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Chapter 3 Literature Review/Justification
Organic farming as a practice was developed by both experienced farmers and private gardeners in the early 1970's. hrough trial and error, these farmers, gardeners and later, newly interested scientists, worked individually and then later as research teams to develop the holistic methods that are being used around the globe today. Conventional farming has and still is the norm for the majority of agricultural production around the world; however, the organic approach continues to make headway. Obviously each of these farming approaches come with their own unique way of doing things, but as science continues to investigate the benefits of each approach, the organic option of doing things is gaining more and more valid support.
For example, Doctor Mae-Wan Ho of the Institute of Science in Society and scientists from the University of Michigan reported that organic agriculture has the capacity to provide enough food to…
The communication process permits individual farmers to incorporate more successful approaches to their particular needs in a case by case basis. Consider the elimination of pesticides for example. "Eliminating the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer greatly lowers the risks of nitrogen contamination of water, while crop rotation is a widely used method of fertility maintenance and pest and disease control. Most certification programmes restrict the use of mineral fertilizers, which may instead be necessary to supplement organic manure produced on the farm. However, natural and organic fertilizers from outside the farm (e.g. rock phosphate, potash, guano, seaweed, slaughterhouse by-products, ground limestone, seaweed, wood-ash) may also be used." (FAO, 2009)
Another concern in regard to this technological change is that without pesticides crops will be overrun by insects and other vermin? "From the studies mentioned above and from an increasing body of case studies, it is becoming evident that organic farming does not result in neither catastrophic crop losses due to pests nor in dramatically reduced yields as many critics from agribusiness and in academia would have us believe. A report from UC Davis predicted a 36% reduction in tomato yields in California if conventional insecticides and fungicides were eliminated." (Agricultural Issues Center 1988).
There are two unique benefits that should be also mentioned. Organic farming is a very labor intensive process. The ministers of labor should take into consideration that implementing a nationwide organic farming initiative would be an excellent source of potential employment for a great number of individuals. The second related issue is that an nationwide initiative would also create many new industries that before this type of implementation would not have existed. "Few in farming, processing, trade or consultancy today are in a position to absorb all the scientific findings on organic agriculture. There is a growing demand for this complex information to be made accessible via print media and on the Internet." (FiBL) This research project could fundamentally be a major part of a development strategy to further amplify the organic farming system for Saudi Arabia as a whole. Organic farming implementation encompasses a number of complex implementation criteria. Through case research, this proposal
When regulations increase, the tendency to cheat might increase.
2.4 Switzerland/Denmark Examples for Organic Farming
uth ossier (2005), College of Agriculture, Auburn University, purports in the study, "ole models and farm development options: A comparison of seven Swiss farm families,"
Following not yet rewritten: with the framework of agricultural policy that has changed dramatically since the 1990s including the introduction of direct payments and the enforcement of various agrarian reforms (Agricultural Policy 2002 and 2007), a high degree of flexibility has been required of Swiss farm families. The previous price- and sales-supported policy has been replaced by a policy aiming at economically, ecologically, and socially sustainable agriculture. On the one hand, this means ensuring more market proximity and competition in the agricultural sector; on the other, it entails environmentally sound production techniques that are compensated by direct payments (without the complete compensation of price decreases). This new framework has altered…
Agricultural development in Saudi Arabia. (2010). The Saudi Network. Retrieved April 28, 2010
Background note: Saudi Arabia. (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved April 28, 2010
This is underscored by the brief history of organic farming as
described in the text by Paull (2006). Paull would refer to a British
agriculturalist named Lord Northbourne, who would coin the term organic
farming to refer to that which viewed the whole ecology of the farm as
something which must be preserved. In his work with Lyons (2008), Paull
would renew his endorsement of organic regulatory measures, this time in
response to increased consideration of nanotechnology as a way to stimulate
food growth. This is a finding which is usefully supplemented by the
finding in the article by Badgley et al (2007), which found that in
comparative studies to traditional methods, yields from organic agriculture
were equally high. This indicates that organic methods do not damage
efforts at improving world hunger even as they protect the environment.
This underscores a primary impetus of organic farming operations
which is denoted…
Badgley, C.; Moghtader, J.; Quintero, E.; Zakem, E.; Chappell, M.J.; Aviles-
Vazquez, K.; Samulon, A. & Pefecto, I. (2007). Organic Agriculture and
the Global Food Supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22, 86-
Bengtsson, J.; Ahnstrom, J. & Weibull, A. (2005). The effects of organic
agriculture on biodiversity and abudance: a meta-analysis. Journal of
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (arner).
The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of hole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across…
Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.
"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
The ambition is to promote organic chocolate and its implied benefits outside of historically niche markets.
One year marketing objectives include a penetration of U.S. sales markets, where it is predicted that by 2011, the organic chocolate market will have experienced a 71% increase in sales over five years. It is the ambition of Everday to have accounted for every 20th bar of chocolate bought in the United States by that juncture. This would make for a market share of 5% by 2011, which would in all likelihood make Everyday the biggest organic player in the candy bar market.
Knudson, .A. (2007) The organic food market. Online at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:GahEBVSBncJ:www.aec.msu.edu/Product/documents/orking/organicfood1.pdf+%22health+food%22+market+growth&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
Organic Nature News (ONN). (2009). Organic Chocolate. Online at http://www.organic-nature-news.com/organic-chocolate.html
Organic Trade Association (OTA). (2009). hy Choose Organic Chocolate? The O'Mama Report. Online at http://www.theorganicreport.com/pages/194_what_s_behind_organic_chocolate_.cfm
Knudson, W.A. (2007) The organic food market. Online at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:GahEBVSBnWcJ:www.aec.msu.edu/Product/documents/Working/organicfood1.pdf+%22health+food%22+market+growth&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
Organic Nature News (ONN). (2009). Organic Chocolate. Online at http://www.organic-nature-news.com/organic-chocolate.html
Organic Trade Association (OTA). (2009). Why Choose Organic Chocolate? The O'Mama Report. Online at http://www.theorganicreport.com/pages/194_what_s_behind_organic_chocolate_.cfm
Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin (orthington 990-991). Considering the benefits identified with aspirin use, who wouldn't rather get the same effects from a natural and pleasant tasting source instead of a bitter pill?
