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Organisational Cultures and the New NHS
The role of the PFI in the NHS
This chapter aims to analyse the United Kingdom's (UK's) National Health Service (NHS), revealing its origins and the key aspects of organizational culture in both the public and private sectors.
The PFI in the UK is now one of the major ways in which public sector services have been created in the UK (roadbent, et al., 2002). However, it has been under public scrutiny regarding its operation in the National Health Service (NHS).
PFI calls upon the private sector to supply asset-based services to the public sector over a long period (up to 60 years) in exchange for monthly lease payments (roadbent, et al., 2002). PFI was officially created in 1992 under the Conservative Government but was furthered by the Labour Government when it came into power in 1997.
The Labour Government has expanded the PFI…
Baker M., Making sense of the NHS White Papers (2nd Ed), Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxon.
Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (BRII). (July 2001). The complexity of Culture. Crown Publishing.
Broadbent, Jane, Gill, Jas, Laughlin, Richard. (January, 2002). The Private Finance Initiative in the National Health Service in the UK: Value for Money? The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.
Davies HTO, Nutley SM. (2000). Developing learning organisations in the new NHS. British Medical Journal, pp. 998-1001.
Fortress Culture: Employees don't know if they'll be laid off or not. These organisations often undergo massive reorganisation. There are many opportunities for those with timely, specialized skills. Examples are savings and loans, large car companies, etc."
According to research, Sainsbury's appears to be a fortress company, as it is struggling to find the right strategy and culture for its business.
Edgar Schein, a cultural analysis, has contributed a great deal of literature regarding aspects of organisations that seem irrational, frustrating, and intractable (Deal and Kennedy, 2000). According to Schein, p. 375): "The bottom line for leaders is that if they do not become conscious of the cultures in which they are embedded, those cultures will manage them." ecause Schein uses open-systems concepts, it is understood that members of a group culture may also belong to subcultures within a company. Since organisations have a shared history, there will typically be…
Bevan, Julie. Murphy, Rita. (December, 2001). The nature of value created by UK online grocery retailers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Volume 25 Issue 4-Page 279.
BQF (1998) The X Factor - Winning Performance through Business Excellence British Quality Foundation.
Computer Weekly. (December 12, 2002). Put the people element first. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.computerweekly.com/Article118155.htm .
Cunningham, Ian. (1999). Learning Issues. 't' Magazine.
.....organisational environment can be an important source of wellbeing for individuals. This is particularly true if the environment encourages social interactions. Indeed, literature has demonstrated that social interactions in an organisation are crucial for generating positive emotions, which may in turn contribute to desirable employee outcomes such as lower cases of interpersonal conflict, reduced absenteeism, increased loyalty, and higher productivity (Biggio & Cortese, 2013). The connection between positive employee outcomes and positive organisational outcomes cannot be understated. Humans are naturally social beings, and their contact with others is as important as food and other basic needs. Since majority of adults spend a substantial portion of their life at work, the organisational environment is crucial for promoting individual wellbeing. It provides an ideal breeding ground for positive relationships. However, it is unfortunate that most organisations are yet to realise the value of social interactions. The widespread cases of unhappiness at the…
Endothon and Techfite have different corporate cultures. Endothon, a space exploration agency, has a customer-oriented culture, which can also be referred to as a task-oriented culture. The organisation focuses on results and productivity, and is driven by safety and innovation. This shows that the organisation is more concerned about the task and fulfilling the needs of its customers. While a task-oriented culture is important for enhancing productivity and customer satisfaction, it can result in reduced work morale, motivation, and commitment as there is little or no focus on the needs and welfare of employees. Techfite, on the other hand, has an employee-oriented culture. This is a culture that values the contribution of employees, and seeks to maximise their welfare by fulfilling their needs. Techfite achieves this by offering flexibility and empowerment. Though an employee-centred culture is important for motivating employees, it can result in less focus on productivity.…
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Every organisation should have a set of underpinning values, and this is especially true of non-profit organisations, which exist for reasons other than earning profit. The values are typically embedded not only in the strategic objectives that leadership sets for the organisation but also in the methods by which the organisation seeks to attain those objectives. The values set the cultural tone for the organisation, and the culture influences organisation actions and outcomes. The amount of study on this subject, however, has been minimal in management literature. This paper will examine the relationship between organisational culture, organisational values and organisational strategic objectives, with an emphasis on the non-profit sector. The values that underpin an organisation should be reflected both in the culture and the objectives, but the nature of this relationship remains relatively unexplored. This is the gap that the present paper will seek to fill.
Berson, Y., Oreg, S. & Dvir, T. (2008). CEO values, organisational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organisational Behavior. Vol. 29 (5) 615-633.
Boxx, W., Odom, R. & Dunn, M. (1991) Organisational values and value congruency and their impact on satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion: An empirical examination within the public sector. Public Personnel Management. Vol. 20 (2) 195-205.
Colley, S., Lincolne, J. & Neal, A. (2013). An examination of the relationship amongst profiles of perceived organisational values, safety climate and safety outcomes. Safety Science. Vol. 51 (2013) 69-76.
Gregory, B., Harris, S., Armenakis, A. & Shook, C. (2009). Organisational culture and effectiveness: A study of values, attitudes and organisational outcomes. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 62 (2009) 673-679.
