Organic Farming Essays (Examples)

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Organic Produce & Farming for Most of

Words: 1788 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1061228

Organic Produce & Farming

For most of history, farming was organic simply because of the available materials used in agriculture. Only during the middle to late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the advent of synthetic chemicals, was a new process for fertilizing and preserving foods available. This more recent style of production is referred to as "conventional," though organic production has been the convention for a much greater period of time. With organic methods, the use of chemical pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals is not only restricted, but regulated. There may be times, however, when certain non-organic products are still used when necessary. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet (Stokstad, 2002). While controversial, in most countries around the world, produce labeled as "organic" may not be genetically modified in any way. It has been suggested that the application of nanotechnology to food and agriculture is a further technology that needs to be excluded from certified organic food (Lyons, 2008).

Under most agriculture rules, organic food production is quite separate from private gardening and is regulated. Currently, the European…… [Read More]


Bourn, D. And J. Prescott. (2002). "A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory

Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods."

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 42(1): 1-34. Cited in:
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Organic vs Grocery Stores Organic

Words: 2224 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26206307

And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (Warner).

The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of Whole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across the nation and in 2007 it opened a whopping ninety-nine-thousand-square-foot supercenter in London. It should be acknowledged that Mackey and his company promoted the ethics of food processing to American consumers, introducing the concept of "organic" to many Americans who have long forgotten it. "You can't argue with one thing,"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.

"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.

"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.

"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
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Organic vs Non-Organic Organic vs

Words: 1062 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858433

From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003.

This informative article demonstrates a list of the top ten reasons why we should eat and grow organic foods, in a sustainable manner. 1.Organic foods meet stringent standards. 2. Organic food tastes great. 3. Organic production reduces health risks. 4. Organic farms respect water sources. 5. Organic farmers build soil. 6. Organic farmers work…… [Read More]

Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.

Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.

This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
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Organic Chcoloate Everyday Organic Chocolate

Words: 385 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1771204

The ambition is to promote organic chocolate and its implied benefits outside of historically niche markets.

One year marketing objectives include a penetration of U.S. sales markets, where it is predicted that by 2011, the organic chocolate market will have experienced a 71% increase in sales over five years. It is the ambition of Everday to have accounted for every 20th bar of chocolate bought in the United States by that juncture. This would make for a market share of 5% by 2011, which would in all likelihood make Everyday the biggest organic player in the candy bar market.… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Knudson, W.A. (2007) The organic food market. Online at

Organic Nature News (ONN). (2009). Organic Chocolate. Online at

Organic Trade Association (OTA). (2009). Why Choose Organic Chocolate? The O'Mama Report. Online at
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Organic Fruits & Vegetables vs

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95940100

Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin (Worthington 990-991). Considering the benefits identified with aspirin use, who wouldn't rather get the same effects from a natural and pleasant tasting source instead of a bitter pill?

Not only can organic produce provide valuable nutrients better than traditional produce, but the absence of pesticides and other chemicals used on conventional farms is also a boon to the consumer. Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides have a notorious history of being dangerous carcinogens. The highest death rates in the United States of certain cancers can be found in the rural farming areas of the country. Migrant workers have also demonstrated abnormally high rates of cancer that have been shown to be linked to herbicide and pesticide use (Steingraber 64). If these substances are causing cancer in the workers who toil on these conventional farmlands, why would it even be questioned whether there is an imminent danger present simply in eating the produce from these farms.

After reviewing all of this information it seems very difficult to deny that organic produce is clearly the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Food Standards and Labels. Brochure.

Dauncey, Guy. "Ten Reasons Why Organic Food is Better." Common Ground, April 2002: 17-19.

Worthington, Virginia. "The Effects of Agricultural Method on Nutritional Quality."

Alternative Therapies, 1998:4.
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Farm Report in Kansas Terry Carey Is

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90667183

Farm Report in Kansas

Terry Carey is a very famous local farmer in Kansas City. She deals with horticultural farm produce such as apples, ornamental corn, popcorn, water melons, cucumbers, winter squash and pumpkins with pumpkins being her major crop. Pumpkins are generally warm-loving crops therefore she plants them in June and they are often ready by September or mid-October. The size of her farm is 1,025 acres where she normally tries to distribute all the crops that she grows evenly on the land. However during the period between June and September she dedicates her entire farm to pumpkins and leaves out other crops. She plants mainly two varieties on her farm which are the giant ones that are greater that 20lb in size known as prize winner. This one takes 120 days to mature and they have a good color and shape. The second variety she plants is Jack-o'Lantern which is between 7-20 lb. The specific one in this category which she grows is Gold Rush which takes 120 days to mature, it has a large handle and it has a deep orange color.

Her farm does not have perennial weeds and it has very good quality of soil.…… [Read More]

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Farm Subsidies the Subject of

Words: 1708 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71754478

Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of debt to be foisted on the next generation (2007)."

Paul Roberts (2008) writes that it incumbent upon first world nations, like the United States and the UK to set the pace for world policy when it comes to food, and to recognize the harm that food subsidy programs causes economically, and socially. Unfortuately, Roberts also points to the government's susceptibility to special interest (296), and we should add, self-interest. So long as we find elected officials reaping profits from farm subsidies, and so long as they are influenced by corporate special interest, then we will continue to see the government interference in agricultural free trade in the form of subsidies.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bafalikike, Lokogo. World Trade: A Scandal that Must End, New African, Nov 2002,

412. Print.

Edwards, Chris. Ten Reasons to Cut Farm Subsidies,, June 28, 2007,

found online at Cato Institute, at, retrieved February 3, 2010. Website.
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New Jersey History of Farming and the State Evolution

Words: 1888 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71980333

New Jersey Farming

The state of New Jersey has been a part of the United States since before it was a country. When the land was occupied by Native Americans, the ground was cultivated and the fertile soil used to plant and fish in the Atlantic Ocean and the many rivers. It is believed that because of the high fertility of the ground, the populations who lived there were less adept at hunting and defense, thus making them easy targets for the European settlers, first from the Netherlands and then the Swedes before falling under the control of the British. Even as a colony of Great Britain, New Jersey was integral because of its agriculture and fertile soil which grew foods not just for people within the colonies but that could also be exported back to England. It was believed that the vast majorities of people living in New Jersey at the time were farmers or were engaged in an industry which benefited from farming. Even in the modern period, farming and agriculture are still integral parts of New Jersey's economy. However, as with most things in history, the agricultural profile of the New Jersey farmer has changed considerably since…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Adam, Pegi. "Fast Facts." New Jersey Farm Bureau. 2002. Print.

