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Organization Theory Design
Daft, (2010) defines organization as a diverse corporate affair, a bank or a government agency that make up of people setting policies and procedures and interact with one another to perform essential functions in order to attain organization goals. Daft, (2010) further ague that organizations cannot exist without external stakeholders like customers, suppliers and competitors. Thus, organizations are very important because they create values for customers, owners and employees. Moreover, modern organization facilitate innovation and produce goods and services as well as bringing together resources to achieve desired goals. Despite the benefits that organizations create to society, different organizations face both internal and external problems that require effective organizational design.
The paper analyzes the integrated case of Empire Plastics, identify the problems that the organization is facing and suggest effective organization design for the company in order to resolve the problem.
The Empire Plastics was…
Daft, R.L. (2010). Organization Theory and Design. (10 Edition ). UK. Cengage Learning.
Thus, the H activities are currently more structured, but in the same time more decentralized to be able to respect the local characteristics of each market.
Barney J.B. 1986. Organizational Culture: Can it Be a Source of Competitive Advantage?, the Academy of Management eview, vol. 11(3): pp. 656-665.
Bass B.M. & Avolio B.J. 1994. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture, International Journal of Public Administration, vol. 17(3): pp. 541-554.
Beer M. & Nohria N. 2000. Cracking the Code of Change. Harvard Business eview, vol. 78(3): pp. 133-141.
Caldwell B. 1994. Missteps, Miscues: Business eengineering Failures Have Cost Corporations Billions and Spending is Still on the ise. Information Week (June 20): pp. 50-60.
Christensen C.M. 1997. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Christensen C.M., & Overdorf M. 2000. Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change. Harvard Business eview, vol. 78(2): pp. 66-78.
PBS. 2004. (February 2), Store Wars: When…
Barney J.B. 1986. Organizational Culture: Can it Be a Source of Competitive Advantage?, the Academy of Management Review, vol. 11(3): pp. 656-665.
Bass B.M. & Avolio B.J. 1994. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture, International Journal of Public Administration, vol. 17(3): pp. 541-554.
Beer M. & Nohria N. 2000. Cracking the Code of Change. Harvard Business Review, vol. 78(3): pp. 133-141.
Caldwell B. 1994. Missteps, Miscues: Business Reengineering Failures Have Cost Corporations Billions and Spending is Still on the Rise. Information Week (June 20): pp. 50-60.
Organization Theory and Behavior
Gender and Values
The development of values in modern day organizations, particularly those that represent the public sector, are becoming increasingly aligned with principles that are part of social science and primary social science theory. As such, many of these values represent a degree of mutability that is representative of the dynamic nature of social science in general. As Montgomery Van Wart denotes in Changing Public Sector Values, values have changed to "an emphasis on individual performance to teamwork, from an emphasis on stability to an emphasis on change and innovation, and from steep hierarchical organizations to significantly flattened organizations with more decentralized authority" (p. 289).
The confluence of factors that help to comprise this trend in the shifting of values is fairly comprehensive, and correlates to many facets of social science theory. Essentially, values are determined via a macrocosm that includes the interest of the…
The Philadelphia mayor, and any mayor in general, must be characterized by
power at a certain level. Public administration employees usually hold
great power, and mayors make no exception, on the contrary.
In our case, the mayor's sources of individual power are:
. The power to reward, to control the rewards process within the
. The power to sanction other employees
. The mayor's formal position within the organization
. Personal charisma
. The mayor's authority as an expert
. The mayor's personal drive for power
. Self confidence
The organizational sources of power include elements of the
organizational system and extremely important management situations that
grant certain employees or groups of employees a relatively high ability to
influence others. One of the most important organizational sources of power
resides in controlled resources. The more directly a person controls more
resources, like human resources, financial resources, technical resources,
1. Henry Mintzberg (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved July 5, 2008 from
2. Fiedler contingency model (2008). Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia. Retrieved July 5, 2008 from
3. Mintzberg, Henry. Developing Theory about the Development of
Classic of Organization Theory
Classical theorists would incorporate Maslow's social science theory into an organization's culture fairly sparingly. Classical theorists were not as concerned with an organization's culture as they were its output and focus on commercialization. Therefore, it would deal less with the individual components of the members while formulating such a culture, and deal more with implementing the individual principles in a group effort in which all of the various needs would represent that of the company itself. Therefore, concepts such as esteem and self-actualization would apply to the esteem and actualization of the company's potential for success, while certain individual notions of love and safety would be valued considerably less.
Neo-classical theorists, on the other hand, would implement Maslow's notions with as much focus on the individual as possible. Therefore, concepts such as safety, love and esteem would take priority for employees and members of an organization,…
ureaucracy is supposed to make the social system work, and this is its supreme goal. As far as the personal satisfactions of the individuals which are implied in the process are concerned, for the bureaucracy professional or the bureaucratic system they simply do not exist. Therefore, it can be stated that for bureaucracy the goal is a purely objective one, while for social entrepreneurship the subjective dimension is pretty strong.
ureaucracy is supposed to make the overall system function in an efficient manner, social entrepreneurship is specifically oriented towards a certain organization. It is true that society as an overall is supposed to benefit from its initiatives, but its targets are smaller in size and oriented towards pragmatic unilateral goals
As far as bureaucracy is concerned, it has five main characteristics. The first one is that it functions according to official jurisdictional areas which are fixed and established in an…
Mair, j., Robinson, J., Hockerts, K. (2006) Social Entrepreneurship pp1-13. NY Palgrave MacMillan
Michels, R. Democracy and the iron law of oligarchy (1966) Political parties: a sociological studies of the oligarchical tendencies of modern democracy, NY Free press
Shafritz, JM, Ott, JS; Jang, YS (2005) Classics of organization theory, Thomson
Business Organization Theory: Sony
This is a paper that analyzes an article from the business organization theory perspective. It has 2 sources.