Organisational culture is defined as a "consistent, observable pattern of behaviour in an organisation" (Watkins, 2013). The patterns of behaviour that define a culture are reinforced through the artefacts of culture, including slogans, imagery, written statements, posters, mission statements and vision statements. Culture is therefore reinforce directly by the organisation, which sends the message about the patterns of behaviour that define the organisation repeatedly, because repetition is critical to ensure that the message is received and implemented consistently. Hofstede (2015) argues that there are a number of different dimensions along which an organisation's culture can be understood: means-oriented versus goal-oriented, internally-driven vs. externally-driven, work discipline, open vs. closed system, degree of formality, employee-oriented vs. work-oriented and the degree to which an employee is expected to identify with the organisation. Some organisations have strong cultures, others have weak ones, but the best organisations have cultures that closely align with firm objectives.…
Anders, G. (2012). The 20 most desired employers: From Google to Nike Accenture. Forbes. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgeanders/2012/10/11/the-20-most-desired-employers-from-google-to-loreal/
Hofstede (2015). Organisational culture. Geert Hofstede.com. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/ organisational-culture.html
Jackson, L. (2013). Strong organizational culture: How Nike drives innovation. Corporate Culture Pros. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from https://www.corporateculturepros.com/2013/06/strong-organizational-culture-how-nike-drives-innovation/
Nisen, M. (2013). At Nike, workers quote the company's maxims like the 10 commandments. Business Insider. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.businessinsider.com/nikes-corporate-culture-2013-2?r=U.S.&IR=T
As a consequence, the personnel strategy must be elaborated and implemented based on the following relevant aspects for the organization: the project's mission, objectives, success factors, organization's strategy, and the analysis of the internal and external environment.
Basically, the process of elaborating human resources strategies is the result of a continuous analysis or diagnosis process of all the activities performed within the organization and of the directions that the organization follows.
In the case of Greater Manchester's transport investments process, this is a very important condition. The project must be closely and continuously monitored. All the activities comprised by the project must be controlled, so that they are performed in accordance with the established standards.
The main purpose of the analysis is to identify the human resources of the organization that are able to be introduced in the project and to establish a correlation with strategic decisions that affect the…
Creating a 21st Century transport system (2008). Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Authority. Retrieved October 29, 2008 at http://www.gmfuturetransport.co.uk/default.aspx.
Project management (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 30, 2008 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management .
Arnold, John (2007). AGMA Test Review. Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Retrieved October 30, 2008
Belcourt, M. (1998). Managing Human Resources. Second Canadian Edition, ITP Nelson. Retrieved October 30, 2008
Organizational Behavior - pages answers questions: Why ethical issues a major concern organizations? What individual influences impact ethical behavior? How organizations influence ethical behavior employees? MUST a recent article Wall Street Journal, reputable publication, ethical issues addressed a corporation today.
In every organization there is a code of ethics that is to be followed by the employees so as to ensure co-existence and smooth running of the organizations activities. Organizational behavior refers to the examination of individual actions in relation to the workplace setting comprising of the fields of management, communication, psychology and sociology. Within any social setting interactions, varied factors come up that bring about a lot of controversy over what is the standard code of ethics for organizations. The workers who co-exist effectively enhance organizational development whereby individual and organizational performance is improved, the workers feel motivated, satisfied and committed eddy, 2004()…
Bowie, N.E., & Schneider, M. (2011). Business ethics for dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley.
Isbister, J. (2001). Capitalism & Justice: Envisioning social and economic fairness. Virginia Reddy, R.J.P. (2004). Organizational behaviour. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Organisational Development Plan
Implementation of the Development Plan
Evaluation of the Development Plan
Organisational Development at SPCA
Of all Queensland's societies and organisations dedicated to the prevention of animal cruelty and bettering the lives of animals, the oyal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (SPCA Qld) is the oldest. The organisation needs approximately $42 million in funding every year to help build and maintain the various programs and services it offers. Since SPCA Qld is a community-based non-government charity, most of its funding comes from donations, sponsorships and bequests from the local community. Government funding accounts for less than 1% of the money it receives (SPCA Queensland, 2016).
The organisation boasts a rich and interesting history that spans 130 years. It started with just a single supporter and has now grown into a sizeable organisation with 270 remunerated employees and 3,000 dedicated…
Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change management. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Anderson, K. A., Brandt, J. C., Lord, L. K., & Miles, E. A. (2013). Euthanasia in Animal Shelters: Management's Perspective on Staff Reactions and Support Programs. Anthrozoos, Vol 26, Issue 4, 569-578. Retrieved from Taylor and Francis Online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.2752/175303713X13795775536057?needAccess=true
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2008). Stress Bustesr. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from ABC: http://www.abc.net.au/tv/stressbuster/episodes/.html
By, R., & Macleod, C. (2009). Managing organisational change in public services: international issues, challenges and cases. New York: Routledge.
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…
Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html .
Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.
Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.
Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
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Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
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Many countries developed their own automobile industries, and did so in order to create jobs, for national security reasons, and simply because shipping cars overseas was impractical for much of the 20th century. This paper will look at three major automobile manufacturers, one each from Europe, Japan and America, to examine the differences and similarities between them. Each company evolved differently, and did so on the basis of both national culture and in terms of the markets in which they operated. The companies studied are Ford, Hyundai and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. The latter makes a nice case study because it is a French-Japanese firm, one of the biggest and most powerful transnational automakers, but a model that if successful might be replicated increasingly in the future.
American automakers are depicted both as monolithic giants, and as dinosaurs at the same time. It is only grudgingly that international press talks about…
Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel
A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:
Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…
Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.
Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.
Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.
Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
Applying Organisational Consulting Strategies
Consulting fundamentals can be of great value to an organization. This paper explores the application of consulting strategies to functional areas within an organisation, notably leadership, organisational conflict, organisational communication, organisational ethics, as well as employee motivation and team management. Attention is specifically paid to the importance of each area, the information and metrics that may be used to assess each area, and the consulting strategy that would be most effective in addressing each area.
The importance of effective leadership -- both at the executive and middle management levels -- in any organisation cannot be overemphasised. Effective leadership is important for influencing a group of people to work toward achieving a defined goal or objective (Sperry, 2002). Any organisation strives to achieve a certain goal or objective. It is the role of leadership to initiate the action necessary to achieve the goal or objective as…
Block, P. (2011). Flawless consulting. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Flynn, G. (2008). Leadership and business ethics. New York: Springer.
French, R., Rayner, C., Rees, G., & Rumbles, S. (2011). Organisational behaviour. 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley.