Barna, John, "New Jersey's Agriculture History Detailed Through Online Exhibit." Gloucester

County Times. 2011. Print.

Dimitri, Carolyn. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agricultural and Farm Policy. U.S.
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USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a

Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92232489

USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned Ranch

Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small farmer. The problem is to understand the process by which a family owned ranch could become USDA certified for organic beef. What are the necessary steps and important factors to consider from beginning the process to marketing to retailers?

Understanding USDA Organic

The government-managed organic food certification program is USDA Organic. Within this certification system, organic food production follows guidelines laid out in the Organic Foods Production-Act of 1990 and amended according to Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005. These regulations take into consideration site-specific conditions "integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, 2011) Included in OFPA are rules for farm planning, livestock handling, use of pesticides and synthetic substances and processing. Beef has been included in the National Organic Program (NOP) since 2002. (U.S. Department of Agriculture) The certification program is only available to producers and handlers that sell more than $5,000 per year in organic products. Producers and handlers that deal in smaller quantities may…… [Read More]


Certified Naturally Grown. (2011). Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from CNG:

MOSES. (2008). Local and Organic, Not an Either/Or Issue Fact Sheet.

MOSES. (2008). Transitioning to Organic Beef Production Fact Sheet.

Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education. (2010). Grants Information / Grants / SARE Nationwide. (USDA, Producer) Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from SARE Grant Information:
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Business Plan for Organic Fertilizer

Words: 3068 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28050228

We can use this opportunity to establish loyalty among our existing customers, develop referrals among our customers to their colleagues, and establish our brand and credibility as local suppliers of organic fertilizer of high quality and at a good price to our market. With this in place, it will be difficult for any new market entrants to displace us in our local area as the main suppliers of organic fertilizer.

Company Management of Data and Knowledge

Inventory Management

Inventory is managed in the shipping department. Orders are sent to the shipping department from the customer service representatives via a secure, intra-office internet connection. Once the orders are received, shipping personnel use recycled sticky labels to hand-write the customer and order information with sustainable ink pens, and then affix those labels to the bags of fertilizer. If a customer is ordering more than one bag of fertilizer, as many of them do, the number of bags are stacked in groups of four and tied with twine, and a label affixed to the top back in each bundle, even if there are several bundles for the same customer. Orders are stored near the trucks, in the order in which they were received.…… [Read More]


Campbell, Clark a. (2008). The One Page Project Manager for it Projects: Communicate and Manage Any Project with a Single Sheet of Paper. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Gerber, Michael E. (1995). The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do About it. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Holtsnider, Bill and Jaffe, Brian D. (2009). It Manager's Handbook: The Business Edition. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Laudon, Kenneth C. And Traver, Carol Guercio. (2011). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Technology Is Necessary in Farming

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58253979

In India, for instance, the Green Revolution has resulted in an overwhelming abundance and surplus of food, most of which rots away in government silos.

Indian leaders must experiment with different socio-economic changes - perhaps, for instance, a better reaction to the remnants and shadows of the caste system - that will result in a more equal distribution of wealth among the nation's people. At this point, the Green Revolution's production of an abundance of food only affects the wealthy: They are able to buy even more food, and the poor continue to have no money or access to the food.

A concerted effort to implement Green Revolution methods of increasing the yield on farms through technology and chemicals must be balanced by socio-economic change that allows the nations' poorest to benefit as well. However, this process must be balanced against the environmental hazards posed by Green Revolution farming strategies. As farmers and scientists alike have reported, the chemicals used to increase production are harming the land irrevocably, especially in comparison to alternative organic farming and more eco-conscious farming methods.

The worst possible situation would erupt from a successful meshing of the Green Revolution methods in a country stricken by…… [Read More]


Rosset, Peter and Collins, Joseph and Lappe, Francis Moore. 2000. Lessons from the Green Revolution. Tikkun Magazine.
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Farming Springdale Farms Is a Local Grower

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84801459


Springdale Farms is a local grower of farm products in Cherry Hill, New Jersey that has been operating for more than six decades. Throughout its history, Springdale Farms has been growing and selling various farm products including vegetables and fresh fruits on Springdale Road. Since its inception, the grower has achieved tremendous success in its locality because of its increased commitment to sustainable farming, which has made it strong and productive through the years. The company considers its farming and land as increasingly important part of its great family and community at Cherry Hill. When this grower launched its services more than 60 years ago, Cherry Hill was characterized by landscapes that were full of farms, orchards, and pastures. The current landscape has changed significantly because of the increased construction of modern highways, which has reduced farm fields and forced vegetable and small fruit stands to be located by the roadside.

Springdale Road is the only operating farm left in the Delaware Township in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. One of the major farms in this region is Springdale Farms whose market attracts hundreds of individuals on a weekly basis from the neighboring areas. Customers are increasingly attracted to the…… [Read More]

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Certified Organic

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819610

Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in Washington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with "site-specific management practices that maintain and increase long-term soil fertility and prevent pest and diseases," (FAO "Frequently Asked Questions"). Hormones are commonly given to livestock to increase their productivity; hormones are naturally occurring biological chemicals that alter organ functions. Antibodies, proteins produced by animals and humans in response to biological…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On
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Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore There

Words: 10804 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85032312

Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore

There has been much talk surrounding the environmental issues of food production, with many now suggesting the city is the ideal place for growing food to cater for rapidly expanding urban populations. In Singapore, small-scale examples of this are emerging, such as Changi General Hospital and the Tanjong Pagar apartment complex. This dissertation will examine the Vertical Farming movement, and look at the opportunities and challenges for implementing such strategies in Singapore. The research would include sustainable building designs related to architecture and minimal agriculture. The research would consider the application of interviews and case studies in order to come up with reliable and valid results in relation to the research question.

Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore


According to the research trends on the human population, in the near future approximately over 80% of the world's population would move to urban areas in order to seek employment opportunities. This would mean the large population of the human race would reside in the urban centers in search of livelihood. Human beings have the trend of increasing their population at an alarming rate. The rate of the world's population growth is unusually high thus…… [Read More]

bibliography and sourcebook. Lafayette, CA, Soyinfo Center. .
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Green Side of IPE

Words: 2945 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18748823

Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail

Organic Gardening

Global Emerging Industry

The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or perhaps the possible agricultural realm of the organic food industry. This work will examine all aspects of the organic food industry in brief as well as exploring the marketing possibilities as well as the financial report of a sampling of those doing business within this industry.