Organizations in the international business setting nowadays face tremendous competition as they are not only competing with local competitors but also with those abroad as well (Hill 1999). This had been the case with Sony whose arch rival Samsung and LG Electronics of South Korea have in the recent years replaced Sony products at the top positions. To compete effectively Sony according to an article by James Brook (2003) plans to cut down its staff in one of the operations units that would eliminate 20,000 workers from employment. Brook also reports that Sony plans to shift its operations to China and concentrate on business development in Japan.
Business organizations as competitive entities in the global setting are faced with multitude factors that affect their business competencies and competitiveness.…
Hill, Charles W.L., International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1999.
Brooke, James. Sony Plans to Eliminate 20,000 Jobs Over 3 Years, The New York Times Company, October 29, 2003 at http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/29/business/worldbusiness/29sony.html?pagewanted=print&position=
OKYO, Oct. 28 - In an attempt to achieve a turnaround, the
Clipper's recent Outstanding Research and Development Partnership Award from the U.S. Department of Energy will hopefully be a harbinger of partnerships with the department.
Given that the significant potential of wind power to provide a renewable source of energy is currently unknown by much of the public, engaging in a public relations campaign through television and the Internet is essential to marketing Clipper and creating a demand for companies to use its sustainable source of energy. Promoting Clipper through noncommercial sources like public radio and local and network news stations in an informational, presentational fashion designed to educate the public about the power of wind to generate energy would be one way to spread the word about the advantages of wind power and create a positive buzz about the company. This would be a form of low-pressure, subtle advertising that would likely resonate amongst individuals who would want to promote…
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy." Wind and Hydropower Technologies
Program. 2 Aug 2008. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/wind_ad.html
Baron, David. "Wind Power: A family divided by thin air." All Things Considered. NPR Public transcript. 9 Apr 2008. 2 Aug 2008. http://www.shifting-ground.com/wind_power_transcript.html
Selko, Adrienne. "Largest Wind Turbine Manufactured in U.S. Gets Energy Award." Industry
Abraham Maslow, Elton Mayo, Douglas McGregor, and Chester Barnard are four theorists of numerous that assisted in building upon the formation of what is known as modern organizational theory. Modern organizational theory places emphasis on the examination of organizational behavior, use of varied methods, interdisciplinary research, as well as tries to reach generalizations applicable towards various types of organizations. Such a theory differs from other schools of thought like neoclassical and classical. Modern organizational theorists often attempt to minimize the influence of their views, beliefs, and values. Instead of the common assumption that management systems are apolitical, actual effort is put on separating values from evidence or facts. Therefore, the modern school of thought is therefore the most applicable for pubic and/or nonprofit organizations. This essay will explain why and the contributions of the aforementioned theorists.
Elton Mayo discovered during his journey in understanding the ‘human side of enterprise’ that…
Heil, G., McGregor, D., Stephens, D. C., & Bennis, W. G. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of the enterprise. New York: Wiley.
Hindle, T. (2006). Theories X and Y | The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/12370445
Maslow, A. H. (2013). A theory of human motivation. Lanham: Start Publishing LLC.
Stoyanov, S., & Diderich, M. (2017). The Human Side of Enterprise. CRC Press.
Williamson, O. E. (1995). Organization Theory: From Chester Barnard to the Present and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.
Classical organization theories were developed in the late 1940’s by the likes of Taylor in 1947, Weber in 1947, and Fayol in 1949 (Rahim, 2017. These theories were created to help deal with ideas and the formal organization to enhance management efficiency. There contributions together help form what is known as classical organization theory today (Rahim, 2017). Taylor helped present scientific management concepts. Weber’s contribution was the bureaucratic approach. Fayol formed the administrative theory of organization (Rahim, 2017). These efforts contributed majorly to the understanding anf study of classical organization theory.
Taylor developed what is known as the scientific management approach. This method has its root thanks to the desire to accomplish specialization, efficiency, simplification, and standardization with concept of planning of work. Back then workers were seen as tools rather than contributors to industry and as such formation of theory in this regard was going up against an undercurrent…
Ashford, J. B., LeCroy, C. W., & Lortie, K. L. (2010). Human behavior in the social environment: A multidimensional perspective. Australia: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Griffin, R. W., & Moorhead, G. (2014). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Lussier, R. N. (2009). Management fundamentals: Concepts, applications, skill development. Australia: South-Westerm/Cengage learning.
Nanda, J. K. (2006). Management thought. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Rahim, M. A. (2017). Managing Conflict in Organizations (4th ed.). Routledge.
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
Organizational Theory #1
Create a code of ethics for an organization of your choice. For each point in the code of ethics, describe an ethical dilemma that would be resolved using the code of ethics.
All employees will conduct business honestly and ethically. We will constantly improve the quality of our services, products and operations and create a reputation for honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, integrity, trust and sound business judgment. (Provides a clearly stated, over-arching business philosophy for honesty and fair dealings that every employee can follow).
