188+ documents containing “organic farming”.
Chapter 3 Literature Review/Justification
Organic farming as a practice was developed by both experienced farmers and private gardeners in the early 1970's. hrough trial and error, these farmers, gardeners and later, newly interested scientists, worked individually and then later as research teams to develop the holistic methods that are being used around the globe today. Conventional farming has and still is the norm for the majority of agricultural production around the world; however, the organic approach continues to make headway. Obviously each of these farming approaches come with their own unique way of doing things, but as science continues to investigate the benefits of each approach, the organic option of doing things is gaining more and more valid support.
For example, Doctor Mae-Wan Ho of the Institute of Science in Society and scientists from the University of Michigan reported that organic agriculture has the capacity to provide enough food to support the….
The communication process permits individual farmers to incorporate more successful approaches to their particular needs in a case by case basis. Consider the elimination of pesticides for example. "Eliminating the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer greatly lowers the risks of nitrogen contamination of water, while crop rotation is a widely used method of fertility maintenance and pest and disease control. Most certification programmes restrict the use of mineral fertilizers, which may instead be necessary to supplement organic manure produced on the farm. However, natural and organic fertilizers from outside the farm (e.g. rock phosphate, potash, guano, seaweed, slaughterhouse by-products, ground limestone, seaweed, wood-ash) may also be used." (FAO, 2009)
Another concern in regard to this technological change is that without pesticides crops will be overrun by insects and other vermin? "From the studies mentioned above and from an increasing body of case studies, it is becoming evident that organic farming does not result in neither catastrophic crop losses due to pests nor in dramatically reduced yields as many critics from agribusiness and in academia would have us believe. A report from UC Davis predicted a 36% reduction in tomato yields in California if conventional insecticides and fungicides were eliminated." (Agricultural Issues Center 1988).
There are two unique benefits that should be also mentioned. Organic farming is a very labor intensive process. The ministers of labor should take into consideration that implementing a nationwide organic farming initiative would be an excellent source of potential employment for a great number of individuals. The second related issue is that an nationwide initiative would also create many new industries that before this type of implementation would not have existed. "Few in farming, processing, trade or consultancy today are in a position to absorb all the scientific findings on organic agriculture. There is a growing demand for this complex information to be made accessible via print media and on the Internet." (FiBL) This research project could fundamentally be a major part of a development strategy to further amplify the organic farming system for Saudi Arabia as a whole. Organic farming implementation encompasses a number of complex implementation criteria. Through case research, this proposal
When regulations increase, the tendency to cheat might increase.
2.4 Switzerland/Denmark Examples for Organic Farming
uth ossier (2005), College of Agriculture, Auburn University, purports in the study, "ole models and farm development options: A comparison of seven Swiss farm families,"
Following not yet rewritten: with the framework of agricultural policy that has changed dramatically since the 1990s including the introduction of direct payments and the enforcement of various agrarian reforms (Agricultural Policy 2002 and 2007), a high degree of flexibility has been required of Swiss farm families. The previous price- and sales-supported policy has been replaced by a policy aiming at economically, ecologically, and socially sustainable agriculture. On the one hand, this means ensuring more market proximity and competition in the agricultural sector; on the other, it entails environmentally sound production techniques that are compensated by direct payments (without the complete compensation of price decreases). This new framework has altered the room for….
This is underscored by the brief history of organic farming as
described in the text by Paull (2006). Paull would refer to a British
agriculturalist named Lord Northbourne, who would coin the term organic
farming to refer to that which viewed the whole ecology of the farm as
something which must be preserved. In his work with Lyons (2008), Paull
would renew his endorsement of organic regulatory measures, this time in
response to increased consideration of nanotechnology as a way to stimulate
food growth. This is a finding which is usefully supplemented by the
finding in the article by Badgley et al (2007), which found that in
comparative studies to traditional methods, yields from organic agriculture
were equally high. This indicates that organic methods do not damage
efforts at improving world hunger even as they protect the environment.
This underscores a primary impetus of organic farming operations
which is denoted in the report by Shepherd et al (2003), which undertook an
assessment of the….
Badgley, C.; Moghtader, J.; Quintero, E.; Zakem, E.; Chappell, M.J.; Aviles-
Bengtsson, J.; Ahnstrom, J. & Weibull, A. (2005). The effects of organic
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (arner).
The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of hole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across….
Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.
"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates a….
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
The ambition is to promote organic chocolate and its implied benefits outside of historically niche markets.
One year marketing objectives include a penetration of U.S. sales markets, where it is predicted that by 2011, the organic chocolate market will have experienced a 71% increase in sales over five years. It is the ambition of Everday to have accounted for every 20th bar of chocolate bought in the United States by that juncture. This would make for a market share of 5% by 2011, which would in all likelihood make Everyday the biggest organic player in the candy bar market.