Organic food products are growing in terms of customer demand and that is good news for those in the business and indeed for those who desire to see this industry expand which will offer more choices in health wise consumption to consumers as well as providing employment for those who may be otherwise considered non-employable due to educational limitations and finally this industry may very well provide at least some of the answers as to sustainability within communities in terms of alleviating hunger.

There exist within this industry sector and its corresponding market several options for the individual interested in this type of product base. One may decide to run a wholesale operation buying directly from farmers and then reselling to retail…… [Read More]


10 Reasons to Buy Local Food (2004) [Online] available at: 

Whole Food Market Investor Relations [Online] located at:

United States Department of Agriculture (2004) (USDA) News Release No. 0423.04[Online] available at: contentid=

Whole Foods Market: Our History [Online] available at:
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Pig Farming

Words: 2446 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95418820

Human and societal benefits and costs of pig farming.

Most are not aware that intensive pig farming really has turned into an agricultural industry that basically operating by raising live pigs for slaughtering after that it is made into pork for humans to eat. Piggeries, as the business is recognized by, is serving as a vital food source in the a lot of countries, like America which has the largest earning per capita consumption that is in the middle of red meats. The commerce is reasonably eye-catching to stockholders as its high capital responsibility and hazardous nature is resourcefully collected out by the stable appeal of a freely available market. The competitive building of the industry which does include two groups. The initial one being commercial organizations, examples of the biggest are Robina, Foremost and Monterey farms. These firms are participating in large scale productions of pigs; with masses that are typically adding in the thousands and with a lot of farms that are dispersed during the course of a widespread topographical part. Backyard farms, which are thought to be way more plentiful, comprise of the second group. Backyard developments have been raising probably less than a ninety pigs. Regardless…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Assana, E., et al. "Pig-Farming Systems and Porcine Cysticercosis in the North of Cameroon." Journal of helminthology 84.4 (2010): 441-6.

Commandeur, Monica A.M. "Styles of Pig Farming and Family Labour in the Netherlands." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 36.3 (2005): 391-II.

Leeb, Christine. "The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming." Acta Biotheoretica 59.2 (2011): 173-83.

Schaffner, Monika, Hans-peter Bader, and Ruth Scheidegger. "Modeling the Contribution of Pig Farming to Pollution of the Thachin River." Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 12.4 (2010): 407-25.
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Valerie J Matsumoto's Farming the Home Place

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86821835


In Farming the Home Place, Valerie J. Matsumoto traces three generations of Japanese-Americans living in the San Joachin Valley of California during the 20th century. Agriculture becomes an overarching, extended metaphor in Farming the Home Place. Imagery of planting roots evokes the universal immigrant experience in attempting to forge new identities for future generations. The literal experience of farming for a living has a direct parallel in the figurative forms of farming cultural identities in foreign places. Just as plant samples can be grafted and planted elsewhere, people also uproot themselves and set down new lives in a new terroir. By doing so, they create synthesized identities that combine their roots with the air, sun, soil, and water of the new land. In the process of telling the stories of Japanese families in America, Matsumoto reveals little-known aspects of American cultural history and Asian-American history in particular. Although the focus of the book is on the Japanese-American experience, Matsumoto manages to universalize the dualistic themes of diversity and discrimination; and conformity and cultural empowerment.

One of the central themes of Farming the Home Place is the "attraction of life within a close-knit community" that has already been established (3).…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Matsumoto, Valerie J. Farming the Home Place. Cornell University Press, 1993
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Green Marketing Analysis

Words: 2976 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80670346

Organic Milk Green Marketing Observation and Portfolio Analysis

Consumers' interests in purchasing organic products should be carefully treated by producers, by retailers, and by marketers that develop strategies intended to increase consumption in these areas. Organic milk is an important market segment characterized by a sensitive product that requires producers to meet high standards regarding their production process. Green marketing strategies are intended to emphasize environment friendly practices, and not to deceive customers and mislead them into thinking such products address high eco-friendly standards when in fact they do not. This analysis focuses on organic milk and on whether or not it is efficiently green marketed by retailers.


The analysis of market trends reveals customers' increased interest in purchasing and using organic products. The advantages of organics rely on their apparent influence on individuals' health, although a study developed by British scientists did not find significant improvement produced by organic food products in comparison with products for which pesticides were used. In addition to this, certain customers also think of environmental protection when selecting the products they purchase. Marketers have identified these trends and develop their marketing plans in accordance with the opportunities they present. Companies' marketing plans rely…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Johnson, F. (2012). Green Marketing Concepts: How to Cash In with Ecological Niche Marketing. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from

2. Ottman, J. (2011). The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from

3. Green Mission (2014). Whole Foods Markets. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from .

4. Whole Foods Market's Green Mission Report (2012). Whole Foods. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from
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Eating Farm Raised Salmon vs Wild Salmon

Words: 1308 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9768804


research, identify discuss basic roles HRM (Human Research Managers) professionals, explain roles changed years.

Should I eat farm-raised salmon or wild salmon?

Fish has grown increasingly popular as a source of protein for American consumers, and salmon is particularly in demand. Salmon is a fatty fish with a great deal of umami, and can satisfy the palate of even the most dedicated red meat eater. From a health standpoint, salmon is a coldwater fish very high in Omega-3 fatty acids. The American diet is believed to be too high in Omega-6 fatty acids, which should be in balance with the types of heart-protective Omega-3 fats available in sources such as fish. "The past decade has shown that these fatty acids may also strengthen the immune system and eyesight, and even improve mental health. These pluses have helped inspire Americans to more than triple their consumption of fresh and frozen salmon in the last 15 years, from 50,000 metric tons in 1990 to 180,000 in 2004" (Dobbs 2008:2). Fish is also relatively low in calories and extremely high in protein, which is of increasing concern given America's obesity epidemic. But this demand for salmon has led to…… [Read More]


Dobbs, David. (2008). The wild salmon debate. Eating Well. Retrieved at: 

Hites, Ronald A. Jeffery A. Foran, David O. Carpenter, M. Coreen Hamilton, Barbara A.

Knuth, & Steven J. Schwager. (2004). Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science, 303 (9): 226-229. Retrieved at:
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Food Inc The Industrialization of Farming and

Words: 2392 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27410920

Food, Inc.