No illegal or unethical conduct on the part of company employees or affiliates is in the company's best interest. All are expected to adhere to high standards of personal integrity -- not allowing their personal interests to conflict with the interests of the company, its clients or affiliates. We will not compromise our principles for short-term advantage. (Encourages all employees to seek the…
Beauchamp, L., & O'Connor, A. (2012). America's most admired companies: A descriptive analysis of CEO corporate social responsibility statements. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 494-497. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.03.006
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
At the same time, this already discovered knowledge can be shared with the existing employees on a common forum and then implemented by each in part under the form of imitation. As we can see, with positive impacts, innovation and imitation can be successfully implemented internally, within the organization, and can help in maximizing the organization's activity.
As we can see, organizational behavior helps, to some degree, shape the organization's encouragement of innovation or imitation and the way by which, internally, one or the other is fostered. The entrepreneur's personality is also often important in defining the relationship between the two and to determine where the line between them is likely to be traced. At the same time, both imitation and innovation are ways by which knowledge can be diffused within the organization or, often in the present, between different organizations.
1. Ethiraj, Sendil, Levinthal, Daniel, Roy, Rishir. The…
1. Ethiraj, Sendil, Levinthal, Daniel, Roy, Rishir. The Dual Role of Modularity: Innovation and Imitation. Management Science. March 2007.
2. Organization theory. On the Internet at http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/history/organization_theory.htm.Last retrieved on December 13, 2007
3. Yong, Grace, Ho, Weng, Kong. INNOVATION, IMITATION and ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Singapore Economic Review. June 2006.
4. Schmitz, Jr., J.A. Imitation, Entrepreneurship, and Long-run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 1989, pp. 721-739.
The goal is approached through three distinct channels -- (1) a bottom up approach, focused on the individual administrator; (2) a top down approach focused on organizational culture, and (3) the approach to values from a functional and practical angle. The conclusions can easily be extrapolated to the totality of entities, public or private, to reveal how an incremental emphasis is being placed on culture, ideologies, reform and efficiency.
The third source to be analyzed is represented by Camilla Stivers' Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State (2002). With a slightly more specific agenda in mind, Stivers' book looks at the role of women in public institutions. Sadly enough, she finds that despite the growing number of public administration female students, their actual role and presence within public institutions remains reduced, due to a long lasting perception of public jobs as having a masculinity in nature. The…
Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X
Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745
Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
Organizations Environment Each perspective examines organizations perceived relationships environment differently. Describe differences. What enacted features organization's (U.S. Postal Service) environment ways features displayed perceived consistent perspectives? Text: Organization Theory by Mary Jo Hatch.
Each perspective examines organizations and their perceived relationships to the environment differently. For this discussion, describe these differences.
Contingency theory stresses the fact that an organization's decision-making processes are in constant dialogue with the environment. An organization's policies are always contingent upon its particular market situation. This theory of organizational behavior stresses the situational nature of decision-making on the part of organizations. An organization in a 'mature' or perfectly competitive market environment with an established demand for its product will need to make different decisions regarding pricing and marketing than an organization with clear market dominance and a near monopoly. Complexity of the individual organization and rate of change of the external environment will determine…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (2006). Organization theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
US Postal Service: Vision 2013. (2008). Five-year strategic plan. U.S. Postal Service.
Further, coercive and reward power are often highly distributed through the more agile organizations and as a result must be applied immediately to behavior to be effective.
In the context of Dr. Edgar Schein's (1983) analysis and presentation of results in his working papers referenced in this document, an industry's growth and culture is well defined in the following quote. In the working papers, Schein (1983) writes:
For an organizational culture to exist, there must be a definable organization in the sense of a number of people interacting with each other for the purpose of accomplishing some goal in their defined environment. The founder of an organization simultaneously creates such a group and, by force of his or her personality, begins to shape the culture of that group. But the culture of that new group is not there until the group has had its own history of overcoming various crises…
Azize Ergeneli, Guler Sag, Iam Ari, Selin Metin. 2006. Psychological empowerment and its relationship to trust in immediate managers. Journal of Business Research 60, no. 1 (December 1): 41. (Accessed December 6, 2007).
French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H., 1959. The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Geert Hofstede, 2006 - Summary of Ideas about Cultural Differences. From Geert Hofstede's personal website: Accessed on December 7, 2007:
What is an Organizational Theory?
In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.
Major Organizational Theories
Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…
McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.
" In other words, the conclusion is that women have a negative impact on all five organizational performance criteria -- personal achievements, accountability, team building, morale and customer service. A similar view is shared by Elton Mayo, who argues that women tend to talk too much among themselves, fail to become subordinate and as such distract the attention of the whole group, negatively impacting power of concentration, and consequently, performances and the rest of the criteria.
The inferiority of the female gender comparative to the male gender is also sustained by sources quoted by Montgomery Van Wart in his Changing Public Sector Values (1998). He presents the subject in the context of discriminations against certain groups, but argues that the gender criterion is the least important one as more dramatic discriminations occurred based on race or social status. Nevertheless, the pillar of these discriminations was the belief in elite systems,…
Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X
Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745
Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
We were continuously advancing on the market with our very affordable price, giving customers greater marginal contribution or profit.