Not only can organic produce provide valuable nutrients better than traditional produce, but the absence of pesticides and other chemicals used on conventional farms is also a boon to the consumer. Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides have a notorious history of being dangerous carcinogens. The highest death rates in the United States of certain cancers can be found in the rural farming areas of the country. Migrant workers have also demonstrated abnormally high rates of cancer that have been shown to be linked to herbicide and pesticide use (Steingraber 64). If these substances are…
United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Food Standards and Labels. Brochure.
Dauncey, Guy. "Ten Reasons Why Organic Food is Better." Common Ground, April 2002: 17-19.
Worthington, Virginia. "The Effects of Agricultural Method on Nutritional Quality."
Alternative Therapies, 1998:4.
Farm Report in Kansas
Terry Carey is a very famous local farmer in Kansas City. She deals with horticultural farm produce such as apples, ornamental corn, popcorn, water melons, cucumbers, winter squash and pumpkins with pumpkins being her major crop. Pumpkins are generally warm-loving crops therefore she plants them in June and they are often ready by September or mid-October. The size of her farm is 1,025 acres where she normally tries to distribute all the crops that she grows evenly on the land. However during the period between June and September she dedicates her entire farm to pumpkins and leaves out other crops. She plants mainly two varieties on her farm which are the giant ones that are greater that 20lb in size known as prize winner. This one takes 120 days to mature and they have a good color and shape. The second variety she plants is Jack-o'Lantern…
Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of debt to be foisted on the next generation (2007)."
Paul Roberts (2008) writes that it incumbent upon first world nations, like the United States and the UK to set the pace for world policy when it comes to food, and to recognize the harm that food subsidy programs causes economically, and socially. Unfortuately, Roberts also points to the government's susceptibility to special interest (296), and we should add, self-interest. So long as we find elected officials reaping profits from farm subsidies, and so long as they are influenced by corporate special interest, then we will continue to see the government interference in agricultural free trade in the form of subsidies.
Bafalikike, Lokogo. orld Trade: A Scandal that Must End,…
Bafalikike, Lokogo. World Trade: A Scandal that Must End, New African, Nov 2002,
Edwards, Chris. Ten Reasons to Cut Farm Subsidies, Examiner.com, June 28, 2007,
found online at Cato Institute, at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=8459 , retrieved February 3, 2010. Website.
USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned anch
Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small farmer. The problem is to understand the process by which a family owned ranch could become USDA certified for organic beef. What are the necessary steps and important factors to consider from beginning the process to marketing to retailers?
Understanding USDA Organic
The government-managed organic food certification program is USDA Organic. Within this certification system, organic food production follows guidelines laid out in the Organic Foods Production-Act of 1990 and amended according to Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005. These regulations take into consideration site-specific conditions "integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, 2011) Included in OFPA are rules for farm planning, livestock handling, use of pesticides…
Certified Naturally Grown. (2011). Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from CNG: http://www.naturallygrown.org/
MOSES. (2008). Local and Organic, Not an Either/Or Issue Fact Sheet.
MOSES. (2008). Transitioning to Organic Beef Production Fact Sheet.
Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education. (2010). Grants Information / Grants / SARE Nationwide. (USDA, Producer) Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from SARE Grant Information: http://www.sare.org/Grants/Grants-Information
In India, for instance, the Green Revolution has resulted in an overwhelming abundance and surplus of food, most of which rots away in government silos.
Indian leaders must experiment with different socio-economic changes - perhaps, for instance, a better reaction to the remnants and shadows of the caste system - that will result in a more equal distribution of wealth among the nation's people. At this point, the Green Revolution's production of an abundance of food only affects the wealthy: They are able to buy even more food, and the poor continue to have no money or access to the food.
A concerted effort to implement Green Revolution methods of increasing the yield on farms through technology and chemicals must be balanced by socio-economic change that allows the nations' poorest to benefit as well. However, this process must be balanced against the environmental hazards posed by Green Revolution farming strategies.…
Rosset, Peter and Collins, Joseph and Lappe, Francis Moore. 2000. Lessons from the Green Revolution. Tikkun Magazine.
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail
Global Emerging Industry
The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or perhaps the possible agricultural realm of the organic food industry. This work will examine all aspects of the organic food industry in brief as well as exploring the marketing possibilities as well as the financial report of a sampling of those doing business within this industry.
Organic food products are growing in terms of customer demand and that is good news for those in the business and indeed for those who desire to see this industry expand which will offer more choices in health wise consumption to consumers as well as providing employment for those who may be otherwise considered non-employable due to educational limitations and finally this industry may very well provide at least some of the…
10 Reasons to Buy Local Food (2004) [Online] available at: http://www.mariquita.com/articles/10reasons.local.htm
Whole Food Market Investor Relations [Online] located at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/investor/fiscal04highlights.html
United States Department of Agriculture (2004) (USDA) News Release No. 0423.04[Online] available at: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/p/s.70a/7010B?contentidonly=true& ; contentid=
Whole Foods Market: Our History [Online] available at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/history.html
Organic Milk Green Marketing Observation and Portfolio Analysis
Consumers' interests in purchasing organic products should be carefully treated by producers, by retailers, and by marketers that develop strategies intended to increase consumption in these areas. Organic milk is an important market segment characterized by a sensitive product that requires producers to meet high standards regarding their production process. Green marketing strategies are intended to emphasize environment friendly practices, and not to deceive customers and mislead them into thinking such products address high eco-friendly standards when in fact they do not. This analysis focuses on organic milk and on whether or not it is efficiently green marketed by retailers.
The analysis of market trends reveals customers' increased interest in purchasing and using organic products. The advantages of organics rely on their apparent influence on individuals' health, although a study developed by British scientists did not find significant improvement produced by…
1. Johnson, F. (2012). Green Marketing Concepts: How to Cash In with Ecological Niche Marketing. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=8yJLxn2bLZkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=green+marketing&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=CD5tU-eZDqWkyAP8soDoAw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=green%20marketing&f=false.
2. Ottman, J. (2011). The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=uIDO3Gr-4usC&printsec=frontcover&dq=green+marketing&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=Fz9tU_enPIenyAPtuIDgBA&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=green%20marketing&f=false .
3. Green Mission (2014). Whole Foods Markets. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/mission-values/environmental-stewardship/green-mission .
4. Whole Foods Market's Green Mission Report (2012). Whole Foods. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Core%20Value/2012GreenMissionReport_0.pdf .
