Organisational Culture Essays (Examples)

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Organisational Behaviour

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30106100

Organisational Behaviour

Endothon and Techfite have different corporate cultures. Endothon, a space exploration agency, has a customer-oriented culture, which can also be referred to as a task-oriented culture. The organisation focuses on results and productivity, and is driven by safety and innovation. This shows that the organisation is more concerned about the task and fulfilling the needs of its customers. While a task-oriented culture is important for enhancing productivity and customer satisfaction, it can result in reduced work morale, motivation, and commitment as there is little or no focus on the needs and welfare of employees. Techfite, on the other hand, has an employee-oriented culture. This is a culture that values the contribution of employees, and seeks to maximise their welfare by fulfilling their needs. Techfite achieves this by offering flexibility and empowerment. Though an employee-centred culture is important for motivating employees, it can result in less focus on productivity.…… [Read More]


Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Organisational Values Culture and Goals

Words: 1916 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25654922

Strategic Alignment

Every organisation should have a set of underpinning values, and this is especially true of non-profit organisations, which exist for reasons other than earning profit. The values are typically embedded not only in the strategic objectives that leadership sets for the organisation but also in the methods by which the organisation seeks to attain those objectives. The values set the cultural tone for the organisation, and the culture influences organisation actions and outcomes. The amount of study on this subject, however, has been minimal in management literature. This paper will examine the relationship between organisational culture, organisational values and organisational strategic objectives, with an emphasis on the non-profit sector. The values that underpin an organisation should be reflected both in the culture and the objectives, but the nature of this relationship remains relatively unexplored. This is the gap that the present paper will seek to fill.

Defining Values…… [Read More]


Berson, Y., Oreg, S. & Dvir, T. (2008). CEO values, organisational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organisational Behavior. Vol. 29 (5) 615-633.

Boxx, W., Odom, R. & Dunn, M. (1991) Organisational values and value congruency and their impact on satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion: An empirical examination within the public sector. Public Personnel Management. Vol. 20 (2) 195-205.

Colley, S., Lincolne, J. & Neal, A. (2013). An examination of the relationship amongst profiles of perceived organisational values, safety climate and safety outcomes. Safety Science. Vol. 51 (2013) 69-76.

Gregory, B., Harris, S., Armenakis, A. & Shook, C. (2009). Organisational culture and effectiveness: A study of values, attitudes and organisational outcomes. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 62 (2009) 673-679.
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Nike Organizational Culture Strategy

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60455552

Organisational culture is defined as a "consistent, observable pattern of behaviour in an organisation" (Watkins, 2013). The patterns of behaviour that define a culture are reinforced through the artefacts of culture, including slogans, imagery, written statements, posters, mission statements and vision statements. Culture is therefore reinforce directly by the organisation, which sends the message about the patterns of behaviour that define the organisation repeatedly, because repetition is critical to ensure that the message is received and implemented consistently. Hofstede (2015) argues that there are a number of different dimensions along which an organisation's culture can be understood: means-oriented versus goal-oriented, internally-driven vs. externally-driven, work discipline, open vs. closed system, degree of formality, employee-oriented vs. work-oriented and the degree to which an employee is expected to identify with the organisation. Some organisations have strong cultures, others have weak ones, but the best organisations have cultures that closely align with firm objectives.…… [Read More]


Anders, G. (2012). The 20 most desired employers: From Google to Nike Accenture. Forbes. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from

Hofstede (2015). Organisational culture. Geert Retrieved November 21, 2015 from

Jackson, L. (2013). Strong organizational culture: How Nike drives innovation. Corporate Culture Pros. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from

Nisen, M. (2013). At Nike, workers quote the company's maxims like the 10 commandments. Business Insider. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from
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Organisational Behaviour Greater Manchester Congestion

Words: 2582 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67404146

As a consequence, the personnel strategy must be elaborated and implemented based on the following relevant aspects for the organization: the project's mission, objectives, success factors, organization's strategy, and the analysis of the internal and external environment.

Basically, the process of elaborating human resources strategies is the result of a continuous analysis or diagnosis process of all the activities performed within the organization and of the directions that the organization follows.

In the case of Greater Manchester's transport investments process, this is a very important condition. The project must be closely and continuously monitored. All the activities comprised by the project must be controlled, so that they are performed in accordance with the established standards.

The main purpose of the analysis is to identify the human resources of the organization that are able to be introduced in the project and to establish a correlation with strategic decisions that affect the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Creating a 21st Century transport system (2008). Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Authority. Retrieved October 29, 2008 at

Project management (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 30, 2008 at

Arnold, John (2007). AGMA Test Review. Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Retrieved October 30, 2008

Belcourt, M. (1998). Managing Human Resources. Second Canadian Edition, ITP Nelson. Retrieved October 30, 2008
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Organisational Behaviour Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behavior -

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65464687

Organisational Behaviour

organizational behaviour.

Organizational Behavior - pages answers questions: Why ethical issues a major concern organizations? What individual influences impact ethical behavior? How organizations influence ethical behavior employees? MUST a recent article Wall Street Journal, reputable publication, ethical issues addressed a corporation today.

Organizational behavior

In every organization there is a code of ethics that is to be followed by the employees so as to ensure co-existence and smooth running of the organizations activities. Organizational behavior refers to the examination of individual actions in relation to the workplace setting comprising of the fields of management, communication, psychology and sociology. Within any social setting interactions, varied factors come up that bring about a lot of controversy over what is the standard code of ethics for organizations. The workers who co-exist effectively enhance organizational development whereby individual and organizational performance is improved, the workers feel motivated, satisfied and committed eddy, 2004()…… [Read More]


Bowie, N.E., & Schneider, M. (2011). Business ethics for dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley.

Isbister, J. (2001). Capitalism & Justice: Envisioning social and economic fairness. Virginia Reddy, R.J.P. (2004). Organizational behaviour. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Organisational Development

Words: 3517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19819197

Organisational Development

Current Situation

Organisational Development Plan

Implementation of the Development Plan

Stakeholder Engagement

Evaluation of the Development Plan

Organisational Development at SPCA

Of all Queensland's societies and organisations dedicated to the prevention of animal cruelty and bettering the lives of animals, the oyal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (SPCA Qld) is the oldest. The organisation needs approximately $42 million in funding every year to help build and maintain the various programs and services it offers. Since SPCA Qld is a community-based non-government charity, most of its funding comes from donations, sponsorships and bequests from the local community. Government funding accounts for less than 1% of the money it receives (SPCA Queensland, 2016).

The organisation boasts a rich and interesting history that spans 130 years. It started with just a single supporter and has now grown into a sizeable organisation with 270 remunerated employees and 3,000 dedicated…… [Read More]


Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change management. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Anderson, K. A., Brandt, J. C., Lord, L. K., & Miles, E. A. (2013). Euthanasia in Animal Shelters: Management's Perspective on Staff Reactions and Support Programs. Anthrozoos, Vol 26, Issue 4, 569-578. Retrieved from Taylor and Francis Online:

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2008). Stress Bustesr. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from ABC:

By, R., & Macleod, C. (2009). Managing organisational change in public services: international issues, challenges and cases. New York: Routledge.
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Culture and Diversity Issues in

Words: 2845 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13936527

Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.

Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:

Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]


Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review,

Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.

Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.

Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
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Managing Organizational Culture

Words: 9860 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60831953

Human esources

Managing Organisational Culture

The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.

In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]


Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 18 August 2012].

Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: [Accessed 15 August 2012].

Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 24 August 2012].

Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 18 August 2012].
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Italian and British Cultures and Management Styles

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45589612

Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel

A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:

Q Hotel

Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…… [Read More]


Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.

Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.

Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.

Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
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Applying Organisational Consulting Strategies

Words: 2449 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93745096

Applying Organisational Consulting Strategies

Consulting fundamentals can be of great value to an organization. This paper explores the application of consulting strategies to functional areas within an organisation, notably leadership, organisational conflict, organisational communication, organisational ethics, as well as employee motivation and team management. Attention is specifically paid to the importance of each area, the information and metrics that may be used to assess each area, and the consulting strategy that would be most effective in addressing each area.


The importance of effective leadership -- both at the executive and middle management levels -- in any organisation cannot be overemphasised. Effective leadership is important for influencing a group of people to work toward achieving a defined goal or objective (Sperry, 2002). Any organisation strives to achieve a certain goal or objective. It is the role of leadership to initiate the action necessary to achieve the goal or objective as…… [Read More]


Block, P. (2011). Flawless consulting. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Flynn, G. (2008). Leadership and business ethics. New York: Springer.

French, R., Rayner, C., Rees, G., & Rumbles, S. (2011). Organisational behaviour. 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley.

Lewis, L. (2011). Organisational change: creating change through strategic communication. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
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Culture Include the Structural Placement of the

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38383119

culture include the structural placement of the IT function within the organization, and the philosophical approach to the development, deployment, and use of IT. In terms of changing and transforming an organization, the philosophical approach to the use of IT is the most challenging. The philosophical approach is more abstract, and therefore demands deeper thought about the nature of information technology, the nature of information, the power issues associated with information, and the ethics of information technology. These issues are difficult to grapple with as an individual, and in a group setting, philosophical issues are even tougher to come to terms with. Most organizations are diverse and highly complex. Therefore, it might be hard to find consensus on the philosophical approach to the development, deployment, and use of information technology.

At the same time, information technology has an important philosophical component that must be addressed by managers at some point…… [Read More]


MacKechnie, C. (n.d.). Information technology and its role in the modern organization. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: 

"Organisational Placement of the IT Function," (n.d). Retrieved online:
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Learning Log Organizational Culture an Increasingly Globalized

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31694594

Learning Log: Organizational Culture


An increasingly globalized marketplace and multicultural society demand a solid understanding of others' cultures, particularly with regards to interpersonal communications. These issues are especially important in the workplace where effective communication requires a careful balance of appreciation and recognition of cross-cultural differences that may affect the exchange. Although common courtesy and common sense will go a long way in preventing inadvertent cross-cultural communications gaffs, it is also important to understand the more salient workplace behaviors that may be regarded as offensive by people from other cultures.

Questions that resulted

What types of workplace behaviors are universally acceptable, if any, irrespective of the culture(s) involved?

What types of workplace behaviors are generally prohibited based on cultural factors?

How can the views of cultural theorists such as Geert Hofstede and others help inform the cross-cultural communication process in the workplace?

Relative positions with respect to the presented…… [Read More]

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Learning Log Reflections Culture Can Refer to

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19296382

Learning Log: Reflections


Culture can refer to many different aspects of human life that affect personal and professional relationships. We usually think of culture in terms of nationality: the Japanese culture, for example, is said to emphasize personal relationships and interconnectedness more than individualistic American culture. Cultures are often classified as more 'high context' or more 'low context' in orientation. In 'high context' cultures, inside knowledge, the relative position of someone on a leadership hierarchy and an awareness of the 'double meaning' of certain gestures is more important, than in a low context culture in which 'what you say is what you mean,' such as in the U.S.

Learning about different cultural perspectives and worldviews has made me more mindful about contextualizing my own. I have also noticed that even within nations, culture may vary -- a company located in an urban environment, versus one located in a rural…… [Read More]


Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & David Kessler. 2010. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Accessed at / [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 1999. Basic context for organizational change. Management help.

Accessed at [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 2000. Organizational culture. Management help. Accessed at[December 27, 2010]
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Managing Organizational Culture Organizational Culture

Words: 2097 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74974905

Taking the relationship of employee morale and its linkage with organizational culture to the most extreme case, Yaghi (2007) studied how decision-making processes are implemented in companies where there is a dominant organizational culture. Selecting a faith-based organization as one of the cases for the study, the author determined how decision-making is mainly influenced by the organizational culture, influenced by the values of solidarity, guardianship, and (belief in a) mission (361). While from an organizational effectiveness perspective, this kind of decision-making is not recommended, Yaghi ultimately pointed out that organizations with a highly-organized and dominant culture results to improved employee morale and commitment, mainly because subsistence to the values of solidarity, guardianship, and commitment to the mission "strengthen (the) relationship among organization's members" (357).

From this review of literature relevant to employee morale and its link with organizational culture, it was established how person-to-job fit or subjective fit in the…… [Read More]


Deem, J. (2010). "The relationship of organizational culture to balanced scorecard effectiveness." SAM Advanced Management Journal.

Dixon, M. And D. Dougherty. (2010). "Managing the multiple meanings of organizational culture in interdisciplinary collaboration and consulting." Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, No. 1.

LaGuardia, D. (2008). "Organizational Culture." T+D (Training and Development).

Liu, S. (2009). "Organizational culture and new service development performance: insights from knowledge intensive business service." International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 3.
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Virgin's Organizational Culture Model of the Organization

Words: 2336 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50159039

Virgin's Organizational Culture

Model of the organization

Organizational culture is built around three aspects: (1) complexity, (2) formalization, and (3) centralization.

Complexity: Complexity depends on the hierarchical structure of the organization, the larger it is generally the more complex it is. Complexity, then, is reduced to three tiers: vertical, horizontal, and geographical.

Vertical: The larger the depth of layer the more 'vertical' the organization is. A complex and broad organization, therefore, would generally have more layers than one less complex (Bartol, Twein, Matthews, & Martin, 2007). Branson was an exception to this. Though leader of exceedingly broad and complex operations, he managed to reduce the structure of verticality by splitting Virgin Groups up into multiple small companies. Branson believed that employees preferred to work under small companies than under large impersonal corporations. By the late 1980s, for instance, he had fragmented his collection of companies into more than 100 loosely…… [Read More]


Bartol, K., Twein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D. 2007, Management: A Pacific Rim Focus, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.

Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M., 1961, The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London.

Cherrington, D.J. Orgnizational Behavior, 1994. USA: Alleyn & Bacon

Cooperrider, D.L., & Godwin, L. 2010. 'Positive Organization Development: Innovation-inspired Change in an Economy and Ecology of Strengths'. Appreciative Inquiry Commons.
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Organizational Culture of the Organization

Words: 1909 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26750422

These codes of ethics play a very important role in any industry.

In this particular pharmaceutical company, if the art, copy, medical and the quality assurance department will bear in the mind about these codes of ethics,

It should be noted that a company is always pursuing for just one direction, for one common goal, hence everybody must also be working on that common direction. It is important that every employee understand that before each makes his/her own initiatives it is better to know the company first because there are times that some they do not understand fully the main objective of the company thereby making jump in to conclusions sacrificing the ultimate goal of the company.

Like for example in the University of Western Australia (obson 1005), their teaching on organizational management is focused on main key principles: (1) Equity and Justice (2) respect for People and (3) Personal…… [Read More]


Robson, Allan. Code of Ethicss & Code of Conduct. Vice-Chancellor, University of Western Australia. September 2005.
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Management and Organisational Behaviour the

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98877248

In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).

In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.

The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.

Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…… [Read More]


Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.

Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.

Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, accessed on September 15, 2008

2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, accessed on September 15, 2008
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Resolving Organizational Culture Issues Situational Overview and

Words: 2326 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74471393

esolving Organizational Culture Issues

Situational Overview and Background of the Issues

The organisation consists of 43 employees managed by a management team of 3 males in their middle 60s: a Director, General Manager, and National Sales Manager. The average age of the employees is 30, and only 3 of the employees are female. The 3 managers all adhere to very outdated authoritarian management styles and communication patterns, routinely resorting to verbal abuse and screaming. The managers maintain very high expectations; meanwhile, they pay their employees less than is standard within their industry. Female employees are paid even less for doing the same jobs as their male counterparts and they receive less respect and deference than male colleagues in identical positions. The management team spends a large percentage of company profits, partly because they adamantly refuse to adopt newer technologies that have already become standard in contemporary business organisations as well…… [Read More]


Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., and Weber, T.J. "Leadership: Current Theories,

Research, and Future Directions." Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 60 (2009).

Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Accessed 5 August 2012 from:

Fitch, B. "Good Decisions: Tips and Strategies for Avoiding Psychological Traps." FBI
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Organizational Culture An Analysis Based on Morgan's

Words: 2584 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46542103

Organizational Culture:

An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor

When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.

The paper examines the organizational culture of a…… [Read More]


Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.

Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.

Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.

Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
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HRM Contribute to Improved Organisational

Words: 4597 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63693551

This is why a Learning Organization will always be very competitive on the market. It will be able to adapt to the changes in the said market and thus profit. Also, a very important element in a Learning Organization is the fact that it and its members share a vision. This is why they are learning and evolving, because they have a goal. Unlike other companies where the employers come to work only motivated by their salary and they feel they work for their boss who is in fact the one gaining. Learning Organizations have managed to change this point-of-view.

Learning Organizations have been developed so that companies are able to keep up with the fast pace of changes and become more and more competitive on the market. Learning is leading to innovation and innovation is leading to improvement: "work has been thought of as being conservative and difficult to…… [Read More]


1. Faerman, Sue, Organizational Development and Change,

American Society for Information Science and Technology, the State University of New Jersey, Retrieved on January 21, 2007, Available online at

2. Handy, Charles, "Managing the Dream." In Sarita Chawla & John. Renesch (Eds), Learning Organizations: Developing Cultures for Tomorrow's Workplace. Portland, or: Productivity Press, 1995, p.77.

3. Karash, Richarad, 1995, Groupware and Organizational Learning, Retrieved on January 21, 2007, Available online at
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Redundancies Survivor Perceptions of Organisational

Words: 2623 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42641001

From these findings, while the present analysis cannot argue that any universal conclusions have been produced, said analysis may put forth the argument that fewer than half of respondents justify a resolution that there is a connection between the procedural justice applied in the redundancy process and the perception held of general organisational justice by many of the employees that are left behind. That said, it would still be appropriate given the inconclusive nature of the present section of findings to recommend a study which distills the connection between procedural justice and the general perception of redundancy survivors of broader organisational justice.

Interactional Justice:

The findings in this section would also be somewhat inconclusive. In this section, researchers would seek to establish a connection between employee perceptions of broader organisational justice and the justice shown to remaining members of the organisation through redundancy procedures. For survivors, that is, there is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Streeter, C.L. (1992). Redundancy in Organizational Systems. Social Service Review, 66(1), 97-111.
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Employee Relations the Field of Employee Relations

Words: 2943 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63614107

Employee Relations

The field of employee relations encompasses the entire spectrum of the relationship between employing organisations and their employees. It rough chronological order, modern employee relations is a fully comprehensive process that includes the functions and responsibilities of recruitment, hiring, new-hire orientation, employment benefits management, promotion of organisational culture and ethical values, personnel management, change management, employee motivation, performance appraisal and review, career advancement, conflict resolution, policy enforcement, legal compliance, retirement, voluntary departure, involuntary termination, and post-employment benefits management (Robbins & Judge, 2009). More broadly, the field of employee relations also impacts the political, economic, social, and technological organisational environment (PEST). That is particularly true in connection with legal compliance with employment laws and environmental regulations, the economic prospects for organisational growth, business cycles that inform hiring and personnel management decisions, the economic considerations dictated by inflation interest, and income patterns, and numerous social or socio-cultural factors (Russell-alling, 2008).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,

OH: West Legal Studies.
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Analyzing Organization

Words: 3302 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8183573

adical Humanist Approach to Organizational Analysis

Analyzing Organizations


Patagonia is a small company that began by making perfect pitons for rock climbers. The company was founded by a band of climbers and surfers who lived the minimalist lifestyle they promoted. The company makes clothing and gear for the silent sports -- no motors or engines are involved -- of skiing, snowboarding, surfing, fly fishing, paddling, and trail running" ("Patagonia," 2012). For the founders, the reward in each sport comes at the nexus that takes "the form of hard-won grace and moments of connection" between them and nature ("Patagonia," 2012). The corporate mission of Patagonia is to make the best possible products and to cause no unnecessary harm while engaged in that effort.


The research in this study is grounded in critical theory and phenomenology. The personal accounts given by employees of Patagonia are expressions of how they experience…… [Read More]


Arnold, T.W. (1938). The Folklore of Capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (1991). Reframing organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications.

Barnard, C. (1938). Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bower, M. (1966). The Will to Manage: Corporate Success Through Programmed Management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
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Opportunity Exists for the Company

Words: 12420 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52185247

The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…… [Read More]

references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.

Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.

Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.

Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
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Non-Profit Change Management

Words: 2695 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6674836

Administration & Policy Development

The author of this report is to engage in an assessment task that centers on human services and social workers in a clinical setting. The author of this report shall be focusing on the social work department in a hospital and juxtaposing the conditions and issues within that hospital to the scholarly research that is to be referenced and mentioned throughout this report. At specific issue is the number of patients being seen by the social workers, the high physical and mental demands that this fact and others put on the social workers and the remedies that can be conjured up and implemented to address both of those issues. Complicating these aggravating factors are penny-pinching bureaucrats that are focused on budget limits and saving dollars than preserving the mental health of the employees and quality of care for the patients. While solutions may seem elusive, they…… [Read More]


Bargal, D & Schmid, H 1993, 'Organizational change and development in human

service organizations: a prefatory essay', Administration in Social Work, vol. 16,

no. 3, pp. 1 -- 13

Cameron, K & Quinn, R, 2011, 'An introduction to changing organisational culture', in K,
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Plan and Develop a Training Program Within an Organization

Words: 2249 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53284220


The purpose of this discussion is to provide a Plan and develop a training program within the organization known as AT&T. Human Resource Development The part of human resource management that specifically deals with training and development of the employees. Human resource development includes training an individual after he/she is first hired, providing opportunities to learn new skills, distributing resources that are beneficial for the employee's tasks, and any other developmental activities (Human Resource Development)."

AT&T is one of the oldest companies in the world. Its inception began in 1876, when Alexander Graham ell invented the telephone. Since this time the company has grown tremendously. The mission of the company is to "connect people with their world, everywhere they live and work, and do it better than anyone else (Company Information)." At the current time AT & T. is a leading provider of IP-based communications. The company also has…… [Read More]


"A Brief History: The New AT&T." Available [Online] 

Ante, S.E., et. al., (2011)Skepticism Greets AT&T Theory. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) p. B1-2

Bates, R. (2004) A critical analysis of evaluation practice: the Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence. Evaluation and Program Planning. 27(3), 341-347

Company Information. Available [Online]
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Northampton-Based Organization Expanding to International Market

Words: 3016 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2596850

Northampton-Based Organisation Wishes Expand Market Internationally

Strategy of International Trade

A firm may decide to operate internationally due to a wide variety of reasons. These reasons include but are not limited to market imperfections at home, gaining market power and favourable environment overseas. In order to operate internationally, firms need an appropriate strategy so that their resources are put to best use and the whole process of internationalization proceeds according to plan. (Twarowska and Kakol, 2013)

There are two ways of entering an international market, equity-based entry and non-equity-based entry. The former gives high return on investment and market control but it has high risk associated with it. The latter does not give sufficient market power nor high rate of return but it is volatile and minimizes the risk. (Twarowska and Kakol, 2013)

The first and the least risky method to trade internationally is engaging in import and export. Using…… [Read More]


Barney, J. (1986). Organizational culture: can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage?. Academy of management review, 11(3), pp.656 -- 665.

Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal. Journal of management studies, 41(6), pp.977 -- 1002.

Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal. Journal of management studies, 41(6), pp.977 -- 1002.

DeRuiter Consultancy, (2009). THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL Business STRATEGY. Hilversum: DeRuiter Consultancy, pp.1-11.
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Nursing Leadership One of the

Words: 3316 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83478971

As noted above, one of the most prominent leadership theories that has been applied to the nursing profession is transformational leadership. Properly applied and managed, transformation leadership can also be used to facilitate creativity in the workplace. For instance, according to Vesterinen, Isola and Paasivaara (2009, p. 504), transformational leadership can create changes and, by definition, is capable of transformed individuals and the organization in which they work. By providing the leadership needed to motivate employees to bigger and better aspirations, transformational leaders can therefore encourage the creative spark among their followers in ways that might not otherwise be possible (Vesterinen et al. 2009). Indeed, Vesterinen et al. (2009, p. 504) specifically state that, "A transformational leader motivates inspirationally, stimulates intellectually and considers employees individually." Taken together, these positive outcomes are valuable in any organizational setting, but they can be particularly important in health care settings.

Why understanding organisational culture…… [Read More]


Fourie, WJ & Keogh, JJ 2011, October, 'The Need for Continuous Education in the Prevention

of Needlestick Injuries,' Contemporary Nurse: a Journal for the Australian Nursing

Profession, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 194-201.

Hutin, Y, Hauri, A, Chiarello, L, Catlin, M, Stilwell, B, Ghebrehiwet, T & Garner, J 2003, July,
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Project Manager What Is Your Opinion About

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75883462

project manager, what is your opinion about risk-Taking?

It is impossible to characterize risks as 'good' or 'bad.' The question is if the risks of the project are outweighed by the potential gains the project may offer. "Taking big risks can be beneficial to a firm that is able to accept them because it enables opportunity. For this reason, risk must be defined as including the probability of both good and bad outcomes" (Kwak & LaPlace 2005: 691). Risk-taking is an essential component of business, given that the future is always unknown. Yet the project manager must do all he or she can plan for likely future scenarios to mitigate unnecessary risks and ensure that the risks that are undertaken are likely to benefit the organization, improve its fortunes, and cause minimal harms.

It is vital that risk-taking does not become a 'cover up' for sloppy planning. Allowing a project…… [Read More]


Kwak, Y.H. & LaPlace, K.S. 2004. Examining risk tolerance in project-driven organization.

Technovation, 25 (2005) 691 -- 695. Available:
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Human Resource Management Using the Example of

Words: 2063 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69262778

Human esource Management

Using the example of Google, evaluate whether the following H practices/policies is strategic or not. Does this H practice help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives?

In this paper, we are going to be looking at the impact of different policies and procedures on Google. This will be accomplished by studying the strategies that they are using to attract and retain employees. Once this takes place, is when we can show how these ideas have helped the firm to transform the company.

Over the last several years, the issue of employee compensation has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization is having a dramatic impact upon firm, as they need specialized employees to deal with a host of challenges. Those firms that are able to dominate the industry are able to attract the best talent. This helps to give them a competitive…… [Read More]


100 Companies to Work For, 2012. CNN. Available from: [10 May 2012].

Benefits, 2012, Google. Available from:
Google, 2012, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [10 May 2012].

Google Get High Marks, 2011, Marketing Pilgrim. Available from: [10 May 2012].
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Strategic Planning for Training Companies

Words: 16101 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64018640

" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).

Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…… [Read More]



Bolman, LG & Deal, TE (1997). Reframing Organisations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 2nd ed, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Bowden, P (1985). Organisation and Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Roseville.

Byrne, JA. (1996, August 26). Strategic Planning. BusinessWeek.
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Change as We Will See in the

Words: 2993 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88894956


As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.

In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.

In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.

Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.

Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.

Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
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Countering Fraud for Competitive Advantage The Case of EU

Words: 2046 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55023841

EU's Current Anti-Fraud Strategy

For some time now, the issue of fraud and corruption in public service has been an issue of concern. This has forced many organizations to establish strategies aimed at detecting and minimizing the occurrence of such fraudulent activities in areas under their jurisdiction. This paper discusses the strategic management concepts in the risk-based policing strategy coupled with the principles and importance involved in the enhancement of organisational performance. Complementary factors and organisational culture are components that facilitate and militate against strategic fraud and corruption. The paper established alternative and successful strategies dependent on the factors of willingness of groups and individuals and ways of accepting them. In turn, this is dependent on the people seeking change and an understanding of the organisation's culture. The following study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the European Anti-fraud Office (OLAF) as a strategy used by the European Union in…… [Read More]


Barr, D., (2010). Fraud and error: The Future. Department for Work and Pensions

Brooks, G., Aleem, A., & Button, M., (2013). Fraud, Corruption and Sport. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Button, M., & Gee, J. (2013). Countering Fraud for Competitive Advantage: The Professional Approach to Reducing the Last Great Hidden Cost. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Collier, P. (2005). Management Accounting-Risk and Control Strategy. New York: Elsevier.
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Anderson Rw & Chantal K 1998 Transition

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87452129

Anderson, RW & Chantal K. 1998, Transition banking: financial development of central and eastern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Barley, 1983, emiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures, Administrative cience Quarterly, Vol.28, pp.393-413.

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Bullis, CA & Tompkins, PK 1989, The forest ranger revisited: A study of control practices and identification, Communication Monographs, Vol. 56, Issue.4, pp.287-306.

Chorafas, DN 2000, Reliable Financial reporting and Internal Control: A Global Implementation Guide, Wiley, New York.

Collins, EM 1998, Myth, manifesto, meltdown: communist strategy, 1848-1991, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.

Czarniawska, B & Joerges, B 1996, Travels of ideas, pp.13-48, ee Czarniawska & evon 1996.

Denison, D 2003, Reviews on Organizational Culture: Ashkanasy, Wilderom, and Peterson (ed.) The Handbook of…… [Read More]

See search results for this author

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Woodbury, G 2001, An Introduction to Statistics, 1st edition, Duxbury Press, George Woodbury.
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Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization

Words: 4681 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71138902

The solutions are numerous and more diversified.

Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.

Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]

Reference list:

Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.

Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
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High Performance Work Systems the

Words: 2717 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78048415

The Shared Information Principle is also the most reliant on technologies, with the Human esource Information Systems (HIS) and communications technologies being the most crucial within this specific principle.

The Principle of Knowledge Development

The most strategically important aspect of any HPWS, this principle is where the greatest value is delivered to an enterprise. Knowledge Development is heavily dependent on the training aspects of an organization, including instruction in broad skills, cross-training, problem solving and team training. This phase is also heavily dependent on gain sharing, profit sharing and skill-based pay. Its most important aspect from a workflow standpoint is the development of empowerment, another aspect of effective transactional leadership (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010).

This is where the highest performing HPWS concentrate their efforts, creating a very high level of personal ownership of knowledge capture, classification, taxonomy definition and knowledge sharing (Wood, de Menezes, 2011). This is also the principle that…… [Read More]


Boxall, P. (2012). High-performance work systems: What, why, how and for whom? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50(2), 169.

Birasnav, M., Rangnekar, S., & Dalpati, a. (2011). Transformational leadership and human capital benefits: The role of knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 106-126.

Jorg Felfe, & Schyns, B. (2004). Is similarity in leadership related to organizational outcomes? The case of transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 92-102.

Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
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Optimizing the Military Supply Chain

Words: 18803 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94765427

Improvement of Supply Chain Management Tools and Processes for Ultimate Strategic Achievement of Success in Military and Civil usiness

Today, both public and private sector organisations of all sizes and types are faced with the same need to optimize their supply chain management processes to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve and sustain high levels of performance and productivity. ecause supply chain management systems are frequently highly complex, it is vitally important to understand how these systems operate and what factors contribute to their successful management. Moreover, innovations in information technologies have changed the manner in which companies manage their supply chains, but these innovations have introduced yet additional management challenges. In this environment, identifying opportunities to optimize the supply chain management process represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this study reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of supply chain management and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography." The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 63-66.

"Parts of Supply Chain Management." (2015). Six Sigma. [online] available: of-supply-chain-management.html.

Rosenbaum, B (2001, November/December), "The Technology-Enabled Supply Chain Network." Industrial Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 6-9.

Sabbaghi, A & Vardyanathan, G (2008, August), "Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 71-74.

Smith, T (March 2003), "New Ideas for Streamlining the Supply Chain Game: Supply Chain Management Is Something Companies Are Becoming Increasingly Focused on, as the Task of Juggling Profits and Customer Satisfaction Becomes More Complex. Business Asia, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 22.
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Assessment of Amazon Is it Ready for Change

Words: 1991 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822469

Change at Amazon

Background to Amazon

eason for Change

Diagnostic Models

Diagnosis of Amazon

Amazon are known for providing employees with a harsh workplace environment, with a high level of attrition (Kantor & Streitfeld, 2015). Changes in the H policies and strategies to increase the employee centric practices, such as adopting a more flexible approach to employee personal issues, management by walking around, and increasing recognition for employee hard work and achievements may result in positive outcomes. esearch has clearly indicated that were employees feel that their employer cares, they will display a higher level of commitment and productivity compared to employees who do not feel their employer cares (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2011). This can enhance productivity even in harsh working conditions (McGregor & Doshi, 2015). To consider if this is available strategy the firm and its current issues may be considered along with an assessment for readiness for change.…… [Read More]


Amzon. (2016). Leadership Principles. Retrieved from

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BBC News. (2015). Amazon boss Jeff Bezos defends company's workplace culture. Retrieved from

Blackman, D., O'Flynn, J., & Ugyel, L. (2013). A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Organisation al Readiness for Complex Change. In Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management conference. Retrieved from
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Report on an Interview

Words: 3432 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12784453

Interview with the Managing Director of Human Resources at Weill Cornell Medical Center; A Reflective Report

The Interviewee

Perspectives on the role of the head of HR

Lessons from the Interview

Potential for collaboration

The role of HR in nursing is of paramount importance as the profession relies on the skills and knowledge of the employees, as well as the motivation and care of the staff (Keem and ruvold, 2003). The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the head of HR in a medical setting, examining their role and tasks, reflecting on the role and the way HR and nursing departments should or do collaborate to create value. This was undertaken using an interview with Patrick Gallagher, the Managing Director of Human resources and Housing at New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York

The Interviewee

Patrick Gallagher did not study HR, he was…… [Read More]


Baye, M. (2007) Managerial Economics and Business Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2011) Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: FT/Prentice Hall.

DiCicco-Bloom, B. and Crabtree, B. F. (2006) 'The qualitative research interview', Medical Education, 40(3), pp. 314 -- 321.

Keem, H. C. and Bruvold, N. T. (2003) 'Creating value for employees: investment in employee development', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), pp. 981 -- 1000.
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Business Using Gelso 2006 Harlow

Words: 16758 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35830950

esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).