Lewis, L. (2011). Organisational change: creating change through strategic communication. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
culture include the structural placement of the IT function within the organization, and the philosophical approach to the development, deployment, and use of IT. In terms of changing and transforming an organization, the philosophical approach to the use of IT is the most challenging. The philosophical approach is more abstract, and therefore demands deeper thought about the nature of information technology, the nature of information, the power issues associated with information, and the ethics of information technology. These issues are difficult to grapple with as an individual, and in a group setting, philosophical issues are even tougher to come to terms with. Most organizations are diverse and highly complex. Therefore, it might be hard to find consensus on the philosophical approach to the development, deployment, and use of information technology.
At the same time, information technology has an important philosophical component that must be addressed by managers at some point…
MacKechnie, C. (n.d.). Information technology and its role in the modern organization. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/information-technology-its-role-modern-organization-1800.html
"Organisational Placement of the IT Function," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.isaca.org/Groups/Professional-English/po4-4-organisational-placement-of-the-it-function/Pages/Overview.aspx
Learning Log: Organizational Culture
An increasingly globalized marketplace and multicultural society demand a solid understanding of others' cultures, particularly with regards to interpersonal communications. These issues are especially important in the workplace where effective communication requires a careful balance of appreciation and recognition of cross-cultural differences that may affect the exchange. Although common courtesy and common sense will go a long way in preventing inadvertent cross-cultural communications gaffs, it is also important to understand the more salient workplace behaviors that may be regarded as offensive by people from other cultures.
Questions that resulted
What types of workplace behaviors are universally acceptable, if any, irrespective of the culture(s) involved?
What types of workplace behaviors are generally prohibited based on cultural factors?
How can the views of cultural theorists such as Geert Hofstede and others help inform the cross-cultural communication process in the workplace?
Relative positions with respect to the presented…
Learning Log: Reflections
Culture can refer to many different aspects of human life that affect personal and professional relationships. We usually think of culture in terms of nationality: the Japanese culture, for example, is said to emphasize personal relationships and interconnectedness more than individualistic American culture. Cultures are often classified as more 'high context' or more 'low context' in orientation. In 'high context' cultures, inside knowledge, the relative position of someone on a leadership hierarchy and an awareness of the 'double meaning' of certain gestures is more important, than in a low context culture in which 'what you say is what you mean,' such as in the U.S.
Learning about different cultural perspectives and worldviews has made me more mindful about contextualizing my own. I have also noticed that even within nations, culture may vary -- a company located in an urban environment, versus one located in a rural…
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & David Kessler. 2010. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Grief.com. Accessed at http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of-grief / [December 27, 2010]
McNamara, Carter. 1999. Basic context for organizational change. Management help.
Accessed at http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm#anchor493930 [December 27, 2010]
McNamara, Carter. 2000. Organizational culture. Management help. Accessed at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm [December 27, 2010]
Taking the relationship of employee morale and its linkage with organizational culture to the most extreme case, Yaghi (2007) studied how decision-making processes are implemented in companies where there is a dominant organizational culture. Selecting a faith-based organization as one of the cases for the study, the author determined how decision-making is mainly influenced by the organizational culture, influenced by the values of solidarity, guardianship, and (belief in a) mission (361). While from an organizational effectiveness perspective, this kind of decision-making is not recommended, Yaghi ultimately pointed out that organizations with a highly-organized and dominant culture results to improved employee morale and commitment, mainly because subsistence to the values of solidarity, guardianship, and commitment to the mission "strengthen (the) relationship among organization's members" (357).
From this review of literature relevant to employee morale and its link with organizational culture, it was established how person-to-job fit or subjective fit in the…
Deem, J. (2010). "The relationship of organizational culture to balanced scorecard effectiveness." SAM Advanced Management Journal.
Dixon, M. And D. Dougherty. (2010). "Managing the multiple meanings of organizational culture in interdisciplinary collaboration and consulting." Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, No. 1.
LaGuardia, D. (2008). "Organizational Culture." T+D (Training and Development).
Liu, S. (2009). "Organizational culture and new service development performance: insights from knowledge intensive business service." International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 3.
Virgin's Organizational Culture
Model of the organization
Organizational culture is built around three aspects: (1) complexity, (2) formalization, and (3) centralization.
Complexity: Complexity depends on the hierarchical structure of the organization, the larger it is generally the more complex it is. Complexity, then, is reduced to three tiers: vertical, horizontal, and geographical.
Vertical: The larger the depth of layer the more 'vertical' the organization is. A complex and broad organization, therefore, would generally have more layers than one less complex (Bartol, Twein, Matthews, & Martin, 2007). Branson was an exception to this. Though leader of exceedingly broad and complex operations, he managed to reduce the structure of verticality by splitting Virgin Groups up into multiple small companies. Branson believed that employees preferred to work under small companies than under large impersonal corporations. By the late 1980s, for instance, he had fragmented his collection of companies into more than 100 loosely…
Bartol, K., Twein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D. 2007, Management: A Pacific Rim Focus, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.
Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M., 1961, The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London.
Cherrington, D.J. Orgnizational Behavior, 1994. USA: Alleyn & Bacon
Cooperrider, D.L., & Godwin, L. 2010. 'Positive Organization Development: Innovation-inspired Change in an Economy and Ecology of Strengths'. Appreciative Inquiry Commons. http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/intro/comment.cfm
These codes of ethics play a very important role in any industry.
In this particular pharmaceutical company, if the art, copy, medical and the quality assurance department will bear in the mind about these codes of ethics,
It should be noted that a company is always pursuing for just one direction, for one common goal, hence everybody must also be working on that common direction. It is important that every employee understand that before each makes his/her own initiatives it is better to know the company first because there are times that some they do not understand fully the main objective of the company thereby making jump in to conclusions sacrificing the ultimate goal of the company.