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant
Identification of the Opportunity
Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things like organic eating, healthy diets, and the ability to combat food deserts. The area in which the establishment is located lacks quality food options. Therefore, the company has an opportunity to market healthy, organic food options that can improve the quality of lives. As the baby boomers enter the seniors' age and as the society develops a strong interest in the quality of life, the company can approach this opportunity from various angles to succeed and differentiate from other eateries.
An Assessment of the Opportunity
Today, organic food is one of the growing trends. The consumer demand for organic food has been on the rise in the last five years, which means 3 Squares Restaurant may reap, from such…
FAMED vs. WILD SALMON
research, identify discuss basic roles HM (Human esearch Managers) professionals, explain roles changed years.
Should I eat farm-raised salmon or wild salmon?
Fish has grown increasingly popular as a source of protein for American consumers, and salmon is particularly in demand. Salmon is a fatty fish with a great deal of umami, and can satisfy the palate of even the most dedicated red meat eater. From a health standpoint, salmon is a coldwater fish very high in Omega-3 fatty acids. The American diet is believed to be too high in Omega-6 fatty acids, which should be in balance with the types of heart-protective Omega-3 fats available in sources such as fish. "The past decade has shown that these fatty acids may also strengthen the immune system and eyesight, and even improve mental health. These pluses have helped inspire Americans to more than triple their consumption of…
Dobbs, David. (2008). The wild salmon debate. Eating Well. Retrieved at:
Hites, Ronald A. Jeffery A. Foran, David O. Carpenter, M. Coreen Hamilton, Barbara A.
Knuth, & Steven J. Schwager. (2004). Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science, 303 (9): 226-229. Retrieved at:
This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.
There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113359016
Ding, Yijiang. Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Questia. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113359114 .
Kelliher, Daniel. The Chinese Debate over Village Self-Government.The China Journal, No 37(January 1997): 63-86
Kennedy, John James. The Face of "Grassroots Democracy" in Rural China. Asian Survey, Vol. 42, No. 3, (May - Jun., 2002),: 456-482
Kolhammar, Jens. Democracy outmanoeuvred: Village self-governance in China: A case study. China Elections and Governance. Posted June 7, 2008. Retrieved: Aug 20, 2008. http://en.chinaelections.org/NewsInfo.asp?NewsID=18373
Secure Financing, 2. Hiring, 3. Marketing Plan, 4. Secure etail Channels.
These criteria were selected due to the fact that they combine to make a general approach to the development of the project. Financing is necessary for obvious reasons. Hiring is important as it places the right personnel in the right places. The marketing plan also contributes to an important function of the project while securing the retail channels is the last piece of the puzzle.
Matrix and Explanation
Secure etail Channels
The example weighted matrix with categories illustrates how the category weights are used to balance out the effect of the different categories of criteria when determining the final weighted score totals. Secure financing received the highest score and the highest weighted score because of the necessity of…
Lori Austin Week 1. Amalgamated Organics background information.
There would be no nectarines and tomatoes in the dead of winter, although when these foods were eaten in season, they would be healthier, tastier, and leave less of an ecological footprint. This would require a shift in approach to buying food, and perhaps require more canning, freezing, and preserving of foods than people might have done in the past. More cooking would also be necessary, given the smaller supply of foodstuffs. Produce might also be more expensive, given the more labor-intensive practices involved in pesticide-free farming.
ith the use of solar power for energy, people would no longer be able to live in a 24/7 society. Sunrise to sunset would define the day as it did so long in the past. This might make people happier, given the beneficial effects of sunlight -- it raises the mood, is full of Vitamin D, and is naturally energizing. But again, this…
Callenbach, Ernest. Ecotopia Imagined. Heyday Books, 1981.
In "American Earth," Leopold Aldo refers to the "epidemic of ditch digging and land booming" that represents the "conqueror role" that humanity has played for most of its existence (269). The conqueror role presumes that the human species is entitled to use the earth in any way possible to achieve human ends. It is a mentality that leads to wanton destruction and misuse of land. Natural resources are depleted. Aldo also claims that the "conqueror role" precludes human beings from envisioning the aesthetic or practical functions of wilderness. etlands and marshes are particularly vulnerable, for as Aldo points out, even some environmentalists do not recognize their core value in the ecosystem. I agree fully with Leopold's assessment. For one, I appreciate the author's affection for marshland birds and other flora and fauna. Second, I have also witnessed the fact that the earth is filled with "dustbowls" and "rivers washing…
Aldo, Leopold. American Earth. Retrieved online: http://www.scribd.com/doc/137854048/American-Earth-Pg-275-285
EPA (2013). "Organic Farming." Retrieved online: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/torg.html
Suddath, Claire. "The Problem with Factory Farms." Time. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1983981,00.html
USDA (2013). Overview. Retrieved online: http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/natural-resources-environment/organic-agriculture.aspx#.UYRsCyshKII
Moreover, vegetarianism is theoretically possible at McDonalds by eating the token salads on the menu. The token salads might still be in keeping with the tenets of agro-business but they do not contain meat products. Still, Pollan hints at how those salads support the same industries that sustain large-scale animal slaughtering.
In Chapter Seven, Pollan focuses on the ethics and the feasibility of the fast food business model as well as its effects on dietary health and well being. Without droning didactically, Pollan points out the problems with fast food: such as high levels of fat and sodium. The nutritional content of fast food is directly and causally related to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Pollan needs not delve into great detail about that which most Americans should already be aware. What Pollan does point out are the hidden ingredients in McDonald's menu items, especially in the chicken McNuggets. By…
Pollan, Michael. Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin, 2006.
Ironically, only 1% of the world's fresh water is readily accessible for direct human use. Translated into something we can understand readily: one American taking a 5-minute shower uses more water than the typical person living in a developing country slum uses in an entire day -- and most Americans take far longer than 5-minute showers. This is a crisis that must be addressed, if it is not, over the next two decades the average supply of water per person will drop by over 30%, condemning millions of people and animals to death (Atlas of a Thirsty Planet).
This assignment opened my eyes to a new way of looking at food -- I will be unable to go into a grocery store and look at rows and rows of perfect fruits and vegetables; knowing that half are thrown out while people starve. In the same manner, knowing that each American…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. May 2012. .
Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class and Sustainability. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2011. Print.
Holt-Gimenez, E. And R. Patel, Food Rebellions: Crisis and the Hunger for Justice. Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 2009. Print.