Knudson, .A. (2007) The organic food market. Online at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:GahEBVSBncJ:www.aec.msu.edu/Product/documents/orking/organicfood1.pdf+%22health+food%22+market+growth&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
Organic Nature News (ONN). (2009). Organic Chocolate. Online at http://www.organic-nature-news.com/organic-chocolate.html
Organic Trade Association (OTA). (2009). hy Choose Organic Chocolate? The O'Mama Report. Online at http://www.theorganicreport.com/pages/194_what_s_behind_organic_chocolate_.cfm.
Knudson, W.A. (2007) The organic food market. Online at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:GahEBVSBnWcJ:www.aec.msu.edu/Product/documents/Working/organicfood1.pdf+%22health+food%22+market+growth&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
Organic Nature News (ONN). (2009). Organic Chocolate. Online at http://www.organic-nature-news.com/organic-chocolate.html
Organic Trade Association (OTA). (2009). Why Choose Organic Chocolate? The O'Mama Report. Online at http://www.theorganicreport.com/pages/194_what_s_behind_organic_chocolate_.cfm
Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin (orthington 990-991). Considering the benefits identified with aspirin use, who wouldn't rather get the same effects from a natural and pleasant tasting source instead of a bitter pill?
Not only can organic produce provide valuable nutrients better than traditional produce, but the absence of pesticides and other chemicals used on conventional farms is also a boon to the consumer. Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides have a notorious history of being dangerous carcinogens. The highest death rates in the United States of certain cancers can be found in the rural farming areas of the country. Migrant workers have also demonstrated abnormally high rates of cancer that have been shown to be linked to herbicide and pesticide use (Steingraber 64). If these substances are….
United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Food Standards and Labels. Brochure.
Dauncey, Guy. "Ten Reasons Why Organic Food is Better." Common Ground, April 2002: 17-19.
Worthington, Virginia. "The Effects of Agricultural Method on Nutritional Quality."
Alternative Therapies, 1998:4.
Farm Report in Kansas
Terry Carey is a very famous local farmer in Kansas City. She deals with horticultural farm produce such as apples, ornamental corn, popcorn, water melons, cucumbers, winter squash and pumpkins with pumpkins being her major crop. Pumpkins are generally warm-loving crops therefore she plants them in June and they are often ready by September or mid-October. The size of her farm is 1,025 acres where she normally tries to distribute all the crops that she grows evenly on the land. However during the period between June and September she dedicates her entire farm to pumpkins and leaves out other crops. She plants mainly two varieties on her farm which are the giant ones that are greater that 20lb in size known as prize winner. This one takes 120 days to mature and they have a good color and shape. The second variety she plants is Jack-o'Lantern which….
Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of debt to be foisted on the next generation (2007)."
Paul Roberts (2008) writes that it incumbent upon first world nations, like the United States and the UK to set the pace for world policy when it comes to food, and to recognize the harm that food subsidy programs causes economically, and socially. Unfortuately, Roberts also points to the government's susceptibility to special interest (296), and we should add, self-interest. So long as we find elected officials reaping profits from farm subsidies, and so long as they are influenced by corporate special interest, then we will continue to see the government interference in agricultural free trade in the form of subsidies.
Bafalikike, Lokogo. orld Trade: A Scandal that Must End, New African, Nov….
Bafalikike, Lokogo. World Trade: A Scandal that Must End, New African, Nov 2002,
Edwards, Chris. Ten Reasons to Cut Farm Subsidies, Examiner.com, June 28, 2007,
found online at Cato Institute, at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=8459 , retrieved February 3, 2010. Website.
USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned anch
Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small farmer. The problem is to understand the process by which a family owned ranch could become USDA certified for organic beef. What are the necessary steps and important factors to consider from beginning the process to marketing to retailers?
Understanding USDA Organic
The government-managed organic food certification program is USDA Organic. Within this certification system, organic food production follows guidelines laid out in the Organic Foods Production-Act of 1990 and amended according to Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005. These regulations take into consideration site-specific conditions "integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, 2011) Included in OFPA are rules for farm planning, livestock handling, use of pesticides and synthetic….
Certified Naturally Grown. (2011). Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from CNG: http://www.naturallygrown.org/
MOSES. (2008). Local and Organic, Not an Either/Or Issue Fact Sheet.
MOSES. (2008). Transitioning to Organic Beef Production Fact Sheet.
Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education. (2010). Grants Information / Grants / SARE Nationwide. (USDA, Producer) Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from SARE Grant Information: http://www.sare.org/Grants/Grants-Information
In India, for instance, the Green Revolution has resulted in an overwhelming abundance and surplus of food, most of which rots away in government silos.
Indian leaders must experiment with different socio-economic changes - perhaps, for instance, a better reaction to the remnants and shadows of the caste system - that will result in a more equal distribution of wealth among the nation's people. At this point, the Green Revolution's production of an abundance of food only affects the wealthy: They are able to buy even more food, and the poor continue to have no money or access to the food.