Like for example in the University of Western Australia (obson 1005), their teaching on organizational management is focused on main key principles: (1) Equity and Justice (2) respect for People and (3) Personal…
Robson, Allan. Code of Ethicss & Code of Conduct. Vice-Chancellor, University of Western Australia. September 2005. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:VoFMZJRAOEYJ:www.hr.uwa.edu.au/publications/code_of_ethicss+Personal%2BCode%2Bof%2BEthicss+Human+Resources&hl=en&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=2
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
esolving Organizational Culture Issues
Situational Overview and Background of the Issues
The organisation consists of 43 employees managed by a management team of 3 males in their middle 60s: a Director, General Manager, and National Sales Manager. The average age of the employees is 30, and only 3 of the employees are female. The 3 managers all adhere to very outdated authoritarian management styles and communication patterns, routinely resorting to verbal abuse and screaming. The managers maintain very high expectations; meanwhile, they pay their employees less than is standard within their industry. Female employees are paid even less for doing the same jobs as their male counterparts and they receive less respect and deference than male colleagues in identical positions. The management team spends a large percentage of company profits, partly because they adamantly refuse to adopt newer technologies that have already become standard in contemporary business organisations as well…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., and Weber, T.J. "Leadership: Current Theories,
Research, and Future Directions." Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 60 (2009).
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Accessed 5 August 2012 from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
Fitch, B. "Good Decisions: Tips and Strategies for Avoiding Psychological Traps." FBI
An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor
When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.
The paper examines the organizational culture of a…
Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.
Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.
Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.
Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
Globalisation Led to a Convergence of Business Cultures and Practices?
Globalisation, generally defined as the economic, political, and cultural convergence of the world, is undoubtedly a major hallmark of the modern world (French, 2010). The world has increasingly become interconnected in terms of economic activities, communication, technology, social aspects, as well as politics. Indeed, the once diversified and distanced world has converged into a small global village because of globalisation. Globalisation has led to the interdependence of not only politics and economic activities, but also culture (Grewal, 2008). Cultural convergence is now a widely-recognised phenomenon (Cojocaru, 2011). Owing to increased contact amongst people from diverse cultural backgrounds, cultural practices have become ever more similar, consequently resulting in the convergence of business cultures and practices. Organisations now experience lesser cultural difficulties when doing business across cultures. As a result, the study of comparative business cultures may be becoming less relevant. While…
This is why a Learning Organization will always be very competitive on the market. It will be able to adapt to the changes in the said market and thus profit. Also, a very important element in a Learning Organization is the fact that it and its members share a vision. This is why they are learning and evolving, because they have a goal. Unlike other companies where the employers come to work only motivated by their salary and they feel they work for their boss who is in fact the one gaining. Learning Organizations have managed to change this point-of-view.
Learning Organizations have been developed so that companies are able to keep up with the fast pace of changes and become more and more competitive on the market. Learning is leading to innovation and innovation is leading to improvement: "work has been thought of as being conservative and difficult to…
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American Society for Information Science and Technology, the State University of New Jersey, Retrieved on January 21, 2007, Available online at http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~clairemc/Lrnorg2.htm
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From these findings, while the present analysis cannot argue that any universal conclusions have been produced, said analysis may put forth the argument that fewer than half of respondents justify a resolution that there is a connection between the procedural justice applied in the redundancy process and the perception held of general organisational justice by many of the employees that are left behind. That said, it would still be appropriate given the inconclusive nature of the present section of findings to recommend a study which distills the connection between procedural justice and the general perception of redundancy survivors of broader organisational justice.
The findings in this section would also be somewhat inconclusive. In this section, researchers would seek to establish a connection between employee perceptions of broader organisational justice and the justice shown to remaining members of the organisation through redundancy procedures. For survivors, that is, there is…
Streeter, C.L. (1992). Redundancy in Organizational Systems. Social Service Review, 66(1), 97-111.
adical Humanist Approach to Organizational Analysis
Patagonia is a small company that began by making perfect pitons for rock climbers. The company was founded by a band of climbers and surfers who lived the minimalist lifestyle they promoted. The company makes clothing and gear for the silent sports -- no motors or engines are involved -- of skiing, snowboarding, surfing, fly fishing, paddling, and trail running" ("Patagonia," 2012). For the founders, the reward in each sport comes at the nexus that takes "the form of hard-won grace and moments of connection" between them and nature ("Patagonia," 2012). The corporate mission of Patagonia is to make the best possible products and to cause no unnecessary harm while engaged in that effort.
The research in this study is grounded in critical theory and phenomenology. The personal accounts given by employees of Patagonia are expressions of how they experience…
Arnold, T.W. (1938). The Folklore of Capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (1991). Reframing organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications.
Barnard, C. (1938). Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bower, M. (1966). The Will to Manage: Corporate Success Through Programmed Management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
Administration & Policy Development
The author of this report is to engage in an assessment task that centers on human services and social workers in a clinical setting. The author of this report shall be focusing on the social work department in a hospital and juxtaposing the conditions and issues within that hospital to the scholarly research that is to be referenced and mentioned throughout this report. At specific issue is the number of patients being seen by the social workers, the high physical and mental demands that this fact and others put on the social workers and the remedies that can be conjured up and implemented to address both of those issues. Complicating these aggravating factors are penny-pinching bureaucrats that are focused on budget limits and saving dollars than preserving the mental health of the employees and quality of care for the patients. While solutions may seem elusive, they…
Bargal, D & Schmid, H 1993, 'Organizational change and development in human
service organizations: a prefatory essay', Administration in Social Work, vol. 16,
no. 3, pp. 1 -- 13
Cameron, K & Quinn, R, 2011, 'An introduction to changing organisational culture', in K,
The purpose of this discussion is to provide a Plan and develop a training program within the organization known as AT&T. Human Resource Development The part of human resource management that specifically deals with training and development of the employees. Human resource development includes training an individual after he/she is first hired, providing opportunities to learn new skills, distributing resources that are beneficial for the employee's tasks, and any other developmental activities (Human Resource Development)."
AT&T is one of the oldest companies in the world. Its inception began in 1876, when Alexander Graham ell invented the telephone. Since this time the company has grown tremendously. The mission of the company is to "connect people with their world, everywhere they live and work, and do it better than anyone else (Company Information)." At the current time AT & T. is a leading provider of IP-based communications. The company also has…
"A Brief History: The New AT&T." Available [Online] http://www.corp.att.com/history/history5.html
Ante, S.E., et. al., (2011)Skepticism Greets AT&T Theory. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) p. B1-2
Bates, R. (2004) A critical analysis of evaluation practice: the Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence. Evaluation and Program Planning. 27(3), 341-347
Company Information. Available [Online] http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5711
Human esource Management
Using the example of Google, evaluate whether the following H practices/policies is strategic or not. Does this H practice help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives?