There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…… [Read More]


Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences

(U.S.), National Academy of Engineering & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). On

being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington,

D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from:
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Security Overview Businesses Today Are

Words: 3366 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63694499

(Gartenberg, 2005)

Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.

The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:

… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…… [Read More]


Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann

Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.

Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy.

Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
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Organizational Systems in Many Respects

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22129645

The suppliers also threatened to quit spending the materials, subassemblies and supplies critical for making the next generation of products for our company. The new product development efforts underway had to stop for weeks until this systems was straightened out.

Externally to the company suppliers were beginning to talk with the press, wondering out loud in the media if our company was still solvent. Soon, investors were calling our senior management asking if the company was having financial trouble. The accounting and financial organizational systems were nearly responsible for the company being audited when the problem didn't get fixed fast enough. The external impacts of these failed and faulty organizational systems were amplified due to stakeholder's concerns for the company's and their own financial security.

Accounting and financial organizational systems are among the most powerful in any company as they literally propel them to their goals (Busco, Scapens, 2011). Like…… [Read More]


Busco, C., & Scapens, R.W. (2011). Management accounting systems and organisational culture. Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management, 8(4), 320-357.

Den Hartog, D.,N., & Verburg, R.M. (2004). High performance work systems, organisational culture and firm effectiveness. Human Resource Management Journal, 14(1), 55-78.

Martins, E.C., & Terblanche, F. (2003). Building organisational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 6(1), 64-74.

Turnipseed, D.L. (1988). An integrated, interactive model of organisational climate, culture and effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 9(5), 17-17.
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Best Management Style An Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1807 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45199599

Management Style

Whereas there is no single universally appropriate management style, the authoritative style is arguably the best management style. An authoritative manager assertively and enthusiastically communicates the mission and vision of the group or organisation, clearly provides direction, and unambiguously articulates expectations. This ensures perfect, quick, and systematic execution of tasks. Though considered an authority, an authoritative leader allows their followers to use their own approaches in accomplishing the set goals and assigned tasks.

Annotated Bibliography

Zhang, J., Ahammad, M., Tarba, S., Cooper, C., Glaister, K., & Wang, J. (2015). The effect of leadership style on talent retention during merger and acquisition integration: evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), 1021-1050.

With evidence from mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in Chinese firms, the article argues that authoritative leadership, together with task-focused and relationship-focused leadership, positively affects talent retention as well as post-M&A integration. M&A's are crucial…… [Read More]

Yu, P., Fang, S., & Wang, Y. (2016). Improving IT professionals job skills development: the use of management styles and individual cultural value orientation. Asia Pacific Management Review, 21, 63-73.

Zhang, J., Ahammad, M., Tarba, S., Cooper, C., Glaister, K., & Wang, J. (2015). The effect of leadership style on talent retention during merger and acquisition integration: evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), 1021-1050.

Zhang, Y., Lin, T., & Foo, S. (2012). Servant leadership: a preferred style of school leadership in Singapore. Chinese Management Studies, 6(2), 369-383.
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Leisure UK Ergonomics the Ergonomic

Words: 2807 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17568365

The relevant topics include communication, staff resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, co-operative work, new work paradigms, organisational culture, virtual organisations and quality management. (David, nd)

usinesses have responsibilities to those who work for them as well as to those who visit the organization. In the public sector ergonomics are "extremely important n defining standards and legislation and in ensuring compliance with the standards and legislation.

VI. Ten Top Tips for Ergonomics

Ten top tips provided by David (nd) are the tips as follows: "(1) Ergonomics should be an integral part of the design process, preferably involving qualified ergonomists within the design team. Most value is achieved through early involvement and close liaison throughout; (2) Ergonomics issues should be considered at the very beginning of a project - don't wait for problems to arise later on because their remedy will rarely be as…… [Read More]


Coleman, Roger (2006) From Margins to Mainstream: Why Inclusive Design is Better. Helen Hamlyn Research Centre, Royal College of Art, London. Online available at

Rennie, Claire (2006) Some Talk of Alexander. Ability. Issue 61 Spring 2006. Online available at

Mid Devon District Council Annual Report on Health and Safety; 1 April 2005-30 April 2006. Online available at (

Employer's Forum Update September (2002) Online available at
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Mncs Need to Consider When Devising Strategy

Words: 4193 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37467258

MNCs need to consider when devising strategy for training and development?

Nowadays quality management philosophy is given great importance as its role is considered in all the explanations of the major decision making policies regarding training in Multinationals (MNCs). As, Prajogo and McDermott (2006) and Reed et al. (2000) have described, in their respective studies, the importance and impact of the quality management philosophy on training. he positive effect that quality management and human resources training has on the company can also be measured by the number of MNCs who have got it in all their high-performance workplaces (Ashton and Sung, 2002; Smith et al., 2004). According to Arora and Asundi (2000) the I industry of India has adopted the quality management philosophy to a great extent.

It was observed in a review of the last ten years of HRD research and scholarship, which was done in 2006 by Short…… [Read More]

Tharenou, P. (2001), "The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 74 No. 5, pp. 599-621.

Tracey, J.B., Hinkin, T.R., Tannenbaum, S. And Mathieu, J.E. (2001), "The in uence of individual characteristics and the work environment on varying levels of training outcomes," Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 5-23.

Van den Bossche, P., Segers, M. And Jansen, N. (2010), "Transfer of training: the role of feedback in supportive social networks," International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 81-94.
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Practices and Cases

Words: 1106 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57874657

Managing Motivation in a Difficult Economy.

Question CC-9.

a) Which parts of the program appear to fit well with research evidence on goal setting?

"The H team came up with five options for the management system" (obbins & Judge, 2014, p. 624). This means there were five programs individual managers could choose out of the five. Program I was not a good fit when it comes to goal setting because it stuck to the old ways of the company. Meaning, it did not let employees participate nor receive information. When it comes to research on goal setting, employees well informed and active within their job feel more motivated to meet goals, especially when they set them or are part of the process of setting them. Essentially, Program IV, where managers communicate with employees only a weekly basis through "brainstorming sessions" not only allows employees to self-evaluate their own performance but…… [Read More]


Hetzner, S., Heid, H., & Gruber, H. (2015). Using workplace changes as learning opportunities: Using workplace changes as learning opportunities: Journal of Workplace Learning: Vol 27, No 1. Journal Of Workplace Learning, 27(1), 34. Retrieved from

Jain, A. (2015). Volunteerism and organisational culture: Volunteerism and organisational culture: Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal: Vol 22, No 1. Cross Cultural Management, 22(1), 116. Retrieved from

Newman, R. (2012). Goal Setting to Achieve Results. Leadership, 41(3), 12. Retrieved from

Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2014). Organizational behavior (16th ed.). Prentice Hall.
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Gibraltar in the Context of Elderly Care Homes

Words: 15787 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45880367

Management Performance Within Elderly Care Homes in Gibraltar

The elderly nursing community in Gibraltar is dispersed and characterized by different institution specific challenges and particularities. The current project assesses the general level of leadership competencies within three pre-selected institutions, the management performance assessments of employees, the basic leadership skills required and formulates a series of recommendations as to how these competencies could be obtained. The approach is predominantly a quantitative one, combining various research methods, such as the questionnaire, the case study and structured interviews.