The Industrialization of Farming and Agriculture:

Effects on the Environment and the Way We Live

The film Food, Inc. By award winning documentary maker Robert Kenner starts out with a simple goal: it wants to find out where our food comes from. In his quest to answer this question, however, Kenner, and his two narrators, Pollan and Schlosser, find some unpleasant and startling facts about the way in which our food is raised, caught and ultimately produced for mass distribution. Essentially, this wonderfully executed film exposes the negative impact that industrialization has had on farming, on our health and on our environment. This paper will thus prove these negative effects by referencing topics covered by the movie, including what society should do in order to reverse the irrevocable damage that this way of producing food is bound to have upon our society. [1: "Food, Inc.' Film Looks at Corporate Impact on What We Eat | Daily Dish | Los Angeles Times." Top of the Ticket | Jay Carney's Newest Warning to Syria on Violence | Los Angeles Times. Web. 07 May 2011. . ] [2: Official Food, Inc. Movie Site - Hungry For Change? Web. 07 May 2011.…… [Read More]

Resources. Web. 7 May 2011. . ] [14: "Monsanto ~ Monsanto at a Glance." Monsanto ~ Home. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]

The documentary thus broaches many different and important topics, all of which prove the negativity of agricultural industrialization, which is quite a sad fact. At the end of the film, change is encouraged in all areas of society. First is that people must demand good quality food. Also, consumer can "vote" to change the system, three times a day, they can buy companies that treat things with respect. They can also choose foods that are in season, that are organic. People must read labels, know what's in their foods and buy locally. They can help Congress pass laws that will protect consumers and give the USDA and the FDA the powers to protect us. These are all solutions that can alleviate the problem that is threatening our society and we can help "with every bite." [15: Food, Inc. Dir. Robert Kenner. Perf. Michael Pollan and Eric Schlosser. Magnolia Pictures, 2008. DVD. ]

The documentary is a serious social commentary that proves the negative impacts of industrialization on our society and on what we eat. This documentary is also a great place to start to see what we can do to change the world. According to a review the film has a "deceptively cheery palette, but helmer Robert Kenner's doc -- which does for the supermarket what 'Jaws' did for the beach -- marches straight into the dark side of cutthroat agri-business, corporatized meat and the greedy manipulation of both genetics and the law." This is completely true, the film is a great compilation of negatives and what we can do to turn them into positives. One can only hope that we can start changing the world sooner rather than later. [16: "ROBERT KENNER FILMS - Food, Inc." Robert Kenner Films. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]
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Chinese Village Democracy the Organic

Words: 5941 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8832081

This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.

There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political structure is still the same as in the 1970s, but national think tanks are oriented towards discussing and challenging the Leninist ideology in favor of the Marxist idea of socialism and it seems more and more likely that the Marxist ideology is used as a way to express ideas that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ding, Yijiang. Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Questia. 18 Aug. 2008

Kelliher, Daniel. The Chinese Debate over Village Self-Government.The China Journal, No 37(January 1997): 63-86

Kennedy, John James. The Face of "Grassroots Democracy" in Rural China. Asian Survey, Vol. 42, No. 3, (May - Jun., 2002),: 456-482

Kolhammar, Jens. Democracy outmanoeuvred: Village self-governance in China: A case study. China Elections and Governance. Posted June 7, 2008. Retrieved: Aug 20, 2008.
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Vertical Farming the Solution to Hunger

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95048906

Hunger is a global problem with many people in underdeveloped and developed nations experiencing malnutrition. Although some countries like the United States, produce a surplus of food, enough to feed the 300 million people in it and then some, there are still people in America that go hungry each night and suffer from health problems attributed to malnutrition. In underdeveloped countries like Guatemala and Ethiopia, many children experience starvation and die young. What can the world to solve the hunger epidemic?

Food exists in many forms from natural to process to raw to cooked. In Australia, raw fruit is imported from other countries making the cost of fruit there high. The same can be said of fruit in Japan and South Korea. Countries like Indonesia and Thailand however, have low priced fruit. One of the reasons why food, especially nutritious food like fruits and vegetables are so expensive is due to the lack of availability locally of fruits and/or vegetables. If developed countries like the United States, Australia, and Japan learn to grow their fruits locally, they can make available organic, nutritious produce to the public.

Making produce affordable is the main way to combat hunger and more importantly, malnutrition.…… [Read More]


The Independent. (2014, July 12). Japanese plant experts produce 10,000 lettuce heads a day in LED-lit indoor farm. Retrieved from
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Vitamin Supplements Vitamins Are Organic

Words: 2989 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8942485

Leon Schurgrs and Cees Vermeer of the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands hinted at the superiority of MK7. This is the ability to activate specific vitamin K proteins to bring calcium to the bones rather than the arteries. The recommended daily dosage at this time is 105 mc. Patients taking anticoagulant medications, such as Coumadin, should first consult with their doctors before taking in Vitamin K supplements. They are contraindicated (Zucker).

Prevents Risks of Congestive Heart Failure

According to another experiment, Vitamin D supplementation could reduce the risk of congestive heart failure or CHF (Schleithoff, Zittermann & Tenderich, 2006). Congestive heart failure is a chronic condition, which is characterized by dyspnea and fatigue. Irregular heart function reduces its ability to supply enough blood flow and oxygen to the tissues and organs. Approximately 5 million Americans and 10 million Europeans have been living with CHF. No improvement in the management of the disease has been noted in the last 15 years (Schleithoff, et al.).

Its cause is not clearly understood (Schleithoff, et al., 2006). The assumption recently changed from a hemodynamic cause to one, which involves neurohormonal overactivation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D3 seems to reduce inflammation…… [Read More]


Downey, M 2003, 'Advice for the really confused,' Better Nutrition, PRIMEDIA

Intertec. Available at;col1

Dye, D. 2008, 'Stress factures reduced by calcium and vitamin D supplementation,' Life

Extension, LE Publications, Inc. Available at;col1
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Weighted Decision Matrix the Purpose

Words: 469 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88788029

Secure Financing, 2. Hiring, 3. Marketing Plan, 4. Secure Retail Channels.

These criteria were selected due to the fact that they combine to make a general approach to the development of the project. Financing is necessary for obvious reasons. Hiring is important as it places the right personnel in the right places. The marketing plan also contributes to an important function of the project while securing the retail channels is the last piece of the puzzle.