In this paper, we are going to be looking at the impact of different policies and procedures on Google. This will be accomplished by studying the strategies that they are using to attract and retain employees. Once this takes place, is when we can show how these ideas have helped the firm to transform the company.
Over the last several years, the issue of employee compensation has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization is having a dramatic impact upon firm, as they need specialized employees to deal with a host of challenges. Those firms that are able to dominate the industry are able to attract the best talent. This helps to give them a competitive…
100 Companies to Work For, 2012. CNN. Available from: [10 May 2012].
Benefits, 2012, Google. Available from:
" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).
Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…
Bolman, LG & Deal, TE (1997). Reframing Organisations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 2nd ed, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Bowden, P (1985). Organisation and Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Roseville.
Byrne, JA. (1996, August 26). Strategic Planning. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm .
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Globalisation has presented business organisations with an opportunity to do business internationally. Today, multinational corporations (MNCs) are prevalent, with many commanding immense power in the global marketplace. Nonetheless, operating in the global scene is usually not a straightforward undertaking. The global business environment presents numerous complexities, which MNCs must effectively deal with if they are to be successful (Noorderhaven and Harzing, 2003).
One of the major complexities MNCs face relate to human resource management (HRM). Indeed, managing human resources in the international context can be a daunting task. This is particularly because of considerable cultural, institutional, economic, and political differences across countries (Thite, Wilkinson and Shah, 2012). National (country-of-origin) characteristics tend to influence how MNCs behave in the host country. They influence not only corporate strategy, but also the kind of HRM practices MNCs adopt in the host country (Sethi and Elango, 1999; Yu, Park and Cho, 2007; Cox, 2014;…
.....project management approach is increasingly becoming popular in today's workplace. Organisations are ever more recognising the benefits of accomplishing tasks and activities as projects -- better task coordination, quicker task execution, and so on (Larson et al., 2013). The author's organisation, a renewable energy firm with operations in Australia and beyond, has particularly been shifting to the project management approach in recent years. The organisation is currently interested in acquiring or merging with a suitable rival to improve its market share and competitive advantage. The merger or acquisition process is often not an easy undertaking. It requires proper planning and execution. With the application of project management concepts, however, the process can be easier. This report analyses the relevance of various project management concepts to the merger or acquisition process. Attention is particularly paid to the project environment, project definition, time and cost estimation, project plan, risk management, resource scheduling,…
EU's Current Anti-Fraud Strategy
For some time now, the issue of fraud and corruption in public service has been an issue of concern. This has forced many organizations to establish strategies aimed at detecting and minimizing the occurrence of such fraudulent activities in areas under their jurisdiction. This paper discusses the strategic management concepts in the risk-based policing strategy coupled with the principles and importance involved in the enhancement of organisational performance. Complementary factors and organisational culture are components that facilitate and militate against strategic fraud and corruption. The paper established alternative and successful strategies dependent on the factors of willingness of groups and individuals and ways of accepting them. In turn, this is dependent on the people seeking change and an understanding of the organisation's culture. The following study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the European Anti-fraud Office (OLAF) as a strategy used by the European Union in…
Barr, D., (2010). Fraud and error: The Future. Department for Work and Pensions
Brooks, G., Aleem, A., & Button, M., (2013). Fraud, Corruption and Sport. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Button, M., & Gee, J. (2013). Countering Fraud for Competitive Advantage: The Professional Approach to Reducing the Last Great Hidden Cost. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Collier, P. (2005). Management Accounting-Risk and Control Strategy. New York: Elsevier.
Anderson, RW & Chantal K. 1998, Transition banking: financial development of central and eastern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Barley, 1983, emiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures, Administrative cience Quarterly, Vol.28, pp.393-413.
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Denison, D 2003, Reviews on Organizational Culture: Ashkanasy, Wilderom, and Peterson (ed.) The Handbook of…
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Woodbury, G 2001, An Introduction to Statistics, 1st edition, Duxbury Press, George Woodbury.
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
The Shared Information Principle is also the most reliant on technologies, with the Human esource Information Systems (HIS) and communications technologies being the most crucial within this specific principle.
The Principle of Knowledge Development
The most strategically important aspect of any HPWS, this principle is where the greatest value is delivered to an enterprise. Knowledge Development is heavily dependent on the training aspects of an organization, including instruction in broad skills, cross-training, problem solving and team training. This phase is also heavily dependent on gain sharing, profit sharing and skill-based pay. Its most important aspect from a workflow standpoint is the development of empowerment, another aspect of effective transactional leadership (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010).
This is where the highest performing HPWS concentrate their efforts, creating a very high level of personal ownership of knowledge capture, classification, taxonomy definition and knowledge sharing (Wood, de Menezes, 2011). This is also the principle that…
Boxall, P. (2012). High-performance work systems: What, why, how and for whom? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50(2), 169.
Birasnav, M., Rangnekar, S., & Dalpati, a. (2011). Transformational leadership and human capital benefits: The role of knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 106-126.
Jorg Felfe, & Schyns, B. (2004). Is similarity in leadership related to organizational outcomes? The case of transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 92-102.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
Improvement of Supply Chain Management Tools and Processes for Ultimate Strategic Achievement of Success in Military and Civil usiness
Today, both public and private sector organisations of all sizes and types are faced with the same need to optimize their supply chain management processes to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve and sustain high levels of performance and productivity. ecause supply chain management systems are frequently highly complex, it is vitally important to understand how these systems operate and what factors contribute to their successful management. Moreover, innovations in information technologies have changed the manner in which companies manage their supply chains, but these innovations have introduced yet additional management challenges. In this environment, identifying opportunities to optimize the supply chain management process represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this study reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of supply chain management and the…
Bibliography." The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 63-66.