With the aging of the population, more pressure is placed on the health care system throughout the world, and Gibraltar is no exception. As 15.41 per cent of its population is aged over 65 years (Website of the Central Intelligence Agency, 2015), a question arises regarding the country's ability to provide adequate care for its aging population. In this sense then, the current project sets…… [Read More]


Arras, John, D. (1995). Bringing the Hospital Home. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.

Barker, A.M., Sullivan, D.T., Emery, M.J., (2006) Leadership competencies for clinical managers: the Renaissance of transformational leadership, Jones & Bartlett Learning

Benner, P. (1982). Novice to Expert. Am J Nurs, 82(3):402-7

Booyens, S.W., (1998) Dimensions of nursing management, Juta and Company Ltd.
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Tesco Strategy

Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92201740


1st Paragraph:

Despite being one of the largest and most instantly recognizable brands in Britain, Tesco has experienced some short-term setbacks of late, and therefore should de-emphasize the Tesco brand in favour of the minor, painfully generic OneStop brand that consist primarily of convenience stores.

The Tesco brand has faced numerous recent challenges that question the long-run viability of the brand. After all, following 20 years of not recording any profit decline, the company has now posted profit declines two years running, and only earns ?3 billion on its ?70 billion in revenue.

Clearly, the brand has all sorts of problems and its future is in jeopardy, so a new strategy will be needed to save this company from extinction.

2nd Paragraph

An advantage of using the OneStop brand is that it has been part of the Tesco empire for several years, but it does not come with the…… [Read More]


Anderson, E. (2014). 6 challenges that new Tesco chief Dave Lewis will have to tackle. Management Today. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from

Ruddick, G. (2014). The five numbers that highlight Tesco's problems. The Telegraph. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from

Warner, J. (2014). Problems by the bagful for beleaguered Tesco. The Telegraph. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from

Wood, Z. (2011). Tesco's problems on the home front. The Guardian. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from
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Organizational Transformation and Intervention at the U S

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32510265

Organizational Transformation and Intervention at the U.S. Army

Army, like many organizations whose cultures are design to resist and reject change to ensure consistency of structure and clarity of mission, is in need of a transformation and intervention. The vision, mission and objectives of the U.S. Army require a more agile, flexible and modular organizational structure that promotes transformational leadership over transactional management. The cultural constraints however are exceptionally rigid in this organization and transformational leadership the exception rather than the rule. The key constructs of the Burke-Litwin Model however illustrate that transactional leadership is more complex to manage and maintain over the significantly more streamlined transformational leadership structures the researchers have defined (Burke, Litwin, 1992). The intent of this analysis is to show how an intervention plan for the U.S. Army would make the organization more capable of achieving its vision, mission and objectives. The rationale for the intervention…… [Read More]


Bititci, U.S., Mendibil, K., Nudurupati, S., Garengo, P., & Turner, T. (2006). Dynamics of performance measurement and organisational culture. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(12), 1325-1350.

Burke, W.W., & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-523.

Johnson, D.M. (2004). Adaptation of organizational change models to the implementation of quality standard requirements. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 21(2), 154-174.
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FedEx Innovation

Words: 3239 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50704588

Innovation & Creativity

FedEx was founded as an innovator in a logistics field that had never seen overnight delivery before. The company has always positioned itself as a premium provider in the business, based on its sophisticated technology, superior network size and quality of service. However, as the company has matured, its ability to be an innovation leader is being threatened. There are a few different issues at play. The first is that, as in any mature industry, the pace of innovation is generally slow. And as the only company that genuinely seeks to position itself as premium to its competitors, FedEx is the only firm truly trying to compete on innovation. Over the years, it has had some tremendous innovation successes, pioneering the ability to maintain communication with its drivers on road, with its tracking that allows customers to see where their packages are at every step of the…… [Read More]


Andersen, H.; Barker, P. And Chen, X. 2006. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, R.G. 2008. Perspective: The Stage-Gate® Idea-to-Launch Process-Update, What's New, and NexGen Systems Journal of Product Innovation Management 25 (3) 213-232.

Edquist, C. & Hommen, L. 1999. Systems of innovation: Theory and policy for the demand side. Technology in Society. 21 (1) 63-79.

Gatignon, H.; Tushman, M.L.; Smith, W. And Anderson, P. 2002 A Structural Approach to Assessing Innovation: Construct Development of Innovation Locus, Type, and Characteristics. Management Science 48 (9) 103-122.
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International Marketing

Words: 2358 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60132242


Comparative advantage is when someone is better at something than someone else. In the context of economics, it is typically applied to trade. For example, if two countries are trading, they should each produce the good at which they have comparative advantage. The overall production of two countries producing to their respective comparative advantage will be higher than if they both produced to their domestic demand. Key to understanding comparative advantage is the idea of opportunity cost. Where resources are scarce, any use of resources for one purpose means that another purpose must be forgone. But if parties produce that in which they have comparative advantage, not only does overall production increase, but opportunity cost decreases (Landsburg, 2007).

The product life cycle theory is an entirely different theory, reflecting an entirely different subject. The product life cycle theory is focused on the idea that products start with an introductory…… [Read More]


Business Mate (2014). What is transaction cost theory? Business Retrieved December 10, 2014 from

CIA World Factbook. (2011). Australia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from

FFS (2014). Fragile States Index 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from (2014). Retrieved December 10, 2014 from
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Competency-Based Education

Words: 2440 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87939211

Competency-Based Education

Chambers, D. etal. (1996, I June). "Another look at competency-based education in dietetics." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 (6): 614.

While this article is focused on the usefulness of competency-based education specifically within the field of dietetics, it is helpful for those in other fields as well because it presents an excellent argument about why competency-based education is such a powerful tool. While other training (and evaluation) methods have tended to focus on specific skill sets, competency-based education is extremely helpful in teaching the integrated skills needed for higher-level positions, including helping to inculcate the kinds of critical-thinking skills that are important for management positions.

Foley, G. (1995) Understanding Adult Education and Training. Allen & Unwin: Sydney.

This is one of the most important works on adult education and training within a specifically Australian context (although a number of international examples are included). The first book…… [Read More]

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Is There a Relationship Between Workplace Learning and Managers Performance in the Hospitality Industry

Words: 4106 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71898954


elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry

elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry

Manager's ole as a Leader

Workplace Learning

Why is Workplace Learning Important

The 'ideal' Workplace Learning Situation

Methods of Workplace Learning

Hospitality Industry Supports and Values Training and Learning

Management Skills in Workplace Learning

Manager's ole in the Hospitality Industry

Optimize Communication between Managers and Employees

Effective Managers in Hospitality Industry

elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry

Hospitality Manager

Impact of Managers' Performance

Why Should Managers be Involved in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry?