Local Harvest. "Family Farms." March 2009. Localharvest.org. May 2012. .
local farmer / producers/growers. One Oklahoma City state United States. Please make crops markets include horticulture crops. Inform.informations include limited: Growers / names, farm enterprise, crops grown, acres.
Two different small farmers
Crestview Farms is a certified organic farm that grows a wide range of vegetables, fruits, and herbs. The farm is operational year 'round. Crestview places a strong emphasis on seasonal produce, although it does grow some of its produce in its greenhouse and hoophouse to allow the farm to offer food to customers twelve months a year, even during the dead of winter. Currently, the farm is offering potatoes, onions, garlic, shallots, and herbs and lettuce (the majority of which are cold-weather crops). Throughout different times of the year, it also sells tomatoes, peppers, other herbs, broccoli, squash, cabbage, beans, and many other varieties of vegetables.
All produce is grown without synthetic chemicals and no GMOs are allowed.…
Crestview, Inc. Farms. Official Homepage. Retrieved:
Paradise Farms. Official Homepage. Retrieved:
One of the first major conflicts to arise cut to the core of the community's values. Some members pushed for immediate subsidized housing for new members who had nothing to invest. Others, understanding that the EcoVillage "had no money to subsidize anyone," advocated an approach that would cater to middle-class Americans (alker 57). The rift caused many of the "idealistic" members of the community to leave almost as soon as the EcoVillage had been started (alker 57). Conflicts over money as well as lifestyle issues are not uncommon at the EcoVillage, alker admits.
Other conflicts include the perpetual push to participate in social activities vs. The need for solitude. alker claims that talking openly is the key to resolving conflicts before they become problems. "Learning to deal effectively with conflict is the hardest part of living in a community," (alker 83). Community members need to set personal boundaries and be…
Walker, Liz. EcoVillage at Ithaca. New Society Publishers, 2005.
Even if not organic, they have the sustainability marketing advantage of being positioned as more 'local'
Internationally, there is a great deal of competition in the international organic wine market. Germany has made a substantial investment in growing its product, and the German government was one of the first to invest in organic wine production, followed by France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Worldwide organic wine consumption on increase, 2010, Wines from Spain).
Kudler's wines are known for their accessibility, as are most California wines, in general. A New World wine source that is now in competition with many European wines for quality and diversity, "international demand for California wines continues to grow rapidly. In almost 20 years, exports have increased from $35 million in 1985 to a record $808 million in 2004. This is an average increase of almost 20% per year (Welcome to the Golden…
Eco-friendly. (2005). California Wines. Retrieved November 26, 2010 at http://www.california-wine.org/webfront/base.asp?pageid=15
Going organic: Growing demand, tougher regulations. But is it better for you? (2009, June 29).
Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC). Retrieved November 26, 2010 at http://www.cbc.ca/consumer/story/2008/05/07/f-food-organic.html#ixzz16QpIoxhS
O'Dell, Susan. (2009, January). Wine Strategy. National Export Working Group and Foreign
The bargaining power of suppliers
Suppliers have a relatively high bargaining power. On a market like organic foods, suppliers are very important for companies' activity. In other words, they practically depend on their suppliers.
As a consequence, suppliers represent the most important environmental factor of influence for Whole Foods, and the same situation applies in the case of any organic foods company. This business consists mainly in the raw materials that the company uses to produce the goods it sells under this brand. The company's activity depends on the quality of the raw materials, and on any potential delays from suppliers. The prices negotiated with suppliers have a direct impact on the production costs, and on the end-user price.
The company's strong position on the market in ensured by the numerous strengths the company benefits from. First of all, the company is renowned by the quality of…
1. Industry Statistics and Projected Growth (2008). Organic Trade Association. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from http://www.ota.com/organic/mt/business.html .
2. Hunt, N. & Dorfman, B. (2009). How green is my wallet? Organic food growth slows. Reuters. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE50R01C20090128 .
This midterm is top ranking in comparison to the others. The outline is very detailed and on the first page, making it easier for me to see what the paper is aout and where the writer wants to go through each section. The different sections are also very convincing in their claims such as writer oriented depression. I liked how he used two well-known writers and their outs of depression and linked them together to where you can see directly and indirectly how depression fueled their career and vice versa. I also liked the use of religion as means of helping people who suffer from depression.
The quotes work very well with each suject. The progression from nature of depression to how depression affects different areas such as religion and literature is well thought out. The iliography is long and varied with sources from texts, journals. Most of…
bibliography was weak in that most of the sources were from online. He needs to find better sources. The outline was okay but there was one section: "Opposition. None that I can find. You can not get high in any way from hemp products. I have yet to discover a negative impact to the environment or society" that is not true. There is plenty opposition and some research has shown growing marijuana has led to a negative impact on the environment through supplies pollution. People growing marijuana throw away their used up supplies in ways that pollute the environment.
management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.
However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.
We should perhaps begin with…
James, Abigail. (2002). Personal communication.
Harvey, William. (2002). Personal communication. http://tbs-intranet.tees.ac.uk/international/ccd/ccd_block2b.htm http://www.bfa.com.au http:/www.ofa.org.au http://www.onepine.deuk/phof.htm http://www.stuart.iit.edu www.nre.vic.gov.au http://ww.bfa.com.au http://www.nre.vic.gov.au
Abigail James 2002. http://www.onepine.demon.co.uk/phof.htm
These lessons would suggest the need to change or veer away from the "me first" mentality of the U.S. agriculture and its representatives. What would serve agriculture and society best would be by working to identify how broad society and its farmers desired the future agricultural sector should be structured. Corollary to this would be to use its comparative advantage in designing policy interventions, which would realistically, efficiently and effectively achieve this goal. Only through this process could the legitimate wants of farmers be balanced against their responsibilities to their broader society. Only then could agriculture have a true and successful societal basis for its farm program interventions (Poe).
1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359
2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of iotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576
3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for ritain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043…
1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359
2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of Biotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576
3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for Britain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043
4. -. Organic Targets One Last Push. MIT Press Journals, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_5_31/ai_76285449
Fast Food Delivery
Green Bean Delivery delivers fresh produce to the door of customers who sign up for deliveries. So instead of purchasing produce (fruits, vegetables, dairies) from the grocery store (and not knowing where they come from -- Mexico, California, South America), Green Bean Delivery does all the work for you. The only question is: where do Green Bean's products come from? To find out, some investigative work was needed. This paper will show who is behind the produce that Green Bean Delivery delivers straight to the door of its customers, how it is produced, what goes into the process of growing, harvesting, transporting and preparing the items that are then sorted and shipped to customers.