"Parts of Supply Chain Management." (2015). Six Sigma. [online] available: http://www.sixsigmaonline.org/six-sigma-training-certification-information/parts - of-supply-chain-management.html.
Rosenbaum, B (2001, November/December), "The Technology-Enabled Supply Chain Network." Industrial Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 6-9.
Sabbaghi, A & Vardyanathan, G (2008, August), "Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 71-74.
Smith, T (March 2003), "New Ideas for Streamlining the Supply Chain Game: Supply Chain Management Is Something Companies Are Becoming Increasingly Focused on, as the Task of Juggling Profits and Customer Satisfaction Becomes More Complex. Business Asia, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 22.
Importance of Effective Change Management
An old adage goes that "change is inevitable." It is a constant phenomenon. Organisations exist in an ever-changing world. Factors such as competitive pressure, regulatory changes, shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, technological advancements, workforce changes, globalisation, and industry adjustments compel organisations to initiate change initiatives targeting strategy, leadership, management, workforce, structures, and processes (Lam, 2009; Nehar, 2013). The initiatives are primarily aimed at improving organisational efficiency, productivity, and performance. Indeed, the ability to adapt to change has been termed as an important source of competitive advantage in today's world (Nehar, 2013). This largely explains why the subject of change management has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention in the last few decades. Nonetheless, managing change may often not be an easy undertaking for organisations. If improperly managed, change may not generate the desired outcomes. In fact, many change initiatives have failed due to…
Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers
Head of Human Resources
XYZ Investment Limited
Re: Diversity Socialisation for Newcomers
The significance of organisational socialisation cannot be overemphasised. Through the process, new employees are equipped with the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours necessary for successful organisational membership (Cable, Gino & Staats, 2013). In most cases, however, the process of socialisation focuses on aspects such as the goals of the organisation, individual role and responsibilities, behavioural patterns, as well as rules and principles pertaining to the organisation. Often, there is little or no attention to workplace diversity issues (Mcmillan-Capehart, 2005; Graybill et al., 2013). This is particularly true for XYZ Investment Limited, a hypothetical investment firm with operations across the U.S. The organisation could be at a considerable disadvantage given that workplace diversity has increasingly become a vital source of competitive advantage for organisations of different sizes and in diverse sectors and industries. Though…
One of the first steps in the change management process is to carry out a diagnosis of the situation requiring change. This entails examining the causes, context, and rationale for the change (Russell & Russell, 2006). Proper change diagnosis ensures successful change planning and implementation. Though change may occur at different levels, including strategic, functional, and process, attention in this paper is paid to the human resource (HR) function. HR is one of the organisational functions commonly targeted for change. Increased competitive pressure, regulatory adjustments, changes in strategic orientation, as well as market and technological shifts often compel organisations to adjust their HR practices, policies, processes, and/or procedures. This paper describes, justifies, and evaluates a change in HR practice at FedEx, one of the largest courier delivery firms in the U.S. and internationally. The paper particularly identifies the HR area that requires change and the need for the change and…
Change at Amazon
Background to Amazon
eason for Change
Diagnosis of Amazon
Amazon are known for providing employees with a harsh workplace environment, with a high level of attrition (Kantor & Streitfeld, 2015). Changes in the H policies and strategies to increase the employee centric practices, such as adopting a more flexible approach to employee personal issues, management by walking around, and increasing recognition for employee hard work and achievements may result in positive outcomes. esearch has clearly indicated that were employees feel that their employer cares, they will display a higher level of commitment and productivity compared to employees who do not feel their employer cares (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2011). This can enhance productivity even in harsh working conditions (McGregor & Doshi, 2015). To consider if this is available strategy the firm and its current issues may be considered along with an assessment for readiness for change.…
Amzon. (2016). Leadership Principles. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.jobs/principles
Armstrong, M. (2011). Armstrong's Handbook of Strategic Human Resource Management. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
BBC News. (2015). Amazon boss Jeff Bezos defends company's workplace culture. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-33957484
Blackman, D., O'Flynn, J., & Ugyel, L. (2013). A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Organisation al Readiness for Complex Change. In Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management conference. Retrieved from https://www.anzsog.edu.au/media/upload/publication/131_Flynn-and-Ugyel-Diagnostic-Tool-ANZAM-2013.pdf
Interview with the Managing Director of Human Resources at Weill Cornell Medical Center; A Reflective Report
Perspectives on the role of the head of HR
Lessons from the Interview
Potential for collaboration
The role of HR in nursing is of paramount importance as the profession relies on the skills and knowledge of the employees, as well as the motivation and care of the staff (Keem and ruvold, 2003). The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the head of HR in a medical setting, examining their role and tasks, reflecting on the role and the way HR and nursing departments should or do collaborate to create value. This was undertaken using an interview with Patrick Gallagher, the Managing Director of Human resources and Housing at New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York
Patrick Gallagher did not study HR, he was…
Baye, M. (2007) Managerial Economics and Business Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2011) Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: FT/Prentice Hall.
DiCicco-Bloom, B. and Crabtree, B. F. (2006) 'The qualitative research interview', Medical Education, 40(3), pp. 314 -- 321.
Keem, H. C. and Bruvold, N. T. (2003) 'Creating value for employees: investment in employee development', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), pp. 981 -- 1000.
esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).
There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences
(U.S.), National Academy of Engineering & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). On
being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington,
D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from:
Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.
The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:
… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…
Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann
Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.
Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/98896/How_to_develop_an_enterprise_security_policy .
Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
With the operational environment becoming ever more competitive, and against the backdrop of austerity in resource management, the importance of performance-based management (PBM) cannot be overemphasised. Indeed, PBM has increasingly become a common practice in organisations of different sizes -- small and large -- and in diverse sectors -- manufacturing and service, as well as public and private sectors (Ploom & Haldma, 2013; Lutwama, Roos & Dolamo, 2013; Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016; Wierzbinski, 2016). Organisations now rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organisational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation.