When the fruitful effort resulted to increase market share and improve operational procedure, the Company was able to slowly recover lost resources and market share was gradually growing. This gave chance for the Company to return back to its employees the hard work earned. The first bonus was given after three years of hard work and loyalty. Also, a scheme of add-on commission was given to Sales Personnel who meet or exceeds target volume sales.
Coupled with hard work and faith to success, the market share of Cosmo Soda continually increased during the next years. On the third year, the Company was able to put up one provincial plant for better distributions. The next years, an additional two were also constructed.
In addition to the geographical growth, the Company had decided…
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of people.
At this point the evolution of organizational theories begins looking at how the factors of the distribution of knowledge, the integration of process for knowledge management, and in general the recognition of personal productivity as the basis of competitive advantage. This specific phase in the evolution of organizational theories is so fundamentally disruptive to previous theories that the effects are found in global economic theories, including the theory of comparative advantage. One of the thought leaders in the area, Dr. Michael Porter (1990, pp. 32-78) whose groundbreaking analysis of productivity pointed to individual's ability to fundamentally re-order processes would eventually surface in the 21st century as a Business process Management (BPM) revolution. When one considers the evolutionary shift from seeing assets…
Christian Cordes. "The Role of "Instincts" in the Development of Corporate Cultures." Journal of Economic Issues 41.3 (2007): 747-764. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.13 Jan. 2008
Gerald F. Davis. "Mechanisms and the Theory of Organizations. " Journal of Management Inquiry 15.2 (2006): 114-118. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Jan. 2008
Anil K. Gupta, Paul E. Tesluk, M Susan Taylor. "Innovation at and Across Multiple Levels of Analysis. " Organization Science 18.6 (2007): 885-897,1022-1023. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest;14 Jan. 2008 www.proquest.com
Michael G. Jacobides. "The architecture and design of organizational capabilities. " Industrial and Corporate Change 15.1 (2006): 151. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jan. 2008
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
OGANIZATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AT WOK: TECHNOLOGY & ETHICS
Digital and information technology allows for new opportunities for education, including at the professional level. More and more, human resources use technology to assist in the modification and development of company culture. 21st century organizational leadership can be characterized by the realization that a clearly defined and strongly present organizational culture is key to success. Some of the most successful organizations are ones wherein their culture is adaptable and flexible. These same companies understand the importance and value of smooth transition and effective implementation of organizational change as well as promotion of organizational culture. Human esources is a department that is integral in the development and sustainment of the organizational culture. Human esources is additionally a depart that can facilitate organizational change(s). Human esources professionals should take the time to educate themselves and learn the ways in which technology can supplement…
Dewett, T., & Jones, G.R. (2001) The role of information technology in the organization: a review, model, and assessment. Journal of Management, 27, 313 -- 346.
Heracleous, L., & Barrett, M. (2001) Organizational Change as Discourse: Communicative Actions and Deep Structures in the Context of Information Technology Implementation. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 755 -- 778.
Jin, K.G. (2007) Information Technology Professionals' Perceived Organizational Values and Managerial Ethics: An Empirical Study. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(2), 149 -- 159.
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
Organizational eframing Program
Four Frames of Organizational eframing
Human esource: -
Structural Contingency Theory
Structural Contingency Theory in Human esource Management:-
Social Network Analysis
Impact of reframing plan and ethical issue's
Impact on the department being reframed:-
Impact of reframing on other departments:-
The study shows an organizational plan of a department. The aim of the study is to emphasize on how the theory of organizational life is applicable with the help of utilization of the action research process.
eframing means to redirect or change the way of thinking and look at things with a complete different mindset. In simple terms reframing is change of plans or basic details of an idea. Looking at events from a complete different mindset helps you to avoid individual biases. It also emphasizes the importance of adjustments and flexibility in the organization. The process of reframing suggests finding out…
Hatch, M.J. (2006), "Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives." 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press
Kanigel, R. (1997). The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co
Robbins, Stephen P. (2004) Organizational Behavior - Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall
Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory. p.146
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…
Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for Competitive Advantage. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 9(4), 49-61.
Bate, P., Khan, R., & Pye, A. (2000). Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Organization Structuring: Where Organization Design Meets Organization Development. Organization Science, 11(2), 197-211.
Becker, I., & Flaxer, E. (2008). Analysing the Hierarchical Organization of Text by Using Biologically-Inspired Statistical Methods. [Article]. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 15(4), 318-339. doi: 10.1080/09296170802326657
Bloodgood, J.M., & Bauerschmidt, A. (2002). Competitive Analysis: Do Managers Accurately Compare Their Firms To Competitors? Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(4), 418-434.
The Walt Disney
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
An organization is any social entity that has a well-designed structure to coordinate its functions, and the organization has to have a specific goal. Most organizations hardly work internally alone, but rather involve the external environments. Some organizations are profit oriented, like the business organizations, while others are non-profit making (Daft et al. 2010). In this context, a contemporary focus is overlooked towards the Walt Disney Company, a profound firm dealing with mass media and affiliated industrial operations.
Brief Company Profile
Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923, and has always kept the reputation in providing quality and extremely creative products, which consumers have loved ever since. The organization specializes in providing quality entertainment, services of media communication, broadcasting, television programs and live performances. The company, which is located in California (United States), exemplifies exponential characteristics that…
Barry, L. (2009) Think Like an Iconoclast: The Principles Of Walt Disney's Success: Rotman Magazine, Pg 108-110.
