative Evil, authors Guy B. Adams and Danny L. Balfour explore the idea and evolution of the concept of evil. Adams and Balfour begin by defining historical evil as "knowingly and deliberately inflicting pain and suffering on other human being" (xix).
However, in modern times, this idea has undergone a critical change. Historical evil has evolved into administrative evil, a form of evil that is unique to modernity. Administrative evil is made possible by the rise of technical rationality, a culture that "emphasizes the scientific-analytic mind-set and the belief in technological progress." As a result, administrative evil "wears many masks" (xxi) keeping its nature hidden from the people who unintentionally carry out its plans.
This process of "moral inversion" can thus make public officers the unknowing vehicles of administrative evil.
Thus, the main difference between historical and administrative evil lie in…… [Read More]
Americanization of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin played a major role in the American evolution and its history and his contributions changed the history of America as we know it.
One of the most interesting and influential characters in American history is Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was a brilliant man that contributed deeply to both the scientific and political community. Much of what there is to know about his life can be found in Gordon S. Wood's book titled "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin." The purpose of this paper is to examine the life of Benjamin Franklin through the provided text in order to answer these significant questions:
How come Benjamin Franklin was an unlikely revolutionary?
What caused Franklin to join the revolution?
How can we compare and contrast Franklin's mythology with his reality?
Franklin Preferred London to Philadelphia and royal governments to democracy, why?
How come American colonists were suspicious of…… [Read More]
Please list sections according to instructions
Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines
Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment
Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.
What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.
What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?
What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…… [Read More]
This oil painting is 8 feet tall by 10 feet wide (Fiero 51).
Each of these artists glorified in enormous paintings a hero, theatrically presented, that the common man might identify with. The "Corsican Upstart" that was Napoleon, is shown in propagandistic, larger-than-life style by Gros and David, who first met in 1796 in Italy. These two painters influenced each other and became huge successes through their depictions of the great men of their day in emotional, imaginative ways. Goya, too, used the cult of the individual, the genius and the hero that was prevalent, to demonstrate the sacrifices that the ordinary Spaniard made in defending Spain against the occupying French. In the drawing of Yo Lo Vi" he also attacks the clerics, as they make off with the money, while a mother struggles to save her child nearby. The message that Goya sends is that the common man is…… [Read More]
It takes place during the war in 1916, (before America became involved), and it shows the attack by French soldiers of a German position known as the "Ant Hill." The position is on the Western Front, near Verdun in France, and it is a gripping look at the trench warfare tactics of the war. The French soldiers are clearly unready for an attack, but the crazy General makes them attack in spite of their worthiness, because of his own selfish needs and wants. Ultimately, it is no surprise that the attack fails, the men simply were not ready, and some of them will not even leave the trenches because they know it is hopeless. The General is enraged because of this, and he convinces his commander that he must discipline the men because of their "mutiny." He chooses three men to court-martial as an example to the other soldiers.
The…… [Read More]
Billy Budd Before Referencing
Herman Melville's Billy Budd: A Perfect Storm of Injustice
ho is responsible for Billy Budd's death? Discuss how Captain Vere, Claggart and Billy himself all contribute to Billy's downfall.
Herman Melville's 1891 seafaring novella Billy Budd is a Christian allegory, transposed into the relatively contemporary setting of a British naval vessel. The Christian Bible details the death of Christ as a series of betrayals and injustices. The popular leader and teacher Christ is betrayed by one of his own followers, Judas, and is handed over by the leadership of his own nation to the Roman judge Pontius Pilate. Pilate washes his hands of his responsibility for a man whom he believes is innocent, because Christ will not verbally defend himself, and because the Roman authorities have charged him with preserving order amongst the populace. Pilate acquiesces, going against his better moral instincts.
Similarly, Billy Budd is…… [Read More]
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]
It begins: "is the Captain on deck?'" asks the common sailor. "Oh no, sir, no,' said the [responding] marine. 'Breakfast only just carrying in this moment. Two hard-boiled eggs and one soft.'"(55) the breakfast scene of ship domesticity shows the hierarchy of the Captain, who is not only able to have eggs for breakfast, but even to order a "soft-boiled egg was for Miss Smith, to recruit her from her labors of the night, as both the marine and Mr. Dillon knew well; but the marine's knowing look met with a total lack of response. James Dillon's mouth tightened, and for a fleeting moment as he ran up the ladder to the sudden brilliance of the quarterdeck it wore a positively angry expression.
This shows that the hierarchy of class at sea comes with soft-boiled eggs and the parceling out of female favors, rather than with symphonic renditions of music…… [Read More]