Defining PBM can be quite problematic, with the term being often confused with performance measurement (Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016). In addition, performance management is often thought to involve only personnel management processes such as employee performance appraisal (Turk, 2016). Furthermore, contention exists over whether it…
Performance measurement is an increasingly important process in today's organisations. This is true for not only business or private sector organisations, but also public sector organisations. Against the backdrop of budgetary constraints and the need for guaranteeing the effectiveness of public programs, performance data is crucial for decision making in the public sector. From the health and education sectors to criminal justice agencies, government agencies and organisations are ever keener on outputs and outcomes. Performance measurement frameworks such as benchmarking and the balanced score card are now utilised to inform decision making. For instance, performance measurement enables the government to evaluate the effectiveness of a given policy or initiative. Based on the findings, decisions can then be made to expand or discontinue the initiative.
Given the unique characteristics of the public sector, it is imperative to understand the factors that drive the use of performance information in decision making. In…
For change to be effective, the foundational vision of the leader must be effectively crafted. Vision essentially describes where an organization wants to be at a given point in the future. Though there are several aspects that the leader should consider when crafting the vision, one of the most significant aspects is the culture of the organisation. Whereas there is no universally accepted definition, the notion of culture basically denotes a set of values, beliefs, norms, principles, standards, and practices that are common to an organization (Flamholtz & Randle, 2011). An organisation's culture is often crucial for guiding its vision. It dictates important processes and elements such as management and leadership style, management-employee relationship, employee-employee relationships, as well as how an organisation relates with its key stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, shareholders, and the society (Simerson, 2011). Essentially, culture lays the foundation for product and service quality, commitment to innovation,…
Whereas there is no single universally appropriate management style, the authoritative style is arguably the best management style. An authoritative manager assertively and enthusiastically communicates the mission and vision of the group or organisation, clearly provides direction, and unambiguously articulates expectations. This ensures perfect, quick, and systematic execution of tasks. Though considered an authority, an authoritative leader allows their followers to use their own approaches in accomplishing the set goals and assigned tasks.
Zhang, J., Ahammad, M., Tarba, S., Cooper, C., Glaister, K., & Wang, J. (2015). The effect of leadership style on talent retention during merger and acquisition integration: evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), 1021-1050.
With evidence from mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in Chinese firms, the article argues that authoritative leadership, together with task-focused and relationship-focused leadership, positively affects talent retention as well as post-M&A integration. M&A's are crucial…
Yu, P., Fang, S., & Wang, Y. (2016). Improving IT professionals job skills development: the use of management styles and individual cultural value orientation. Asia Pacific Management Review, 21, 63-73.
Zhang, J., Ahammad, M., Tarba, S., Cooper, C., Glaister, K., & Wang, J. (2015). The effect of leadership style on talent retention during merger and acquisition integration: evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), 1021-1050.
Zhang, Y., Lin, T., & Foo, S. (2012). Servant leadership: a preferred style of school leadership in Singapore. Chinese Management Studies, 6(2), 369-383.
MNCs need to consider when devising strategy for training and development?
Nowadays quality management philosophy is given great importance as its role is considered in all the explanations of the major decision making policies regarding training in Multinationals (MNCs). As, Prajogo and McDermott (2006) and Reed et al. (2000) have described, in their respective studies, the importance and impact of the quality management philosophy on training. he positive effect that quality management and human resources training has on the company can also be measured by the number of MNCs who have got it in all their high-performance workplaces (Ashton and Sung, 2002; Smith et al., 2004). According to Arora and Asundi (2000) the I industry of India has adopted the quality management philosophy to a great extent.
It was observed in a review of the last ten years of HRD research and scholarship, which was done in 2006 by Short…
Tharenou, P. (2001), "The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 74 No. 5, pp. 599-621.
Tracey, J.B., Hinkin, T.R., Tannenbaum, S. And Mathieu, J.E. (2001), "The in uence of individual characteristics and the work environment on varying levels of training outcomes," Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 5-23.
Van den Bossche, P., Segers, M. And Jansen, N. (2010), "Transfer of training: the role of feedback in supportive social networks," International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 81-94.
Managing Motivation in a Difficult Economy.
a) Which parts of the program appear to fit well with research evidence on goal setting?
"The H team came up with five options for the management system" (obbins & Judge, 2014, p. 624). This means there were five programs individual managers could choose out of the five. Program I was not a good fit when it comes to goal setting because it stuck to the old ways of the company. Meaning, it did not let employees participate nor receive information. When it comes to research on goal setting, employees well informed and active within their job feel more motivated to meet goals, especially when they set them or are part of the process of setting them. Essentially, Program IV, where managers communicate with employees only a weekly basis through "brainstorming sessions" not only allows employees to self-evaluate their own performance but…
Hetzner, S., Heid, H., & Gruber, H. (2015). Using workplace changes as learning opportunities: Using workplace changes as learning opportunities: Journal of Workplace Learning: Vol 27, No 1. Journal Of Workplace Learning, 27(1), 34. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/JWL-12-2013-0108
Jain, A. (2015). Volunteerism and organisational culture: Volunteerism and organisational culture: Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal: Vol 22, No 1. Cross Cultural Management, 22(1), 116. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/CCM-11-2013-0167
Newman, R. (2012). Goal Setting to Achieve Results. Leadership, 41(3), 12. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ971332
Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2014). Organizational behavior (16th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Despite being one of the largest and most instantly recognizable brands in Britain, Tesco has experienced some short-term setbacks of late, and therefore should de-emphasize the Tesco brand in favour of the minor, painfully generic OneStop brand that consist primarily of convenience stores.
The Tesco brand has faced numerous recent challenges that question the long-run viability of the brand. After all, following 20 years of not recording any profit decline, the company has now posted profit declines two years running, and only earns ?3 billion on its ?70 billion in revenue.
Clearly, the brand has all sorts of problems and its future is in jeopardy, so a new strategy will be needed to save this company from extinction.