Daft, R.L., Murphy, J. & Willmott, H. (2010) organization Theory and Design: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Forester, M. (2002) Table-Talk Perspective: Chain Store Age, 10870601, Vol.78, Issue 11.
Gershon, R.A. (1996) The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free market Competition: New York, Routledge.
Organizational Environment Starbucks
In-depth Analysis of Organizational Environment - Starbucks
Starbucks Organizational Culture and Environment
Global Perspectives of Starbucks
Social esponsibility embraced by Starbucks
Starbucks Planning Process
Decision Making Process of Starbucks
Starbucks Corporate Strategy
Organizational Structure of Starbucks
Starbucks uses a mechanistic structure as a contemporary design
Starbucks Organizational Culture and Environment
Starbucks Corporation is considered as one of the leading coffee house chains that offer best quality coffee to its customers. This retail corporation is based in the United States, initiated in the early years of the decade of 1970. Due to its popularity, the company rapidly expanded to various locations around the globe. The vision, goals and strategies designed clearly indicated the fact that the owners did not believe in having growth that can abate the corporate culture, therefore, the corporate culture was considered to be one of the integral aspects for the company. The mission statement…
Anthony, W.P., Gales, L.M., & Hodge, B.J. (2003). Organization Theory: A Strategic Approach. 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
BCG. (2012). Howard Schultz on Global Reach and Local Relevance at Starbucks - An Interview with the CEO. bcg.perspectives. Retrieved from: https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/videos/leadership_management_two_speed_economy_howard_schultz_global_reach_and_local_relevance/
Behar, H. (2007). It's Not About the Coffee: Leadership Principles from a Life at Starbucks. USA: Portfolio.
SeaZone. (2012). Successful Application of Organizational Behavior: Starbucks - Achieving Success the Starbucks Way. Yahoo Voices. Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/successful-application-organizational-behavior-2435551.html?cat=3
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Organizational Case Analysis
Apple Inc. is a multinational companies specializing in the designing, manufacturing and marketing of mobile communication devices such as personal computers and digital music players. The company also sells varieties of mobile telecommunication devices such as iPhone, iPod, iPad, and Mac. Additionally, Apple Inc. sells some professional software application such as Mac OS, iOS, iCloud and other varieties of communication accessories. Apple Inc. sells its products through retail stores, online stores, value-added resellers, direct sales, wholesalers, and through third party cellular network carriers. (Apple Annual eport, 2011). Apple Inc. was Incorporated in 1977 in California, and presently Apple Inc. has become one of the most successful companies in the United States and globally. Apple Inc. is committed to bring best computer experience to its customers, and the company business strategy is to develop high quality products to reach more customers. Major customers of Apple Inc.…
Apple Annual Report (2011). Apple Annual Report 2011. Apple Inc.2011.
Caixing, L. & David, Y. (2011).An Analysis of the Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Earnings Management. Advances in Management.4(6): 25-31.
Elmer-DeWitt, P. (2011). Rethinking Apple's Org Chart. A Time Warner Company.
Griffin, R.W. & Moorhead., G. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning.USA.
" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.
In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…
Arnold, J., Cooper, C. & Robertson, I.T. (1995). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace, Pitman Publishing, London.
Beer, M. & Walton, E. (1990). Developing the competitive organization: interventions and strategies. American Psychologists, 45(22), 154-161.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. Harper and Row, New York.
Bowditch, J.L. & Buono, a.F. (1994). A primer on organizational behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
Organization Culture: An Analysis of Two Articles
Organizational Culture: An Analysis of Two articles
A collective organization approach is one that seeks to empower individual capacity to handle organizational issues at an individual level. In this case, the spirit of independence is vital since it responds to organizational challenges, and thus, maintaining spillovers cooperatively. Based on this approach, it is appropriate to assess the scholarly approach designated to empower organizational culture. Scholarly, such a culture ideally seeks to minimize derivative concerns that are resulted by an improperly dispensed leadership ideology. This analysis will seek to examine the validity of two articles and their interrelationship in terms of concepts. The analysis will prove that an appropriate organization culture is one that fosters a spirit of collectivism.
Summary of the two articles
Stohr et al. (2012) approach towards organizational culture is structurally developed towards affiliating all members in a given organization setting.…
Finkelstein, M.A. (2011). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational citizenship behavior: A functional approach to organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 2(1), 19-34.
Stohr, Mary K., Hemmens, Craig, Collins, Peter A., Inannacchinone, Brian, Hudson, Marianne, Johnson, Haily. (2012). Assessing the Organizational Culture in a Jail Setting. The Prison Journal, Vol. 92: pp. 358-387
Emphasis was placed on resource allocation, remuneration of the top managers -- through sometimes luxurious premiums and bonuses -- or financial sufficiency -- often created through loans.
2. The leadership style
At the level of the leadership style, a distinction has to be made between management and leadership in the meaning that leadership refers to people, whereas management refers to technical details -- such as resource allocation, financial consideration and so on. As a general specification, the Enron leadership style was that of the follower. The employees were not encouraged nor empowered. Transparency was virtually inexistent. Whenever conflicts or intriguing findings would arise, they would be hushed up.