The number one claim of Green Bean Delivery is that it uses organic produce and natural groceries to please its customers. This is a great claim and one that makes a lot of…
Claren, R. (2005). The Green Motel. Ms. Magazine.
Gottlieb, R., & Joshi, A. (2010). Food Justice. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Schlosser, E. (2012). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal.
Boston: Mariner Books
Although Pollan condemns conventional agriculture, he also notes that even organically-labeled food is often grown in a manner that is not much better for the environment in terms of its carbon footprint -- the regulations upon what constitutes organic food can be quite lax, and some foods that use some pesticides that are grown locally and sold in farmer's markets might not be technically organic, but leave less of a carbon footprint. As part of the research for his book, Pollan visits a commercial organic farm, which is just as mechanized as a standard commercial farm, and just as large and labor-intensive. Commercial agriculture, Pollan implies, grew to satisfy a marketing demand, not out of ideology. Consumers are gradually growing uncomfortable with the evident environmental implications of their choices and wish to 'do something,' even though they are unsure as to what that 'something' should be, and many buy commercial…
If I willingly buy from a company that contributes to environmental degradation or processed foods then I am part of the problem.
Saving fifty cents means nothing to me now. Just because a grocery store sells a cheap, non-organic version of a food item does not mean that I will buy it. I can almost visualize the chain of events that takes place when I make a purchase. Marketing techniques are savvy, taking into account each time a person like me opts for a slightly more expensive version of a product because it is organic. My actions in the grocery store are the equivalent of my donating money to charity. I pay more because I want to support businesses with ethics. Ours is a market-driven economy. Americans dislike governmental regulations and so rely on the market to control issues like corporate ethics. Unfortunately, not many people educate themselves about the…
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
General Motors, along with the other major American automotive manufactures, fought attempts to instate more stringent emissions requirements upon vehicles. Toyota worked on its hybrid fleet, using research and development to answer the challenge posed by environmental regulators. Ideally, this is the response of companies to regulation, and the prosperity of Toyota and the failure of GM was once viewed as a cautionary tale. As consumers do not always buy what is 'good for them,' and good for the environment, regulatory pressures are required to eliminate or tax products and foods that harm the environment, such as gas-guzzling cars, corn-fed beef and pesticides. This makes using these products either illegal or more expensive and costly for consumers, thus creating an artificially higher demand for more environmentally-friendly products and increasing the incentive for companies to provide other products.
The problem with viewing regulation as a solution to environmental and economic problems,…
Starbucks, a Market Analysis
Starbucks is a major, world wide coffee retailer specializing in a variety of brands of blend coffee and iced beverages, among other related products. Within the market sector Starbucks exists stands several competing companies such as The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and Caribou Coffee. Each company shares similar strategies, appealing to a similar demographic, and hails themselves as the high-end of coffee-based shops/cafes. They also share a similar promise of quality ingredients and service. The difference is, while a company like Starbucks focuses on the behavior of consumers to market their product, a company like Caribou coffee relies on the taste and quality of their product, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf rely on location and ease of access.
Starbucks was selected as the primary company to analyze due to its immense popularity and success over the last decade. It has become one of…
Mayo, E.J. (1977). The impact of the consumer's psychographic and demographic characteristics on buyer behavior: A comparative analysis of psychographics and demographics as segmentation variables in a rail passenger market. Ann Arbor, Mich: Xerox University Microfilms.
Morrison, M. (2013, September 20). Starbucks Launches Campaign Focused on Bean Quality | News - Advertising Age. Retrieved from http://adage.com/article/news/starbucks-launches-campaign-focused-bean-quality/244263/
Starbucks Coffee Company (2011). Starbucks Company Profile. Retrieved from http://globalassets.starbucks.com/assets/F62C45CD8A8B4699BEFC60A2618F0431.pdf
Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, A. (2004). Handbook of market segmentation: Strategic targeting for business and technology firms. New York: Haworth Press.
The greatest demand in Turkey for American soy products is for soy grains and soy meals that are used in organic farming. These products are used by farmers to feed poultry and other livestock an organic diet that many people believe produces healthier livestock meat than traditional methods of feeding livestock cornmeal, oats, and (especially) animal byproducts, a practice that has been linked to the spread of serious cattle diseases in Europe such as so-called "Mad Cow Disease."
That demand for consumable soy farming products has also generated a corresponding demand for the equipment typically used to crush, extract, and dry soy products from the raw ingredients used to make them. This trend also extends to the vegetarian food industry because it allows large suppliers to produce tofu and soy milk from raw material and thereby avoid the costs associated with importing prepackaged processed soy products.
The United States has allowed the use of genetically modified (GMO) foods for human consumption. This has led people to fight for measures to decrease exposure to GMO foods in America. From food labeling to encouraging the purchase of foods that are non-GMO sourced, these measures have painted a stigma on GMO. Several reasons exist for the removal of GMO foods. One reason is that most genetically modified genes inserted into the seeds that yield fruits and vegetables are derived from foreign species like bacteria and viruses (). These bacteria and viruses can cause harm to the human body in the form of sterility, allergic reactions, and deceased livestock.
For example, one article noted that GMO corn may change the histological structure of living organisms if they consume it long-term. The animal they experimented on were two albino adult male rats. “Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes…
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Amish are a long-standing religious sect, created in the 17th century after the first Amish broke from the Mennonite Protestant tradition because of "what they perceived as a lack of discipline among the Mennonites" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance). The original Amish were of Swiss and German extraction. Many migrated to the U.S. In the early stages of the sect's formation, settling in Pennsylvania, and gradually branching out into New York, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri Ohio, and other states where they still reside today. No Amish remain in Europe. "The faith group has attempted to preserve the elements of late 17th century European rural culture. They try to avoid many of the features of modern society, by developing practices and behaviors which isolate themselves from American culture" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance).
The Amish used to be farmers, marking the culture as 'pastoral' in…
Adult baptism. (2011). Welcome to Manchester County. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://www.welcome-to-lancaster-county.com/amish-belief.html
The Amish: History, belief, practices. (2011). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved December 15,
2011 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
Frequently asked questions. (2011). Amish Studies. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/FAQ.asp
One of the greatest strengths in Pollan's writing is the way his passion comes through so clearly. He thought very carefully about his subject before he started his research and writing. He designed his experiences so he could gather as much information as possible and make informed decisions about his choices. Pollan's writing style is clear and easy to understand. He includes factual information as well as personal experience to help persuade the reader.