Matrix and Explanation





Secure Financing








Marketing Plan




Secure Retail Channels




The example weighted matrix with categories illustrates how the category weights are used to balance out the effect of the different categories of criteria when determining the final weighted score totals. Secure financing received the highest score and the highest weighted score because of the necessity of that responsibility. While Hiring and Marketing Plan received the same scores they are both fitted as being somewhat important. Securing retail channels has received the least amount of importance due to the flexibility and many options of retail channels to distribute the crops. Also,…… [Read More]


Lori Austin Week 1. Amalgamated Organics background information.
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Ecotopia Imagined As a Thought

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50736099

There would be no nectarines and tomatoes in the dead of winter, although when these foods were eaten in season, they would be healthier, tastier, and leave less of an ecological footprint. This would require a shift in approach to buying food, and perhaps require more canning, freezing, and preserving of foods than people might have done in the past. More cooking would also be necessary, given the smaller supply of foodstuffs. Produce might also be more expensive, given the more labor-intensive practices involved in pesticide-free farming.

With the use of solar power for energy, people would no longer be able to live in a 24/7 society. Sunrise to sunset would define the day as it did so long in the past. This might make people happier, given the beneficial effects of sunlight -- it raises the mood, is full of Vitamin D, and is naturally energizing. But again, this would come at a 'cost' -- no more all-night parties, no more surfing the Internet at 12am. Of course, the miracle solar cell that provides energy through tidal and wind energy would enable the existence of some sustainable forms of non-solar energy after the sun had set, particularly during the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callenbach, Ernest. Ecotopia Imagined. Heyday Books, 1981.
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Leopold in American Earth Leopold Aldo Refers

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60928077


In "American Earth," Leopold Aldo refers to the "epidemic of ditch digging and land booming" that represents the "conqueror role" that humanity has played for most of its existence (269). The conqueror role presumes that the human species is entitled to use the earth in any way possible to achieve human ends. It is a mentality that leads to wanton destruction and misuse of land. Natural resources are depleted. Aldo also claims that the "conqueror role" precludes human beings from envisioning the aesthetic or practical functions of wilderness. Wetlands and marshes are particularly vulnerable, for as Aldo points out, even some environmentalists do not recognize their core value in the ecosystem. I agree fully with Leopold's assessment. For one, I appreciate the author's affection for marshland birds and other flora and fauna. Second, I have also witnessed the fact that the earth is filled with "dustbowls" and "rivers washing the future into the sea," (276). Finally, I agree with Aldo that there needs to be an ethic of conservation if human beings are to return to sanity. The "ethical sequence" forms the crux of Aldo's argument in "American Earth." Since Aldo wrote "American Earth," a land ethic has emerged…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldo, Leopold. American Earth. Retrieved online:

EPA (2013). "Organic Farming." Retrieved online:

Suddath, Claire. "The Problem with Factory Farms." Time. Retrieved online:,8599,1983981,00.html

USDA (2013). Overview. Retrieved online:
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Omnivore's Dilemma Michael Pollan's Award-Winning

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73281505

Moreover, vegetarianism is theoretically possible at McDonalds by eating the token salads on the menu. The token salads might still be in keeping with the tenets of agro-business but they do not contain meat products. Still, Pollan hints at how those salads support the same industries that sustain large-scale animal slaughtering.

In Chapter Seven, Pollan focuses on the ethics and the feasibility of the fast food business model as well as its effects on dietary health and well being. Without droning didactically, Pollan points out the problems with fast food: such as high levels of fat and sodium. The nutritional content of fast food is directly and causally related to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Pollan needs not delve into great detail about that which most Americans should already be aware. What Pollan does point out are the hidden ingredients in McDonald's menu items, especially in the chicken McNuggets. By the time Pollan wraps up the chapter, readers will wonder why he allowed his son to eat the McNuggets in the first place. The McNuggets contain "several completely synthetic ingredients, quasi-edible substances that ultimately come not from a corn or soybean field but from a petroleum refinery or chemical plant,"…… [Read More]


Pollan, Michael. Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin, 2006.
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Local Farmer Producers Growers One Oklahoma City

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63971947

local farmer / producers/growers. One Oklahoma City state United States. Please make crops markets include horticulture crops. Inform.informations include limited: Growers / names, farm enterprise, crops grown, acres.

Two different small farmers

Crestview Farms is a certified organic farm that grows a wide range of vegetables, fruits, and herbs. The farm is operational year 'round. Crestview places a strong emphasis on seasonal produce, although it does grow some of its produce in its greenhouse and hoophouse to allow the farm to offer food to customers twelve months a year, even during the dead of winter. Currently, the farm is offering potatoes, onions, garlic, shallots, and herbs and lettuce (the majority of which are cold-weather crops). Throughout different times of the year, it also sells tomatoes, peppers, other herbs, broccoli, squash, cabbage, beans, and many other varieties of vegetables.

All produce is grown without synthetic chemicals and no GMOs are allowed. The farm only uses OMRI (Organic Materials Research Institute)-approved products, including seeds. Although the farm is based outside of the city itself, it participates in co-op programs and online ordering for residents of the city. Its CSA (community-supported agriculture) program, in which residents buy a 'share' of the output before…… [Read More]


Crestview, Inc. Farms. Official Homepage. Retrieved: 

Paradise Farms. Official Homepage. Retrieved:
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Globalization Has Changed the Face

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28743391

Ironically, only 1% of the world's fresh water is readily accessible for direct human use. Translated into something we can understand readily: one American taking a 5-minute shower uses more water than the typical person living in a developing country slum uses in an entire day -- and most Americans take far longer than 5-minute showers. This is a crisis that must be addressed, if it is not, over the next two decades the average supply of water per person will drop by over 30%, condemning millions of people and animals to death (Atlas of a Thirsty Planet).

This assignment opened my eyes to a new way of looking at food -- I will be unable to go into a grocery store and look at rows and rows of perfect fruits and vegetables; knowing that half are thrown out while people starve. In the same manner, knowing that each American eats on average 2.5 times more calories than necessary, while many children go to bed hungry. Perhaps not only is it important that we read and research, but that we also vote with our pocketbooks; say no to egregious portions (Supersizing and places that service way too much food). We…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. May 2012. < >.

Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class and Sustainability. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2011. Print.

Holt-Gimenez, E. And R. Patel, Food Rebellions: Crisis and the Hunger for Justice. Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 2009. Print.

Local Harvest. "Family Farms." March 2009. May 2012. .
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Ecovillage Ithaca Environmental Awareness and

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17255366

One of the first major conflicts to arise cut to the core of the community's values. Some members pushed for immediate subsidized housing for new members who had nothing to invest. Others, understanding that the EcoVillage "had no money to subsidize anyone," advocated an approach that would cater to middle-class Americans (Walker 57). The rift caused many of the "idealistic" members of the community to leave almost as soon as the EcoVillage had been started (Walker 57). Conflicts over money as well as lifestyle issues are not uncommon at the EcoVillage, Walker admits.