Skills Learnt in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry 13

Conclusion 13

eferences 15


There is a direct relationship between workplace learning and manger's performance in a hospitality industry. This paper deciphers the roles and responsibilities of the manager in…… [Read More]


Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.

Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.

Theresa, B., Blackbourn, S., Hussey, D., & Linda, N. (2009). Developing the Local Workforce: Is Work-Based Learning the Solution? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 18-28.

Ahu, T., & Ozbilgin, M.F. (2009). Understanding Diversity Managers' Role in Organizational Change: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 45-52.
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Different Leadership Styles in the Same Person

Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81163295

Leadership Style

The author of this report has been asked to select from among a list of ten leaders and assess their leadership style including whether it is effective or not whilst using four to five sources. From the list, the author of this report has chosen Mary Barra, the current CEO of General Motors in the United States. The primary article that shall be used from a reference standpoint is Darling and Leffel, authored in 2010. However, other sources will be looped in as well. While Barra's style may be critiqued and criticized by some, her inclusive style is no less than a good start for other leaders to mimic and follow.

Of course, leadership is the act and process of leading a group of people. In the context of this report, a leader would be a person who guides a corporation in a given direction as a means…… [Read More]


Darling, J., & Leffel, A. (2010). Developing the Leadership Team in an Entrepreneurial Venture: A Case Focusing on the Importance of Styles. Journal Of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 23(3), 355-371.

Englemeier, S. (2014). Did Mary Barra's Inclusive Leadership Style Propel Her to The Top?. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from

Getha-Taylor, H., Fowles, J., Silvia, C., & Merritt, C. C. (2015). Considering the Effects

of Time on Leadership Development. Public Personnel Management, 44(3), 295-
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Change Based on the Type of Change

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78346805

change based on the type of change?

Yes, the approach to implementing change must be highly determined and dependent on the type of change being attempted. There are multiple examples of how best to design, implement and manage a successful change management program based on the level of cultural (Patel, Patel, 2008), knowledge-based (Maurer, 2011) and procedural (Franken, Edwards, Lambert, 2009) change further supports this point. The extent and severity of the change must also take into account the level of task ownership possible for each of those most affected by it, allowing for full autonomy, mastery and purpose of tasks and roles (amsey, 2010). The tailoring of autonomy, mastery and purpose to the specific change management requirements of a given situation or strategy must also take into account the cultural expectations, norms, values and set of beliefs everyone involved faces as well (amsey, 2010).

The type of change will…… [Read More]


Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3, (March 1): 345-367.

Arnoud Franken, Chris Edwards, and Rob Lambert. 2009. Executing Strategic Change: Understanding the Critical Management Elements that Lead to Success. California Management Review 51, no. 3, (April 1): 49-73.

Maurer, R.. 2011. Why Most Changes Fail. The Journal for Quality and Participation 34, no. 2, (July 1): 17-18.

Taran Patel & Chirag Patel (2008): Learning cultures for sustained innovation success, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 21:3, 233-251
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Human Resource Management The Writer

Words: 1066 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58314516

Strategic performance measurements were taken and the conclusion indicates that HM is of a value benefit to the companies it is used in, of course this relies on the belief that each company is using HM to its fullest advantage and abilities.

A third study that examined the effectiveness in organization of companies using HM's in the field of high technology came in with mixed results and was not able to definitively credit the use of HM with more effective organizational ability.

In all of the studies it became apparent that the ability to examine the effectiveness of organization that use HM departments the driving force behind the study was the measurable elements of effectiveness that could be given a value and then measured against other valued criteria (Lee, 1989).

When ascertaining the importance of a HM department the largest corporations in America are giving weight to the importance of…… [Read More]


Becker, Brian, Huselid, Mark (2003) Measuring HR?

HRMagazine. Alexandria:.Vol. 48, Iss. 12; pg. 56

Crawford, John (2005)Indicators of strategic HRM effectiveness: a case study of an Australian public sector agency during commercialization.(human resource management)

Public Personnel Management
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Hospital Where I Am Employed

Words: 2216 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81046578

This included meeting the concerns of being able to properly care for patients while implementing the program.

In addition, I was able to finds creative ways to solve problems by having meetings and expressing concerns. I was able to show creativity through the development of workshops to aid the nurses. I was also able to encourage the development of the skills of the junior nurses through workshops and granting them hands-on experiences with nurses under the watchful eye of more experienced professionals. I was able to find ways of making people aware of the program.

Another important aspect of the role I played as responder involved participating in planned changes. I was involved at every facet of the plan to implement the campaign at our facility. Initially I was involved in the meetings and played an instrumental role in developing a plan that would provide a sound platform for the…… [Read More]


Densten I.L., Gray J.H. (n.d.) Leadership Applications and Organizational effectiveness. accessed August 26, 2005

Dowling, M., Hesketh A., Harden. R. Facts not fiction a firm base for managing everyday practice

Quinn, R.E., & Kimberley, J.R. (1984). Paradox, planning, and perseverance:

Guidelines for managerial practice. In K.J.R & R.E. Quinn (Eds.), New
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Memorial Hospital

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18344826

Memorial Hospital," the hospital is privately owned and contains 600 beds for patients. It also offers a wide range of services like X-ray facilities, an intensive care unit, a cardiac care unit, an emegency room, a complete laboratory, and a psychiatric ward. The hospital has great services however, these services are offered in other healthcare facities and hospitals in the surrounding area. In order to prevent additional costs, the hospital avoided hiring specialists and providing specialized services as these additional services and medical practioners were costly. In order to provide quality of care, the hospital places an emphasis on personal attention provided by a ursing staff to each and every, singlel patient. Patient-oriented care is there way of attracting new patients and thus have been used as the subject matter for their ads on television and in newspapers. Janice is instructed to discover a way to measure quality of care…… [Read More]


Buyukozkan, G., Cifcci, G., & Guleryuz, S. (2011). Strategic analysis of healthcare service quality using fuzzy AHP methodology. Expert Systems With Applications, 38(8), 9407-9424.

Dixon-Woods, M., McNicol, S., & Martin, G. (2012). Ten challenges in improving quality in healthcare: lessons from the Health Foundation's programme evaluations and relevant literature. BMJ Quality & Safety, 1.

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Baker, D., Nerenz, D., Feinglass, J., Beal, A., & Landrum, M. et al. (2007). Disparities in health care are driven by where minority patients seek care: examination of the hospital quality alliance measures. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 167(12), 1233 -- 1239.

Jha, A., Orav, E., Li, Z., & Epstein, A. (2007). The inverse relationship between mortality rates and performance in the Hospital Quality Alliance measures. Health Affairs, 26(4), 1104 -- 1110.