This writer did not feel they were any weaknesses with the book. One could argue that Pollan did not set out to prove anything other than what he already knew or believed. That would be a valid criticism if Pollan's work was meant to be true scientific research. It is clear that Pollan had his ideas and opinions when he set out to write the book. The experiences he had supported his views. As has…
Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin.
However, the growth of the corporation introduced the concept of a fiduciary duty between stockholders and board members, in both open and closed corporations. (Stevenson, p.1144). Put succinctly, the board of directors has a duty to its shareholders to increase profits, and majority shareholders may have a duty to the corporation to vote in a way that increases profits. As a result, business ethics can actually conflict with both corporate social responsibility and global corporate responsibility; because business ethics may indicate a less ethical means of practice if it would increase profits. As a result, many corporations have included responsible practices in their corporate mandate, thereby making it clear to any and all potential stockholders that one of the goals of the company is to engage in responsible and morally ethical behavior. Starbucks appears to be one such company.
Corporate Social Responsibility
It is difficult to define the notion of…
Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. "The Initiative: Defining Corporate Social
Responsibility." Harvard Kennedy School. 2008. The President and Fellows of Harvard University. 12 Nov. 2008 http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/init_define.html .
Ethics and Policy Integration Center. "Welcome to the EPIC Global Corporate Responsibility
Web Page." EPIC. 2008. Ethics and Policy Integration Center. 12 Nov. 2008 http://www.epic-online.net/global/index.html .
The Prevalence and Importance in the Problem
In 2007 the percent of food insecure houses in the United States was 11.one percent. This Season, as much as 50 million of U.S. citizens were living in food insecure houses. In the 50 million of the masses, 33.5 million were grownups and 16.7 million were children. Every county in the United States is influenced by food insecurity. Steele County, ND gets the least expensive quantity of food insecure houses, while Holmes County, MS gets the finest quantity of food insecure houses. Inside the richest nations in the world, you'll still find people missing the required daily intake to eat (Brownell and Ludwig, 2011).
The End esult in the Problem on Families
In food deprived families each and every member is affected. Youthful children from food insecure families frequently have decreased communal and intellectual development, as well as increased health issues and…
Alston, J., Mullally, C., Sumner, D., Townsend, M., & Vosti, S. (2009). Likely effects on obesity from proposed changes to the U.S. food stamp program. Food Policy, 34 176-184.
Barnhill, A. (2011). Impact and ethics of excluding sweetened beverages from the SNAP program. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 2037-2043.
Brownell, K., & Ludwig, D. (2011). The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, soda, and USDA policy: who benefits? Journal of the American Medical Association, 306 (12), 1370-1371.
Shenkin, J., & Jacobson, M. (2010). Using the Food Stamp Program and other methods to promote healthy diets for low-income consumers. American Journal of Public Health, 100(9), 1562-1564.
Drug use patterns changed from soft and psychedelic drugs like cannabis and mushrooms to harder drugs like barbiturate pills and heroin. The focus on the hippie movement also dissolved. hat started as a relatively cohesive challenge to commercialism and corruption ended up being a fragmented array of debauch. The death of celebrity musicians like Jimi Hendrix and Janice Joplin triggered the end of the hippie heyday. In spite of its excesses, though, the hippie movement transformed American social values especially among youth culture.
Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587
CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/
Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/
Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of…
Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587
CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/
Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/
Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of the times." 2007. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.bottlebrushpress.com/antivietnamwarprotests.html
A good example of this can be seen with Whole Foods discussing how they are meeting these long-term objectives with the firm stating, "We believe that companies, like individuals, must assume their share of responsibility as tenants of Planet Earth. We actively support organic farming, the best methods for promoting sustainable agriculture and protecting farm workers / the environment. We also aim to protect the environment by supporting alternative sources of energy and recycling or compositing our waste. We are actively involved in our communities by supporting food banks, sponsoring neighborhood events and contributing at least 5% of the total net profits to charities. Our vision of a sustainable future means our children and grandchildren will be living in a world that values human creativity, diversity and individual choice." This is illustrating how Whole Foods Markets is dedicated towards specific groups that share similar performance goals and standards.…
Our Mission and Culture. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/our-mission-and-culture
The Congruence Model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_95.htm
Whole Foods. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=WFM+Analyst+Estimates
Why Work Here? (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/why-work-here
The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.
Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…
Dunlap, Riley E. (1994) International Attitudes Towards Environment and Development. In Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann (eds) Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1994. Oxford University Press. 115-126. Online available at http://www.fni.no/YBICED/94_09_dunlap.pdf
Holl, Karen D. et al. (1999) Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Population Growth and the Environment: University Students in Costa Rica and the United States. Environmental Conservation Journal 1999. Cambridge University Press 10 May, 2002.
Aerni, Phillip (2001) Public Attitudes Toward Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: A Comparison Between Mexico and the Philippines. STI Research Report. 2001 July. Harvard University. Online available at http://www.botanischergarten.ch/debate/AerniHarvard20010710.pdf
30-Country Poll Finds Worldwide Consensus that Climate Change is a Serious Problem (2006) Concern Growing Sharply 25 Apr 2007. World Public Opinion Organization. Online available at http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/187.php?lb=bte&pnt=187&nid=&id=
Oceana Group Limited is a company listed in Johannesburg and Namibia stock exchanger. The company is in the food and beverage industry with core business being fishing as well as allied services sector. The company is engaged in the catching, processing as well as the procurement of various marine species such as pilchard, redeye, sardine anchovy, lobster, herring, tune, horse mackerel as well as hake. Other deep-see species also form their specialty. Their products are prepared and then sold via local and international marketing channels. Additionally, the company provides fruit handling as well as cold storage facilities at an extensive level (Oceana,2011). The company operates via various divisions, subsidiary stakeholders as well as companies.