3. The organizational structure
The organizational structure at Enron was complex and it lacked an adequate control and audit system. It failed to adequately delegate responsibilities and it also failed to implement and demand accountability. The company did not keep an account…
Clark, D., 2010, Leadership and organizational behavior, Bog Dog, Little Dog, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html last accessed on August 9, 2010
Hunter, S., 2007, What brought about Enron's collapse? Associated Content, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/167610/what_brought_about_enrons_collapse.html last accessed on August 9, 2010
Miner, J.B., 2002, Organizational behavior: foundations, theories and analyses, Oxford University Press
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
Chester county hospital organization culture
Chester county hospital is an organization within the public sector. This organization strives to be the best place to work for any of its employees or potential employees. This organization is among Chester County's largest and most well respected employers and this success is attributed to the dedicated employees who are committed to maintaining an atmosphere of excellence. The members of staff are a representation of the development of the hospital patient satisfaction performance standards that are based on the mission, vision and values of the organization. The organization puts the needs of its patients who are their customers first. They strive to ensure that the patients get the appropriate care they need whenever they visit the hospital .The organization recognizes the importance of employees balancing their professional and personal life. Therefore the organization offers numerous opportunities for their advancement, flexible scheduling, a…
Christensen, T.,Laegreid P, Roness, P & Rovik, K.(2009). Organization
Theory and the Public Sector Instrument, Culture and Myth. Retrieved May 19,2014 from http://www.europe-solidarity.eu/documents/ES_ORGANIZAT_THEORY_2007.pdf
McGraw-Hill Higher Education, (2004). Organizational Culture Theory. Retrieved May 19, 2014 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0767430344/student_view0/chapter16/
Chester County Hospital, (2014). Organizational Culture, Diversity and Equal Opportunity. Retrieved May 19, 2014 from http://www.chestercountyhospital.org/cchpage.asp?p=115&m=182
Organizational Management & Change
Organizational management and change
Small and medium size companies are often perceived as the heart of the local economies, as they create employment opportunities and deliver the products and services which are necessary for the community. Still, in this age of dynamic business activities, the small size companies face countless challenges in their path to success. For Advertise Master Inc. The challenges are represented by the need to attract more customers, the financial constraints of the firm and the need for sustained operations. But in this setting, the employees argue that the company is implementing an inadequate HM policy, which could lead to generalized problems for the company.
The current project as such assesses the need for change at Advertise Master and uses the 8 step approach of Harvard professor John Kotter to design and implement the necessary change. Before this however, it is necessary to…
Cole, G.A., 2002, Personnel and human resource management, 5th edition, Cengage Learning EMEA
Gitomer, J.H., 1998, Customer satisfaction is worthless, customer loyalty is priceless, Bard Press
McLinden, G., Fanta, E., Widdowson, D., Doyle, T., 2010, Border management modernization, World Bank Publications
Murphy, D.J., Willmott, H., 2010, Organization theory and design, 10th edition, Cengage Learning EMEA
These costs are less obvious than direct costs, but can be an important factor in organizational competitiveness ("Project managers," 2003). As an example, long lead times for hard-to-find, specialty resources can result in additional hidden costs. These include the costs of warehousing extra resources, to compensate for these long lead times. If production runs short of these resources, and they are not readily available, this can result in stopped production. The lost productivity results in increased overhead costs as a percentage of production. This can then lead to reduced competitiveness, resulting in reduced revenues, and an inability to continue to take advantage of economies of scale, for not only that particular resource, but also all other resource inputs for that product or service.
The consequences of obtaining resources for an organization are both external and internal. Externally, the primary consequence is that that resource is no longer in the environment…
Blegen, H. (1968). "The system approach to the study of organizations." Acta Sociologica, 11(1/2). p. 12-30.
Dobrev, S. (Dec 2007). "Competing in the looking-glass market: Imitation, resources and crowding." Strategic Management Journal, 28(13). p. 1267-1289.
Hickson, M. (Spring 1973). "The open systems model: Auditing the effectiveness of organizational communication." Journal of Business Communication, 10(3). p. 7-14.
Kangas, R. (2007). "The changing face of the Russian Far East: Cooperation and resource competition between Japan, Korea, and China in Northeast Asia." Perspectives on Global Development & Technology, 6(1-3). p. 441-460.
The author of this report has been asked to speak to a number of questions involving criminal justice. The first is the overall trends and merits when it comes to the different manifestations of completing criminal justice tasks including privatization, e-corporations and militarization. The second question would be the historical and traditional organizational behavior theories and the corresponding effect of societal and organizational diversity when it comes to criminal justice organizations. Finally, there will be a discussion of equity theory and reinforcement theory and how both of those affect criminal justice organizations. While criminal justice may not seem all that complicated to the untrained eye, the intricacies and complexities come early and often.
There are differing minds when it comes to the question of whether criminal justice tasks and such should be contracted out to private businesses. While the police function of policing has typically always been…
De Mesquita, B. B., & Cohen, L. E. (1995). SELF-INTEREST, EQUITY, AND CRIME
CONTROL: A GAME-THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF CRIMINAL DECISION
MAKING. Criminology, 33(4), 483-518.
Glushko, A. (2016). DOING WELL AND DOING GOOD: THE CASE FOR PRIVATISING
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
organizational structure type from chapter 6 of the class text. The author is also asked to select an organization that uses such a structure. It is to be explained why the structure works, why it does not work and what can be done to improve the structure. The traits of the selected department including the population protected and the resources it has will also be looked at. The New York City police department is very massive and has a huge amount of resources available to it but they must be vigilant and prudent in how they manage those resources.