An advantage of using the OneStop brand is that it has been part of the Tesco empire for several years, but it does not come with the…
Anderson, E. (2014). 6 challenges that new Tesco chief Dave Lewis will have to tackle. Management Today. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://www.managementtoday.co.uk/news/1304346/5-challenges-new-tesco-chief-dave-lewis-will-tackle/
Ruddick, G. (2014). The five numbers that highlight Tesco's problems. The Telegraph. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/10769680/The-five-numbers-that-highlight-Tescos-problems.html
Warner, J. (2014). Problems by the bagful for beleaguered Tesco. The Telegraph. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/epic/tsco/11125666/Problems-by-the-bagful-for-beleaguered-Tesco.html
Wood, Z. (2011). Tesco's problems on the home front. The Guardian. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/business/2011/apr/19/tesco-uk-problems-analysis
Strategy and Innovation
Impact of Strategy on Successful Innovation: The Case of Fujitsu Limited
Innovation, both product- and process-wise, has increasingly become a crucial source of competitive advantage in today's business world. Organisations that continually reinvent their products and processes in accordance to environmental dynamics achieve greater success in the marketplace compared to those that pay little or no attention to innovation (Beyene & Wu, 2016). Successful innovation, however, is predominantly dependent on an organisation's business strategy (Hajar, 2015). A firm's strategic orientation determines the extent to which it introduces new products or new ways of doing things. In other words, without the right strategy, an organisation may not innovate successfully. The connection between strategy and innovation is particularly true for Fujitsu Limited, a Japanese information and communication technology (ICT) company. With reference to Fujitsu, this paper discusses the impact of strategy on innovation. Attention is particularly paid to how…
Trauma-informed care is an approach in mental health care and nursing practice that recognises the existence of trauma in the life of patients receiving mental health care, irrespective of whether or not the trauma is known to exist (Isobel & Edwards 2017). Clinicians who employ this approach acknowledge the complexity of trauma, and integrate the principles of safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment in care delivery (Qadara, 2013). Using this approach can result in better patient outcomes as well as more effective and fulfilling clinical practice. This essay discusses how trauma-informed care informs the provision of mental health care in Australia at a policy level and for consumers. Also, the essay highlights how this approach will influence the author’s mental health nursing practice.
Before progressive further, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of what trauma-informed care entails. Trauma-informed care involves recognising the existence of traumatic experiences in mental…
Innovation & Creativity
FedEx was founded as an innovator in a logistics field that had never seen overnight delivery before. The company has always positioned itself as a premium provider in the business, based on its sophisticated technology, superior network size and quality of service. However, as the company has matured, its ability to be an innovation leader is being threatened. There are a few different issues at play. The first is that, as in any mature industry, the pace of innovation is generally slow. And as the only company that genuinely seeks to position itself as premium to its competitors, FedEx is the only firm truly trying to compete on innovation. Over the years, it has had some tremendous innovation successes, pioneering the ability to maintain communication with its drivers on road, with its tracking that allows customers to see where their packages are at every step of the…
Andersen, H.; Barker, P. And Chen, X. 2006. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, R.G. 2008. Perspective: The Stage-Gate® Idea-to-Launch Process-Update, What's New, and NexGen Systems Journal of Product Innovation Management 25 (3) 213-232.
Edquist, C. & Hommen, L. 1999. Systems of innovation: Theory and policy for the demand side. Technology in Society. 21 (1) 63-79.
Gatignon, H.; Tushman, M.L.; Smith, W. And Anderson, P. 2002 A Structural Approach to Assessing Innovation: Construct Development of Innovation Locus, Type, and Characteristics. Management Science 48 (9) 103-122.
High Performance Working Definition
High performance working is defined as an overall approach to managing organizations that purposes to arouse employee participation and commitment so as to attain high levels of performance intended to improve the discretionary endeavor employees place into their work, and to completely utilize the skills and competencies that they possess (Belt and Giles, 2009). HPW is delineated as a term employed to outline a unique approach to management in the work environment with the main objective of maximizing organizational performance by making an investment in the skills and capabilities of employees (Belanger et al., 2002). Ashton and Sung (2002) outline that HPW takes into account the efficacious and effective utilization of the workforce, but with a significant focus on generating good quality work, instead of basically laying emphasis on making employees work harder. Giles et al. (2002) points out that the high-performance working approach is distinctively…
Organizational Transformation and Intervention at the U.S. Army
Army, like many organizations whose cultures are design to resist and reject change to ensure consistency of structure and clarity of mission, is in need of a transformation and intervention. The vision, mission and objectives of the U.S. Army require a more agile, flexible and modular organizational structure that promotes transformational leadership over transactional management. The cultural constraints however are exceptionally rigid in this organization and transformational leadership the exception rather than the rule. The key constructs of the Burke-Litwin Model however illustrate that transactional leadership is more complex to manage and maintain over the significantly more streamlined transformational leadership structures the researchers have defined (Burke, Litwin, 1992). The intent of this analysis is to show how an intervention plan for the U.S. Army would make the organization more capable of achieving its vision, mission and objectives. The rationale for the intervention…
Bititci, U.S., Mendibil, K., Nudurupati, S., Garengo, P., & Turner, T. (2006). Dynamics of performance measurement and organisational culture. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(12), 1325-1350.
Burke, W.W., & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-523.
Johnson, D.M. (2004). Adaptation of organizational change models to the implementation of quality standard requirements. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 21(2), 154-174.
Comparative advantage is when someone is better at something than someone else. In the context of economics, it is typically applied to trade. For example, if two countries are trading, they should each produce the good at which they have comparative advantage. The overall production of two countries producing to their respective comparative advantage will be higher than if they both produced to their domestic demand. Key to understanding comparative advantage is the idea of opportunity cost. Where resources are scarce, any use of resources for one purpose means that another purpose must be forgone. But if parties produce that in which they have comparative advantage, not only does overall production increase, but opportunity cost decreases (Landsburg, 2007).
The product life cycle theory is an entirely different theory, reflecting an entirely different subject. The product life cycle theory is focused on the idea that products start with an introductory…
Business Mate (2014). What is transaction cost theory? Business Mate.org. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=182
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Australia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
FFS (2014). Fragile States Index 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://ffp.statesindex.org/
Geert-Hofstede.com (2014). Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://geert-hofstede.com/