The South African-based firm engages in the catching, preparing for sale and procuring different fish products in South Africa.It also deals in canned fish products. The company's market capitalization was valued at ZA 3113 million or…
Glamis Research Institute (2010). Oceans Group Limited
Glamis Research Institute (2010b).Food and Beverage Industry
Health Plan for Life
How to Utilize a Nutritional Program to Attain Personal Health Goals
The importance of a healthy diet cannot be stressed enough. One of the main problems that plague our society today is a high percentage of overweight people. Indeed, struggling with weight is a lifelong problem for many in today's society, and this stems from the fact that both our food and our lifestyle has a great impact on how many live and eat. The aforementioned two facts refer to the fact that first, our food is produced very poorly and many eat the cheap, mass produced food instead of organic, farm-based food, and second, our lifestyle is highly dependent on cars, and is quite sedentary both in our workplace and often times at home. It is also important to mention here that stress also has a great impact upon how our diet fluctuates.
Sources provided by customer, document titled Managing your Weight. ]
Sugar and leaf litter appeared to have an inhibitory effect, except in the area of root mass. These results were similar to those obtained by Levy & Taylor (2003). Their study also found an inhibitory effect in treatments with municipal wastes and pulp mill wastes. Similar to the results of this study, their tests found that horse and mink manure resulted in the greatest improvement in plant growth. However, Muenchang and associates (2006) found the sugar mill by-products improved the nitrogen fixing ability of plants by encouraging the development of certain bacteria on the roots.
There are many field trials that are similar to those conducted in this study. Tuber yield and size were not affected significantly by the application of straw mulch on potatoes (Doring, et al., 2005). However, La Mondia and associates (1999) found that straw applied to potatoes increased yield in tubers exposed to certain potato pathogens.…
Doring, T., Brandt, M., Heb, J., Finckh, M., & Saucke, H. (2005). Effects of straw mulch on soil nitrate dynamics, weeds, yield and soil erosion in organically grown potatoes. Field Crop Research, 238-249.
Hameeda, B., Harini, G., Rupela, P. & Reddy, G. (2006). Effect of composts or vermicomposts on sorghum growth and micorrhizal colonization. African Journal of Biotechnology. 6 (1), 9-12.
Kim, K., Nemec, S., & Musson, G. (1997). Control of Phytophtora root and crown rot of bell pepper with composts and soil amendments in greenhouse. Applied Soil Ecology. 5, 169- 179.
La Mondia, J., Gent, M., Ferrandino, F., & Elmer, W. (1999). Effect of compost amendment or straw mulch on potato early dying disease. Plant Disease. 83: 361-366.
Businesses are the cornerstone of a capitalistic society. Businesses often drive economic growth and overall societal prosperity. In many instances, business can enhance the overall quality of life of those living in civilization. Looking back briefly at history, provides a unique perspective of business as it relates to societal development. Currently, looking at a minimum wage individual living in America today, they are able to perform tasks and activities that many of the wealthiest individuals in society during 1900 could only dream of. The minimum wage individual can watch television, listen to music on a cell phone, use the internet and even control the weather within their vehicle. This has occurred primarily due to the profit incentive embedded in a capitalistic society. The same will occur with Alex, Bill, Carl, Devon, and Xavier as there farm business developments. These same principles are present for all Christians who want their business…
1. Barnet, Richard; Ronald E. Muller (1974). Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporation. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
2. Blumberg, Phillip I., The Multinational Challenge to Corporation Law: The Search for a New Corporate Personality, (1993)
3. Cadman, John William. The Corporation in New Jersey: Business and Politics,, (1949)
4. Conard, Alfred F Corporations in Perspective. 1976.
farm-to-table. The concept will be described in the context of a certain property and it will also be discussed in general terms. As far as the former of those two goes, the property that will be discussed is L'Etoile Restaurant in Madison, isconsin. As far as the latter goes, topics that will be covered will be the advantages and disadvantages of the farm-to-table concept. There will be a covering of the farm-to-table principles used and employed at L'Etoile Restaurant and a review of how the property could take the concept even further. hile some people suggest that farm-to-table is an overblown and unnecessary concept, there is a lot of merit to the idea and why it is used.
As noted in the introduction, the restaurant that will be focused upon for this report is L'Etoile. They are located at 1 South Pickney Street in Madison, isconsin. Other associated properties…
Atkins, Clyde. 'Why Eat Local? Pros And Cons Of Going Farm To Table | Eat Good Food'. Eat Good Food. N.p., 2014. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
L'Etoile. 'Restaurants In Madison'. Restaurants in Madison. N.p., 2015. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
REAP. 'Home - Reap Food Group'. Reapfoodgroup.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 13 Aug. 2015.
As part of the research triangle, Raleigh has a significant portion of its population that fits the target market. For the Farmery to succeed, it only needs to capture a small portion of the market share. This is especially true because the store has a small footprint, and has the flexibility to set up on vacant lots without the costs of either renting or developing fixed real estate. The Farmery therefore needs to focus on two or three key elements to ensure adequate market penetration.
The first of these is location. Let it not be understated that location, location, location is critical to the success of any retail business. Because food is not normally something that people are willing to travel more than a few miles for, it is important that the Farmery target a neighborhood where there is a high concentration of individuals that fit the target market. There…
Falk, T. (2012). Detroit turns shipping containers into condos. Smart Planet. Retrieved December 4, 2012 from http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/bulletin/detroit-turns-shipping-containers-into-condos/5900
Food Marketing Institute. (2012). Supermarket facts. Food Marketing Institute. Retrieved December 4, 2012 from http://www.fmi.org/research-resources/supermarket-facts
Greene, B. (2012) the Farmery. Kickstarter.com Retrieved December 4, 2012 from http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/farmery/the-farmery
Imlay, T. (2006). Challenges in today's U.S. supermarket industry. Microsoft. Retrieved December 4, 2012 from http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa479076.aspx
These human actions that alter the living and nutrient conditions of soil organism include the repetitive tillage or burning of vegetation, soil erosion, overusing the land without replenishing it with humus or plant compost, clearing of forests. What can be done to solve this problem is to replenish the land with humus or plant compost, give the land rest after excessive use, planting of trees to reduce soil erosion etc. The soil organic matter is linked to the atmosphere; hydrosphere, biosphere and climate change in that the carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere of the earth.