As noted in the introduction, the selected agency being looked at today is the New York City police department. Also as intimated by the introduction, they enjoy a regimented line structure that is based on chain of command and structure. This department protects the city of New York City,…
Boundless. (2013, November 8). Line Structure. Boundless. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from https://www.boundless.com/business/organizational-structure/models-of-organization-structure/line-structure/
NYCLU. (2013, November 8). Stop and Frisk Practices. New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyclu.org/issues/racial-justice/stop-and-frisk-practiceshome.shtml
NYPD. (2013, November 8). NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/home/home.shtml
Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…
Ashkenas, R.N. (1994). Beyond the fads: How leaders drive change with results. Human Resource Planning, 17(2), 25-27.
Bailey, J. (1996). After thought: The computer challenge to human intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Bennis, W. & Mische, M. (1995). The 21st century organization: Reinventing through reengineering. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor
When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.
The paper examines the organizational culture of a…
Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.
Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.
Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.
Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
Organizational Theory and esistance to Change
In this hospital case, the new manager came with rules that he hoped would change the way things were done. He came with a mindset that through strict administration, he would manage to keep the employees focused. His coming in was to replace a retired predecessor who had served there for thirty years. With such many years, the new manager thought the slackening performance at the rural hospital was due to the predecessor's inability to control the staff. This situation has cast his actions into doubt what he had in mind. The scenario shows the weaknesses of intolerant leadership.
The new manager sought to apply change theory to address the issues that he thought were negatively affecting the hospital. Under the change theory, he thought that by having an overhaul of the whole system, he would bring positive progress. It backfired on…
Browning, B. W. (2007). Leadership in Desperate Times: An Analysis of Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage through the Lens of Leadership Theory. Advances in Developing Human Resources vol. 9 no. 2 183-198
Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational Theory: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, R. E. (2012). Organizational Theory. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
IKEA Organizational Culture
Strong and Weak Sides of Organizational Culture
Impact of Internal and External Factors
Leadership and Organizational Culture
Employees and Organizational Structure
IKEA Organizational Culture
Every organization has a unique culture that dictates how things are done -- it defines the organization's social and psychological behavior. Though there is no universally agreed definition, organizational culture essentially refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions, principles, habits, and customs shared by members of a given organization (Schein, 2010). These behavioral aspects constitute the distinctiveness of the organization (Jain, 2005). Indeed, organizational culture can be an important source of competitive advantage for an organization as it determines its strategic orientation, personnel management approaches, and other aspects of organizational behavior (Schein, 2010; Mullins & Christy, 2010). One organization that has built a distinctive organizational culture is IKEA, a Swedish multinational firm involved in the designing and marketing…
Browaeys, M., & Price, R. (2008). Understanding Cross-cultural Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Clarke, L. (n.d.). Corporate culture of the heart. Retrieved from: https://inside.6q.io/ikea - corporate-culture-of-the-heart/
Geert-hofstede.com (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from: https://geert- hofstede.com/sweden.html
Grol, P., & Schoch, C. (2010). IKEA: Culture as competitive advantage. CPA, Paris Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.efbl.org/upload/7730963-Strategijski- menadzment-Studija-slucaja-IKEA-2010-12-16.pdf
Organizational culture theory and the role and impact of both formal and informal groups on the functioning of modern day organizations.
Organizational culture is the way organizations conducts its business transactions. It also refers to the different perspectives that a company sees things. An organization builds its own organizational culture through structure, history and the traditions of the company (Shafritz 2005). Theories of organizational culture suggest that culture gives an organization a sense of identity and defines what the company stands for. It also tells us what the company is. Culture also gives details to the principles of the company. Organizational culture in broader terms is the collective behavior of humans and the meaning of the actions that people do.
It involves the vision, norms, systems, beliefs and the organization values. Organizational culture contains values accepted by the employees of an organization. There are four main categories of organizational culture.…
Men and women perform different tasks in the society. There are tasks that women cannot do whereas the men are competent. Other tasks are hard for men to perform while the same tasks are easy for the women. The changing world enables women to work in the fields that many people regarded as belonging to the men. Women are now working in construction companies as a form of employment. The tasks affect positively in a bureaucratic performance since women incorporate their skills with that of men to work towards the achievement of an organization's goal. Strong and good working relationships between the employees in a bureau are beneficial (Gormley 2008). The strong relationships ensure that there is competence and effectiveness in performance of the employees.
Political support is crucial for any bureaucracy to thrive. Political stability and support are the main determinant factor that will enable a bureaucracy to thrive in its activities. Political support enables the bureaucracy to work without any hurdles. This ensures that the bureaucracy works with ease. Political support enables the bureaucracy to receive help and assistance from politicians (Gormley 2008). Political interference is the main factor that leads to the collapse of bureaucracy. Negative working relations between a bureau and politicians are a negative factor that will make the bureau not to function accordingly.
Good leadership helps bureaus to work effectively. Good leadership ensures that there are no corruption cases in many bureaus (Gormley 2008). Bad leadership results in the misappropriation of funds and corruption in the bureaus. Good leadership is a motivator to the junior staffs who look up to the leaders and follow the examples set up by the leaders. This enables the employees in the bureau to perform excellently in all sectors. Good governance and leadership by the officials enable the organization to get funding from the government that helps it in carrying outs its tasks.