Other conflicts include the perpetual push to participate in social activities vs. The need for solitude. Walker claims that talking openly is the key to resolving conflicts before they become problems. "Learning to deal effectively with conflict is the hardest part of living in a community," (Walker 83). Community members need to set personal boundaries and be as upfront as possible.

Cohousing has significant advantages over living in typical North American communities. The advantages include warm relationships with neighbors, a democratic community government, strong social support networks, and a peaceful lifestyle devoid of long commutes to unsatisfying jobs. Families enjoy reliable, safe child support as children are…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Walker, Liz. EcoVillage at Ithaca. New Society Publishers, 2005.
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Kudler Fine Foods California Has

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69732049

Even if not organic, they have the sustainability marketing advantage of being positioned as more 'local'


Internationally, there is a great deal of competition in the international organic wine market. Germany has made a substantial investment in growing its product, and the German government was one of the first to invest in organic wine production, followed by France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Worldwide organic wine consumption on increase, 2010, Wines from Spain).

Product offering

Kudler's wines are known for their accessibility, as are most California wines, in general. A New World wine source that is now in competition with many European wines for quality and diversity, "international demand for California wines continues to grow rapidly. In almost 20 years, exports have increased from $35 million in 1985 to a record $808 million in 2004. This is an average increase of almost 20% per year (Welcome to the Golden State, 2010, California Wines). Currently, 18% of ?total production is exported to over 125 countries" and California winegrowers have taken a voluntary vow to uphold "Code of Sustainable Winegrowing," which governs sustainability practices as well as organic farming in California (Eco-friendly, 2005, California Wines).

Product identification

Publicizing this vow of…… [Read More]


Eco-friendly. (2005). California Wines. Retrieved November 26, 2010 at

Going organic: Growing demand, tougher regulations. But is it better for you? (2009, June 29).

Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC). Retrieved November 26, 2010 at

O'Dell, Susan. (2009, January). Wine Strategy. National Export Working Group and Foreign
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Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 399728

The bargaining power of suppliers

Suppliers have a relatively high bargaining power. On a market like organic foods, suppliers are very important for companies' activity. In other words, they practically depend on their suppliers.

As a consequence, suppliers represent the most important environmental factor of influence for Whole Foods, and the same situation applies in the case of any organic foods company. This business consists mainly in the raw materials that the company uses to produce the goods it sells under this brand. The company's activity depends on the quality of the raw materials, and on any potential delays from suppliers. The prices negotiated with suppliers have a direct impact on the production costs, and on the end-user price.

SWOT Analysis


The company's strong position on the market in ensured by the numerous strengths the company benefits from. First of all, the company is renowned by the quality of its products. This further creates competitive advantage in comparison with the company's competitors. The company benefits from a long tradition on the market, becoming one of the most prominent brands in the field, and granting the company the experience is required for managing a business in this industry. Another strong…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Industry Statistics and Projected Growth (2008). Organic Trade Association. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from

2. Hunt, N. & Dorfman, B. (2009). How green is my wallet? Organic food growth slows. Reuters. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from
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Vovkun Depression This Midterm Is Top Ranking

Words: 1259 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17006397



This midterm is top ranking in comparison to the others. The outline is very detailed and on the first page, making it easier for me to see what the paper is about and where the writer wants to go through each section. The different sections are also very convincing in their claims such as writer oriented depression. I liked how he used two well-known writers and their bouts of depression and linked them together to where you can see directly and indirectly how depression fueled their career and vice versa. I also liked the use of religion as means of helping people who suffer from depression.

The quotes work very well with each subject. The progression from nature of depression to how depression affects different areas such as religion and literature is well thought out. The bibliography is long and varied with sources from texts, journals. Most of the sources are recent and the formatting throughot the paper is great, especially in regards to in text citation. There are no suggestions for this paper. It is a well crafted piece of work.

Antonia O'Hara

Farming Production and the Myths behind the Process

There was no outline. The bibliography…… [Read More]

bibliography was weak in that most of the sources were from online. He needs to find better sources. The outline was okay but there was one section: "Opposition. None that I can find. You can not get high in any way from hemp products. I have yet to discover a negative impact to the environment or society" that is not true. There is plenty opposition and some research has shown growing marijuana has led to a negative impact on the environment through supplies pollution. People growing marijuana throw away their used up supplies in ways that pollute the environment.
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Management Style for an Entire Country Simply

Words: 2045 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3454919

management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.

However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.

We should perhaps begin with some basic definitions of organic farming. We find that the concept of organic farming in Australia is quite similar to the ideas about organic farming held by officials and farm managers (and farmers) in other nations. The number of organic farmers in Australia is relatively small (perhaps 2 to 3%…… [Read More]


James, Abigail. (2002). Personal communication.

Harvey, William. (2002). Personal communication. http:/ http://www.onepine.deuk/phof.htm

Abigail James 2002.

William Harvey 2002.
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Economic Growth in the United

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89797726

These lessons would suggest the need to change or veer away from the "me first" mentality of the U.S. agriculture and its representatives. What would serve agriculture and society best would be by working to identify how broad society and its farmers desired the future agricultural sector should be structured. Corollary to this would be to use its comparative advantage in designing policy interventions, which would realistically, efficiently and effectively achieve this goal. Only through this process could the legitimate wants of farmers be balanced against their responsibilities to their broader society. Only then could agriculture have a true and successful societal basis for its farm program interventions (Poe).… [Read More]


1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001.

2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of Biotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001.

3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for Britain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000.

4. -. Organic Targets One Last Push. MIT Press Journals, 2001.
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Agriculture and New Technologies Agriculture and New

Words: 2866 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71639559

Agriculture and New Technologies

Agriculture and New Technology

Agricultural techniques and technologies have changed vastly over the last several decades contributing to significant improvements in productivity. Today, farming has become a knowledge intensive practice with more than 90% of the farmers across the world using scientific farming methods to minimize their cost and improve their yield. . The cost savings effected in terms of efficient use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides under precision farming are providing great profits for farmers who invest in such scientific methods. Genetic engineering and the emergence of GM farming have drastically improved crop yields across the world. There is no question of doubt that technology has had a significant positive impact on agriculture. Precision farming, no till farming, integrated farming and GM farming have all contributed to this positive impact.