A concerted effort to implement Green Revolution methods of increasing the yield on farms through technology and chemicals must be balanced by socio-economic change that allows the nations' poorest to benefit as well. However, this process must be balanced against the environmental hazards posed by Green Revolution farming strategies. As….
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with….
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail
Global Emerging Industry
The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or perhaps the possible agricultural realm of the organic food industry. This work will examine all aspects of the organic food industry in brief as well as exploring the marketing possibilities as well as the financial report of a sampling of those doing business within this industry.
Organic food products are growing in terms of customer demand and that is good news for those in the business and indeed for those who desire to see this industry expand which will offer more choices in health wise consumption to consumers as well as providing employment for those who may be otherwise considered non-employable due to educational limitations and finally this industry may very well provide at least some of the answers as to sustainability….
10 Reasons to Buy Local Food (2004) [Online] available at: http://www.mariquita.com/articles/10reasons.local.htm
Whole Food Market Investor Relations [Online] located at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/investor/fiscal04highlights.html
United States Department of Agriculture (2004) (USDA) News Release No. 0423.04[Online] available at: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/p/s.70a/7010B?contentidonly=true& ; contentid=
Whole Foods Market: Our History [Online] available at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/history.html
Organic Milk Green Marketing Observation and Portfolio Analysis
Consumers' interests in purchasing organic products should be carefully treated by producers, by retailers, and by marketers that develop strategies intended to increase consumption in these areas. Organic milk is an important market segment characterized by a sensitive product that requires producers to meet high standards regarding their production process. Green marketing strategies are intended to emphasize environment friendly practices, and not to deceive customers and mislead them into thinking such products address high eco-friendly standards when in fact they do not. This analysis focuses on organic milk and on whether or not it is efficiently green marketed by retailers.
The analysis of market trends reveals customers' increased interest in purchasing and using organic products. The advantages of organics rely on their apparent influence on individuals' health, although a study developed by British scientists did not find significant improvement produced by organic food products….
1. Johnson, F. (2012). Green Marketing Concepts: How to Cash In with Ecological Niche Marketing. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=8yJLxn2bLZkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=green+marketing&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=CD5tU-eZDqWkyAP8soDoAw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=green%20marketing&f=false.
2. Ottman, J. (2011). The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=uIDO3Gr-4usC&printsec=frontcover&dq=green+marketing&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=Fz9tU_enPIenyAPtuIDgBA&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=green%20marketing&f=false .
3. Green Mission (2014). Whole Foods Markets. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/mission-values/environmental-stewardship/green-mission .
4. Whole Foods Market's Green Mission Report (2012). Whole Foods. Retrieved May 9, 2014 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Core%20Value/2012GreenMissionReport_0.pdf .
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant
Identification of the Opportunity
Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things like organic eating, healthy diets, and the ability to combat food deserts. The area in which the establishment is located lacks quality food options. Therefore, the company has an opportunity to market healthy, organic food options that can improve the quality of lives. As the baby boomers enter the seniors' age and as the society develops a strong interest in the quality of life, the company can approach this opportunity from various angles to succeed and differentiate from other eateries.
An Assessment of the Opportunity
Today, organic food is one of the growing trends. The consumer demand for organic food has been on the rise in the last five years, which means 3 Squares Restaurant may reap, from such a business; the management….
Chapter 3 Literature Review/Justification Organic farming as a practice was developed by both experienced farmers and private gardeners in the early 1970's. hrough trial and error, these farmers, gardeners and…Read Full Paper ❯
When regulations increase, the tendency to cheat might increase. 2.4 Switzerland/Denmark Examples for Organic Farming uth ossier (2005), College of Agriculture, Auburn University, purports in the study, "ole models and farm…Read Full Paper ❯
This is underscored by the brief history of organic farming as described in the text by Paull (2006). Paull would refer to a British agriculturalist named Lord Northbourne, who would coin…Read Full Paper ❯
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the…Read Full Paper ❯
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come…Read Full Paper ❯
The ambition is to promote organic chocolate and its implied benefits outside of historically niche markets. One year marketing objectives include a penetration of U.S. sales markets, where it…Read Full Paper ❯
Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin…Read Full Paper ❯
Farm Report in Kansas Terry Carey is a very famous local farmer in Kansas City. She deals with horticultural farm produce such as apples, ornamental corn, popcorn, water melons, cucumbers,…Read Full Paper ❯
Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of…Read Full Paper ❯
USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned anch Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small…Read Full Paper ❯
In India, for instance, the Green Revolution has resulted in an overwhelming abundance and surplus of food, most of which rots away in government silos. Indian leaders must experiment…Read Full Paper ❯
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not…Read Full Paper ❯
Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail Organic Gardening Global Emerging Industry The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or…Read Full Paper ❯
Organic Milk Green Marketing Observation and Portfolio Analysis Consumers' interests in purchasing organic products should be carefully treated by producers, by retailers, and by marketers that develop strategies intended to…Read Full Paper ❯
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant Identification of the Opportunity Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things…Read Full Paper ❯