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html .
Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.
Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Citizen's Hospital is an organization where employees and the organization share common goals. The organization has a personality of confusion. The culture of the organization focused on patient satisfaction where the climate was democratic with an emphasis on interpersonal skills, democratic values and human motivation (Francis, 2012). The structure was hierarchal and operated by departments.
Shared common goals included enabling patients to gain adequate recovery in the fastest, most effective way with safe measures to prevent infection and other illness. The psychological part of the company displayed friendliness with the interview processes that included a peer interview with the department's employees to determine capability. Upon hiring, all new hires were required to go through a socialization process of employee orientation and mentor training. Once the new hired is trained, confusion sets in with unsafe practices.
The organization developed large amounts of back injuries from role stress and a…
Francis, A. (2012, Mar 1). Neoclassical Theories of Organization. Retrieved from MBA Knowledge Base: http://www.mbaknol.com/management-principles/neoclassical-theories-of-organization
Landy, F.J. (2013). The Organization of Work Behavior. In F.J. Landy, Work in the 21st century: An Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63
Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
The seven variables that have been termed as "levers" by the authors all start with the letter 'S'.
Following are the things included in the seven variables:
-Shared values and -Style.
Structure is explained as the skeleton of the organizational chart or an organization. Strategy has been identified by the authors as the path or plan of action that is taken in order to achieve some goals and target over a period of time. Systems are defined as the routine process and procedures that are carried out within the firms. Staff is further divided into the personal categories within the firms (e.g., engineers). The skills refer to the capabilities possessed by the staff that is working within an organization. Style is defined as the way in which the managers behave or act in order to achieve the organizational goals. Shared value variable basically comprises of…
Burke & Litwin. (1992). A Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change', Journal of Management, Vol 18, No 3, pp 523 -- 545.
Katz, D. & Kahn, R.L. (1978). The Social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
McLindon, D, McDaniel, K., Smiley, J., Anderson. T. And Moorman, R., (2012). Whole Foods Market Case Study. Retrieved from: http://www.slideserve.com/arleen/whole-foods-market-case-study on May 15, 2013.
Pascale, R.T. & Athos, a.G. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Applications for American executives. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Organizational Behavior Case Study
esidential care facility's staff plays an important role in the daily lives of residents; unfortunately these facilities are usually faced with organizational obstacles and lack of information that prevents them from taking proper care of residents (Smith, 1998). This organizational behavioral case study is about a residential care facility which is part of a parent company that runs six different residential care facilities. The management of the company observed, this residential care facility facing serious problems. Turnover rate was high, performance was poor and economic losses were high.
In order to diagnose and solve the problem; parent company conducted a culture survey in all of its residential care facilities in which each member was bound to participate. The results were satisfactory for all residential care facilities except this care facility which showed totally negative results.
Looking at this serious situation; management hired a new…
Atchison, J. (1998). Perceived job satisfaction factors of nursing assistants employed in Midwest Nursing
Homes. Geriatric Nursing.
Cunningham, J.B. & Eberle, T. (1990). A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, Feb 1990,
p.57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work.
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
Within the correctional system there are three different organization models which apply and are used in administrative and management purposes. These models include the authoritarian model, bureaucratic model and participative model. The paper will give a description of each of these three models as they apply to the correctional environments. It will also discuss the intended goals of the correctional administrations that utilize these models and the specific time period the models were developed as well as finding out if these models were effective during the period which they were developed. The information the paper will give the foundation of the correctional systems as well as the models that are found within in and if these models are still in effect now. The operations of a correctional facility are under these models in order to provide the in mates with a particular type of security and care. With…
Baunach, PJ.(1981). Participatory Management - Restructuring the Prison Environment. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=76572
Lancefield, K, Lennings, C, J. & Thomson, D. (1997).Management style and its effect on prison officers' stress. Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02765325
Carlson P.M,, Garret S, J. & Christopher.(2010). Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory.pg 272.Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=hW0rAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=Participative+model+in+correctional+environments&source=bl&ots=BhslBxRktE&sig=-B5MbbBXyE1YRWJnSYf3T2IPuPk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fkwDU_zuKc-p0AWd64GADw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Participative%20model%20in%20correctional%20environments&f=false
The sanctuary model.(2010).Authoritarianism. Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://www.sanctuaryweb.com/authoritarianism.php
Organizational Motivation Leadership
Effective and positive leadership is a basic foundation for any administrative institution to yield good results and therefore cause a great impact.
In this study we base our focus on a critical organization which is the infant daycare.
Infant daycare organization
Infant daycare centers are organizations that focus on the welfare of the child by providing care while the parent goes to work or gets engaged in other activities that may not allow the mother of father to be around the child during the day. The state requires that such organizations meet certain standards of safety, health and that the staff should have proper training. These institutions are normally equipped with fun toys and learning materials with the qualified caregivers trying as much as they can to make the life of infants as comfortable as possible. With the many challenges that infants face including having to master…
Bob Whipple, (2012). Leaders Creating Meaning. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://leadergrow.com/articles/105-leaders-create-meaning
CEO Flow, (2008). CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved April 4, 2012 http://www.ceoflow.com/2008/08/the-four-rewards-of-intrinsic-motivation/
David McCelland, (2012). Human Relations Contributors. Retrieved April 4, 2012