Global agricultural production has increased significantly over the last 50 years. The economic growth in U.S. agriculture is propelled by the increased yield per unit of land. This consistently increased agricultural productivity due to technological advances could be garnered from the fact that the total agricultural output in 2008 stood at 158% higher than the total farm output in 1948 suggesting an annual growth…… [Read More]


1) USDA, (May 5, 2010), 'Agricultural Productivity in the United States', retrieved Dec 2nd 2010, from,

2) Croplife, (2010), 'Modern Agriculture', retrieved 2nd Dec, 2010, from,

3) Croplife, (2010) 'The Three Pillars of Modern Agriculture', retrieved Dec 2nd 2010, from,

4) Doug Rickman, J.C Luvall & Joey Shaw, (Nov 2003), "Precision Agriculture: Changing the face of Farming," retrieved Dec 2nd 2010, from,
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Food Justice and the Role of Local Farmers

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45022001

Fast Food Delivery

Green Bean Delivery delivers fresh produce to the door of customers who sign up for deliveries. So instead of purchasing produce (fruits, vegetables, dairies) from the grocery store (and not knowing where they come from -- Mexico, California, South America), Green Bean Delivery does all the work for you. The only question is: where do Green Bean's products come from? To find out, some investigative work was needed. This paper will show who is behind the produce that Green Bean Delivery delivers straight to the door of its customers, how it is produced, what goes into the process of growing, harvesting, transporting and preparing the items that are then sorted and shipped to customers.

The number one claim of Green Bean Delivery is that it uses organic produce and natural groceries to please its customers. This is a great claim and one that makes a lot of people happy to see -- but as Schlosser (2012) points out, the "organic" and "all-natural" label is one that can actually be misleading. His trip to the jelly bean flavor factory highlights the ways in which corporations are able to get away with the suggestion that they are using "all-natural"…… [Read More]


Claren, R. (2005). The Green Motel. Ms. Magazine.

Gottlieb, R., & Joshi, A. (2010). Food Justice. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Schlosser, E. (2012). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal.

Boston: Mariner Books
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Pollan Michael The Omnivore's Dilemma

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57384562

Although Pollan condemns conventional agriculture, he also notes that even organically-labeled food is often grown in a manner that is not much better for the environment in terms of its carbon footprint -- the regulations upon what constitutes organic food can be quite lax, and some foods that use some pesticides that are grown locally and sold in farmer's markets might not be technically organic, but leave less of a carbon footprint. As part of the research for his book, Pollan visits a commercial organic farm, which is just as mechanized as a standard commercial farm, and just as large and labor-intensive. Commercial agriculture, Pollan implies, grew to satisfy a marketing demand, not out of ideology. Consumers are gradually growing uncomfortable with the evident environmental implications of their choices and wish to 'do something,' even though they are unsure as to what that 'something' should be, and many buy commercial organic food to assuage their guilt.

Pollan is most approving of a farmer in Virginia who runs an entirely sustainable farm, using no pesticides -- even the chickens pecking at the manure break down the animal feces to fertilize the soil. This farmer, Joel Salatin, describes himself as a fundamentalist…… [Read More]

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Woke Up on the Sheets

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54452985

If I willingly buy from a company that contributes to environmental degradation or processed foods then I am part of the problem.

Saving fifty cents means nothing to me now. Just because a grocery store sells a cheap, non-organic version of a food item does not mean that I will buy it. I can almost visualize the chain of events that takes place when I make a purchase. Marketing techniques are savvy, taking into account each time a person like me opts for a slightly more expensive version of a product because it is organic. My actions in the grocery store are the equivalent of my donating money to charity. I pay more because I want to support businesses with ethics. Ours is a market-driven economy. Americans dislike governmental regulations and so rely on the market to control issues like corporate ethics. Unfortunately, not many people educate themselves about the marketplace and not many people can afford to make the choices that I do. Ideally, quality is more important than quantity. Buying food from people who take pride in what they do is a wholly different experience than buying food from people who do not care about ethics. I know…… [Read More]

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Environmental History in The Trouble

Words: 2134 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93525130

Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).

However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while bearing some of the earmarks of a cult, is nevertheless biotic in its direction," (p. 435). Cronon would note that the criticism of organic farming is itself a product of the insipid and ironic dualism that pervades the environmentalist movement. There is no reason why all farming cannot be organic…… [Read More]

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Environmental Themes

Words: 5447 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33113853

Environmental Themes in Grapes of Wrath

This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald Worster, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. Watson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.

Environmental Themes

Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment. There are a few pockets of them in history and even today, but they are indeed few and far between. Organic farming or sustainable agriculture is the closest that most have come to being simpatico with the environment, to truly understanding the cause and effect of their actions. Money seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia

Press. 2001.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.

Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
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Expanded Environmental Regulation Should Be

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40498242

General Motors, along with the other major American automotive manufactures, fought attempts to instate more stringent emissions requirements upon vehicles. Toyota worked on its hybrid fleet, using research and development to answer the challenge posed by environmental regulators. Ideally, this is the response of companies to regulation, and the prosperity of Toyota and the failure of GM was once viewed as a cautionary tale. As consumers do not always buy what is 'good for them,' and good for the environment, regulatory pressures are required to eliminate or tax products and foods that harm the environment, such as gas-guzzling cars, corn-fed beef and pesticides. This makes using these products either illegal or more expensive and costly for consumers, thus creating an artificially higher demand for more environmentally-friendly products and increasing the incentive for companies to provide other products.

The problem with viewing regulation as a solution to environmental and economic problems, however, is that R&D does not always yield the expected returns on investments. Toyota's efforts to create hybrid cars now seem overly hasty. Regulatory efforts to improve the American diet have met with political roadblocks, as advocates of conventional farming and subsidies for American cash crops have powerful interests in…… [Read More]

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Psychographic Segmentation of Starbucks

Words: 2226 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40414572

Starbucks, a Market Analysis

Starbucks is a major, world wide coffee retailer specializing in a variety of brands of blend coffee and iced beverages, among other related products. Within the market sector Starbucks exists stands several competing companies such as The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and Caribou Coffee. Each company shares similar strategies, appealing to a similar demographic, and hails themselves as the high-end of coffee-based shops/cafes. They also share a similar promise of quality ingredients and service. The difference is, while a company like Starbucks focuses on the behavior of consumers to market their product, a company like Caribou coffee relies on the taste and quality of their product, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf rely on location and ease of access.

Starbucks was selected as the primary company to analyze due to its immense popularity and success over the last decade. It has become one of the most iconic symbols of coffee. A whole culture has developed from this famous chain. In the 1970's, the first Starbucks opens. The origins of the name come from Herman Melville's Moby Dick, about 19th century whaling industry.