The following are the strategy that I feel should be taken to restore the regions of Udaipur in India. In this area it is evident that the unnecessary human activities of over grazing, slash and burn farming, and activities causing soil erosion have…
Soil is a very important resource in the earth and care should be taken to preserve and maintain its quality. If this is not done, soil will not be able to support the future generations and this means they will be low food production in the world leading to famine to both human beings and animals
Curry and Good. Using Soil Fauna to Improve Soil Health: New York: Stork and Eggleton, 1992
A history of a typical American meal
When a typical consumer purchases a rib-eye steak for dinner, he or she will pay far less than his or her grandfather did for the same cut of meat. This is because of the efficiencies generated by the commercial meat industry. While the cow will begin its life in a manner similar to that of cows of the past -- by the side of his or her mother on a ranch -- that will quickly change. "Cows raised on grass simply take longer to reach slaughter weight than cows raised on a richer diet, and the modern meat industry has devoted itself to shortening a beef calf's allotted time on earth" (Pollan 2002). On a factory farm, cows are quickly weaned from their mother and fed a corn-based diet or 'finished' on corn while they are held in pens. Instead of…
Big dairy enters the era of big data. (2012). Businessweek. Retrieved:
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Economics of Production and esource Management: Assessment of the Environmental Impact Associated with Human Waste Fertilizer in Agricultural Production
The objective of this study is to conduct an assessment of the environmental impact associated with human waste fertilizer in agricultural production. National Geographic News reporter Tasha Eichenseher reported that 200 million farmers in developing countries are making use of raw sewage due to water shortages and rising costs of fertilizer to irrigate and fertilize approximately 49 million acres of cropland. It is reported by Eichenseher (2008) that this practice "carries serious health risks for many" however, it is reported that the dangers of the use of human waste fertilizer are "eclipsed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food." (Eichenseher, 2008)
The 200 million farmers reported to be using this type of fertilizer are those in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin…
Eichenseher, Tasha (2008) Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. 21 Aug 2008. National Geographic News. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080821-human-waste.html
Environmental Fact Sheet (1998) Waste-Derived Fertilizers. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from:
Franceys, Pickford & Reed (1992) Franceys, R., Pickford, J. And Reed, R., A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO, Geneva, 1992. Pickford, John., Low-cost Sanitation: A survey of practical experience, IT Publications, London, 1995. WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AT LONDON AND LOUGHBOROUGH (WELL) is a resource centre funded by the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID) to promote environmental health and well-being in developing and transitional countries. It is managed by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University.
Planning and Control
Formulating Plans and Strategies
Bunge is a renowned organization that deals in agribusiness in as many as 40 countries offering the processing service of the products and produces from the farms as well as transport hence acting as the link between the production a t the farms and the final consumer. Bunge also deals in the production of renewable fuels, animal feeds, sugar, flour, fertilizers and oil among other products (Bunge Limited, 2011).
Bunge SWOT analysis
The company has several strengths one of them being the fact that they are involved in diverse agribusiness ventures. As noted above, they deal in a range of farm produce and products processing as well as transportation of the goods form the farm to the clients hence enjoying the advantages of economics of scale and hence being able to offer their clients a variety of products in a…
Bunge, (2006). How the Brazilian real Affects Bunge. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NDI5NzM5fENoaWxkSUQ9NDQ3MTIzfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1
Bunge Limited, (2011). Company: About Bunge. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://www.bunge.com/About-Bunge
Market Publishers, (2010). Bunge Limited (BG) - Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis
Review. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from http://pdf.marketpublishers.com/global_data/bunge_limited_bg_financial_n_strategic_swot_analysis_review.pdf
Dole and Chiquita - Organic Bananas
Going (Organic) Bananas
When it comes to bananas, Dole has long been at a disadvantage. Dole is association for most Americans with pineapples and with various shady dealings in Hawai'i. If you want to go bananas, you go to Chiquita.
This paper examines the marketing strategy currently employed by Dole Bananas, asking how well this company is doing against others in the banana business as well as asking from what other directions Dole might face competition in the future and how well it is prepared to meet those challenges.
Chiquita is indeed Dole's major competitor at least in terms of banana sales (it is not a significant competitor in terms of pineapples, for example) and the two companies have clearly tried in recent years to differentiate themselves from each other so as to grab a larger share of the market. This is…
Roche, J. (1999). The international banana trade. New York: CRC Press.
A www.chiquita.com www.dole.com www.headlinewatch.com www.europe.cnn.com www.mindfully.org www.yale.edu
Sustainable Marketing Plan
he following pages focus on presenting a marketing plan for introducing organic coffee on the market. he paper starts with an analysis of the organic foods market situation, and also of the coffee segment. his section is intended to help readers identify important aspects that this marketing plan addresses. he plan continues with the discussion of the company's strengths and weaknesses, and of the opportunities and threats provided by the business environment. Furthermore, the plan focuses on establishing and discussing the marketing objectives that are addressed by this plan. hese objectives also refer to people and planet, providing a complex image of the company's intentions regarding corporate social responsibility.
he plan continues with the presentation of the Marketing Strategy. his section discusses the customer segments targeted by the company. In addition to this, the section also addresses the marketing mix that the company intends to use. he…
The marketing plan developed for introducing organic coffee on the market addresses different factors of importance to this activity. The marketing plan focuses on the characteristics of the customer segments targeted in the case of this product in order to establish the objectives and strategies that can determine the company's success on the market. The objectives that must be reached by the marketing activity of the company are addressed by the marketing mix and by the strategy.
1. Industry Statistics and Projected Growth (2011). Organic Trade Association. Retrieved September 2, 2011 from http://www.ota.com/organic/mt/business.html .
Whole Foods: Current market conditions
The supermarket industry is highly competitive. However, Whole Foods has been able to garner a market advantage through specialization. Whole Foods is a national chain but offers exclusively organic items to customers, thus conveying additional value for a specific yet rapidly-expanding demographic of customers. Growth in the organics market remains strong, even though it experienced a downturn after the recession. "According to the Organic Trade Association, U.S. sales of organic food and beverages have grown from $1 billion in 1990 to $24.8 billion in 2009. That's 18.4% growth annualized over 19 years" (Beyers 2011).
As well as health-conscious consumers, Whole Foods also offers a wide array of international, gluten-free, peanut-free, and other specialty items. It is a relatively large chain, although still dwarfed in size by major national supermarket retailers like Wal-Mart. Thus, the market structure is that of a competitive market, with…
Green, Tara. (2012). Despite its efforts, even Whole Foods cannot keep GMOs out of the products it sells. Natural News. Retrieved:
Beyers, Tim. (2009). The secret to Whole Foods' success. Motley Fool. Retrieved:
A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).
In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Cancer Patients found to have Higher Pesticide Residues in Body. Retrieved from http://www.chem-tox.com/cancerchildren/#residues
Elliott, V. (2009) Organic food 'no better for health than factory-farmed food' says report.