Starbucks offers more than 6,500 self-operated and licensed stores in over 38…… [Read More]


Mayo, E.J. (1977). The impact of the consumer's psychographic and demographic characteristics on buyer behavior: A comparative analysis of psychographics and demographics as segmentation variables in a rail passenger market. Ann Arbor, Mich: Xerox University Microfilms.

Morrison, M. (2013, September 20). Starbucks Launches Campaign Focused on Bean Quality | News - Advertising Age. Retrieved from

Starbucks Coffee Company (2011). Starbucks Company Profile. Retrieved from 

Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, A. (2004). Handbook of market segmentation: Strategic targeting for business and technology firms. New York: Haworth Press.
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Peter Singer - Ethics Peter

Words: 2190 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60734239

Chickens never see the light of day nor set foot on solid ground. They are raised in wire cages no bigger than this page -- often three to a cage -- and thus are never able to spread their wings or to establish a normal pecking order. They are so unable to move that their feet grow around the wire (Spira, 2005). Packed confinement makes them try to kill each other. The "remedy" for this is to cut off their beaks. The optimal (profitable) speed for chopping beaks off is four beaks per minute. Workers in a hurry often miss and chop the flesh instead. In egg factories when egg production slows or stops, the chicken is placed in total darkness with no food or water for three days. Faced with certain death, a last-ditch reproductive response is triggered and she lays a flurry of eggs (Scully, 2003).

Animals forced to live this way are not healthy, and obviously, from a utilitarian standpoint it would be in their best interests not to be sick.

Disease organisms are a nasty, inevitable part of raising animals this way. While massive doses of hormones are given to promote rapid growth (the shorter the…… [Read More]


Animal rights and animal welfare: The theoretical origins of new welfarism: Accessed 4/24/06:

Atlantic Monthly (2005). If pigs could swim, 296 (2), 134, 136-139.

Scully, M. (2003). Dominion: The power of man, the suffering of animals, and the call to mercy. Boston: St. Martin's Press.

DeGrazia, D. (2003). Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
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Demand for American Soy Products

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91809482

The greatest demand in Turkey for American soy products is for soy grains and soy meals that are used in organic farming. These products are used by farmers to feed poultry and other livestock an organic diet that many people believe produces healthier livestock meat than traditional methods of feeding livestock cornmeal, oats, and (especially) animal byproducts, a practice that has been linked to the spread of serious cattle diseases in Europe such as so-called "Mad Cow Disease."

That demand for consumable soy farming products has also generated a corresponding demand for the equipment typically used to crush, extract, and dry soy products from the raw ingredients used to make them. This trend also extends to the vegetarian food industry because it allows large suppliers to produce tofu and soy milk from raw material and thereby avoid the costs associated with importing prepackaged processed soy products.… [Read More]

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Decline of the American Diet

Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39593950

The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. When asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "We want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a public health hazard. Today, a ban on advertising unhealthy foods to children "would discourage eating habits that are not only hard to break, but potentially life-threatening," Schlosser insists.

Congress should create a single food safety agency that has sufficient authority to protect public health," the author continues. He offers that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Amish Are a Long-Standing Religious Sect Created

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77636972

Amish are a long-standing religious sect, created in the 17th century after the first Amish broke from the Mennonite Protestant tradition because of "what they perceived as a lack of discipline among the Mennonites" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, Religious Tolerance). The original Amish were of Swiss and German extraction. Many migrated to the U.S. In the early stages of the sect's formation, settling in Pennsylvania, and gradually branching out into New York, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri Ohio, and other states where they still reside today. No Amish remain in Europe. "The faith group has attempted to preserve the elements of late 17th century European rural culture. They try to avoid many of the features of modern society, by developing practices and behaviors which isolate themselves from American culture" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, Religious Tolerance).

The Amish used to be farmers, marking the culture as 'pastoral' in nature, although the Amish exist side-by-side with contemporary residents of modernity. However, today, "many Amish earn their living from various types of Amish-owned establishments -- small shops, businesses, carpentry, construction, retail stores, roadside stands -- as well as employment in 'English-owned' factories, restaurants, and shops" (Frequently asked questions, 2011, Amish…… [Read More]


Adult baptism. (2011). Welcome to Manchester County. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at 

The Amish: History, belief, practices. (2011). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved December 15,

2011 at

Frequently asked questions. (2011). Amish Studies. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at
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Omnivore Chapter 15-16-17 it Is

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86073128


One of the greatest strengths in Pollan's writing is the way his passion comes through so clearly. He thought very carefully about his subject before he started his research and writing. He designed his experiences so he could gather as much information as possible and make informed decisions about his choices. Pollan's writing style is clear and easy to understand. He includes factual information as well as personal experience to help persuade the reader.

This writer did not feel they were any weaknesses with the book. One could argue that Pollan did not set out to prove anything other than what he already knew or believed. That would be a valid criticism if Pollan's work was meant to be true scientific research. It is clear that Pollan had his ideas and opinions when he set out to write the book. The experiences he had supported his views. As has been stated, however, he was under no obligation to provide unbiased reporting. He stated his opinions and found the evidence to back them up.

The Omnivore's Dilemma does not tell readers exactly what they must or must not eat. Instead, Pollan urges us to eat mindfully. That is something clearly…… [Read More]


Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin.
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Starbucks One Does Not Generally

Words: 3158 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51147434

However, the growth of the corporation introduced the concept of a fiduciary duty between stockholders and board members, in both open and closed corporations. (Stevenson, p.1144). Put succinctly, the board of directors has a duty to its shareholders to increase profits, and majority shareholders may have a duty to the corporation to vote in a way that increases profits. As a result, business ethics can actually conflict with both corporate social responsibility and global corporate responsibility; because business ethics may indicate a less ethical means of practice if it would increase profits. As a result, many corporations have included responsible practices in their corporate mandate, thereby making it clear to any and all potential stockholders that one of the goals of the company is to engage in responsible and morally ethical behavior. Starbucks appears to be one such company.

Corporate Social Responsibility

It is difficult to define the notion of corporate social responsibility because different sources seem to suggest different definitions. However, it is clear that corporate social responsibility means that corporations have to take an interest in more than profits, and must consider how their actions impact their various stakeholders including: customers, employees, shareholders, and suppliers. In addition, corporate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. "The Initiative: Defining Corporate Social

Responsibility." Harvard Kennedy School. 2008. The President and Fellows of Harvard University. 12 Nov. 2008

Ethics and Policy Integration Center. "Welcome to the EPIC Global Corporate Responsibility

Web Page." EPIC. 2008. Ethics and Policy Integration Center. 12 Nov. 2008